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Република България
Republika Balgarija
Republiek van Bulgarye
125px|border| 125px|
(Vlag van Bulgarye) (Wapen van Bulgarye)
Nasionale leuse : Съединението прави силата
(Eendrag Maak Mag)
300px
Amptelike taal Bulgaars
Hoofstad Sofia
42°41′N 23°19′E / 42.683°N 23.317°E / 42.683; 23.317
Grootste stad Sofia
Regering
 - President
 - Eerste Minister
Parlementêre demokrasie
Georgi Parvanov (BSP)
Bojko Borissof (GERB)
Oppervlakte
 - Totaal
 - Water (%)
Gelys 104de
111 001,9 vk km
0,3
Bevolking
 - Totaal (Desember 2008)
 - Digtheid
Gelys 93ste
7 606 551 inw.
68,5 inw./vk km
Onafhanklikheid
 - Gestig
 - Selfregering
 - Verklaar
Van Ottomaanse Ryk
681
3 Maart 1878
22 September 1908
BBP (KKP)
- Totaal
- Per capita
2008 (skatting)
92.894 miljard VSA-$
9 223 VSA-$ (66ste)
MOI 0,824 (55ste) - hoog
Geldeenheid Lev (BGN)
Tydsone Oos-Europese Tyd
(UTC +2 / Somertyd +3)
Volkslied Mila Rodino
Internet-domein .bg
Skakelkode +359
[[Lêer:Lake-mandrensko-dinev.jpg|thumb|left|250px|Die Mandrenskomeer naby Boergas]] Bulgarye (Bulgaars: България, Balgarija) is 'n land in Suidoos-Europa. Dit word begrens deur die Swart See in die ooste, Griekeland en Turkye in die suide, Serwië en die Republiek van Masedonië in die weste, en Roemenië in die noorde.
Bulgarye is vernoem na 'n Turkse volk, wat die land tydens die 7de eeu verower en later met die inheemse Suid-Slawiese bevolking vermeng het. In die Middeleeue het Bulgarye tot 'n magtige ryk ontwikkel, wat oor groot dele van Suidoos-Europa gestrek het. In die 11de eeu word Bulgarye vir 'n tydperk van sowat 100 jaar by die Bisantynse Ryk ingelyf, en teen die einde van die 14de eeu kom die land onder Turkse heerskappy.
Die land vorm ten opsigte van sy landskappe en sy kultuur 'n oorgangsgebied tussen Europa en die Ooste, maar ook tussen die Mediterreense en vastelandse gebiede van Oos-Europa. Tydens die Middeleeue vertaal die sogenaamde Slaweapostels Kirillos en Methodios 'n aantal Christelike Griekse tekste na Oud-Bulgaars, wat in die Goue Tydperk onder die heerskappy van Tsaar Simeon die basis van 'n veelsydige godsdienstige en wêreldse literatuur vorm. Alhoewel die literêre bloeitydperk met die begin van die Turkse heerskappy tot 'n einde kom, het Oud-Bulgaars steeds die taal van die Slawies-Ortodokse Kerk gebly, en sy literêre werke word deur die Slawiese volke as 'n gemeenskaplike kulturele erfenis beskou. [[Lêer:Bulgarien 0905.JPG|thumb|left|250px|Die Rilaklooster is een van die belangrikste historiese, kulturele en godsdienstige monumente van Bulgarye]] Bulgarye het sy bevryding vyf eeue later veral aan Rusland te danke, en die noue politieke en kulturele bande tussen die twee lande bevorder in 1945 die inlywing van Bulgarye by die Sosialistiese Oosblok. Onder die bewind van die Kommunistiese Party ontwikkel die oorwegend agrariese land tot 'n moderne staat met 'n verskeidenheid nywerhede. Sy belangrikste uitvoere is egter nog steeds landbouprodukte, waaronder ook roosolie.
Die agteruitgang van die Sosialisme en die oorgang na 'n vrye markekonomie het die lewensstandaard van groot dele van die bevolking swaar geraak. Na ramings het dit in die jare negentig met sowat veertig persent gedaal. Die Bulgaarse ekonomie het intussen oortuigend herstel, en die lewenstandaard het in 2004 weer die vlak van die tydperk voor die negentigerjare bereik.
Bulgarye het op 29 Maart 2004 'n lidstaat van die NAVO en op 1 Januarie 2007 'n lidstaat Europese Unie geword.

Contents

Geografie

Hoofartikel:Geografie van Bulgarye.
Bulgarye beslaan dele van die historiese gebiede Thrasië, Moesia en Masedonië. Sy huidige grense is ná die einde van die Tweede Balkanoorlog in 1913 vasgelê, toe Bulgarye sy toegang tot die Egeïese See verloor het.
Die land word deur groot klimatiese verskille tussen die Donauvallei in die noorde met sy kleiagtige lössgrond en die beboste Rhodope-bergreeks in die suide gekenmerk. Die Balkan, 'n bergreeks, wat oor 'n lengte van sowat 600 kilometer in wes-oostelike rigting deur Bulgarye loop, vorm die sentrale landskap van die land. Hierdie gebergte het sy naam ook aan die hele skiereiland verleen.
In noord-suidelike rigting is daar vier groot landskappe:
  • die Donauvallei en die Donauplato in Donaubulgarye,
  • die Balkanbergreeks met die Sredna Gora-gebergte, wat parallel loop,
  • die vlaktes en heuwels van Roemelië en
  • die bergmassiewe van Rila, Pirin en die Rhodope.
[[Lêer:Sofia-vitosha-kempinski.jpg|thumb|right|250px|Die hoofstad Sofia, met die Vitosja-bergspits in die agtergrond]] thumb|right|250px|'n Bergmeer in die Pirinberge thumb|right|250px|'n Uitsig oor die dorp Vrata in die Rhodope Die sogenamde Donaubulgarye is 'n gebied van vlaktes en heuwels, wat deur 'n eskarp of platorand met steil wande en 'n hoogte van tussen 100 tot 150 meter bo die riviervallei begrens word. 'n Aantal valleie met steil hellings sny deur die plato. In die droë platolandskappe word veral mielies en koring verbou, terwyl die gras- en bosvelde in die noord-ooste geskik is vir skaapteelt. Die valleie kry meer reënval en is relatief dig bevolk; hier oorheers die wyn-, vrugte- en groentebedryf. Die hawestad Roese teen die Donau is die belangrikste binnelandse nywerheidsentrum in Donaubulgarye, terwyl Warna aan die Swart See die grootste van 'n hele reeks bekende vakansieoorde is, wat jaarliks miljoene besoekers uit ander dele van Europa lok.
Met die oorgangsgebied van die Voorbalkan begin die landskap geleidelik verrys na die Balkanbergreeks (Bulgaars: Stara Planina), wat met 'n wydte tussen dertig en vyftig kilometer dwarsdeur Bulgarye loop. Die Balkan het net soos die Alpe tydens die Tersiêr ontstaan, maar bereik net in sy sentrale gedeelte, die Hoë Balkan, waar ondergrondse gesteentes soos graniet na die oppervlak geskuif is, hoogtes van meer as 2 300 meter bo seevlak. Met sy talryke bergpasse en klein plato's verskil die Balkan se karakter duidelik van dié van die Alpe. Die Westelike Balkan, wat ook die grenslyn met Serwië vorm, word deur gesteentes uit die Trias- en Juratydperk oorheers en bereik 'n hoogte van maksimaal 2 168 meter. Die Oostelike Balkan, wat tot by die Kaap Emine aan die Swart See loop, is die laagste gedeelte van die bergreeks.
In die suide word die Balkan deur 'n steil eskarp begrens. Hier loop kleiner bergreekse parallel met die Balkan, met die Sredna Gora of Bulgaarse Middelgebergte suid van die Hoë Balkan as die bekendste. Tussen die Balkan en die laer bergreekse lê 'n aantal bekkens, wat van berge omring word en dus 'n baie gematigde klimaat het. Hier het van die oudste nedersettings in Bulgarye ontstaan, en ook die hoofstad Sofia is reeds in die antieke tydperk teen 'n hoogte van 550 meter in een van hierdie bekkens aangelê. Die bekkens speel 'n groot rol in die Bulgaarse landbou as belangrike verskaffers van roosolie en wyn. thumb|left|250px|'n Winterlandskap naby die Sjipka-bergpas Die Maritsarivier vloei deur die sentrale gedeelte van die Roemeelse landskap, wat hoofsaaklik uit vlaktes en heuwelagtige gebiede bestaan en tussen die Balkan en die Rhodopebergreeks lê; die gebied word dus dikwels ook Maritsabekken genoem. In een van die groter vlaktes lê Plovdiv, een van die oudste stede in Bulgarye, wat in die antieke tydperk as Philippolis bekend gestaan het. Ander bekende stede is Dimitrovgrad, 'n nywerheidsentrum, wat sedert 1947 teen die Maritsarivier ontwikkel is, en Boergas, 'n nywerheidstad, seehawe en vakansieoord aan die Swart See. Die digbevolkte vlaktes van Roemelië is geskik vir die verbouing van wyn, sonneblomme, tabak, katoen, groente, mielies en ander graangewasse, alhoewel die meeste aanplantings in teenstelling met die noorde van die land onder besproeiing is.
Die Thrakiese Massief in die suide word deur drie bergreekse gevorm - Rila, Pirin en die Rhodope. Die Rilaberge is 'n kristalliene bergreeks, wat veral bekend staan vir die Middeleeuse klooster Rila. Sy hoogste bergspits is die Moesala (2 925 meter bo seevlak). Ook die Pirinbergreeks, wat in die suide by Rila aansluit, verrys tot hoogtes van meer as 2 900 meter. Tussen die hoë bergspitse van albei reekse lê bekkens, wat geskik is vir die verbouing van graan en groente. Die beboste Rhodope, wat tot by 2 191 meter bo seevlak verrys, vorm 'n natuurlike grens met die suidelike buurstaat Griekeland en die Middellandse Seegebied, veral omdat bergpasse hier skaars is. Net die laer geleë oostelike gedeelte het danksy die invloed van die Middellandse See 'n gematigde bergklimaat. Die res van die Rhodope is 'n barre berglandskap, en die landbou is beperk tot veeteelt en die verbouing van aartappels, linne en klein hoeveelhede tabak. Damme in die Ardavallei lewer hidroelektriese krag op.

Geskiedenis

Hoofartikel:Geskiedenis van Bulgarye.

Die antieke tydperk

Die oudste menslike nedersettings in Bulgarye het in die Balkanberge ontstaan. Die eerste staat in die gebied van die huidige Bulgarye word deur 'n Thrasiese stam gestig, wat hom omtrent 500 v.C. teen die Maritsarivier gevestig het. 'n Ryke kulturele erfenis dateer uit hierdie tydperk, soos byvoorbeeld die Goudskatte van Warna, Valtsji Tran en Panagjoerisjte, wat nou in die Argeologiese Museums van Sofia en Plovdiv vertoon word.
Filips II, die vader van Alexander die Grote, verower die Thrasiese gebiede op die Balkan in 342 v.C., en Griekse setlaars stig belangrike stede soos Philippolis (Plovdiv), Warna en Nesebar. Ook Keltiese stamme brei in Thrasië uit, maar dit is uiteindelik die Romeine wat die hele Balkanskiereiland verower en dit in 46 v.C. as Provincia Thracia by hulle ryk inlyf.

Die Eerste Bulgaarse Ryk

thumb|right|200px|Die Eerste Bulgaarse Ryk onder Tsaar Simeon I Die eerste Slawiese stamme vestig hulle tydens die 6de eeu in Bulgarye, en sedert 680 begin ook die Bulgare, 'n Turkse volk, wat oorspronklik uit die gebiede langs die Swart en Kaspiese See kom, hier nedersettings te stig. Die Bulgare slaag daarin om hulle onafhanklikheid teen die magtige Bisantynse Ryk te bewaar en stig die Eerste Bulgaarse Ryk (680-1018), wat oor die hele Balkan strek, met Pliska en later Preslav as sy hoofstede. Onder die heerskappy van Boris I (852-889) neem die Bulgare die Christelike Grieks-Ortodokse geloof en die Suid-Slawiese taal aan, en die Slawiese apostels Kirillos en Methodios begin die Slawiese skrif en literatuur ontwikkel.
Die beduidendste Bulgaarse heerser tydens die Middeleeue is Simeon I (893-927). Hy staan as die stigter van die Bulgaarse Patriargaat bekend en bevorder ook die kunste. In 927 neem hy die titel tsaar aan. Die heerskappy van sy seun, tsaar Pieter, word deur boereopstande en die uitbreiding van die Bogomielse geloofsleer gekenmerk, wat 'n maatskaplike en teologiese dualisme tot die grondbeginsel van sy leerstellings maak en moontlik ook groot invloed uitgeoefen het op die Kathare van Wes-Europa.
In 969 word die Bulgaarse Ryk in Wes-Bulgarye (met Serwië, Albanië en Masedonië en die hoofstad Ohrid) en Oos-Bulgarye met die hoofstad Preslav verdeel. Die Eerste Bulgaarse Ryk ly in 972 'n neerlaag teen die strydmagte van die Bisantynse keiser Basileios II Bulgaroktonos ("die Bulgareslagter") en die Prins van Kiev. Oos-Bulgarye is onmiddellik by die Bisantynse Ryk ingelyf, terwyl Wes-Bulgarye eers in 1018 volledig verower is.

Die Tweede Bulgaarse Ryk

thumb|left|200px|Desislava, die eggenote van Kalojan. Fresko uit die kerk van Bojana (1259) Bulgarye is tydens die Kruistogte van die 11de en 12de eeu 'n belangrike deurgangsgebied vir 'n aantal Christelike leërs op pad na die Heilige Land. In hierdie tydperk slaag die bojare (adellikes) Pieter en Asen daarin om Bulgarye van die Bisantyne te bevry. In 1185 tig hulle die Tweede Bulgaarse Ryk, wat tot 1393 bestaan het, met Tirnovo (die huidige Weliko Tarnovo) as sy nuwe hoofstad. Tirnovo ontwikkel vinnig tot die sentrum van die Oud-Slawiese kuns en kultuur. Die belangrikste heerser van die Tweede Ryk is Kalojan, wat deur die Pous as koning gekroon is. In 1205 behaal hy naby Adrianopolis 'n oorwinning oor 'n kruisvaardersleër en neem Boudewyn van Vlaandere, die destydse heerser van die Latynse Koninkryk, gevange.

Die Turkse heerskappy

Die Bulgaarse Ryk verbrokkel ná die dood van Iwan Asen II in 1241, en die Turkse leërs van die Ottomaanse Ryk, wat in Kleinasië tot 'n grootmoondheid ontwikkel het, begin geleidelik die Bulgaarse deelstate te verower. Die hoofstad Tirnovo is in 1393 deur die Turke ingeneem, en Bulgarye bly vyf eeue lank as Provinsie Roemelië (met die hoofstad Sofia) 'n deelgebied van die Ottomaanse Ryk, wat deur 'n Turkse stadhouder (beglerbeg) geregeer word. Die kloosters, veral Rila, bly egter die geestelike, kulturele en godsdienstige sentrums van die Bulgare, wat hulle taal, kultuur, tradisies en identiteit steeds met trots bewaar het. Die kloosters speel ook 'n belangrike rol by die ontwikkeling van die nasionale bewussyn van Bulgarye en 'n aantal opstande teen die Turkse heerskappy.
Die hergeboorte van die Bulgaarse nasie neem tydens die tweede helfte van die 18de eeu 'n aanvang. Met die stigting van 'n selfstandige Bulgaarse Eksargaat in Konstaninopel word die Ortodokse Kerk van Bulgarye onafhanklik van die Griekse Kerk. Die Eksargaat is in 1878 na Sofia verskuif.

Die Vryheidsoorlog

thumb|right|200px|Die grense van Bulgarye volgens die Verdrag van San Stefano (1878) Sedert die middel van die 18de eeu is ontwikkel Rusland tot een van die grootste teenstanders van die Turkse Osmaanse Ryk, en die land word met die Vrede van Kütsjük Kainardji in 1774 ook die beskermheer van die Balkanstate.
Die vryheidsbeginsels van die 18de eeu, wat in die Franse Rewolusie en die Vryheidsoorlog van die Verenigde State 'n groot rol speel, begin saam met die gedagtes van die liberalisme en romantiek van die 19de eeu ook die vryheidsstryd van kleiner volke soos die Bulgare beïnvloed.
Die meeste Europese grootmoondhede probeer voordeel uit die agteruitgang van die Osmaanse Ryk te trek. Rusland is ten gunste van die stigting van 'n onafhanklike Grootbulgaarse Ryk. In die Slag van die Sjipkabergpas behaal Rusland in sy oorlog teen die Osmaanse Ryk (1877-1878) 'n oorwinning, en op die Berlynse Kongres van 1878 word die noordelike Bulgarye met die hoofstad Sofia as 'n selfstandige vorstedom erken, bly egter skatpligtig aan die Turkse Ryk.
Die Duitse Prins Alexander von Battenberg, 'n neef van die Russiese tsarin, word in 1879 vors van Bulgarye. Onder sy heerskappy raak Bulgarye Masedonië en Oos-Roemelië (Thrasië) kwyt. Die laasgenoemde, suidelike deel van Bulgarye word met die hoofstad Plovdiv weer 'n selfregerende gebied met 'n Turkse stadhouder. Oos-Roemelië word in 1885 weer deur Bulgarye verower, en in 1886 doen Prins Alexander afstand van die troon ten gunste van Ferdinand van Sakse-Coburg (1887-1918).

Die Koninkryk Bulgarye

Ferdinand aanvaar in 1906 die titel "Tsaar van Bulgarye". Vier jaar later behaal Bulgarye in die Eerste Balkanoorlog saam met Serwië, Griekeland en Montenegro 'n oorwinning Turkye. Bulgarye en Serwië maak albei aanspraak op 'n aantal voormalige Turkse gebiede, wat tot die uitbreek van die Tweede Balkanoorlog tussen Serwië en Bulgarye in 1913 lei. In die Vrede van Boekarest moet Bulgarye Masedonië aan Griekeland en Dobroedja aan Roemenië afstaan.
Tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog sluit Bulgarye hom by die Sentrale Moondhede Duitsland en Oostenryk-Hongarye aan en moet na die gemeenskaplike neerlaag in die Vredesverdrag van Neuilly in 1919 verdere gebiede afstaan: Suid-Thrasië aan Griekeland, Suid-Dobroedja aan Roemenië en 'n aantal gebiede aan die nuutgestigte Joegoslawië. Tsaar Ferdinand doen reeds in 1918 afstand van die troon, en sy seun regeer as Tsaar Boris III tot die jaar 1943.
Die tydperk tussen die twee wêreldoorloë word deur politieke instabiliteit en staatsgrepe gekenmerk. In 1941 word Bulgarye 'n geallieerde van die Duitse Ryk en annekseer met Duitse toestemming en volgens die sogenaamde Tweede Weense Ooreenkoms Nieu-Bulgarye, wat gebiede in die Joegoslawiese deelstaat Masedonië en die Griekse Thrasië insluit. Daarnaas word Roemenië deur die Asmoondhede Duitsland en Italië gedwing om Suid-Dobroedja aan Bulgarye af te staan.
Die minderjarige Simeon II volg in 1943 sy vader as Tsaar van Bulgarye op; die land word deur 'n regentskapsraad onder die leiding van Prins Kirill geregeer.
Die Sowjetunie verklaar op 5 September 1944 oorlog teen Bulgarye en beset die land, wat nou vinnig sy politieke bande met die Asmoondhede verbreek. Enkele dae later verklaar Bulgarye oorlog teen die Duitse Ryk. Die Vaderlandse Unie, 'n koalisie van die Bulgaarse Boerevereniging, die Sosiaal-Demokratiese Party, die Radikaal-Demokratiese Zveno-Bond en die Kommunistiese Party, wat as 'n ondergrondse beweging ontstaan het, slaag op 9 September 1944 daarin om die regering omver te werp en die monargie af te skaf.

Die Volksrepubliek van Bulgarye

Die Volksrepubliek van Bulgarye is op 15 September 1946 uitgeroep, en in November word Georgi Dimitrov, die leier van die destydse Bulgaarse Arbeidersparty (wat in 1948 tot Kommunistiese Party van Bulgarye hernoem is), die Eerste Minister van die land. Ná sy afsterwe in 1949 word hy opgevolg deur W. Tsjervenkov, wat tydens sy regering (1950-1956) 'n onverdraagsame Stalinistiese beleid volg.
Ná die dood van Stalin in 1953 word Todor Sjivkov in 1954 die nuwe partyleier, en twee jaar later volg hy Tsjervenkov ook as Eerste Minister op. In 1971 word hy as Voorsitter van die Staatsraad ook die staatshoof van Bulgarye. Sjivkov maak 'n einde aan die isolasie van Bulgarye en soek nouer politieke bande met Westerse lande. Terselfdertyd is die dispute met sy buurstate Griekeland, Joegoslawië en Turkye oor gebiedsaansprake (Masedonië en Thrasië) vreedsaam opgelos. Bulgarye bly egter steeds 'n noue vennoot van die Sowjetunie. In 1949 word Bulgarye 'n lidstaat van die COMECON en in 1955 van die Verdrag van Warschau.
In 1981 word Bulgare van Turkse afkoms gedwing om Bulgaarse vanne aan te neem, en byna 400 000 van hulle verkies om liewer na Turkye te emigreer.
Die nuwe beleid van glasnost en perestrojka in die Sowjetunie raak in die tagtigerjare vinnig ook Bulgarye, en ná massabetogings in 1989 en 'n kortstondige ampstermyn van Sjivkov se opvolger Petar Mladenov bedank die Kommunistiese regering in Februarie 1990. Die eerste demokratiese verkiesing vind in Junie 1990 plaas.

Die Republiek van Bulgarye

Volgens die nuwe grondwet, wat in Julie 1991 aanvaar is, is Bulgarye 'n demokratiese en parlementêre republiek met 'n verkose President en 'n Eerste Minister, wat aan die Parlement verantwoordelik is. Die politieke en ekonomomiese transformasie word soos elders in Oos-Europa as 'n moeilike proses ervaar. Die anti-Kommunistiese Unie van Demokratiese Magte (UDM) konsentreer as regeringsparty tussen 1992 en 1994 op die privatisering van die voormalige staatsbedrywe en landhervorming. Die meeste bedrywe was egter nie meer in staat om op die wêreldmark mee te ding nie, en ook die Bulgaarse infrastruktuur blyk te swak te wees vir 'n vinnige modernisering van die ekonomie. Die hervormings het dus tot grootskaalse werkloosheid gelei. thumb|right|250px|Nasionale Volkspelefees in Rosjen (2006) Die Bulgaarse Sosialistiese Party (BSP), wat veral deur werkers ondersteun word, het onder die leierskap van Djan Videnov in die tweede demokratiese verkiesing van 1995 'n oorwinning behaal. Die nuwe regering het met sy ekonomiese beleid toestande nog vererger, en in 1996 het die land onder 'n hiperinflasie van meer as 260 persent en die bankrotskap van groot dele van die bankesektor gebuk gegaan.
Die UDM het die verkiesing van 1997 gewen, tog blyk ook die nuwe regering onder die Eerste Minister Ivan Kostov nie in staat te wees om die ekonomiese vraagstukke aan te pak nie. Korrupsie het die aansien van die politieke partye verder ondermyn.
Die voormalige Tsaar Simeon II, wat Bulgarye as 'n negejarige moes verlaat, het in 1996 as 'n welvarende sakeman onder die burgerlike naam Simeon Sakskoburggotski (die Bulgaarse skryfwyse van die Huis Sakse-Coburg-Gotha) na sy geboorteland teruggekeer en met sy nuwe politieke party, die Nasionale Beweging Simeon II (NBS2), 'n oortuigende oorwinning in die verkiesing van Junie 2001 behaal. As Eerste Minister volg hy 'n vasbeslote Westerse beleid. Bulgarye het in 2004 die Noord-Atlantiese Verdragsorganisasie (NAVO) toegetree en in 2007 'n lidstaat van die Europese Unie (EU) geword. Volgens die EU moet Bulgarye nog hervormings in sy regstelsel en maatreëls teen georganiseerde misdaad instel. Die internasionale dwelmhandel gebruik die land as een van sy hoofpyplyne - volgens die International Narcotics Control Board se jaarverslag van 2005 word sowat tagtig persent van alle heroïen wat op die Europese mark gehandel word vanuit Bulgarye na die EU gesmokkel.
Alhoewel die ekonomie begin herstel het, bly naas misdaad werkloosheid, korrupsie, en die gebrekkige onderwysstelsel en gesondheidssorg die grootste vraagstukke. Honderdduisende goed opgeleide Bulgare het die land verlaat om 'n beter heenkome in Wes-Europa en oorsee te vind.
In die verkiesing van 2005 slaag geen van die partye daarin om 'n volstrekte meerderheid van setels in die parlement te win; die Sosialististe en NMB2 het die meeste stemme op hulle verenig. Ná sowat een maand van onderhandelinge is 'n koalisie gevorm, wat uit die BSP, NMB2 en die Beweging vir Regte en Vryheide bestaan. Ondanks hulle ideologiese verskille is die drie partye van plan om die hervormings aan te pak, wat vir die land se toetrede tot die Europese Unie in 2007 noodsaaklik is. Wanbestuur en korrupsie bly nogtans die grootste struikelblokke.

Bevolking

Hoofartikel:Bevolking van Bulgarye.
thumb|right|250px|Die dorp Momtsjilovtsi Meer as 85 persent van die bevolking is etniese Bulgare. Die Turke is met sowat tien persent die grootste etniese minderheid in Bulgarye, alhoewel Bulgare en Turke nie altyd duidelik van mekaar onderskei kan word nie. Baie Islamse Bulgare, waaronder die Pomake in die Rhodope-berggebiede, beskou hulself as Turke. As gevolg van die twee Balkanoorloë en die Bulgariseringsbeleid van die Kommunistiese Party in die jare 1950, 1969 en 1981 het honderdduisende Turke na Turkye geëmigreer. Ook baie Joodse burgers het ná die Tweede Wêreldoorlog 'n nuwe heenkome in Israel gevind. Weens die moelike ekonomiese situasie in die land het ook honderdduisende Bulgare die land sedert die negentigerjare verlaat. Daarnaas het die lae geboortekoers die bevolking van Bulgarye van sowat 8,8 miljoen in 1980 tot 8,4 miljoen in 1995 en 7,6 miljoen in 2008 laat krimp.
Ander belangrike minderhede sluit Roma (4,6 persent, volgens ander skattings 750 000[1]), Russe, Armeniërs, Roemene, Grieke en Walagyers in.
Die meerderheid van die bevolking (85 persent) is Bulgaars-Ortodokse Christene. Die grootste godsdienstige minderhede is Moslems (13,1 persent), Rooms-Katolieke, Protestante en Jode.
Bulgaars is die amptelike taal van Bulgarye. Saam met Serwokroaties, Masedonies en Sloweens behoort Bulgaars tot die Suid-Slawiese groep van tale, maar net Bulgaars en Masedonies is nou verwant. Albei tale word deur nie-Slawiese, veral Roemeense, Albaanse, Griekse en Turkse invloede, gekenmerk en verskil nou duidelik van die ander Slawiese tale. Die hoofdialkte van Bulgaars is Wes- en Oos-Bulgaars, waarby die laasgenoemde die basis vir die huidige standaardtaal gevorm het. Bulgaars word met die Kirilliese skrif geskrywe.
Masedonies word in Bulgarye dikwels as 'n Bulgaarse dialek beskou; gevolglik is daar byna geen onderwys in dié taal nie. Turks is wél toegelaat as 'n skoolvak, maar mag sedert die amptelike Bulgariseringsveldtogte van die tagtigerjare nie meer as onderwystaal gebruik word nie.

Ekonomie

Hoofartikel:Ekonomie van Bulgarye.
thumb|right|250px|Akkerbou en nywerhede in die Provinsie Boergas, met die petrochemiese aanleg Neftochim in die agtergrond Tot by die Tweede Wêreldoorlog was die landbou die belangrikste sektor van die Bulgaarse alhoewel, wat ook meer as 90 persent van die land se uitvoere opgelewer het. Die bewerkbare grond was oorwegend in die besit van mmer as een miljoen klein plasies met 'n gemiddelde oppervlak van vier hektaar. Byna vier vyfdes van die beroepsbevolking het op hierdie klein boerderye gewerk, wat weens die gebrek aan landboumasjiene en ander uitrusting nie baie produktief was nie.
Die hoofsaaklike landbouprodukte is koring, mielies, gars, aartappels, rys, groente, vrugte, sonneblome, wyn, beet, katoen en tabak. Die Toendjavallei naby Karlovo en Kasanlak staan bekend vir sy kosbare roosolie, wat veral in die parfuumbedryf, in fynbakkerye en vir likeure benodig word.
Danksy verbeterde metodes, die meganisering en besproeiing is die landbou se opbrengste duidelik verhoog. Ook die veeteelt is gemoderniseer; veetelers spits hulle toe op varkens, pluimvee, beeste, skape en bye. Akkerbou en veeteelt vorm die basis van 'n veelsydige voedselbedryf, wat die plaaslike produkte verwerk.
Ná die oorlog is landbesit van meer as twintig hektaar herverdeel, en in 1947 is die mynbou, nywerhede, bankbedryf en groothandel genasionaliseer.
Die belangrikste grondstowwe is steen- en bruinkool, lood, sink, yster, koper, mangaan, aardgas en ru-olie. Die sekundêre sektor verwerk naas die landbouprodukte, waaronder voedsel en tabak, ook inheemse grondstowwe. Ander belangrike bedrywe is chemie, staalvervaardiging en metaalverwerking, masjienbou, tekstiele, glas- en porseleinvervaardiging en kragopwekking. Die hoofuitvoerprodukte is tekstiele, skoene, yster en staal, masjiene en toerusting en brandstowwe.
Die toerismebedryf is verlal langs die kuslyn van die Swart See goed ontwikkel en 'n belangrike bron van buitelandse valuta. Die landbou se bydrae tot die bruto binnelandse produk beloop tans 11,5 persent, terwyl die nywerheidsektor 30,1 persent en die dienstesektor 58,4 persent oplewer.

Makroekonomiese ontwikkeling

thumb|right|250px|Strand naby Djuni. Die vakansieoorde langs die Swart See is gewilde toeristebestemmings Die makroekonomiese beleid van die huidige Bulgaarse regering is veral daarop gemik om stabiliteit en ekonomiese groei te handhaaf. Die Lev, Bulgarye se geldeenheid, is in 1997 aan die Duitse Mark gekoppel, en 'n lae inflasiekoers het die vertroue in die land herstel. Nogtans is die groot vraagstukke van die land soos korrupsie, die swak regstelsel en georganiseerde misdaad nog nie werklik aangespreek nie.
Die Bulgaarse ekonomie het tot in die jaar 2008 met jaarliks meer as ses persent gegroei, terwyl ook die land se finansiële konsolidering gevorder het. Die gemiddelde inkomste van Bulgare beloop tans 'n derde van die gemiddeld in die Europese Unie (EU), en Bulgarye sal nog baie jare benodig om hierdie agterstand in te haal. Die land bly sodoende die armste lidstaat in die EU.
Die banksektor en staatsfinansies het tydens die wêreldwye finansiële en ekonomiese krisis stabiel gebly. Die Bulgaarse regering het in Februarie 2009 met 'n aantal maatreëls op die globale krisis gereageer, waaronder die skepping van 50 000 nuwe werkgeleenthede, 'n bykomende beleggingsprogram van 700 miljoen Lewa, subsidies ter waarde van 211 miljoen Lewa vir die landboubedryf, lenings ter waarde van 500 miljoen Lewa wat aan klein en middelgroot ondernemings toegestaan is, beleggings van ses miljard Lewa in die energiebedryf, 'n staatswaarborg vir spaargelde van burgers met 'n maksimale waarde van 100 000, 1,25 miljard Lewa vir n verhoging van pensioene en 95 miljoen Lewa vir sosiale welsyn.[2]

Kultuur

Musiek

thumbnail|250px|right|Die harpspeleres Anna-Maria Ravnopolska-Dean thumb|left|150px|Die zurna of keëlhobo het sy oorsprong in Turkye Koorsang het 'n lang tradisie in die musieklewe van Bulgarye. Die Staatskoor van Bulgarye het met sy eie kenmerkende styl internasionale bekendheid verwerf, terwyl ook ander kore soos die vrouekoor Angelite by gehore in die buiteland gewild geraak het.
Bulgarye se nasionale musiekinstrumente sluit die fluit kaval en die doedelsak gaida in. Die hoog gestemde Thrakiese gaida (djura gaida) word in die meeste landsdele gespeel, veral in die konteks van dansmusiek, terwyl die diep gestemde kaba gaida in die Rhodope-gebergte gebruik word om die dikwels treurige ballades te begelei.
Ander belangrike instrumente in die tradisionele Bulgaarse volksmusiek is die langhalsluit tambura, die viool gadulka, die tromme tapan (davul) en tarambuka (darbuka) en die blaasinstrument zurna.
Bekende Bulgaarse sangers sluit onder meer Ari Lesjnikof, wat vanaf 1928 tot by hulle ontbinding in die dertigerjare as tenoor deel uitgemaak het van die gewilde Duitse sanggroep Comedian Harmonists, en die operasanger Boris Christof, wat as een van die beste bassiste ter wêreld beskou word. Die Bulgaars-gebore mezzosopraan Wesselina Kassarowa tree dwarsoor die wêreld in operahuise op, terwyl Anna-Maria Ravnopolska-Dean haar as 'n internasionaal gewilde harpspeleres bekwaam het.
Een van die pballende kenmerke van die Bulgaarse volksmusiek is sy ritmiese veelsydigheid. Die gebruik van oneweredige mate (soos 5/8, 7/8 en 9/8) maak dit vir musici moelik om hierdie musiek te bemeester. Fragmente van tradisionele Bulgaarse volksmusiek word nogtans deur musici dwarsoor die wêreld in verskillende musiekstyle gebruik.

Kookkuns

thumb|left|250px|Tarator is 'n koue sop, wat onder meer van jogurt en komkommers gemaak word [[Lêer:Banica-imagesfrombulgaria.jpg|thumb|right|250px|Banitsa, 'n pastei van geklitste eiers, wit kaas en bladerdeeg]] Net soos die kookkuns in ander Balkanlande word ook Bulgarye se kulinêre tradisie deur Griekse, Turkse en Levantynse, maar ook Italiaanse, Mediterreense en Hongaarse invloede gekenmerk. Danksy die redelik warm klimaat word 'n groot verskeidenheid groentes, kruie en vrugte verbou, wat tot die veelsydigheid van die Bulgaarse kookkuns bydra.
Slaaie soos sopka salata (gemengde slaai met skaapkaas) word gedurende elke maaltyd bedien, net soos die groot verskeidenheid suiwelprodukte, inheemse wyne en plaaslike alkoholiese dranke soos rakia (brandewyn), mastika (anyslikeur) en menta (pepermentlikeur). Koue en warm soppe soos tarator, wat onder meer van komkommers gemaak word, is steeds gewild.
Pasteie soos banitsa of moessaka (met maalvleis, eiers, aartappels en eiervrugte), bredies soos gjoevetsj (met vleis en groente), piperki palneni (met rys en maalvleis gevulde rissies), sjisjtsjeta (stukkies vleis wat aan die spit gebraai word) en telesjko (kalfsvleis met groen boontjies, tamaties en sous) is bekende geregte.
Podkwassa (jogurt) is moontlik 'n Bulgaarse uitvinding, wat net soos melk, kwark (vars wit kaas) en kaas 'n groot rol in die plaaslike kookkuns speel. Ajrjan, met water vermengde jogurt, is 'n verfrissende drank.

Verwysings

Template:Verwysings

Sien ook

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en:Bulgaria

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Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Europe : Balkans : Bulgaria
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Location
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Flag
Image:bu-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital Sofia
Government parliamentary democracy
Currency lev (BGN)
Area 110,910 sq km
Population 7,385,367 (July 2006 est.)
Language Bulgarian
Religion Bulgarian Orthodox 83.8%, Muslim 12.1%, Roman Catholic 1.7%, Jewish 0.1%, Protestant, Gregorian-Armenian, and other 2.3% (1998)
Electricity 220V/50Hz (European plug)
Calling Code +359
Internet TLD .bg
Time Zone UTC+2
Bulgaria (България) is a country in the Balkans on the western side of the Black Sea. It is surrounded by Romania to the north, Serbia to the northwest, the Republic of Macedonia to the southwest, Greece to the south, and Turkey to the southeast. Being located close to the Turkish Straits means the key land routes from Europe to Middle East and Asia pass through Bulgaria.
Map of Bulgaria
Map of Bulgaria

Cities

Major cities include:
  • Sofia (София) - The capital and a major point of interest in Bulgaria. It features nice parks, a nice town center, many bars, pubs, and disco clubs, over 250 historic landmarks and architectural monuments, and a great deal of cultural places of interest.
It is one of the oldest cities in Europe.
  • Varna (Варна) - The nation's second largest city is a primary beach resort. The night life in Varna is notorious, especially during the summer season.
The Varna Archaeological Museum is one of the most famous archaeological museums in the country.
  • Plovdiv (Пловдив) - The nation's third largest city. Boasts a lovely shopping promenade and many parks, an ancient city with a preserved amphitheater, and many "revival" style Bulgaria homes. Be sure also to take a side trip to Bachkovo Monastery which is about an hour away.
  • Burgas (Бургас) - Known for its commercial port (Port of Burgas) and oil refinery. Picturesque waterside and nearby downtown and shopping area makes this city popular with tourists.
It is the second-largest city and seaside resort on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast.
  • Veliko Tarnovo - The old capital of the Bulgarian empire. Picturesque univserity city near the Yantra river.
  • Rousse (Русе) - More famous as the "Small Vienna", the city centre offers an unforgettable architectural ensemble that cannot be found any place else within Bulgaria. Present-day Rousse is the fifth largest Bulgarian city and is an important economic, financial and cultural hub. The city boasts various places of interest among which the Sexiginta Prista Roman Castle, The Theatre, The House of Caliopa, The Pantheon and so on.
  • For other destinations see the specific regions.

Understand

Climate

Temperate; cold, damp winters with snow in the higher elevations; hot, dry summers

Terrain

Mostly mountains with lowlands in north and southeast
highest point 
Musala 2,925 m

History

A branch of the Slavs merged with the local Proto-Bulgarians, a Central Asian tribe, in the late 7th century to form the first Bulgarian state in the Balkans. In succeeding centuries, Bulgarian and the Byzantine Empires dominated South-East Europe, but by the end of the 14th century the region was overrun by the Ottoman Turks. Bulgaria regained its independence in 1878 largely due to the intervention of Russia and Romania, who clipped the wings of the declining Ottoman Empire in Bulgaria and elsewhere, and installed a minor German prince as a ruler of the newly independent country. The country's iconic heroes were all freedom fighters to a man: whether Rakovsky (Раковски), who mixed revolution and literature, Vassil Levski (Васил Левски) - the Apostle of Freedom, or Hristo Botev (Христо Ботев), poet and fighter. After a series of bloody and brutal Balkan wars, Bulgaria had the further misfortune to be occupied by the losing side in both World Wars, and fell within the Soviet sphere of influence and became a People's Republic in 1946. Communist domination was brought to a swift, but for many people illusory end in 1989; though Bulgaria went on to hold its first multi-party election since World War II, essentially socialist policies were pursued until hyperinflation and economic meltdown drove the old guard out of power in 1997. Today, reforms and democratization have brought Bulgaria into the NATO fold, with EU accession celebrated in 2007. During Communist times, the Black Sea was a favorite destination for travelors behind the Iron Curtain. Now, increasing numbers of western Europeans travel throughout the country and many have bought vacation houses near the Black Sea or in picturesque villages.

Language

The Bulgarian language is related to Serbian, Russian and other Eastern European languages, but contains many international words. Bulgarians use the Cyrillic alphabet which can make the task of getting around the country somewhat difficult if you aren't familiar with this alphabet as most signs are written in it. However, getting acquainted with the alphabet isn't very difficult and may save you a lot of trouble, especially as many common words are homophones of English or French words.
Also, as Bulgarian education emphasizes foreign language studies, especially English language, it wouldn't be a problem to talk and find information in English in bigger cities.
See the Bulgarian phrasebook for a pronunciation guide, while this external page [1] has a different take and examples of the confusing but rarely used cursive forms.

Holidays

Baba Marta (Баба Марта) (Grandma Marta), March 1. A very old Bulgarian holiday. People give each martenitsa (мартеница), a type of white-red yarn, as a symbol of health. (this is not a public holiday)
March 3 (Трети март). The day Bulgaria celebrates its Russian and Romanian-aided liberation from 500 years of Ottoman domination (1393-1878).
20th of April - 20 April 1876 is the official start day the greatest uprising of the Bulgarian people against the Ottoman rule.
Gergiovden (Гергьовден), May 6. St. George and official holiday of the Bulgarian Аrmy.
Ss. Cyril and Methodius Day (Ден на Кирил и Методий), May 24. The day of St. Cyril (827-869), and St. Methodius (826-884), who created the Cyrillic alphabet. A beautiful holiday - with lots of flowers, music, and joy.
Assumption Day - Golyama Bogoroditsa, August 15. There are big celebrations, especially in the main monasteries, with icons being paraded by the monks. (this is not a public holiday)
Reunification Day (Ден на съединението), September 6. The day the two parts of Bulgaria, the independent North and East Rumelia (autonomous in the Ottoman Empire) were reunited, pejoni

Get in

Bulgaria is a member of the Schengen Agreement but has not yet fully implemented it. For EU, EEA (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway) or Swiss citizens an officially approved ID card (or a passport) is sufficient for entry. In no case will they need a visa for a stay of any length. Others will generally need a passport for entry.
Travel to/from any other country (Schengen or not) from/to Bulgaria will (as of now) result in the normal border checks.
Inquire at your travel agent, call the local consulate or embassy of Bulgaria.
The visa list is already consistent with those of the Schengen countries fully implementing the agreement.
As of January 2010 only the citizens of the following non-EU/EEA/Swiss countries do not need a visa for entry into the Schengen Area; note that they must not stay longer than three months in half a year and must not work while in the EU: Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Bahamas, Barbados, Bermuda, Brazil, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Croatia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Japan, Macedonia*, Malaysia, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Montenegro*, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Saint Kitts and Nevis, San Marino, Serbia*/**, Seychelles, Singapore, South Korea, United States, Uruguay, Vatican City, Venezuela, additionally persons holding British National (Overseas), Hong Kong SAR or Macau SAR passports.
Note that
  • while British subjects with the right of abode in the United Kingdom and British Overseas Territories citizens connected to Gibraltar are considered "United Kingdom nationals for European Union purposes" and therefore eligible for unlimited access to the Schengen Area,
  • British Overseas Territories citizens without the right of abode in the United Kingdom and British subjects without the right of abode in the United Kingdom as well as British Overseas citizens and British protected persons in general do require visas.
However, all British Overseas Territories citizens except those solely connected to the Cyprus Sovereign Base Areas are eligible for British citizenship and thereafter unlimited access to the Schengen Area.
Further note that
(*) Macedonian, Montenegrin and Serbian citizens need a biometric passport to enjoy visa-free travel and
(**) Serbian citizens with passports issued by the Serbian Coordination Directorate (Serbs residing in Kosovo) still do need a visa.

By plane

There are four international airports: Sofia, Varna, Bourgas, and Plovdiv. There are a lot of charter and last-minute flight offers to Varna or Bourgas leaving from Western Europe (especially Germany and Great Britain). You can go from German airports to Bulgaria and back for less than €100, if you are lucky.
Recently, several low-cost airlines have also started offering regular flights to Bulgaria. Wizz Air [2] flies directly between Sofia and London, Rome, Milan, Barcelona, Valencia, Brussels and Dortmund. Wizz Air flies directly between London Luton Airport and Burgas, Varna airport - the flies are every week all around the year. germanwings [3] offers flights to several European destinations. EasyJet [4] flies between Sofia and London Gatwick, Manchester, Milan and Madrid. MyAir [5] flies to Sofia from Milan, Bari, Brussels and Bologna. The government is planning to open a new airport near Veliko Turnovo (Велико Търново) in the next 5 years.

By train

International trains provide a large number of routes to Bulgaria, notably Sofia and Varna, arriving from such places as Kiev, Istanbul, Vienna, and other common cities.
The primary trains from Bucharest to Sofia, and back, run twice daily through the border city of Rousse. For example, recent trains are scheduled from Bucharest to Sofia in the daytime departing 11:35/arriving 21:30 and a night train departing 19:35/arriving 06:10. Passport control and customs takes place in Rousse approximately mid-trip. Check local train stations for updated information.
A cheap way of traveling to or from Bulgaria might be the Balkan Flexipass.

By car

If you want to reach Bulgaria from Western Europe by car, you either can take a ferry from Italy to Greece, or you will have to pass through either Serbia (make sure you took a green card from your national insurance company) or Romania.
Travelling from Greece you have to go from Thessaloniki towards Serres and then to Promahonas.
In Bulgaria you have to pay road tax at the border (around €5 for 7 days). You will get a special sticker that you have to place on your car. There are no tolls on Bulgarian roads.
Besides the sticker, you may need to pay the Bulgarian authorities health insurance (2 euros per person for 3 days, slightly more for more days). Make sure you get a receipt! Expect long queues on certain days.

By bus

Buses to and from Sofia go to most major cities in Europe - while Bulgarian bus companies will be cheaper (and mostly offer less comfort), the tickets are hard to get by if you are travelling to Bulgaria, so you can always take Eurolines buses. Don't be surprised if an extra "border fee" is asked from each traveller by the bus driver - it makes your border passing quicker. Most buses from Western Europe will pass through Serbia, so be sure to check if you need a transit visa beforehand (Serbian visas for citizens of the EU have recently been abolished).

Get around

By bus

Certainly the cheapest and fastest way to travel around the country is by bus. Buses go from and to every bigger city (you might have to ask or be driven by taxi to the bus station) quite frequently (exact timetables information in English can be found at avtogari.info [6] or BGrazpisanie.com [7]); however, most bus station agents (except at the Black Sea and in Sofia) as well as the drivers will not speak or understand any languages except Bulgarian (and, if you are lucky, Russian) and the destinations will be written exclusively in Cyrillic. You can look up bus schedules for the Sofia New Central at the bus station [8].
Travelling from Sofia to major cities in Bulgaria by bus is a good value. A one way ticket to the Black Sea from Sofia is around EUR 12-15. Several companies operate regular routes serviced by new and modern buses. Timetables and prices in English for couple of the major companies can be found at GRUP Plus [9] and Biomet [10].
There are other bus stations in Sofia and also some private buses depart from their own personal station, but for travellers just looking to get out of town with the least amount of confusion - using the New Central Bus Station may be easiest.
Buses and Minibuses go from Varna and Bourgas along the coastline, passing or going to all Bulgarian Black Sea tourist resorts.

By train

Travelling by train is inexpensive, but also slower than by bus. Trains are most useful when travelling along the two major train routes: Sofia - Varna and Sofia - Bourgas. You can travel both routes overnight, but you should make your reservations early because these night trains are often fully booked.
The official website of the Bulgarian State Railways [11] is user-friendly and offers an easy-to-use online timetable [12]. Another train planner is available on www.bgrazpisanie.com [13].
Recently, new equipment has appeared on some the trains on routes between main destinations. New rail lines are also under construction but will not operational until 2011.

By taxi

Many taxi drivers know only limited English so it is useful to write out your destination or carry a map. In winter 2008, a few of the newer taxis in Sofia have GPS units on the dashboard. Taxi tariffs in Bulgaria are standardized in the major cities. One should be extremely careful about using a taxi in Bulgaria. Especially since you are a foreigner, you can definitely become a target of unscrupulous taxi drivers. When in need, get familiar with the most well known taxi operators in your area, your route and expected bill. Generally the safest way of using a taxi is by ordering a taxi by phone. Some fraudalent taxis even mimic others' logos and labels on their cars. Definitely avoid using taxis waiting at airports and railway stations!

By car

If traveling by car, it would be helpful if you can read the Cyrillic alphabet at least a bit. Most signs have the direction shown in Latin letters, but some don't.
If you are a foreigner, its best to rent a car.
Driving in Bulgaria can be a bit precarious - many roads do not have defined lanes, are not well marked, and are in poor conditions. Locals often do not observe speed limits and do not signal when changing lanes.
When travelling on the road Sofia-Greece, be very careful. There is extensive road reconstruction and you can meet some really dangerous drivers.
From Sofia to Plovdiv, Chirpan and Dimitrovgrad, there is a highway with 2 or 3 lanes per direction.
If you observe the rules, police will not bother you. Bulgarian police have white Opel Astra patrol cars, marked "POLICE" with blue letters - keep that in mind, because in the past there have been several cases of fake police officers stopping cars and robbing travellers. Should you ever doubt the authority stopping you, you have the right not to pull over. If a pursuit begins, chances are high that the car is a real police vehicle. Stop and explain your doubts. Even if you're charged for not pulling over, it is better than losing your car, money, dignity and even worse, your life, to thieves.
Never ever drink and drive in Bulgaria! This is always dangerous, and your first offence will result in a long prison sentence. The once-common practice of bribing a police officer to get out of a speeding or parking ticket is becoming the exception.
Car theft isn't much of a risk, but shouldn't be underestimated. In rural areas leaving your car should be safe, but in the big cities or tourist spots, it is advisable to stay on the safe side by parking either on the major streets or on guarded garages, where fees range from 6 leva a day to 2 leva an hour. If you plan to spend more time in one city, it might be better to rent a parking space, which on the average costs 60 leva a month. Most hotels have their own parking, and even at private lodgings it is often possible to park the car in the garden or so, just ask.

By plane

Air travel is still not very common in Bulgaria as distances are relatively short.
Bulgaria Air, the national carrier travels everyday from Sofia to Varna and Burgas. Off peak deals can be found for 25eu r/t after taxes
WizzAir travels four times a week between Sofia and Varna and between Sofia and Bourgas. off peak travel can be as cheap as 20eu r/t after taxes
Their timetables can be found on their official websites or altogether on BGrazpisanie.com [14]

Talk

Bulgarian is a southern Slavic language, closely related to Macedonian,Serbo-Croatian. If you know any of these (or another Slavic language) you shouldn't have much problem getting by. Some words or/and phrases might even be understood by Westerners since Bulgarian has a number of loans from other languages (most notably French, German, Turkish, Italian and increasingly English).
Modern Bulgarian is difficult to Westerners, especially English-speakers, as it has three genders, the infintive has fallen virtually out of use, and articles are appended to the end of either the noun (if no attribute is present) or the first attribute (example: kuche = dog, kucheto = the dog, dobro kuche = good dog, dobroto kuche = the good dog). However, it is actually easier than the other Slavic tongues as the other Slavs almost never use articles nor prepositions, but have noun cases instead, which makes them more difficult. It takes a short while getting used to the Cyrillic alphabet, a writing system of which Bulgarians are proud. Be sure to be in Bulgaria for the celebrations of the "Den na Pismenostta" ("Day of the Literacy"). The Russian/East Slavic version of the alphabet is almost identical to the Bulgarian one.
It is also important to remember the fact that many Bulgarians - contrary to most nationalities - shake their head for Yes and nod for No! It is better to rely on the words da for yes and ne for no than on head movements. Bulgarians often use ciao for good-bye (instead of "Dovijdane") and merci for thank you (instead of "Blagodarya").
Most young Bulgarians have at least a basic knowledge of English or/and a second foreign language (, usually Russian, but German, French or Spanish can also be spoken) and will often even take up a third one. Those born before the mid-1980s are most likely to speak Russian, German (because of ties with East Germany) or/and Serbo-Croatian and usually have limited or zero knowledge of English at all.

See

The 100 tourist sites of Bulgaria are some of the more popular sites. A reward scheme is available based on collecting stamps from the sites which encourages tourists to travel and sightsee throughout the country.

Buy

Money

The Bulgarian unit of currency is the Lev (лев, abbreviated "лв", plural: Leva), comprised of one hundred Stotinki. The Lev is pegged to the Euro at 1.95583 Lev for one Euro. 1 Lev is roughly US$ 0.75 and UK£ 0.46.
Shopkeepers and other businesses in Bulgaria will usually not accept foreign money though many will accept the euro. Bulgaria remains a largely cash economy in the rural areas but in major cities credit cards are generally accepted.
In most cities there are many money exchange offices which are marked with signs that say "CHANGE". Most are legitimate, but some may rip you off. It is much safer to exchange your money at a bank. Banks apply little or no commissions, and generally offer good rates. Higher commissions may be applied to traveller's cheques. Old, dirty or very worn bank notes may be refused. Never exchange money out on the street. Beware of people on the street who offer high rates of exchange or who may ask you to make some change for them.
Over the past years the ATM network in Bulgaria has grown considerably, making it relatively easy to obtain cash from the numerous ATMs in Sofia, as well as in all other major cities and resorts. The national credit/debit card circuit BORICA [15], to which all ATMs in the country are hooked up, accepts VISA/Plus, Visa Electron, MasterCard/Cirrus, Maestro, American Express, Diners Club, and a number of other cards.

Prices

Prices in Bulgaria for some items are around half that of Western Europe, and good bargains are to be had on shoes and leather goods as well as other clothing. Note that clothes from famous international brands, perfumes, electronic equipment, etc. often are more expensive than in other parts of Europe.

Supermarkets

In Sofia and a few major cities you can find branches of international hypermarket chains like Kaufland, Hit, Billa, Metro, and other. There are also many local supermaket chains like Fantastiko, Familia, and Picadilly. All Bulgarian supermarkets sell products of European quality.

Eat

Bulgarian cuisine is a representative of the cuisine of Southeastern Europe with some Turkish and Greek influences, but it has some unique elements. The relatively warm climate and diverse geography produce excellent growth conditions for a variety of vegetables, herbs and fruits, Bulgarian cuisine is particularly diverse.
Famous for its rich salads required at every meal, Bulgarian cuisine is also noted for the diversity and quality of dairy products and the variety of wines and local alcoholic drinks such as rakia, mastika and menta. Bulgarian cuisine features also a variety of hot and cold soups, an example of a cold soup being tarator. There are many different Bulgarian pastries as well such as banitsa.
Certain entries, salads, soups and dishes go well with alcoholic beverages and the alcohol of choice for some is Bulgarian wine.
Restaurants serving international cuisine have also made a presence in the country, offering various options such as Chinese, French, Italian, and international contemporary.

Vegetarian

It can be difficult to find vegetarian food; most dishes have meat, typically pork. Three vegetarian dishes that are commonly available are боб чорба/bob chorba (warm minty bean soup), таратор/tarator (cold cucumber yogurt soup), and Шопска салата/Shopska salad. American vegetarians may be surprised to find meat inside innocent-looking breakfast pastries.

Popular local dishes

The most popular Bulgarian salad is the shopska salad, which is a mix of tomatoes, cucumbers, onion, raw or roasted peppers (preferably roasted), and sirene. Traditionally it is dressed only with salt, sunflower or olive oil and vinegrette. Another popular salads are the snow white salad, the shepherd salad and the lyutenitsa.
As a main course you can have moussaka (a rich oven-baked dish of potatoes, minced meat and white sauce), gyuvetch, sarmi (rolls with vine or cabbage leaves), drob sarma (lamb liver and lung with rice), kavarma (minced meat with tomatoes), mish-mash (fried peppers, onion and eggs).

Traditional milk products

There are only two native kinds of cheese: the yellow-colored Kashkaval (Кашкавал) - more or less akin to the Dutch Gouda - and the more popular white Sirene (Сирене) - a kind of Feta cheese, similar to Greek Feta in taste. Originally made from sheep milk, it is available from cow or goat milk, or mixed.
The native Bulgarian kiselo mlyako (yoghurt) contains Lactobacilicus Bulgaricus, a bacterium which serves as the basis for active culture "plain" yoghurts in other countries. Normally made from cow or sheep milk, it can also be prepared from buffalo milk, with a remarkably stronger taste.
Being a staple, and quite favourite around the country, Bulgarian yoghurt also is an ingredient to many dishes, the most famous one being Tarator (Таратор), a cold soup made from yoghurt, water, cucumbers, garlic, dill and walnuts . A drink called Ayran - a yoghurt-water mixture with salt- is also very popular.

Fast food

Traditional bakeries prepare different kinds of pastry products. Banitsa and mekitsa are the favorites. Pizza, dyuner (döner), sandwich or hamburgers are also very easy to be found at the streets. There are also many local and international fast-food chains.

Drink

Non-alcoholic

There are more than six hundred mineral water springs around the country, so this is something you'd better taste and drink.
Ayrian (yogurt, water and salt) and boza (millet ale) are two traditional Bulgarian non-alcoholic beverages.

Wine

Grape growing and wine production have a long history in Bulgaria, dating back to the times of the Thracians. Wine is, together with beer and grape rakia, among the most popular alcoholic beverages in the country.
Some of the well known local wine varieties are Mavrud, Pamid, Gamza (red dry), Melnik, Dimyat, Misket, Muskat, Pelin, Kadarka (red sweet) and Keratsuda (white dry).

Beer

Beer (bira: бира) is consumed all around the country. Excellent local varieties like Kamenitza, Zagorka, Ariana, Pirinsko and Shumensko, as well as Northern European beers produced under license in Bulgaria like Heineken and Amstel, are readily available mostly everywhere.

Spirits

Rakia (ракия) is the Bulgarian national alcoholic drink and is served neat, usually at the beginning of a meal with salads. Its powerful (40% vol), clear brandy that can be made from grape, plum or apricot. In some villages people still distill their rakia at home; it is then usually much stronger (>50% vol).
Another quite popular drink is mastika (мастика) (47% vol), a drink closely related to Greek Ouzo and Turkish Raki. It is usually drink with ice, with water in a 1:1 mixture.
Menta (мента) is a peppermint liqueur that can be combined with mastika.

Sleep

Finding an accommodation in Bulgaria is very easy, for any price. You can find everything - from hostels in Sofia and Plovdiv to inexpensive hotels in all cities and luxury hotels in large cities. There are many "mountain huts" or villas available for rent all around the mountains in the country. Overnight accommodations can also be acquired at about a dozen of the monasteries. There are also plenty of guest houses and villas. Bulgaria is famous for offering quality budget accommodation for rural and ecological tourism in charming small towns in its mountains as well as at the seaside.
  • Bulgaria Holiday Rental (Self catering accommodation to rent in Bulgaria), Sofia (Rentals all across Bulgaria), [16]. checkin: 12:00; checkout: 11:00. Self catering holiday accommodation is a popular option in Bulgaria, particularly for holidaymakers along the coastlines. Competitive.  edit

Education

The oldest Bulgarian university is the Sofia University "St. Kliment Ohridski" that in 2008 celebrated 120 years from its foundation. It is considered to be the largest and most prestigious university center. There are many newer centres of education in Sofia, Plovdiv, Varna, Shumen, Veliko Tarnovo, Blagoevgrad, etc.
For most subjects, programs are available in Bulgarian or English, depending on the university. Elementary and middle schools are supported by local authorities budget. As with most nations, teachers complain about small salaries. Literacy is nearly universal. Bulgarian people speak mostly English, German, French and Russian.
Some of the universities that offer education entirely in English are the American University in Bulgaria, the New Bulgarian University and the Technical University of Sofia. The last one offers also degrees in German language.
The American College in Sofia offers secondary education in English.

Stay safe

Bulgaria is generally a safe country, and people are quite friendly. You should however behave according to common sense when you are outside of the main tourist areas, i.e. don't show too openly that you have money, don't dress too much like a tourist, watch your things, don't walk around the suburbs (esp. those of Sofia) at night, avoid dark streets at night. Stepping in a hole is a much greater danger in Bulgaria than getting robbed.

Emergency phone numbers

The pan-European standard number 112 for all emergency calls is working everywhere in Bulgaria since September 2008. If, for some reason, you can not connect to 112, dial 166 for police, 150 for ambulance and 160 for the fire department.

Crime

Organised crime is an issue, however it usually does not affect tourists and ordinary people. Car theft is probably the most serious problem that tourists could confront. If you drive an expensive car, do not leave it in unguarded parking lots or on the streets.
Bulgaria is safer than most European countries with regard to violent crime. However, pickpocketing and scams (such as taxi scams or confidence tricks) are present on a wider scale, so be careful, especially in crowded places (such as train stations, urban public transport).

Stray Animals

Stray dogs are relatively common all over Bulgaria, and are usually little more than a nuisance. However, they have been responsible for several deaths, so it is best to keep your distance. Recently stray cats started to appear in major cities, but they are not a problem.
Wild bears and wolves can be seen sometimes in woods, so be careful.

Corruption

Corruption is a serious issue in Bulgaria. Some policeman or officials may request you a bribe for certain action. If this happens, decline the proposal and threaten them to call the police. Corruption in customs is also a problem, but has since admission to the EU declined to zero levels, practically non-existent.
The government has fiercely fought the corruption with a huge success. Should you appear in a situation to which you are asked to bribe, or you feel that you are being exploited, you can either fill out an online query with the police here http://nocorr.mvr.bg/, or call 02 982 22 22 to report corruption.

Stay healthy

Eating and drinking

Most food is quite safe to eat. Of course, try to avoid eating at places that are obviously not too clean.
The water in Bulgaria is safe to drink from the tap. However, natural mineral water is cheap and widely available. Since Bulgaria is a mountainous country, natural springs are quite abundant and many villages have one or more mineral springs.

Hospitals

Conditions in Bulgarian hospitals may vary - from the very clean and sparkling, with all the latest technological utilities, to the downright drab, dark and cold. There are some new hospitals, and some very old, with old technology. Medical personnel is very good in their job.
Citizens of the European Union are covered by Bulgarian's National Healthcare System as long as they carry an Eurocard (or European Health Insurance Card), obtainable from their own national healthcare authority.
Dental procedures in private clinics in Bulgaria are of an excellent quality. Many people from Western European come to Bulgaria to have their teeth done for the quarter of the price they pay in their home country.

Respect

Bulgarians are incredibly friendly and are very interested in talking to foreigners. Engaging in dialogue with these people is much advised and worthwhile. In smaller cities, especially in the Rhodopes, people may invite you for lunch or even to sleep over.
As a rule of thumb for most countries worldwide, you should avoid topics involving politics and foreign relations, and on some occasions football (soccer) as well. If you are pulled in to such a conversation, try to stay neutral. Remember that your own knowledge of local situations is unlikely to be as good as a Bulgarians!
With a certain number of people, Macedonia can be a sensitive subject to talk about, but feel free to ask your questions, provided you do not discuss it with those more likely to take offence (i.e. nationalist skinheads). Some Bulgarians feel that Macedonia belongs to Bulgaria, but unless you know the subject and the people you are talking with, just asking questions is the best option.
While most of the Bulgarian people do not feel anger or resentment towards Russians (, unlike a number of people from other former Eastern Bloc countries), you should be careful when discussing topics related to Russia because some Bulgarians have personally suffered from Russian/ Soviet actions. The same can be said of Turkey, albeit to a lesser extent.

Contact

Domestic Phones

Domestic telephone service is available in most villages, via the PSTN or VoIP.

Mobile Phones

Mobile phones are widely spread in Bulgaria - many people have two or three phones. There are three networks, all using the GSM/3G standards (Mtel, Globul and Vivatel). MTel has almost full national coverage (97% of the surface of the country), followed by Globul and Vivatel (each one with smaller coverage). Fares are average for the European Union (5-40 Eurocent per minute, 7 Eurocent/SMS). Both pre-paid cards and subscriptions are available, and special options for discounted international calls exist with some pricing plans. Roaming is available but it`s rather expensive. You can buy prepaid cards cards in almost every shop.

Internet Access

Internet access is widely available in Bulgaria, although about 20% of the population has regular access. Broadband internet is available through cable, ADSL, fiber optics, WiMax and LAN connections. You can also access internet with your mobile phone, via GPRS or 3G. Speeds are pretty fast in the capital - with prices being around 20 € for 20 Mbps, with local access about 40. The speeds are increasing, home access for 4 Mbps being available at around €15 per month. Outside Sofia, speeds are significantly lower, fastest being around 10 € for 3 Mbps.
Internet cafes are available in most towns and cities, and in some villages. Computers are usually not available in libraries, or in public places such as train stations.
Wireless access is growing, especially in biggest cities, but is still limited, and mainly available in public areas, parks, cafes, hotels and restaurants. Paid wireless access is also available.
This is a usable article. It has information for getting in as well as some complete entries for restaurants and hotels. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.BULGARIA, a kingdom of south-eastern Europe, situated in the north-east of the Balkan Peninsula, and on the Black Sea.^ BULGARIA, a kingdom of south-eastern Europe , situated in the north-east of the Balkan Peninsula , and on the Black Sea.

^ Bulgaria is bounded on the N. by the Danube, from its confluence with the Timok to the eastern suburbs of Silistria whence a line, forming the Rumanian frontier, is drawn to a point on the Black Sea coast ro m.

^ At its eastern extremity the Balkan chain divides into three ridges, the central terminating in the Black Sea at Cape Emine ("Haemus"), the northern forming the watershed between the tributaries of the Danube and the rivers falling directly into the Black Sea.

.From 1878 until the 5th of October 1908, Bulgaria was an autonomous and tributary principality, under the suzerainty of the sultan of Turkey.^ From 1878 until the 5th of October 1908, Bulgaria was an autonomous and tributary principality, under the suzerainty of the sultan of Turkey .

^ This unfortunate step, by which he ignored the suzerainty of Turkey, and represented Bulgaria as a Russian dependency, exposed him to a stern rebuff, and fatally compromised his position.

^ On the 5th of October Prince Ferdinand publicly proclaimed Bulgaria, united since the 6th of September 1885 (i.e.

.The area of the kingdom amounts to 37, 2 4 0 sq.^ The area of the kingdom amounts to 37, 2 4 0 sq.

m., and comprises the territories between the .Balkan chain and the river Danube; the province of Eastern Rumelia, lying south of the Balkans; and the western highlands of Kiustendil, Samakov, Sofia and Trn.^ Balkan chain and the river Danube ; the province of Eastern Rumelia , lying south of the Balkans; and the western highlands of Kiustendil , Samakov, Sofia and Trn.

^ At its eastern extremity the Balkan chain divides into three ridges, the central terminating in the Black Sea at Cape Emine ("Haemus"), the northern forming the watershed between the tributaries of the Danube and the rivers falling directly into the Black Sea.

^ From this point the western or Servian frontier passes northwards, leaving Trn to the east and Pirot to the west, reaching the Timok near Kula, and following the course of that river to its junction with the Danube.

.Bulgaria is bounded on the N. by the Danube, from its confluence with the Timok to the eastern suburbs of Silistria whence a line, forming the Rumanian frontier, is drawn to a point on the Black Sea coast ro m.^ On the E. it is washed by the Black Sea; on the S. the Turkish frontier, starting from a point on the coast about 12 m.

^ Bulgaria is bounded on the N. by the Danube, from its confluence with the Timok to the eastern suburbs of Silistria whence a line, forming the Rumanian frontier, is drawn to a point on the Black Sea coast ro m.

^ Malarial fever prevails in the valley of the Maritza, in the low-lying regions of the Black Sea coast, and even in the upland plain of Sofia, owing to neglect of drainage.

S. of Mangalia. .On the E. it is washed by the Black Sea; on the S. the Turkish frontier, starting from a point on the coast about 12 m.^ On the E. it is washed by the Black Sea; on the S. the Turkish frontier, starting from a point on the coast about 12 m.

^ Bulgaria is bounded on the N. by the Danube, from its confluence with the Timok to the eastern suburbs of Silistria whence a line, forming the Rumanian frontier, is drawn to a point on the Black Sea coast ro m.

^ Malarial fever prevails in the valley of the Maritza, in the low-lying regions of the Black Sea coast, and even in the upland plain of Sofia, owing to neglect of drainage.

.S. of Sozopolis, runs in a south-westerly direction, crossing the river Maritza at Mustafa Pasha, and reaching the Arda at Adakali.^ S. of Sozopolis, runs in a south- westerly direction, crossing the river Maritza at Mustafa Pasha , and reaching the Arda at Adakali.

.The line laid down by the Berlin Treaty (1878) ascended the Arda to Ishiklar, thence following the crest of Rhodope to the westwards, but the cantons of Krjali and Rupchus included in this boundary were restored to Turkey in 1886. The present frontier, passing to the north of these districts, reaches the watershed of Rhodope a little north of the Dospat valley, and then follows the crest of the Rilska Planina to the summit of Tchrni Vrkh, where the Servian, Turkish and Bulgarian territories meet.^ The present frontier, passing to the north of these districts, reaches the watershed of Rhodope a little north of the Dospat valley, and then follows the crest of the Rilska Planina to the summit of Tchrni Vrkh, where the Servian, Turkish and Bulgarian territories meet.

^ The line laid down by the Berlin Treaty (1878) ascended the Arda to Ishiklar, thence following the crest of Rhodope to the westwards, but the cantons of Krjali and Rupchus included in this boundary were restored to Turkey in 1886.

^ The chain of Rhodope proper radiates to the east; owing to the retrocession of territory already mentioned, its central ridge no longer completely coincides with the Bulgarian boundary, but two of its principal summits, Sytke (7179 ft.

.From this point the western or Servian frontier passes northwards, leaving Trn to the east and Pirot to the west, reaching the Timok near Kula, and following the course of that river to its junction with the Danube.^ From this point the western or Servian frontier passes northwards, leaving Trn to the east and Pirot to the west, reaching the Timok near Kula, and following the course of that river to its junction with the Danube.

^ The present frontier, passing to the north of these districts, reaches the watershed of Rhodope a little north of the Dospat valley, and then follows the crest of the Rilska Planina to the summit of Tchrni Vrkh, where the Servian, Turkish and Bulgarian territories meet.

^ Bulgaria is bounded on the N. by the Danube, from its confluence with the Timok to the eastern suburbs of Silistria whence a line, forming the Rumanian frontier, is drawn to a point on the Black Sea coast ro m.

.The Berlin Treaty boundary was far from corresponding with the ethnological limits of the Bulgarian race, which were more accurately defined by the abrogated treaty of San Stefano (see below, under History). A considerable portion of Macedonia, the districts of Pirot and Vranya belonging to Servia, the northern half of the vilayet of Adrianople, and large tracts of the Dobrudja, are, according to the best and most impartial authorities, mainly inhabited by a Bulgarian population.^ A considerable portion of Macedonia , the districts of Pirot and Vranya belonging to Servia , the northern half of the vilayet of Adrianople , and large tracts of the Dobrudja , are, according to the best and most impartial authorities, mainly inhabited by a Bulgarian population.

^ It was taken over by the Bulgarian government in 1908 (see History, below).

^ The Berlin Treaty boundary was far from corresponding with the ethnological limits of the Bulgarian race, which were more accurately defined by the abrogated treaty of San Stefano (see below, under History).

Table of contents

Physical Features

.The most striking physical features are two' mountain-chains; the Balkans, which run east and west through the heart of the country; and Rhodope, which, for a considerable.^ The most striking physical features are two' mountain-chains; the Balkans, which run east and west through the heart of the country; and Rhodope, which, for a considerable.

^ The chain of Rhodope proper radiates to the east; owing to the retrocession of territory already mentioned, its central ridge no longer completely coincides with the Bulgarian boundary, but two of its principal summits, Sytke (7179 ft.

distance, forms its southern boundary. .The Balkans constitute the southern half of the great semicircular range known as the antiDacian system, of which the Carpathians form the northern portion.^ The Balkans constitute the southern half of the great semicircular range known as the antiDacian system, of which the Carpathians form the northern portion.

^ Magnificent forests of beech clothe the valleys of the higher Balkans and the Rilska Planina; the northern declivity of the Balkans is, in general, well wooded, but the southern slope is bare.

^ The Cretaceous system , from the infra-Cretaceous Hauterivien to the Senonian, appears throughout the whole extent of Northern Bulgaria, from the summits of the Balkans to the Danube.

This great chain is sundered at the Iron Gates by the passage of the Danube; its two component parts present many points of resemblance in their aspect and outline, geological formation and flora. .The Balkans (ancient Haemus) run almost parallel to the Danube, Longitude East 26° of Greenwich, 28° the mean interval being 60 m.; the summits are, as a rule, rounded, and the slopes gentle.^ The Balkans (ancient Haemus ) run almost parallel to the Danube, Longitude East 26° of Greenwich , 28° the mean interval being 60 m.; the summits are, as a rule, rounded, and the slopes gentle.

^ The most striking physical features are two' mountain-chains; the Balkans, which run east and west through the heart of the country; and Rhodope, which, for a considerable.

.The culminating points are in the centre of the range: Yumrukchal (7835 ft.^ The culminating points are in the centre of the range: Yumrukchal (7835 ft.

), .Maraguduk (7808 ft.^ Maraguduk (7808 ft.

), and `Kadimlia (7464 ft.). .The Balkans are known to the people of the country as the Stara Planina or "Old Mountain," the adjective denoting their greater size as compared with that of the adjacent ranges: "Balkan" is not a distinctive term, being applied by the Bulgarians, as well as the Turks, to all mountains.^ The Balkans are known to the people of the country as the Stara Planina or "Old Mountain," the adjective denoting their greater size as compared with that of the adjacent ranges: "Balkan" is not a distinctive term, being applied by the Bulgarians, as well as the Turks , to all mountains.

^ The Archean, composed of gneiss and crystalline schists , and traversed by eruptive veins , extends over the greater part of the Eastern Rumelian plain, the Rilska Planina, Rhodope, and the adjacent ranges.

^ A. Apply preventive, precautionary and anticipatory approaches so as to avoid degradation of the marine environment, as well as to reduce the risk of long-term or irreversible adverse effects upon it.
  • Country Profile - Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.Closely parallel, on the south, are the minor ranges of the Sredna Gora or "Middle Mountains" (highest summit 5167 ft.^ Closely parallel, on the south, are the minor ranges of the Sredna Gora or "Middle Mountains" (highest summit 5167 ft.

^ The rose -fields of Kazanlyk and Karlovo lie in the sheltered valleys between the Balkans and the parallel chains of the Sredna Gora and Karaja Dagh.

) and the Karaja Dagh, enclosing respectively the sheltered valleys of Karlovo and Kazanlyk. .At its eastern extremity the Balkan chain divides into three ridges, the central terminating in the Black Sea at Cape Emine ("Haemus"), the northern forming the watershed between the tributaries of the Danube and the rivers falling directly into the Black Sea.^ Convention on cooperation for the protection and sustainable use of the Danube River - Environmental Action Programme for Central and Eastern Europe .
  • Country Profile - Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

The Rhodope, or southern group, is altogether distinct from the Balkans, with which, however, it is connected by the Malka Planina and the I khtiman hills, respectively west and east of Sofia; it may be regarded as a continuation of the great Alpine system which traverses the Peninsula from the Dinaric Alps and the Shar Planina on the west to the Shabkhana Dagh near the Aegean coast; its sharper outlines and pine-clad steeps reproduce the scenery of the Alps rather than that of the Balkans. .The imposing summit of Musalla (9631 ft.^ The imposing summit of Musalla (9631 ft.

), next to Olympus, the highest in the Peninsula, forms the centre-point of the group; it stands within the Bulgarian frontier at the head of the Mesta valley, on either side of which the Perin Dagh and the Despoto Dagh descend south and south-east respectively towards the Aegean. .The chain of Rhodope proper radiates to the east; owing to the retrocession of territory already mentioned, its central ridge no longer completely coincides with the Bulgarian boundary, but two of its principal summits, Sytke (7179 ft.^ The chain of Rhodope proper radiates to the east; owing to the retrocession of territory already mentioned, its central ridge no longer completely coincides with the Bulgarian boundary, but two of its principal summits, Sytke (7179 ft.

^ The most striking physical features are two' mountain-chains; the Balkans, which run east and west through the heart of the country; and Rhodope, which, for a considerable.

) and .Karlyk (6828 ft.^ Karlyk (6828 ft.

), are within the frontier. .From Musalla in a westerly direction extends the majestic range of the Rilska Planina, enclosing in a picturesque valley the celebrated monastery of Rila; many summits of this chain attain 7000 ft.^ From Musalla in a westerly direction extends the majestic range of the Rilska Planina, enclosing in a picturesque valley the celebrated monastery of Rila; many summits of this chain attain 7000 ft.

^ The present frontier, passing to the north of these districts, reaches the watershed of Rhodope a little north of the Dospat valley, and then follows the crest of the Rilska Planina to the summit of Tchrni Vrkh, where the Servian, Turkish and Bulgarian territories meet.

^ Magnificent forests of beech clothe the valleys of the higher Balkans and the Rilska Planina; the northern declivity of the Balkans is, in general, well wooded, but the southern slope is bare.

.Farther west, beyond the Struma valley, is the Osogovska Planina, culminating in Ruyen (739 2 ft.^ Farther west, beyond the Struma valley, is the Osogovska Planina, culminating in Ruyen (739 2 ft.

). .To the north of the Rilska Planina the almost isolated mass of Vitosha (7517 ft.^ To the north of the Rilska Planina the almost isolated mass of Vitosha (7517 ft.

) overhangs Sofia. Snow and ice remain in the sheltered crevices of Rhodope and the Balkans throughout the summer. The fertile slope trending northwards from the Balkans to the Danube is for the most part gradual and broken by hills; the eastern portion known as the Deli Orman, or "Wild Wood," is covered by forest, and thinly inhabited. The abrupt and sometimes precipitous character of the Bulgarian bank of the Danube contrasts with the swampy lowlands and lagoons of the Rumanian side. Northern Bulgaria is watered by the Lom, Ogust, Iskr, Vid, Osem, Yantra and Eastern Lom, all, except the Iskr, rising in the Balkans, and all flowing into the Danube. The channels of these rivers are deeply furrowed and the fall is rapid; irrigation is consequently difficult and navigation impossible. The course of the Iskr is remarkable: rising in the Rilska Planina, the river descends into the basin of Samakov, passing thence through a serpentine defile into thb plateau of Sofia, where in ancient times it formed a lake; it now forces its way through the Balkans by the picturesque gorge of Iskretz. Somewhat similarly the Deli, or "Wild," Kamchik breaks the central chain of the Balkans near their eastern extremity and, uniting with the Great Kamchik, falls into the Black Sea. The Maritza, the ancient Hebrus, springs from the slopes of Musalla, and, with its tributaries, the Tunja and Arda, waters the wide plain of Eastern Rumelia. The Struma (ancient and modern Greek Strymon) drains the valley of Kiustendil, and, like the Maritza, flows into the Aegean. The elevated basins of Samakov (lowest altitude 3050 ft.), Trn (2525 ft.), Breznik (2460 ft.), Radomir (2065 ft.), Sofia (1640 ft.), and Kiustendil (1540 ft.), are a peculiar feature of the western highlands.

Geology

The stratified formation presents a remarkable variety, almost all the systems being exemplified. The Archean, composed of gneiss and crystalline schists, and traversed by eruptive veins, extends over the greater part of the Eastern Rumelian plain, the Rilska Planina, Rhodope, and the adjacent ranges. North of the Balkans it appears only in the neighbourhood of Berkovitza. The other earlier Palaeozoic systems are wanting, but the Carboniferous appears in the western Balkans with a continental facies (Kulm). Here anthracitiferous coal is found in beds of argillite and sandstone. Red sandstone and conglomerate, representing the Permian system, appear especially around the basin of Sofia. Above these, in the western Balkans, are Mesozoic deposits, from the Trias to the upper Jurassic, also occurring in the central part of they range. The Cretaceous system, from the infra-Cretaceous Hauterivien to the Senonian, appears throughout the whole extent of Northern Bulgaria, from the summits of the Balkans to the Danube. Gosau beds are found on the southern declivity of the chain. Flysch, representing both the Cretaceous and Eocene systems, is widely distributed. The Eocene, or older Tertiary, further appears with nummulitic formations on both sides of the eastern Balkans; the Oligocene only near the Black Sea coast at Burgas. Of the Neogene, or younger Tertiary, the Mediterranean, or earlier, stage appears near Pleven (Plevna) in the Leithakalk and Tegel forms, and between Varna and Burgas with beds of spaniodons, as in the Crimea; the Sarmatian stage in the plain of the Danube and in the districts of Silistria and Varna. A rich mammaliferous deposit (Hip parson, Rhinoceros, Dinotherium, Mastodon, &c.) of this period has been found near Mesemvria. Other Neogene strata occupy a more limited space. The Quaternary era is represented by the typical loess, which covers most of the Danubian plain; to its later epochs belong the alluvial deposits of the riparian districts with remains of the Ur sus, Equus, &c., found in bone-caverns. Eruptive masses intrude in the Balkans and Sredna Gora, as well as in the Archean formation of the southern ranges, presenting granite, syenite, diorite, diabase, quartz-porphyry, melaphyre, liparite, trachyte, andesite, basalt, &c.

Minerals

The mineral wealth of Bulgaria is considerable, although, with the exception of coal, it remains largely unexploited. The minerals which are commercially valuable include gold (found in small quantities), silver, graphite, galena, pyrite, marcasite, chalcosine, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, bornite, cuprite, hematite, limonite, ochre, chromite, magnetite, azurite, manganese, malachite, gypsum, &c. The combustibles are anthracitiferous coal, coal,"brown coal" and lignite. The lignite mines opened by the government at Pernik in 1891 yielded in 1904 142,000 tons. Coal beds have been discovered at Trevna and elsewhere. Thermal springs, mostly sulphureous, exist in forty-three localities along the southern slope of the Balkans, in Rhodope, and in the districts of Sofia and Kiustendil; maximum temperature at Zaparevo, near Dupnitza, 180.5° (Fahrenheit), at Sofia 118.4°. Many of these are frequented now, as in Roman times, owing to their valuable therapeutic qualities. The mineral springs on the north of the Balkans are, with one exception (Vrshetz, near Berkovitza), cold.

Climate

The severity of the climate of Bulgaria in comparison with that of other European regions of the same latitude is attributable in part to the number and extent of its mountain ranges, in part to the general configuration of the Balkan Peninsula. Extreme heat in summer and cold in winter, great local contrasts, and rapid transitions of temperature occur here as in the adjoining countries. The local contrasts are remarkable. In the districts extending from the Balkans to the Danube, which are exposed to the bitter north wind, the winter cold is intense, and the river, notwithstanding the volume and rapidity of its current, is frequently frozen over; the temperature has been known to fall to 24 below zero. Owing to the shelter afforded by the Balkans against hot southerly winds, the summer heat in this region is not unbearable; its maximum is 99°. The high tableland of Sofia is generally covered with snow in the winter months; it enjoys, however, a somewhat more equable climate than the northern district, the maximum temperature being 86°, the minimum 2°; the air is bracing, and the summer nights are cool and fresh. In the eastern districts the proximity of the sea moderates the extremes of heat and cold; the sea is occasionally frozen at Varna. The coast-line is exposed to violent north-east winds, and the Black Sea, the 7rovros e! ecvos or "inhospitable sea" of the Greeks, maintains its evil reputation for storms. The sheltered plain of Eastern Rumelia possesses a comparatively warm climate; spring begins six weeks earlier than elsewhere in Bulgaria, and the vegetation is that of southern Europe. In general the Bulgarian winter is short and severe; the spring short, changeable and rainy; the summer hot, but tempered by thunderstorms; the autumn (yasen, " the clear time") magnificently fine and sometimes prolonged into the month of December. The mean temperature is 52°. The climate is healthy, especially in the mountainous districts. Malarial fever prevails in the valley of the Maritza, in the low-lying regions of the Black Sea coast, and even in the upland plain of Sofia, owing to neglect of drainage. The mean annual rainfall is 25.59 in. (Gabrovo, 41.73; Sofia, 27.68; Varna, 18.50).

Fauna

Few special features are noticeable in the Bulgarian fauna. Bears are still abundant in the higher mountain districts, especially in the Rilska Planina and Rhodope; the Bulgarian bear is small and of brown colour, like that of the Carpathians. Wolves are very numerous, and in winter commit great depredations even in the larger country towns and villages; in hard weather they have been known to approach the outskirts of Sofia. The government offers a reward for the destruction of both these animals. The roe deer is found in all the forests, the red deer is less common; the chamois haunts the higher regions of the Rilska Planina, Rhodope and the Balkans. The jackal (Canis aureus) appears in the district of Burgas; the lynx is said to exist in the Sredna Gora; the wild boar, otter, fox, badger, hare, wild cat, marten, polecat (Foetorius putorius; the rare tiger polecat, Foetorius sarmaticus, is also found), weasel and shrewmouse (Spermophilus citillus) are common. The beaver (Bulg. bebr) appears to have been abundant in certain localities, e.g. Bebrovo, Bebresh, &c., but it is now apparently extinct. Snakes (Coluber natrix and other species), vipers (Vipera berus and V. ammodytes), and land and water tortoises are numerous. The domestic animals are the same as in the other countries of southeastern Europe; the fierce shaggy grey sheep-dog leaves a lasting impression on most travellers in the interior. Fowls, especially turkeys, are everywhere abundant, and great numbers of geese may be seen in the Moslem villages. The ornithology of Bulgaria is especially interesting. Eagles (Aquila imperialis and the rarer Aquila fulva), vultures (Vultur monachus, Gyps fulvus, Neophron percnopterus), owls, kites, and the smaller birds of prey are extraordinarily abundant; singing birds are consequently rare. The lammergeier (Gypaetus barbatus) is not uncommon. Immense flocks of wild swans, geese, pelicans, herons and other waterfowl haunt the Danube and the lagoons of the Black Sea coast. The cock of the woods (Tetrao urogallus) is found in the Balkan and Rhodope forests, the wild pheasant in the Tunja valley, the bustard (Otis tarda) in the Eastern Rumelian plain. Among the migratory birds are the crane, which hibernates in the Maritza valley, woodcock, snipe and quail; the great spotted cuckoo (Coccystes glandarius) is an occasional visitant. The red starling (Pastor roseus) sometimes appears in large flights. The stork, which is never molested, adds a picturesque feature to the Bulgarian village. Of fresh-water fish, the sturgeon (Acipenser sturio and A. huso), sterlet, salmon (Salmo hucho), and carp are found in the Danube; the mountain streams abound in trout. The Black Sea supplies turbot, mackerel, &c.; dolphins and flying fish may sometimes be seen.

Flora

In regard to its flora the country may be divided into (1) the northern plain sloping from the Balkans to the Danube, (2) the southern plain between the Balkans and Rhodope, (3) the districts adjoining the Black Sea, (4) the elevated basins of Sofia, Samakov and Kiustendil, (5) the Alpine and sub-Alpine regions of the Balkans and the southern mountain group. In the first-mentioned region the vegetation resembles that of the Russian and Rumanian steppes; in the spring the country is adorned with the flowers of the crocus, orchis, iris, tulip and other bulbous plants, which in summer give way to tall grasses, umbelliferous growths, dianthi, astragali, &c. In the more sheltered district south of the Balkans the richer vegetation recalls that of the neighbourhood of Constantinople and the adjacent parts of Asia Minor. On the Black Sea coast many types of the Crimean, Transcaucasian and even the Mediterranean flora present themselves. The plateaus of Sofia and Samakov furnish specimens of sub-alpine plants, while the vine disappears; the hollow of Kiustendil, owing to its southerly aspect, affords the vegetation of the Macedonian valleys. The flora of the Balkans corresponds with that of the Carpathians; the Rila and Rhodope group is rich in purely indigenous types combined with those of the central European Alps and the mountains of Asia Minor. The Alpine types are often represented by variants: e.g. the Campanula alpina by the Campanula orbelica, the Primula farinosa by the Primula frondosa and P. exigua, the Gentiana germanica by the Gentiana bulgarica, &c. The southern mountain group, in common, perhaps, with the unexplored highlands of Macedonia, presents many isolated types, unknown elsewhere in Europe, and in some cases corresponding with those of the Caucasus. Among the more characteristic genera of the Bulgarian flora are the following Centaurea, Cirsium, Linaria, Scrophularia, Verbascum, Dianthus, Silene, Trifolium, Euphorbia, Cytisus, Astragalus, Ornithogalum, Allium, Crocus, Iris, Thymus, Umbellifera, Sedum, Hypericum, Scabiosa, Ranunculus, Orchis, Ophrys. Forests. - The principal forest trees are the oak, beech, ash, elm, walnut, cornel, poplar, pine and juniper. The oak is universal in the thickets, but large specimens are now rarely found. Magnificent forests of beech clothe the valleys of the higher Balkans and the Rilska Planina; the northern declivity of the Balkans is, in general, well wooded, but the southern slope is bare. The walnut and chestnut are mainly confined to eastern Rumelia. Conifers (Pinus silvestris, Picea excelsa, Pinus laricis, Pinus mughus) are rare in the Balkans, but abundant in the higher regions of the southern mountain group, where the Pinus pence, otherwise peculiar to the Himalayas, also flourishes. The wild lilac forms a beautiful feature in the spring landscape. Wild fruit trees, such as the apple, pear and plum, are common. .The vast forests of the middle ages disappeared under the supine Turkish administration, which took no measures for their protection, and even destroyed the woods in the neighbourhood of towns and highways in order to deprive brigands of shelter.^ A protection order under the first four of these measures may be implemented for up to one year.
  • Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A law passed in 1889 prohibits disforesting, limits the right of cutting timber, and places the state forests under the control of inspectors. According to official statistics, 11,640 sq. m. or about 30% of the whole superficies of the kingdom, are under forest, but the greater portion of this area is covered only by brushwood and scrub. The beautiful forests of the Rila district are rapidly disappearing under exploitation.

Agriculture

Agriculture, the main source of wealth to the country, is still in an extremely primitive condition. The ignorance and conservatism of the peasantry, the habits engendered by widespread insecurity and the fear of official rapacity under Turkish rule, insufficiency of communications, want of capital, and in some districts sparsity of population, have all tended to retard the development of this most important industry. The peasants cling to traditional usage, and look with suspicion on modern implements and new-fangled modes of production. The plough is of a primeval type, rotation of crops is only partially practised, and the use of manure is almost unknown. The government has sedulously endeavoured to introduce more enlightened methods and ideas by the establishment of agricultural schools, the appointment of itinerant professors and inspectors, the distribution of better kinds of seeds, improved implements, &c. Efforts have been made to improve the breeds of native cattle and horses, and stallions have been introduced from Hungary and distributed throughout the country. Oxen and buffaloes are the principal animals of draught; the buffalo, which was apparently introduced from Asia in remote times, is much prized by the peasants for its patience and strength; it is, however, somewhat delicate and requires much care. In the eastern districts camels are also employed. The Bulgarian horses are small, but remarkably hardy, wiry and intelligent; they are as a rule unfitted for draught and cavalry purposes. The best sheep are found in the district of Karnobat in Eastern Rumelia. The number:of goats in the country tends to decline, a relatively high tax being imposed on these animals owing to the injury they inflict on young trees. The average price of oxen is £5 each, draught oxen £ 12 the pair, buffaloes £14 the pair, cows £2, horses £6, sheep, 7s., goats 5s., each. The principal cereals are wheat, maize, rye, barley, oats and millet. The cultivation of maize is increasing in the Danubian and eastern districts. Rice-fields are found in the neighbourhood of Philippopolis. Cereals represent about 80% of the total exports. Besides grain, Bulgaria produces wine, tobacco, attar of roses, silk and cotton. The quality of the grape is excellent, and could the peasants be induced to abandon their highly primitive mode of wine-making the Bulgarian vintages would rank among the best European growths. The tobacco, which is not of the highest quality, is grown in considerable quantities for home consumption and only an insignificant amount is exported. The best tobaccofields in Bulgaria are on the northern slopes of Rhodope, but the southern declivity, which produces the famous Kavala growth, is more adapted to the cultivation of the plant. The rose-fields of Kazanlyk and Karlovo lie in the sheltered valleys between the Balkans and the parallel chains of the Sredna Gora and Karaja Dagh. About 6000 lb of the rose-essence is annually exported, being valued from £12 to £14 per lb. Beetroot is cultivated in the neighbourhood of Sofia. Sericulture, formerly an important industry, has declined owing to disease among the silkworms, but efforts are being made to revive it with promise of success. Cotton is grown in the southern districts of Eastern Rumelia.
Peasant proprietorship is universal, the small freeholds averaging about 18 acres each. There are scarcely any large estates owned by individuals, but some of the monasteries possess considerable domains. The large tchifiks, or farms, formerly belonging to Turkish landowners, have been divided among the peasants. The rural proprietors enjoy the right of pasturing their cattle on the common lands belonging to each village, and of cutting wood in the state forests. They live in a condition of rude comfort, and poverty is practically unknown, except in the towns. A peculiarly interesting feature in Bulgarian agricultural life is the zadruga, or house-community, a patriarchal institution apparently dating from prehistoric times. Family groups, sometimes numbering several dozen persons, dwell together on a farm in the observance of strictly communistic principles. The association is ruled by a house-father (domakin, stareishina), and a house-mother (domakinia), who assign to the members their respective tasks. In addition to the farm work the members often practise various trades, the proceeds of which are paid into the general treasury. The community sometimes includes a priest, whose fees for baptisms, &c., augment the common fund. The national aptitude for combination is also displayed in the associations of market gardeners (gradinarski druzhini, taifi), who in the spring leave their native districts for the purpose of cultivating gardens in the neighbourhood of some town, either in Bulgaria or abroad, returning in the autumn, when they divide the profits of the enterprise; the number of persons annually thus engaged probably exceeds io,000. Associations for various agricultural, mining and industrial undertakings and provident societies are numerous: the handicraftsmen in the towns are organized in esnafs or gilds.

Manufactures

The development of manufacturing enterprise on a large scale has been retarded by want of capital. The principal establishments for the native manufactures of aba and shayak (rough and fine homespuns), and of gaitan (braided embroidery) are at Sliven and Gabrovo respectively. The Bulgarian homespuns, which are made of pure wool, are of admirable quality. The exportation of textiles is almost exclusively to Turkey: value in 1896, £104,046; in 1898, £144,726; in 1904, £108,685. Unfortunately the home demand for native fabrics is diminishing owing to foreign competition; the smaller textile industries are declining, and the picturesque, durable, and comfortable costume of the country is giving way to cheap ready-made clothing imported from Austria. The government has endeavoured to stimulate the home industry by ordering all persons in its employment to wear the native cloth, and the army is supplied almost exclusively by the factories at Sliven. A great number of small distilleries exist throughout the country; there are breweries in all the principal towns, tanneries at Sevlievo, Varna, &c., numerous corn-mills worked by water and steam, and sawmills, turned by the mountain torrents, in the Balkans and Rhodope. A certain amount of foreign capital has been invested in industrial enterprises; the most notable are sugar-refineries in the neighbourhood of Sofia and Philippopolis, and a cotton-spinning mill at Varna, on which an English company has expended about £60,000 Commerce. - The usages of internal commerce have been considerably modified by the development of communications. The primitive system of barter in kind still exists in the rural districts, but is gradually disappearing. The great fairs (panairi, iravn-yi)pas) held at Eski-Jumaia, Dobritch and other towns, which formerly attracted multitudes of foreigners as well as natives, have lost much of their importance; a considerable amount of business, however, is still transacted at these gatherings, of which ninety-seven were held in 1898. The principal seats of the export trade are Varna, Burgas and Baltchik on the Black Sea, and Svishtov, Rustchuk, Nikopolis, Silistria, Rakhovo, and Vidin on the Danube. The chief centres of distribution for imports are Varna, Sofia, Rustchuk, Philippopolis and Burgas. About 10% of the exports passes over the Turkish frontier, but the government is making great efforts to divert the trade to Varna and Burgas, and important harbour works have been carried out at both these ports. The new port of Burgas was formally opened in 1904, that of Varna in 1906.
Year.
Exports.
Imports.
Total.
£
£
£
1899
2,138,684
2,407,123
4,545,807
1900
2,159,305
1,853,684
4,012,989
1901
3,310,790
2,801,762
6,112,552
1902
4,147,381
2,849,059
7,996,440
1903
4,322,945
3,272,103
7,595,048
1904
6,304,756
5,187,583
11,492,339
In °1887 the total value of Bulgarian foreign commerce was £4,4 1 9,5 8 9. The following table gives the values for the six years ending 1904. The great fluctuations in the exports are due to the variations of the harvest, on which the prosperity of the country practically depends The principal exports are cereals, live stock, homespuns, hides, cheese, eggs, attar of roses. Exports to the United Kingdom in 1900 were valued at £239,665 in 1904 at £989,127. The principal imports are textiles metal goods, colonial goods, implements, furniture, leather, petroleum. Imports from the United Kingdom in 1900, £301,150; in 1904, £793,972.
The National Bank, a state institution with a capital of £400,000, has its central establishment at Sofia, and branches at Philippopolis, Rustchuk, Varna, Trnovo and Burgas. Besides conducting the ordinary banking operations, it issues loans on mortgage. Four other banks have been founded at Sofia by groups of foreign and native capitalists. There are several private banks in the country. The Imperial Ottoman Bank and the Industrial Bank of Kiev have branches at Philippopolis and Sofia respectively. The agricultural chests, founded by Midhat Pasha in 1863, and reorganized in 1894, have done much to rescue the peasantry from the hands of usurers. They serve as treasuries for the local administration, accept deposits at interest, and make loans to the peasants on mortgage or the security of two solvent landowners at 8%. Their capital in 1887 was £569,260; in 1904, £1,440,000. Since 1893 they have been constituted as the "Bulgarian Agricultural Bank"; the central direction is at Sofia. The post-office savings bank, established 1896, had in 1905 a capital of £1,360,560.
There are over 200 registered provident societies in the country. The legal rate of interest is 10%, but much higher rates are not uncommon.
Bulgaria, like the neighbouring states of the Peninsula, has adopted the metric system. Turkish weights and measures, however, are still largely employed in local commerce. The monetary unit is the lee, or "lion"(pl. leva), nominally equal to the franc, with its submultiple the stotinka (pl.-ki), or centime. The coinage consists of nickel and bronze coins (21 f 5, 10 and 20 stotinki) and silver coins (50 stotinki; 1, 2 and 5 leva). A gold coinage was struck in 1893 with pieces corresponding to those of the Latin Union. The Turkish pound and foreign gold coins are also in general circulation. The National Bank issues notes for 5, 10, 20, 50 and Too leva, payable in gold. Notes payable in silver are also issued.
Finance.-It is only possible here to deal with Bulgarian finance prior to the declaration of independence in 1908. At the outset of its career the principality was practically unencumbered with any debt, external or internal. The stipulations of the Berlin Treaty (Art. ix.) with regard to the payment of a tribute to the sultan and the assumption of an "equitable proportion" of the Ottoman Debt were never carried into effect. In 1883 the claim of Russia for the expenses of the occupation (under Art. xx. of the treaty) was fixed at 26,545,625 fr. (£I,061,820) payable in annual instalments of 2,100,000 fr. (£84,000). The union with Eastern Rumelia in 1885 entailed liability for the obligations of that province consisting of an annual tribute to Turkey of 2,951,000 fr. (£ 18,040) and a loan of 3,375, 000 fr. (£135,000) contracted with the Imperial Ottoman Bank. In 1888 the purchase of the Varna-Rustchuk railway was effected by the issue of treasury bonds at 6% to the vendors. In 1889 a loan of 30,000,000 fr. (£T,200,000) bearing 6% interest was contracted with the Vienna Landerbank and Bankverein at 852. In 1892 a further 6% loan of 142,780,000 fr. (£5,711,200) was contracted with the Landerbank at 83, 86 and 89. In 1902 a 5% loan of 106,000,000 fr. (£4,240,000), secured on the tobacco dues and the stamp-tax, was contracted with the Banque de l'Etat de Russie and the Banque de Paris et des Pays Bas at 812, for the purpose of consolidating the floating debt, and in 1904 a 5% loan of 99,980,000 fr. (73,999, 20 0) at 82, with the same guarantees, was contracted with the last-named bank mainly for the purchase of war material in France and the construction of railways. In January 1906 the national debt stood as follows :-Outstanding amount of the consolidated loans, 363,070,500 fr. 04,522,820); internal debt, 1 5, 60 3,774 fr. (£624,151); Eastern Rumelian debt, 1,910,208 (776,408). In February 1907 a 42% loan of 145,000,000 fr. at 85, secured on the surplus proceeds of the revenues already pledged to the loans of 1902 and 1904, was contracted with the Banque de Paris et des Pays Bas associated with some German and Austrian banks for the conversion of the loans of 1888 and 1889 (requiring about 53,000,000 fr.) and for railway construction and other purposes. The total external debt was thus raised to upwards of 450,000,000 fr. The Eastern Rumelian tribute and the rent of the SarambeyBelovo railway, if capitalized at 6%, would represent a further sum of 50,919,100 fr. (£2,036,765). The national debt was not disproportionately great in comparison with annual revenue. After the union with Eastern Rumelia the budget receipts increased from 40,803,262 leva 0,635,730) in 1886 to 119,655,507 leva (£4,786,220) in 1904; the estimated revenue for 1905 was 111,920,000 leva (£4,476, 800), of which 41,179,000 (£1,647,160) were derived from direct and 38,610,000 (£I,544,400) from indirect taxation; the estimated expenditure was 111,903,281 leva(£4,476,131), the principal items being: public debt, 31,317,346 (£I,252,693); army, 26,540,720 (£I,061,628); education, 10,402,470 (£416,098); public works, 1 4,4 61, 1 7 1 (£57 8 ,44 6); interior, 7,559,517 (7302,380). The actual receipts in 1905 were 127,011,393 leva. In 1895 direct taxation, which pressed heavily on the agricultural class, was diminished and indirect taxation (import duties and excise) considerably increased. In 1906 direct taxation amounted to 9 fr. 92 c., indirect to 8 fr. 58 c., per head of the population. The financial difficulties in which the country was involved at the close of the 19th century were attributable not to excessive indebtedness but to heavy outlay on public works, the army, and education, and to the maintenance of an unnecessary number of officials, the economic situation being aggravated by a succession of bad harvests. The war budget during ten years (1888-1897) absorbed the large sum of 275,822,017 leva (7 11, 0 33,3 00) or 35.77% of the whole national income within that period. In subsequent years military expenditure continued to increase; the total during the period since the union with Eastern Rumelia amounting to 599,520,698 leva (£23,980,800).
Communications.-In 1878 the only railway in Bulgaria was the Rustchuk-Varna line (137 m.), constructed by an English company in 1867. In Eastern Rumelia the line from Sarambey to Philippopolis and the Turkish frontier (122 m.), with a branch to Yamboli (66 m.), had been built by Baron Hirsch in 1873, and leased by the Turkish government to the Oriental Railways Company until 1958. It was taken over by the Bulgarian government in 1908 (see History, below). The construction of a railway from the Servian frontier at Tzaribrod to the Eastern Rumelian frontier at Vakarel was imposed on the principality by the Berlin Treaty, but political difficulties intervened, and the line, which touches Sofia, was not completed till 1888. In that year the Bulgarian government seized the short connecting line Belovo-Sarambey belonging to Turkey, and railway communication between Constantinople and the western capitals was established. Since that time great progress has been made in railway construction. In 1888, 240 m. of state railways were open to traffic; in 18 99, 777 m.; in 1902, 880 m. Up to October 1908 all these lines were worked by the state, and, with the exception of the Belovo-Sarambey line (29 m.), which was worked under a convention with Turkey, were its property. The completion of the important line Radomir-Sofia-Shumen (November 1899) opened up the rich agricultural district between the Balkans and the Danube and connected Varna with the capital. Branches to Samovit and Rustchuk establish connexion with the Rumanian railway system on the opposite side of the river. It was hoped, with the consent of the Turkish government, to extend the line Sofia-Radomir-Kiustendil to Uskub, and thus to secure a direct route to Salonica and the Aegean. Road communication is still in an unsatisfactory condition. Roads are divided into three classes: ` state roads,"or main highways, maintained by the government;" district roads "maintained by the district councils; and" intervillage roads "(mezhduselski shosseta), maintained by the communes. Repairs are effected by the corvee system with requisitions of material. There are no canals, and inland navigation is confined to the Danube. The Austrian Donaudampschiffahrtsgesellschaft and the Russian Gagarine steamship company compete for the river traffic; the grain trade is largely served by steamers belonging to Greek merchants. The coasting trade on the Black Sea is carried on by a Bulgarian steamship company; the steamers of the Austrian Lloyd, and other foreign companies call at Varna, and occasionally at Burgas.
The development of postal and telegraphic communication has been rapid. In 1886,1,468,494 letters were posted, in 1903, 2 9, 06 3, 043. Receipts of posts and telegraphs in 1886 were £40,975, in 1903 £ 1 34,94 2. In 1903 there were 3261 m. of telegraph lines and 531 m. of telephones.
Towns.-The principal towns of Bulgaria are Sofia, the capital (Bulgarian Sredetz, a name now little used), pop. in January 1906, 82,187; Philippopolis, the capital of Eastern Rumelia (Bulg. Plovdiv), pop. 45,572; Varna, 37,155; Rustchuk (Bulg. 33,552; Sliver', 25,049; Shumla (Bulg. Shumen), 22,290; Plevna (Bulg. Pleven), 21,208; Stara-Zagora, 20,647; Tatar-Pazarjik, 17,549; Vidin, 16,168; Yamboli (Greek Hyampolis), 15,708; Dobritch (Turkish Hajiolu-Pazarjik), 15,369; Haskovo, 15,061; Vratza, 14,832; Stanimaka (Greek Stenimachos), 14,120; Razgrad, 13,783; Sistova (Bulg. Svishtov), 13,408; Burgas, 12,846; Kiustendil, 12,353; Trnovo, the ancient capital, 12,171. All these are described in separate articles.
Population.-The area of northern Bulgaria is 24,535 sq. m.; of Eastern Rumelia 12,705 sq. m.; of united Bulgaria, 37,240 sq. m. According to the census of the 12th of January 1906, the population of northern Bulgaria was 2,853,704; of Eastern Rumelia, 1,174,535; of united Bulgaria, 4,028,239 or 88 per sq. m. Bulgaria thus ranks between Rumania and Portugal in regard to area; between the Netherlands and Switzerland in regard to population: in density of population it may be compared with Spain and Greece.
The first census of united Bulgaria was taken in 1888: it gave the total population as 3,154,375. In January 1893 the population was 3,310,713; in January 1901, 3,744,283.
Year.
Marria es.
g
Births
(living).
Still-
born.
Deaths.
Natural
Increase.'
1882
19,795
74,642
300
38,884
35,758
1887
20,089
83,179
144
39,396
43,783
1892
27,553
117,883
321
103,550
14,333
1897
29,227
149,631
858
90,134
59,497
1902
36,041
149,542
823
91,093
58,449
The movement of the population at intervals of five years has been as follows: The death-rate shows a tendency to rise. In the five years 1882-1886 the mean death-rate was 18.0 per 1000; in 1887-1891, 20.4; in 1892-1896, 27.0; in 1897-1902, 23.92. Infant mortality is high, especially among the peasants. As the less healthy infants rarely survive, the adult population is in general robust, hardy and longlived. The census of January 1901 gives 2719 persons of Too years and upwards. Young men, as a rule, marry before the age of twentyfive, girls before eighteen. The number of illegitimate births is inconsiderable, averaging only 0.12 of the total. The population according to sex in 1901 is given as 1,909,567 males and 1,834,716 females, or 51 males to 49 females. A somewhat similar disparity may be observed in the other countries of the Peninsula. Classified according to occupation, 2,802,603 persons, or 74.85% of the population, are engaged in agriculture; 360,834 in various productive industries; 118,824 in the service of the government or the exercise of liberal professions, and 148,899 in commerce. The population according to race cannot be stated with absolute accuracy, but it is approximately shown by the census of 1901, which gives the various nationalities according to language as follows :-Bulgars, 2,888,219; Turks, 531,240; Rumans, 71,063; Greeks, 66,635; Gipsies (Tziganes), 8 9,549; Jews (Spanish speaking), 33,661; Tatars, ' Excess of births over deaths.
18,884; Armenians, 14,581; other nationalities, 30,451. The Bulgarian inhabitants of the Peninsula beyond the limits of the principality may, perhaps, be estimated at 1,500,000 or 1,600,000, and the grand total of the race possibly reaches 5,500,000.

Ethnology

The Bulgarians, who constitute 77.14% of the inhabitants of the kingdom, are found in their purest type in the mountain districts, the Ottoman conquest and subsequent colonization having introduced a mixed population into the plains.
The devastation of the country which followed the Turkish invasion resulted in the extirpation or flight of a large proportion of the Bulgarian inhabitants of the lowlands, who were replaced by Turkish colonists. The mountainous districts, however, retained their original population and sheltered large numbers of the fugitives. The passage of the Turkish armies during the wars with Austria, Poland and Russia led to further Bulgarian emigrations. The flight to the Banat, where 22,000 Bulgarians still remain, took place in 1730. At the beginning of the 19th century the majority of the population of the Eastern Rumelian plain was Turkish. The Turkish colony, however, declined, partly in consequence of the drain caused by military service, while the Bulgarian remnant increased, notwithstanding a considerable emigration to Bessarabia before and after the Russo-Turkish campaign of 1828. Efforts were made by the Porte to strengthen the Moslem element by planting colonies of Tatars in 1861 and Circassians in 1864. The advance of the Russian army in 1877-1878 caused an enormous exodus of the Turkish population, of which only a small proportion returned to settle permanently. The emigration continued after the conclusion of peace, and is still in progress, notwithstanding the efforts of the Bulgarian government to arrest it. In twenty years (1879-1899), at least 150,000 Turkish peasants left Bulgaria. Much of the land thus abandoned still remains unoccupied. On the other hand, a considerable influx of Bulgarians from Macedonia, the vilayet of Adrianople, Bessarabia, and the Dobrudja took place within the same period, and the inhabitants of the mountain villages show a tendency to migrate into the richer districts of the plains.
The northern slopes of the Balkans from Belogradchik to Elena are inhabited almost exclusively by Bulgarians; in Eastern Rumelia the national element is strongest in the Sredna Gora and Rhodope. Possibly the most genuine representatives of the race are the Pomaks or Mahommedan Bulgarians, whose conversion to Islam preserved their women from the licence of the Turkish conqueror; they inhabit the highlands of Rhodope and certain districts in the neighbourhood of Lovtcha (Lovetch) and Plevna. Retaining their Bulgarian speech and many ancient national usages, they may be compared with the indigenous Cretan, Bosnian and Albanian Moslems. The Pomaks in the principality are estimated at 26,000, but their numbers are declining. In the north-eastern district between the Yantra and the Black Sea the Bulgarian race is as yet thinly represented; most of the inhabitants are Turks, a quiet, submissive, agricultural population, which unfortunately shows a tendency to emigrate. The Black Sea coast is inhabited by a variety of races. The Greek element is strong in the maritime towns, and displays its natural aptitude for navigation and commerce. The Gagauzi, a peculiar race of Turkish-speaking Christians, inhabit the littoral from Cape Emine to Cape Kaliakra: they are of Turanian origin and descend from the ancient Kumani. The valleys of the Maritza and Arda are occupied by a mixed population consisting of Bulgarians, Greeks and Turks; the principal Greek colonies are in Stanimaka, Kavakly and Philippopolis. The origin of the peculiar Shop tribe which inhabits the mountain tracts of Sofia, Breznik and Radomir is a mystery. The Shops are conceivably a remnant of the aboriginal race which remained undisturbed in its mountain home during the Slavonic and Bulgarian incursions: they cling with much tenacity to their distinctive customs, apparel and dialect. The considerable Vlach or Ruman colony in the Danubian districts dates from the 18th century, when large numbers of Walachian peasants sought a refuge on Turkish soil from the tyranny of the boyars or nobles: the department of Vidin alone contains 36 Ruman villages with a population of 3 0 ,55 0. Especially interesting is the race of nomad shepherds from the Macedonian and the Aegean coast who come in thousands every summer to pasture their flocks on the Bulgarian mountains; they are divided into two tribes - the Kutzovlachs, or" lame Vlachs,"who speak Rumanian, and the Hellenized Karakatchans or" black shepherds "(compare the Morlachs, or Mavro-vlachs, µaiipoe Ake, of Dalmatia), who speak Greek. The Tatars, a peaceable, industrious race, are chiefly found in the neighbourhood of Varna and Silistria; they were introduced as colonists by the Turkish government in 1861. They may be reckoned at 12,000. The gipsies, who are scattered in considerable numbers throughout the country, came into Bulgaria in the 14th century. They are for the most part Moslems, and retain their ancient Indian speech. They live in the utmost poverty, occupy separate cantonments in the villages, and are treated as outcasts by the rest of the population. The Bulgarians, being of mixed origin, possess few salient physical characteristics. The Slavonic type is far less pronounced than among the kindred races; the Ugrian or Finnish cast of features occasionally asserts itself in the central Balkans. The face is generally oval, the nose straight, the jaw somewhat heavy. The men, as a rule, are rather below middle height, compactly built, and, among the peasantry, very muscular; the women are generally deficient in beauty and rapidly grow old. The upper class, the so-called intelligenzia, is physically very inferior to the rural population.

National Character

The character of the Bulgarians presents a singular contrast to that of the neighbouring nations. Less quick-witted than the Greeks, less prone to idealism than the Servians, less apt to assimilate the externals of civilization than the Rumanians, they possess in a remarkable degree the qualities of patience, perseverance and endurance, with the capacity for laborious effort peculiar to an agricultural race. The tenacity and determination with which they pursue their national aims may eventually enable them to vanquish their more brilliant competitors in the struggle for hegemony in the Peninsula. Unlike most southern races, the Bulgarians are reserved, taciturn, phlegmatic, unresponsive, and extremely suspicious of foreigners. The peasants are industrious, peaceable and orderly; the vendetta, as it exists in Albania, Montenegro and Macedonia, and the use of the knife in quarrels, so common in southern Europe, are alike unknown. The tranquillity of rural life has, unfortunately, been invaded by the intrigues of political agitators, and bloodshed is not uncommon at elections. All classes practise thrift bordering on parsimony, and any display of wealth is generally resented. The standard of sexual morality is high, especially in the rural districts; the unfaithful wife is an object of public contempt, and in former times was punished with death. Marriage ceremonies are elaborate and protracted, as is the case in most primitive communities; elopements are frequent, but usually take place with the consent of the parents on both sides, in order to avoid the expense of a regular wedding. The principal amusement on Sundays and holidays is the chor5 (XopOr), which is danced on the village green to the strains of the gaida or bagpipe, and the gissla, a rudimentary fiddle. The Bulgarians are religious in a simple way, but not fanatical, and the influence of the priesthood is limited. Many ancient superstitions linger among the peasantry, such as the belief in the vampire and the evil eye; witches and necromancers are numerous and are much consulted.

Government

Bulgaria is a constitutional monarchy; by Art. iii. of the Berlin Treaty it was declared hereditary in the family of a prince" freely elected by the population and confirmed by the Sublime Porte with the assent of the powers."According to the constitution of Trnovo, voted by the Assembly of Notables on the 29th of April 1879, revised by the Grand Sobranye on the 27th of May 1893, and modified by the proclamation of a Bulgarian kingdom on the 5th of October 1908, the royal dignity descends in the direct male line. The king must profess the Orthodox faith, only the first elected sovereign and his immediate heir being released from this obligation. The legislative power is vested in the king in conjunction with the Iv. 25 a national assembly; he is supreme head of the army, supervises the executive power, and represents the country in its foreign relations. In case of a minority or an interregnum, a regency of three persons is appointed. The national representation is embodied in the Sobranye, or ordinary assembly (Bulgarian, Subranie, the Russian form Sobranye being usually employed by foreign writers), and the Grand Sobranye, which is convoked in extraordinary circumstances. The Sobranye is elected by manhood suffrage, in the proportion of i to 20,000 of the population, for a term of five years. Every Bulgarian citizen who can read and write and has completed his thirtieth year is eligible as a deputy. Annual sessions are held from the 27th of October to the 2 7th of December. All legislative and financial measures must first be discussed and voted by the Sobranye and then sanctioned and promulgated by the king. The government is responsible to the Sobranye, and the ministers, whether deputies or not, attend its sittings. The Grand Sobranye, which is elected in the proportion of 2 to every 20,000 inhabitants, is convoked to elect a new king, to appoint a regency, to sanction a change in the constitution, or to ratify an alteration in the boundaries of the kingdom. The executive is entrusted to a cabinet of eight members - the ministers of foreign affairs and religion, finance, justice, public works, the interior, commerce and agriculture, education and war. Local administration, which is organized on the Belgian model, is under the control of the minister of the interior. The country is divided into twenty-two departments (okri g, pl. okruzi), each administered by a prefect (upravitel), assisted by a departmental council, and eighty-four sub-prefectures (okolia), each under a sub-prefect (okoliiski natchdlnik). The number of these functionaries is excessive. The four principal towns have each in addition a prefect of police (gradonatchalnik) and one or more commissaries (pristav). The gendarmery numbers about 4000 men, or 1 to 825 of the inhabitants. The prefects and sub-prefects have replaced the Turkish mutessarifs and kaimakams; but the system of municipal government, left untouched by the Turks, descends from primitive times. Every commune (obshtina), urban or rural, has its kmet, or mayor, and council; the commune is bound to maintain its primary schools, a public library or reading-room, &c.; the kmet possesses certain magisterial powers, and in the rural districts he collects the taxes. Each village, as a rule, forms a separate commune, but occasionally two or more villages are grouped together.

Justice

The civil and penal codes are, for the most part, based on .the Ottoman law. While the principality formed a portion of the Turkish empire, the privileges of the capitulations were guaranteed to foreign subjects (Berlin Treaty, Art. viii.). The lowest civil and criminal court is that of the village kmet, whose jurisdiction is confined to the limits of the commune; no corresponding tribunal exists in the towns. Each sub-prefecture and town has a justice of the peace - in some cases two or more; the number of these officials is 130. Next follows the departmental tribunal or court of first instance, which is competent to pronounce sentences of death, penal servitude and deprivation of civil rights; in specified criminal cases the judges are aided by three assessors chosen by lot from an annually prepared panel of forty-eight persons. Three courts of appeal sit respectively at Sofia, Rustchuk and Philippopolis. The highest tribunal is the court of cassation, sitting at Sofia, and composed of a president, two vice-presidents and nine judges. There is also a high court of audit (vrkhovna smetna palata), similar to the French tour des comptes. The judges are poorly paid and are removable by the government. In regard to questions of marriage, divorce and inheritance the Greek, Mahommedan and Jewish communities enjoy their own spiritual jurisdiction.

Army and Navy.

The organization of the military forces of the principality was undertaken by Russian officers, who for a period of six years (1879-1885) occupied all the higher posts in the army. In Eastern Rumelia during the same period the" militia "was instructed by foreign officers; after the union it was merged in the Bulgarian army. The present organization is based on the law of the 1st of January 1904. The army consists of: (1) the active or field army (deistvuyushta armia), divided into (i.) the active army, (ii.) the active army reserve; (2) the reserve army (reservna armia); (3) the opltchenie or militia; the two former may operate outside the kingdom, the latter only within the frontier for purposes of defence. In time of peace the active army (i.) alone is on a permanent footing.
The peace strength in 1905. was 2500 officers, 48,200 men and 8000 horses, the active army being composed of 9 divisions of infantry, each of 4 regiments, 5 regiments of cavalry together with 12 squadrons attached to the infantry divisions, 9 regiments of artillery each of 3 groups of 3 batteries, together with 2 groups of mountain artillery, each of 3 batteries, and 3 battalions of siege artillery; 9 battalions of engineers with i railway and balloon section and i bridging section. At the same date the army was locally distributed in nine divisional areas with headquarters at Sofia, Philippopolis, Sliven, Shumla, Rustchuk, Vratza, Plevna, Stara-Zagora and Dupnitza, the divisional area being subdivided into four districts, from each of which one regiment of four battalions was recruited and completed with reservists. In case of mobilization each of the nine areas would furnish 20,106 men (i 6,000 infantry, 1 200 artillery, 1000 engineers, 300 divisional cavalry and 1606 transport and hospital services, &c.). The war strength thus amounted to 180,954 of the active army and its reserve, exclusive of the five regiments of cavalry. In addition the 36 districts each furnished 3 battalions of the reserve army and one battalion of oplfchenie, or 144,000 infantry, which with the cavalry regiments (3000 men) and the reserves of artillery, engineers, divisional cavalry, &c. (about io,000), would bring the grand total in time of war to about 338,000 officers and men with 18,000 horses. The men of the reserve battalions are drafted into the active army as occasion requires, but the militia serves as a separate force. Military service is obligatory, but Moslems may claim exemption on payment of X20; the age of recruitment in time of peace is nineteen, in time of war eighteen. Each conscript serves two years in the infantry and subsequently eight years in the active reserve, or three years in the other corps and six years in the active reserve; he is then liable to seven years' service in the reserve army and finally passes into the opltchenie. The Bulgarian peasant makes an admirable soldier - courageous, obedient, persevering, and inured to hardship; the officers are painstaking and devoted to their duties. The active army and reserve, with the exception of the engineer regiments, are furnished with the. 315" Mannlicher magazine rifle, the engineer and militia with the Berdan; the artillery in 1905 mainly consisted of 8.7and 7.5-cm. Krupp guns (field) and 6.5 cm. Krupp (mountain), 12 cm. Krupp and 15 cm. Creuzot (Schneider) howitzers, 15 cm. Krupp and 12 cm. Creuzot siege guns, and 7.5 cm. Creuzot quick-firing guns; total of all description, 1154. Defensive works were constructed at various strategical points near the frontier and elsewhere, and at Varna and Burgas. The naval force consisted of a flotilla stationed at Rustchuk and Varna, where a canal connects Lake Devno with the sea. It was composed in 1905 of 1 prince's yacht, 1 armoured cruiser, 3 gunboats, 3 torpedo boats and io other small vessels, with a complement of 107 officers and 1231 men.

Religion

The Orthodox Bulgarian National Church claims to be an indivisible member of the Eastern Orthodox communion, and asserts historic continuity with the autocephalous Bulgarian church of the middle ages. It was, however, declared schismatic by the Greek patriarch of Constantinople in 1872, although differing in no point of doctrine from the Greek Church. The Exarch, or supreme head of the Bulgarian Church, resides at Constantinople; he enjoys the title of "Beatitude" (negovo Blazhenstvo), receives an annual subvention of about L6000 from the kingdom, and exercises jurisdiction over the Bulgarian hierarchy in all parts of the Ottoman empire. The exarch is elected by the Bulgarian episcopate, the Holy Synod, and a general assembly (obshti sbor), in which the laity is represented; their choice, before the declaration of Bulgarian independence, was subject to the sultan's approval. The occupant of the dignity is titular metropolitan of a Bulgarian diocese. The organization of the church within the principality was regulated by statute in 1883. There are eleven eparchies or dioceses in the country, each administered by a metropolitan with a diocesan council; one diocese has also a suffragan bishop. Church government is vested in the Holy Synod, consisting of four metropolitans, which assembles once a year. The laity take part in the election of metropolitans and parish priests, only the "black clergy," or monks, being eligible for the episcopate. All ecclesiastical appointments are subject to the approval of the government. There are 2106 parishes (eporii) in the kingdom with 9 archimandrites, 1 93 6 parish priests and 21 deacons, 78 monasteries with 184 monks, and 12 convents with 346 nuns. The celebrated monastery of Rila possesses a vast estate in the Rilska Planina; its abbot or hegumen owns no spiritual superior but the exarch. Ecclesiastical affairs are under the control of the minister of public worship; the clergy of all denominations are paid by the state, being free, however, to accept fees for baptisms, marriages, burials, the administering of oaths, &c. The census of January 1901 gives 3,019,999 persons of the Orthodox faith (including 66,635 Patriarchist Greeks), 643,300 Mahommedans, 33,663 Jews, 28,56 9 Catholics, 13,809 Gregorian Armenians, 4524 Protestants and 419 whose religion is not stated. The Greek Orthodox community has four metropolitans dependent on the patriarchate. The Mahommedan community is rapidly diminishing; it is organized under 16 muftis who with their assistants receive a subvention from the government. The Catholics, who have two bishops, are for the most part the descendants of the medieval Paulicians; they are especially numerous in the neighbourhood of Philippopolis and Sistova. The Armenians have one bishop. The Protestants are mostly Methodists; since 1857 Bulgaria has been a special field of activity for American Methodist missionaries, who have established an important school at Samakov. The Berlin Treaty (Art. V.) forbade religious disabilities in regard to the enjoyment of civil and political rights, and guaranteed the free exercise of all religions.

Education

No educational system existed in many of the rural districts before 1878; the peasantry was sunk in ignorance, and the older generation remained totally illiterate. In the towns the schools were under the superintendence of the Greek clergy, and Greek was the language of instruction. The first Bulgarian school was opened at Gabrovo in 18 3 5 by the patriots Aprilov and Neophyt Rilski. After the Crimean War, Bulgarian schools began to appear in the villages of the Balkans and the south-eastern districts. The children of the wealthier class were generally educated abroad. The American institution of Robert College on the Bosporus rendered an invaluable service to the newly created state by providing it with a number of welleducated young men fitted for positions of responsibility. In 1878, after the liberation of the country, there were 1658 schools in the towns and villages. Primary education was declared obligatory from the first, but the scarcity of properly qualified teachers and the lack of all requisites proved serious impediments to educational organization. The government has made great efforts and incurred heavy expenditure for the spread of education; the satisfactory results obtained are largely due to the keen desire for learning which exists among the people. The present educational system dates from 1891. Almost all the villages now possess "national" (narodni) primary schools, maintained by the communes with the aid of a state subvention and supervised by departmental and district inspectors. The state also assists a large number of Turkish primary schools. The penalties for non-attendance are not very rigidly enforced, and it has been found necessary to close the schools in the rural districts during the summer, the children being required for labour in the fields.
The age for primary instruction is six to ten years; in 1890, 47.01% of the boys and 16.11% of the girls attended the primary schools; in 1898, 85% of the boys and 40% of the girls. In 1904 there were 4344 primary schools, of which 3060 were "national," or communal, and 1284 denominational (Turkish, Greek, Jewish, &c.), attended by 340,668 pupils, representing a proportion of 9.1 per hundred inhabitants. In addition to the primary schools, 40 infant schools for children of 3 to 6 years of age were attended by 2707 pupils. In 1888 only 327,766 persons, or II % of the population, were literate; in 1893 the proportion rose to 19.88%; in 1901 to 2 3.9%.
In the system of secondary education the distinction between the classical and "real" or special course of study is maintained as in most European countries; in 1904 there were 175 secondary schools and 18 gymnasia (to for boys and 8 for girls). In addition to these there are 6 technical and 3 agricultural schools; 5 of pedagogy, I theological, I commercial, I of forestry, I of design, I for surgeons' assistants, and a large military school at Sofia. Government aid is given to students of limited means, both for secondary education and the completion of their studies abroad. The university of Sofia, formerly known as the "high school," was reorganized in 1904; it comprises 3 faculties (philology, mathematics and law), and possesses a staff of 17 professors and 25 lecturers. The number of students in 1905 was 943.
Political History The ancient Thraco-Illyrian race which inhabited the district between the Danube and the Aegean was expelled, or more probably absorbed, by the great Slavonic immigration which took place at various intervals between the end of the 3rd century after Christ and the beginning of the 6th. The numerous tumuli which are found in all parts of the country (see Herodotus v. 8) and some stone tablets with bas-reliefs remain as monuments of the aboriginal population; and certain structural peculiarities, which are common to the Bulgarian and Rumanian languages, may conceivably be traced to the influence of the primitive Illyrian speech, now probably represented by the Albanian. The Sla y s, an agricultural people, were governed, even in those remote times, by the democratic local institutions to which they are still attached; they possessed no national leaders or central organization, and their only political unit was the pleme, or tribe. They were considerably influenced by contact with Roman civilization. It was reserved for a foreign race, altogether distinct in origin, religion and customs, to give unity and coherence to the scattered Slavonic groups, and to weld them into a compact and powerful state which for some centuries played an important part in the history of eastern Europe and threatened the existence of the Byzantine empire.

The Bulgars

The Bulgars, a Turanian race akin to the Tatars, Huns, Avars, Petchenegs and Finns, made their appearance on the banks of the Pruth in the latter part of the 7th century. They were a horde of wild horsemen, fierce and barbarous, practising polygamy, and governed despotically by their khans (chiefs) and boyars or bolyars (nobles). Their original abode was the tract between the Ural mountains and the Volga, where the kingdom of Great (or Black) Bolgary existed down to the 13th century. In 67 9, under their khan Asparukh (or Isperikh), they crossed the Danube, and, after subjugating the Slavonic population of Moesia, advanced to the gates of Constantinople and Salonica. The East Roman emperors were compelled to cede to them the province of Moesia and to pay them an annual tribute. The invading horde was not numerous, and during the next two centuries it became gradually merged in the Slavonic population. Like the Franks in Gaul the Bulgars gave their name and a political organization to the more civilized race which they conquered, but adopted its language, customs and local institutions. Not a trace of the Ugrian or Finnish element is to be found in the Bulgarian speech. This complete assimilation of a conquering race may be illustrated by many parallels.

Early Dynasties

The history of the early Bulgarian dynasties is little else than a record of continuous conflicts with the Byzantine emperors. The tribute first imposed on the Greeks by Asparukh was again exacted by Kardam (791-797) and Krum (802-815), a sovereign noted alike for his cruelty and his military and political capacity. Under his rule the Bulgarian realm extended from the Carpathians to the neighbourhood of Adrianople; Serdica (the present Sofia) was taken, and the valley of the Struma conquered. Preslav, the Bulgarian capital, was attacked and burned by the emperor Nicephorus, but the Greek army on its return was annihilated in one of the Balkan passes; the emperor was slain, and his skull was converted by Krum into a goblet. The reign of Boris (852-884) is memorable for the introduction of Christianity into Bulgaria. Two monks of Salonica, SS. Cyril and Methodius, are generally reverenced as the national apostles; the scene of their labours, however, was among the Sla y s of Moravia, and the Bulgars were evangelized by their disciples. Boris, finding himself surrounded by Christian states, decided from political motives to abandon paganism. He was baptized in 864, the emperor Michael III. acting as his sponsor. It was at this time that the controversies broke out which ended in the schism between the Churches of the East and West. Boris long wavered between Constantinople and Rome, but the refusal of the pope to recognize an autocephalous Bulgarian church determined him to offer his allegiance to the Greek patriarch. The decision was fraught with momentous consequences for the future of the race. The nation altered its religion in obedience to its sovereign, and some of the boyars who resisted the change paid with their lives for their fidelity to the ancient belief. The independence of the Bulgarian church was recognized by the patriarchate, a fact much dwelt upon in recent controversies. The Bulgarian primates subsequently received the title of patriarch; their see was transferred from Preslav to Sofia, Voden and Prespa successively, and finally to Ochrida.

The First Empire

The national power reached its zenith under Simeon (893-927), a monarch distinguished in the arts of war and peace. In his reign, says Gibbon, "Bulgaria assumed a rank among the civilized powers of the earth." His dominions extended from the Black Sea to the Adriatic, and from the borders of Thessaly to the Save and the Carpathians. Having become the most powerful monarch in eastern Europe, Simeon assumed the style of "Emperor and Autocrat of all the Bulgars and Greeks" (tsar i samodrzhetz vsem Blgarom i Grkom), a title which was recognized by Pope Formosus. During the latter years of his reign, which were spent in peace, his people made great progress in civilization, literature flourished, and Preslav, according to contemporary chroniclers, rivalled Constantinople in magnificence. After the death of Simeon the Bulgarian power declined owing to internal dissensions; the land was distracted by the Bogomil heresy (see BoG0MILS), and a separate or western empire, including Albania and Macedonia, was founded at Ochrida by Shishman, a boyar from Trnovo. A notable event took place in 967, when the Russians, under Sviatoslav, made their first appearance in Bulgaria. The Bulgarian tsar, Boris II., with the aid of the emperor John Zimisces, expelled the invaders, but the Greeks took advantage of their victory to dethrone Boris, and the first Bulgarian empire thus came to an end after an existence of three centuries. The empire at Ochrida, however, rose to considerable importance under Samuel, the son of Shishman (976-1(314), who conquered the greater part of the Peninsula, and ruled from the Danube to the Morea. After a series of campaigns this redoubtable warrior was defeated at Belasitza by the emperor Basil II., surnamed Bulgaroktonos, who put out the eyes of 15,000 prisoners taken in the fight, and sent them into the camp of his adversary. The Bulgarian tsar was so overpowered by the spectacle that he died of grief. A few years later his dynasty finally disappeared, and for more than a century and a half (1018-1186) the Bulgarian race remained subject to the Byzantine emperors.

The Second Empire

In 1186, after a general insurrection of Vlachs and Bulgars under the brothers Ivan and Peter Asen of Trnovo, who claimed descent from the dynasty of the Shishmanovtzi, the nation recovered its independence, and Ivan Asen assumed the title of "Tsar of the Bulgars and Greeks." The seat of the second, or "Bulgaro-Vlach" empire was at Trnovo, which the Bulgarians regard as the historic capital of their race. Kaloyan, the third of the Asen monarchs, extended his dominions to Belgrade, Nish and Skopie (Uskub); he acknowledged the spiritual supremacy of the pope, and received the royal crown from a papal legate. The greatest of all Bulgarian rulers was Ivan Asen II. (1218-1241), a man of humane and enlightened character. After a series of victorious campaigns he established his sway over Albania, Epirus, Macedonia and Thrace, and governed his wide dominions with justice, wisdom and moderation. In his time the nation attained a prosperity hitherto unknown: commerce, the arts and literature flourished; Trnovo, the capital, was enlarged and embellished, and great numbers of churches and monasteries were founded or endowed. The dynasty of the Asens became extinct in 1257, and a period of decadence began. Two other dynasties, both of Kuman origin, followed - the Terterovtzi, who ruled at Trnovo, and the Shishmanovtzi, who founded an independent state at Vidin, but afterwards reigned in the national capital. Eventually, on the 28th June 1330, a day commemorated with sorrow in Bulgaria, Tsar Michael Shishman was defeated and slain by the Servians, under Stephen Urosh III., at the battle of Velbiizhd (Kiustendil). Bulgaria, though still retaining its native rulers, now became subject to Servia, and formed part of the short-lived empire of Stephen Dushan (1331-1355). The Servian hegemony vanished after the death of Dushan, and the Christian races of the Peninsula, distracted by the quarrels of their petty princes, fell an easy prey to the advancing might of the Moslem invader.

The Turkish Conquest.

In 1340 the Turks had begun to ravage the valley of the Maritza; in 1362 they captured Philippopolis, and in 1382 Sofia. In 1366 Ivan Shishman III., the last Bulgarian tsar, was compelled to declare himself the vassal of the sultan Murad I., and to send his sister to the harem of the conqueror. In 1389 the rout of the Servians, Bosnians and Croats on the famous field of Kossovo decided the fate of the Peninsula. Shortly afterwards Ivan Shishman was attacked by the Turks; and Trnovo, after a siege of three months, was captured, sacked and burnt in 1393. The fate of the last Bulgarian sovereign is unknown: the national legend represents him as perishing in a battle near Samakov. Vidin, where Ivan's brother, Strazhimir, had established himself, was taken in 1396, and with its fall the last remnant of Bulgarian independence disappeared.
The five centuries of Turkish rule (1396-1878) form a dark epoch in Bulgarian history. The invaders carried fire and sword through the land; towns, villages and monasteries were sacked and destroyed, and whole districts were converted into desolate wastes. The inhabitants of the plains fled to the mountains, where they founded new settlements. Many of the nobles embraced the creed of Islam, and were liberally rewarded for their apostasy; others, together with numbers of the priests and people, took refuge across the Danube. All the regions formerly ruled by the Bulgarian tsars, including Macedonia and Thrace, were placed under the administration of a governor-general, styled the beylerbey of Rum-ili, residing at Sofia; Bulgaria proper was divided into the sanjaks of Sofia, Nikopolis, Vidin, Silistria and Kiustendil. Only a small proportion of the people followed the example of the boyars in abandoning Christianity; the conversion of the isolated communities now represented by the Pomaks took place at various intervals during the next three centuries. A new kind of feudal system replaced that of the boyars, and fiefs or spahiliks were conferred on the Ottoman chiefs and the renegade Bulgarian nobles. The Christian population was subjected to heavy imposts, the principal being the haratch, or capitation-tax, paid to the imperial treasury, and the tithe on agricultural produce, which was collected by the feudal lord. Among the most cruel forms of oppression was the requisitioning of young boys between the ages of ten and twelve, who were sent to Constantinople as recruits for the corps of janissaries. Notwithstanding the horrors which attended the Ottoman conquest, the condition of the peasantry during the first three centuries of Turkish government was scarcely worse than it had been under the tyrannical rule of the boyars. The contemptuous indifference with which the Turks regarded the Christian rayas was not altogether to the disadvantage of the subject race. Military service was not exacted from the Christians, no systematic effort was made to extinguish either their religion or their language, and within certain limits they were allowed to retain their ancient local administration and the jurisdiction of their clergy in regard to inheritances and family affairs. At the time of the conquest certain towns and villages, known as the voinitchki sela, obtained important privileges which were not infringed till the 18th century; on condition of furnishing contingents to the Turkish army or grooms for the sultan's horses they obtained exemption from most of the taxes and complete self-government under their voavodi or chiefs. Some of them, such as Koprivshtitza in the Sredna Gora, attained great prosperity, which has somewhat declined since the establishment of the principality. While the Ottoman power was at its height the lot of the subject-races was far less intolerable than during the period of decadence, which began with the unsuccessful siege of Vienna in 1683. Their rights and privileges were respected, the law was enforced, commerce prospered, good roads were constructed, and the great caravans of the Ragusan merchants traversed the country. Down to the end of the 18th century there appears to have been only one serious attempt at revolt - that occasioned by the advance of Prince Sigismund Bathory into Walachia in 1595 A kind of guerilla warfare was, however, maintained in the mountains by the haiduti, or outlaws, whose exploits, like those of the Greek klephts, have been highly idealized in the popular folk-lore. As the power of the sultans declined anarchy spread through the Peninsula. In the earlier decades of the 18th century the Bulgarians suffered terribly from the ravages of the Turkish armies passing through the land during the wars with Austria. Towards its close their condition became even worse owing to the horrors perpetrated by the Krjalis, or troops of disbanded soldiers and desperadoes, who, in defiance of the Turkish authorities, roamed through the country, supporting themselves by plunder and committing every conceivable atrocity. After the peace of Belgrade (1737), by which Austria lost her conquests in the Peninsula, the Servians and Bulgarians began to look to Russia for deliverance, their hopes being encouraged by the treaty of Kuchuk Kainarji (1774), which foreshadowed the claim of Russia to protect the Orthodox Christians in the Turkish empire. In 1794 Pasvanoglu, one of the chiefs of the Krjalis, established himself as an independent sovereign at Vidin, putting to flight three large Turkish armies which were despatched against him. This adventurer possessed many remarkable qualities. He adorned Vidin with handsome buildings, maintained order, levied taxes and issued a separate coinage. He died in 1807. The memoirs of Sofronii, bishop of Vratza, present a vivid picture of the condition of Bulgaria at this time. "My diocese," he writes, "was laid desolate; the villages disappeared - they had been burnt by the Krjalis and Pasvan's brigands; the inhabitants were scattered far and wide over Walachia and other lands." The National Revival. - At the beginning of the 19th century the existence of the Bulgarian race was almost unknown in Europe, even to students of Slavonic literature. Disheartened by ages of oppression, isolated from Christendom by their geographical position, and cowed by the proximity of Constantinople, the Bulgarians took no collective part in the insurrectionary movement which resulted in the liberation of Servia and Greece. The Russian invasions of 1810 and 1828 only added to their sufferings, and great numbers of fugitives took refuge in Bessarabia, annexed by Russia under the treaty of Bucharest. But the long-dormant national spirit now began to awake under the influence of a literary revival. The precursors of the movement were Paisii, a monk of Mount Athos, who wrote a history of the Bulgarian tsars and saints (1762), and Bishop Sofronii, whose memoirs have been already mentioned. After 1824 several works written in modern Bulgarian began to appear, but the most important step was the foundation, in 1835, of the first Bulgarian school at Gabrovo. Within ten years at least 53 Bulgarian schools came into existence, and five Bulgarian printing-presses' were at work. The literary movement led the way to a reaction against the influence and authority of the Greek clergy. The spiritual domination of the Greek patriarchate had tended more effectually than the temporal power of the Turks to the effacement of Bulgarian nationality. After the conquest of the Peninsula the Greek patriarch became the representative at the Sublime Porte of the Rum-millet, the Roman nation, in which all the Christian nationalities were comprised. The independent patriarchate of Trnovo was suppressed; that of Ochrida was subsequently Hellenized. The Phanariot clergy - unscrupulous, rapacious and corrupt - succeeded in monopolizing the higher ecclesiastical appointments and filled the parishes with Greek priests, whose schools, in which Greek was exclusively taught, were the only means of instruction open to the population. By degrees Greek became the language of the upper classes in all the Bulgarian towns, the Bulgarian language was written in Greek characters, and the illiterate peasants, though speaking the vernacular, called themselves Greeks. The Slavonic liturgy was suppressed in favour of the Greek, and in many places the old Bulgarian manuscripts, images, testaments and missals were committed to the flames. The patriots of the literary movement, recognizing in the patriarchate the most determined foe to a national revival, directed all their efforts to the abolition of Greek ecclesiastical ascendancy and the restoration of the Bulgarian autonomous church. Some of the leaders went so far as to open negotiations with Rome, and an archbishop of the Uniate Bulgarian church was nominated by the pope. The struggle was prosecuted with the utmost tenacity for forty years. Incessant protests and memorials were addressed to the Porte, and every effort was made to undermine the position of the Greek bishops, some of whom were compelled to abandon their sees. At the same time no pains were spared to diffuse education and to stimulate the national sentiment. Various insurrectionary movements were attempted by the patriots Rakovski, Panayot Khitoff, Haji Dimitr, Stephen Karaja and others, but received little support from the mass of the people. The recognition of Bulgarian nationality was won by the pen, not the sword. The patriarchate at length found it necessary to offer some concessions, but these appeared illusory to the Bulgarians, and long and acrimonious discussions followed. Eventually the Turkish government intervened, and on the 28th of February 1870 a firman was issued establishing the Bulgarian exarchate, with jurisdiction over fifteen dioceses, including Nish, Pirot and Veles; the other dioceses in dispute were to be added to these in case two-thirds of the Christian population so desired. The election of the first exarch was delayed till February 1872, owing to the opposition of the patriarch, who immediately afterwards excommunicated the new head of the Bulgarian church and all his followers. The official recognition now acquired tended to consolidate the Bulgarian nation and to prepare it for the political developments which were soon to follow. A great educational activity at once displayed itself in all the districts subjected to the new ecclesiastical power.
The Revolt of 1876. - Under the enlightened administration of Midhat Pasha (1864-1868) Bulgaria enjoyed comparative prosperity, but that remarkable man is not remembered with gratitude by the people owing to the severity with which he repressed insurrectionary movements. In 1861, 12,000 Crimean Tatars, and in 1864 a still larger number of Circassians from the Caucasus, were settled by the Turkish government on lands taken without compensation from the Bulgarian peasants. The Circassians, a lawless race of mountaineers, proved a veritable scourge to the population in their neighbourhood. In 1875 the insurrection in Bosnia and Herzegovina produced immense excitement throughout the Peninsula. The fanaticism of the Moslems was aroused, and the Bulgarians, fearing a general massacre of Christians, endeavoured to anticipate the blow by organizing a general revolt. The rising, which broke out prematurely at Koprivshtitza and Panagurishte in May 1876, was mainly confined to the sanjak of Philippopolis. Bands of bashi-bazouks were let loose throughout the district by the Turkish authorities, the Pomaks, or Moslem Bulgarians, and the Circassian colonists were called to arms, and a succession of horrors followed to which a parallel can scarcely be found in the history of the middle ages. The principal scenes of massacre were Panagurishte, Perushtitza, Bratzigovo and Batak; at the last-named town, according to an official British report, 5000 men, women and children were put to the sword by the Pomaks under Achmet Aga, who was decorated by the sultan for this exploit. Altogether some 15,000 persons were massacred in the district of Philippopolis, and fifty-eight villages and five monasteries were destroyed. Isolated risings which took place on the northern side of the Balkans were crushed with similar barbarity. These atrocities, which were first made known by an English journalist and an American consular official, were denounced by Gladstone in a celebrated pamphlet which aroused the indignation of Europe. The great powers remained inactive, but Servia declared war in the following month, and her army was joined by 2000 Bulgarian volunteers. A conference of the representatives of the powers, held at Constantinople towards the end of the year, proposed, among other reforms, the organization of the Bulgarian provinces, including the greater part of Macedonia, in two vilayets under Christian governors, with popular representation. These recommendations were practically set aside by the Porte, and in April 1877 Russia declared war (see Russo-Turkish Wars, and Plevna). In the campaign which followed the Bulgarian volunteer contingent in the Russian army played an honourable part; it accompanied Gourko's advance over the Balkans, behaved with great bravery at Stara Zagora, where it lost heavily, and rendered valuable services in the defence of Shipka.

Treaties of San Stefano and Berlin

The victorious advance of the Russian army to Constantinople was followed by the treaty of San Stefano (3rd March 1878), which realized almost to the full the national aspirations of the Bulgarian race. All the provinces of European Turkey in which the Bulgarian element predominated were now included in an autonomous principality, which extended from the Black Sea to the Albanian mountains, and from the Danube to the Aegean, enclosing Ochrida, the ancient capital of the Shishmans, Dibra and Kastoria, as well as the districts of Vranya and Pirot, and possessing a Mediterranean port at Kavala. The Dobrudja, notwithstanding its Bulgarian population, was not included in the new state, being reserved as compensation to Rumania for the Russian annexation of Bessarabia; Adrianople, Salonica and the Chalcidian peninsula were left to Turkey. The area thus delimited constituted three-fifths of the Balkan Peninsula, with a population of 4,000,000 inhabitants. The great powers, however, anticipating that this extensive territory would become a Russian dependency, intervened; and on the 13th of July of the same year was signed the treaty of Berlin, which in effect divided the "Big Bulgaria" of the treaty of San Stefano into three portions. The limits of the principality of Bulgaria, as then defined, and the autonomous province of Eastern Rumelia, have been already described; the remaining portion, including almost the whole of Macedonia and part of the vilayet of Adrianople, was left under Turkish administration. No special organization was provided for the districts thus abandoned; it was stipulated that laws similar to the organic law of Crete should be introduced into the various parts of Turkey in Europe, but this engagement was never carried out by the Porte. Vranya, Pirot and Nish were given to Servia, and the transference of the Dobrudja to Rumania was sanctioned. This artificial division of the Bulgarian nation could scarcely be regarded as possessing elements of permanence. It was provided that the prince of Bulgaria should be freely elected by the population, and confirmed by the Sublime Porte with the assent of the powers, and that, before his election, an assembly of Bulgarian notables, convoked at Trnovo, should draw up the organic law of the principality. The drafting of a constitution for Eastern Rumelia was assigned to a European commission.
The Constitution of Trnovo. - Pending the completion of their political organization, Bulgaria and Eastern Rumelia were occupied by Russian troops and administered by Russian officials. The assembly of notables, which met at Trnovo in 1879, was mainly composed of half-educated peasants, who from the first displayed an extremely democratic spirit, in which they proceeded to manipulate the very liberal constitution submitted to them by Prince Dondukov-Korsakov, the Russian governorgeneral. The long period of Turkish domination had effectually obliterated all social distinctions, and the radical element, which now formed into a party under Tzankoff and Karaveloff, soon gave evidence of its predominance. Manhood suffrage, a single chamber, payment of deputies, the absence of property qualification for candidates, and the prohibition of all titles and distinctions, formed salient features in the constitution now elaborated. The organic statute of Eastern Rumelia was largely modelled on the Belgian constitution. The governor-general, nominated for five years by the sultan with the approbation of the powers, was assisted by an assembly, partly representative, partly composed of ex-officio members; a permanent committee was entrusted with the preparation of legislative measures and the general supervision of the administration, while a council of six "directors" fulfilled the duties of a ministry.

Prince Alexander

On the 29th of April 1879 the assembly at Trnovo, on the proposal of Russia, elected as first sovereign of Bulgaria Prince Alexander of Battenberg, a member of the grand ducal house of Hesse and a nephew of the tsar Alexander II. Arriving in Bulgaria on the 7th of July, Prince Alexander, then in his twenty-third year, found all the authority, military and civil, in Russian hands. The history of the earlier portion of his reign is marked by two principal features - a strong Bulgarian reaction against Russian tutelage and a vehement struggle against the autocratic institutions which the young ruler, under Russian guidance, endeavoured to inaugurate. Both movements were symptomatic of the determination of a strong-willed and egoistic race, suddenly liberated from secular oppression, to enjoy to the full the moral and material privileges of liberty. In the assembly at Trnovo the popular party had adopted the watchword "Bulgaria for the Bulgarians," and a considerable anti-Russian contingent was included in its ranks. Young and inexperienced, Prince Alexander, at the suggestion of the Russian consul-general, selected his first ministry from a small group of "Conservative" politicians whose views were in conflict with those of the parliamentary majority, but he was soon compelled to form a "Liberal" administration under Tzankoff and Karaveloff. The Liberals, once in power, initiated a violent campaign against foreigners in general and the Russians in particular; they passed an alien law, and ejected foreigners from every lucrative position. The Russians made a vigorous resistance, and a state of chaos ensued. Eventually the prince, finding good government impossible, obtained the consent of the tsar to a change of the constitution, and assumed absolute authority on the 9th of May 1881. The Russian general Ernroth was appointed sole minister, and charged with the duty of holding elections for the Grand Sobranye, to which the right of revising the constitution appertained. So successfully did he discharge his mission that the national representatives, almost without debate, suspended the constitution and invested the prince with absolute powers for a term of seven years (July 1881). A period of Russian government followed under Generals Skobelev and Kaulbars, who were specially despatched from St Petersburg to enhance the authority of the prince. Their administration, however, tended to a contrary result, and the prince, finding himself reduced to impotence, opened negotiations with the Bulgarian leaders and effected a coalition of all parties on the basis of a restoration of the constitution. The generals, who had made an unsuccessful attempt to remove the prince, withdrew; the constitution of Trnovo was restored by proclamation (19th September 1883), and a coalition ministry was formed under Tzankoff. Prince Alexander, whose relations with the court of St Petersburg had become less cordial since the death of his uncle, the tsar Alexander II., in 1881, now incurred the serious displeasure of Russia, and the breach was soon widened by the part which he played in encouraging the national aspirations of the Bulgarians.

Union with Eastern Rumelia

In Eastern Rumelia, where the Bulgarian population never ceased to protest against the division of the race, political life had developed on the same lines as in the principality. Among the politicians two parties had come into existence - the Conservatives or self-styled "Unionists," and the Radicals, derisively called by their opponents "Kazioni" or treasury-seekers; both were equally desirous of bringing about the union with the principality. Neither party, however, while in power would risk the sweets of office by embarking in a hazardous adventure. It was reserved for the Kazioni, under their famous leader Zakharia Stoyanoff, who in early life had been a shepherd, to realize the national programme. In 1885 the Unionists were in office, and their opponents lost no time in organizing a conspiracy for the overthrow of the governor-general, Krstovitch Pasha. Their designs were facilitated by the circumstance that Turkey had abstained from sending troops into the province. Having previously assured themselves of Prince Alexander's acquiescence, they seized the governor-general and proclaimed the union with Bulgaria (18th September). The revolution took place without bloodshed, and a few days later Prince Alexander entered Philippopolis amid immense enthusiasm. His position now became precarious. The powers were scandalized at the infraction of the Berlin Treaty; Great Britain alone showed sympathy, while Russia denounced the union and urged the Porte to reconquer the revolted province - both powers thus reversing their respective attitudes at the congress of Berlin.

War with Servia

The Turkish troops were massed at the frontier, and Servia, hoping to profit by the difficulties of her neighbour, suddenly declared war (14th November). At the moment of danger the Russian officers, who filled all the higher posts in the Bulgarian army, were withdrawn by order of the tsar. In these critical circumstances Prince Alexander displayed considerable ability and resource, and the nation gave evidence of hitherto unsuspected qualities. Contrary to general expectation, the Bulgarian army, imperfectly equipped and led by subaltern officers, successfully resisted the Servian invasion. After brilliant victories at Slivnitza (19th November) and Tsaribrod, Prince Alexander crossed the frontier and captured Pirot (27th November), but his farther progress was arrested by the intervention of Austria (see Servo-Bulgarian War). The treaty of Bucharest followed (3rd of March 1886), declaring, in a single clause, the restoration of peace. Servia, notwithstanding her aggression, escaped a war indemnity, but the union with Eastern Rumelia was practically secured. By the convention of Top-Khane (5th April) Prince Alexander was recognized by the sultan as governor-general of eastern Rumelia; a personal union only was sanctioned, but in effect the organic statute disappeared and the countries were administratively united. These military and diplomatic successes, which invested the prince with the attributes of a national hero, quickened the decision of Russia to effect his removal. An instrument was found in the discontent of several of his officers, who considered themselves slighted in the distribution of rewards, and a conspiracy was formed in which Tzankoff, Karaveloff (the prime minister), Archbishop Clement, and other prominent persons were implicated. On the night of the 21st of August the prince was seized in his palace by several officers and compelled, under menace of death, to sign his abdication; he was then hurried to the Danube at Rakhovo and transported to Russian soil at Reni. This violent act met with instant disapproval on the part of the great majority of the nation. Stamboloff, the president of the assembly, and Colonel Mutkuroff, commandant of the troops at Philippopolis, initiated a counter-revolution; the provisional government set up by the conspirators immediately fell, and a few days later the prince, who had been liberated by the Russian authorities, returned to the country amid every demonstration of popular sympathy and affection. His arrival forestalled that of a Russian imperial commissioner, who had been appointed to proceed to Bulgaria. He now committed the error of addressing a telegram to the tsar in which he offered to resign his crown into the hands of Russia. This unfortunate step, by which he ignored the suzerainty of Turkey, and represented Bulgaria as a Russian dependency, exposed him to a stern rebuff, and fatally compromised his position. The national leaders, after obtaining a promise from the Russian representative at Sofia that Russia would abstain from interference in the internal affairs of the country, consented to his departure; on the 8th of September he announced his abdication, and on the following day he left Bulgaria.

The Regency

A regency was now formed, in which the prominent figure was Stamboloff, the most remarkable man whom modern Bulgaria has produced. A series of attempts to throw the country into anarchy were firmly dealt with, and the Grand Sobranye was summoned to elect a new prince. The candidature of the prince of Mingrelia was now set up by Russia, and General Kaulbars was despatched to Bulgaria to make known to the people the wishes of the tsar. He vainly endeavoured to postpone the convocation of the Grand Sobranye in order to gain time for the restoration of Russian influence, and proceeded on an electoral tour through the country. The failure of his mission was followed by the withdrawal of the Russian representatives from Bulgaria. The Grand Sobranye, which assembled at Trnovo, offered the crown to Prince Valdemar of Denmark, brother-in-law of the tsar, but the honour was declined, and an anxious period ensued, during which a deputation visited the principal capitals of Europe with the twofold object of winning sympathy for the cause of Bulgarian independence and discovering a suitable candidate for the throne.

Prince Ferdinand

On the 7th of July 1887, the Grand Sobranye unanimously elected Prince Ferdinand of SaxeCoburg-Gotha, a grandson, maternally, of King Louis Philippe. The new prince, who was twenty-six years of age, was at this time a lieutenant in the Austrian army. Undeterred by the difficulties of the international situation and the distracted condition of the country, he accepted the crown, and took over the government on the 14th of August at Trnovo. His arrival, which was welcomed with enthusiasm, put an end to a long and critical interregnum, but the dangers which menaced Bulgarian independence were far from disappearing. Russia declared the newly-elected sovereign a usurper; the other powers, in deference to her susceptibilities, declined to recognize him, and the grand vizier informed him that his presence in Bulgaria was illegal. Numerous efforts were made by the partisans of Russia to disturb internal tranquillity, and Stamboloff, who became prime minister on the 1st of September, found it necessary to govern with a strong hand. A raid led by the Russian captain Nabokov was repulsed; brigandage, maintained for political purposes, was exterminated; the bishops of the Holy Synod, who, at the instigation of Clement, refused to pay homage to the prince, were forcibly removed from Sofia; a military conspiracy organized by Major Panitza was crushed, and its leader executed. An attempt to murder the energetic prime minister resulted in the death of his colleague, Beltcheff, and shortly afterwards Dr Vlkovitch, the Bulgarian representative at Constantinople, was assassinated. While contending with unscrupulous enemies at home, Stamboloff pursued a successful policy abroad. Excellent relations were established with Turkey and Rumania, valuable concessions were twice extracted from the Porte in regard to the Bulgarian episcopate in Macedonia, and loans were concluded with foreign financiers on comparatively favourable terms. His overbearing character, however, increased the number of his opponents, and alienated the goodwill of the prince.
In the spring of 1903 Prince Ferdinand married Princess Marie-Louise of Bourbon-Parma, whose family insisted on the condition that the issue of the marriage should be brought up in the Roman Catholic faith. In view of the importance of establishing a dynasty, Stamboloff resolved on the unpopular course of altering the clause of the constitution which required that the heir to the throne should belong to the Orthodox Church, and the Grand Sobranye, which was convoked at Trnovo in the summer, gave effect to this decision. The death of Prince Alexander, which took place in the autumn, and the birth of an heir, tended to strengthen the position of Prince Ferdinand, who now assumed a less compliant attitude towards the prime minister. In 1894 Stamboloff resigned office; a ministry was formed under Dr Staloff, and Prince Ferdinand inaugurated a policy of conciliation towards Russia with a view to obtaining his recognition by the powers. A Russophil reaction followed, large numbers of political refugees returned to Bulgaria, and Stamboloff, exposed to the vengeance of his enemies, was assassinated in the streets of Sofia (15th July 1895).
The prince's plans were favoured by the death of the tsar Alexander III. in November 1894, and the reconciliation was practically effected by the conversion of his eldest son, Prince Boris, to the Orthodox faith (14th February 1896). The powers having signified their assent, he was nominated by the sultan prince of Bulgaria and governor-general of Eastern Rumelia (14th March). Russian influence now became predominant in Bulgaria, but the cabinet of St Petersburg wisely abstained from interfering in the internal affairs of the principality. In February 1896 Russia proposed the reconciliation of the Greek and Bulgarian churches and the removal of the exarch to Sofia. The project, which involved a renunciation of the exarch's jurisdiction in Macedonia, excited strong opposition in Bulgaria, and was eventually dropped. The death of Princess MarieLouise (30th January 1899), caused universal regret in the country. In the same month the Stoiloff government, which had weakly tampered with the Macedonian movement (see Macedonia) and had thrown the finances into disorder, resigned, and a ministry under Grekoff succeeded, which endeavoured to mend the economic situation by means of a foreign loan. The loan, however, fell through, and in October a new government was formed under Ivanchoff and Radoslavoff. This, in its turn, was replaced by a cabinet d'affaires under General Petroff (January 1901).
In the following March Karaveloff for the third time became prime minister. His efforts to improve the financial situation, which now became alarming, proved abortive, and in January 1902 a Tzankovist cabinet was formed under Daneff, who succeeded in obtaining a foreign loan. Russian influence now became predominant, and in the autumn the grand-duke Nicholas, General Ignatiev, and a great number of Russian officers were present at the consecration of a Russian church and monastery in the Shipka pass. But the appointment of Mgr. Firmilian, a Servian prelate, to the important see of Uskub at the instance of Russia, the suspected designs of that power on the ports of Varna and Burgas, and her unsympathetic attitude in regard to the Macedonian Question, tended to diminish her popularity and that of the government. A cabinet crisis was brought about in May 1903, by the efforts of the Russian party to obtain control of the army, and the Stambolovists returned to power under General Petroff. A violent recrudescence of the Macedonian agitation took place in the autumn of 1902; at the suggestion of Russia the leaders were imprisoned, but the movement nevertheless gained force, and in August 1903 a revolt broke out in the vilayet of Monastir, subsequently spreading to the districts of northern Macedonia and Adrianople (see Macedonia). The barbarities committed by the Turks in repressing the insurrection caused great exasperation in the principality; the reserves were partially mobilized, and the country was brought to the brink of war. In pursuance of the policy of Stamboloff, the Petroff government endeavoured to inaugurate friendly relations with Turkey, and a TurcoBulgarian convention was signed (8th April 1904) which, however, proved of little practical value. The outrages committed by numerous Greek bands in Macedonia led to reprisals on the Greek population in Bulgaria in the summer of 1906, and the town of Anchialo was partially destroyed. On the 6th of November in that year Petroff resigned, and Petkoff, the leader of the Stambolovist party, formed a ministry. The prime minister, a statesman of undoubted patriotism but of overbearing character, was assassinated on the 11th of March 1907 by a youth who had been dismissed from a post in one of the agricultural banks, and the cabinet was reconstituted under Gudeff, a member of the same party.

Declaration of Independence

During the thirty years of its existence the principality had made rapid and striking progress. Its inhabitants, among whom a strong sense of nationality had grown up, were naturally anxious to escape from the restrictions imposed by the treaty of Berlin. That Servia should be an independent state, while Bulgaria, with its greater economic and military resources, remained tributary to the Sultan, was an anomaly which all classes resented; and although the Ottoman suzerainty was little more than a constitutional fiction, and the tribute imposed in 1878 was never paid, the Bulgarians were almost unanimous in their desire to end a system which made their country the vassal of a Moslem state notorious for its maladministration and corruption. This desire was strengthened by the favourable reception accorded to Prince Ferdinand when he visited Vienna in February 1908, and by the so-called "Geshoff incident," i.e. the exclusion of M. Geshoff, the Bulgarian agent, from a dinner given by Tewfik Pasha, the Ottoman minister for foreign affairs, to the ministers of all the sovereign states represented at Constantinople (12th of September 1908). This. was interpreted as an insult to the Bulgarian nation, and as the explanation offered by the grand vizier was unsatisfactory, M. Geshoff was recalled to Sofia. At this time the bloodless revolution in Turkey seemed likely to bring about a fundamental change in the settled policy of Bulgaria. For many years past Bulgarians had hoped that their own orderly and progressive government, which had contrasted so strongly with the evils of Turkish rule, would entitle them to consideration, and perhaps to an accession of territory, when the time arrived for a definite settlement of the Macedonian Question. Now, however, the reforms introduced or foreshadowed by the Young Turkish party threatened to deprive Bulgaria of any pretext for future intervention; there was nothing to be gained by further acquiescence in the conditions laid down at Berlin. An opportunity for effective action occurred within a fortnight of M. Geshoff's recall,. when a strike broke out on those sections of the Eastern Rumelian railways which were owned by Turkey and leased to the Oriental Railways Company. The Bulgarians alleged that during the strike Turkish troops were able to travel on the lines which were closed to all other traffic, and that this fact constituted a danger to their own autonomy. The government therefore seized the railway, in defiance of European opinion, and in spite of the protests of the suzerain power and the Oriental Railways Company. The bulk of the Turkish army was then in Asia, and the new regime was not yet firmly established, while the Bulgarian government were probably aware that Russia would not intervene, and that Austria-Hungary intended to annex Bosnia and Herzegovina, and thus incidentally to divert attention from their own violation of the treaty of Berlin. On the 5th of October Prince Ferdinand publicly proclaimed Bulgaria, united since the 6th of September 1885 (i.e. including Eastern Rumelia), an independent kingdom. This declaration was read aloud by the king in the church of the Forty Martyrs at Trnovo, the ancient capital of the Bulgarian tsars. The Porte immediately protested to the powers, but agreed to accept an indemnity. In February 1909 the Russian government proposed to advance to Bulgaria the difference between the f4,800,000 claimed by Turkey and the 1,520,000 which Bulgaria undertook to pay. A preliminary Russo-Turkish protocol was signed on the 16th of March, and in April, after the final agreement had been concluded, the independence of Bulgaria was recognized by the powers. Of the indemnity, (1,680,000 was paid on account of the Eastern Rumelian railways; the allocation of this sum between Turkey and the Oriental railways was submitted to arbitration. (See Turkey: History.) . Language And Literature Language. - The Bulgarian is at once the most ancient and the most modern of the languages which constitute the Slavonic group. In its groundwork it presents the nearest approach to the old ecclesiastical Slavonic, the liturgical language common to all the Orthodox Sla y s, but it has undergone more important modifications than any of the sister dialects in the simplification of its grammatical forms; and the analytical character of its development may be compared with that of the neo-Latin and Germanic languages. The introduction of the definite article, which appears in the form of a suffix, and the almost total disappearance of the ancient declensions, for which the use of prepositions has been substituted, distinguish the Bulgarian from all the other members of the Slavonic family. Notwithstanding these changes, which give the language an essentially modern aspect, its close affinity with the ecclesiastical Slavonic, the oldest written dialect, is regarded as established by several eminent scholars, such as Safarik, Schleicher, Leskien and Brugman, and by many Russian philologists. These authorities agree in describing the liturgical language as "Old Bulgarian." A different view, however, is maintained by Miklosich, Kopitar and some others, who regard it as "Old Slovene." According to the more generally accepted theory, the dialect spoken by the Bulgarian population in the neighbourhood of Salonica, the birthplace of SS. Cyril and Methodius, was employed by the Slavonic apostles in their translations from the Greek, which formed the model for subsequent ecclesiastical literature. This view receives support from the fact that the two nasal vowels of the Church-Slavonic (the greater and lesser its), which have been modified in all the cognate languages except Polish, retain their original pronunciation locally in the neighbourhood of Salonica and Castoria; in modern literary Bulgarian the rhinesmus has disappeared, but the old nasal vowels preserve a peculiar pronunciation, the greater its changing to u, as in English "but," the lesser to e, as in "bet," while in Servian, Russian and Slovene the greater its becomes u or o, the lesser e or ya. The remnants of the declensions still existing in Bulgarian (mainly in pronominal and adverbial forms) show a close analogy to those of the old ecclesiastical language.
The Slavonic apostles wrote in the 9th century (St Cyril died in 869, St Methodius in 885), but the original manuscripts have not been preserved. The oldest existing copies, which date from the 10th century, already betray the influence of the contemporary vernacular speech, but as the alterations introduced by the copyists are neither constant nor regular, it is possible to reconstruct the original language with tolerable certainty. The "Old Bulgarian," or archaic Slavonic, was an inflexional language of the synthetic type, containing few foreign elements in its vocabulary. The Christian terminology was, of course, mainly Greek; the Latin or German words which occasionally occur were derived from Moravia and Pannonia, where the two saints pursued their missionary labours. In course of time it underwent considerable modifications, both phonetic and structural, in the various Slavonic countries in which it became the liturgical language, and the various MSS. are consequently classified as "Servian-Slavonic," "CroatianSlavonic," "Russian-Slavonic," &c., according to the different recensions. The "Russian-Slavonic" is the liturgical language now in general use among the Orthodox Sla y s of the Balkan Peninsula owing to the great number of ecclesiastical books introduced from Russia in the 17th and 18th centuries; until comparatively recent times it was believed to be the genuine language of the Slavonic apostles. Among the Bulgarians the spoken language of the 9th century underwent important changes during the next three hundred years. The influence of these changes gradually asserts itself in the written language; in the period extending from the 12th to the 15th century the writers still endeavoured to follow the archaic model, but it is evident that the vernacular had already become widely different from the speech of SS. Cyril and Methodius. The language of the MSS. of this period is known as the "Middle Bulgarian"; it stands midway between the old ecclesiastical Slavonic and the modern speech.
In the first half of the 16th century the characteristic features of the modern language became apparent in the literary monuments. These features undoubtedly displayed themselves at a much earlier period in the oral speech; but the progress of their development has not yet been completely investigated. Much light may be thrown on this subject by the examination :of many hitherto little-known manuscripts and by the scientific study of the folk-songs. In addition to the employment of the article, the loss of the noundeclensions, and the modification of the nasal vowels above alluded to, the disappearance in pronunciation of the final vowels yer-golem and yer-maluk, the loss of the infinitive, and the increased variety of the conjugations, distinguish the modern from the ancient language. The suffix-article, which is derived from the demonstrative pronoun, is a feature peculiar to the Bulgarian among Slavonic and to the Rumanian among Latin languages. This and other points of resemblance between these remotely related members of the IndoEuropean group are shared by the Albanian, probably the representative of the old Illyrian language, and have consequently been attributed to the influence of the aboriginal speech of the Peninsula. A demonstrative suffix, however, is sometimes found in Russian and Polish, and traces of the article in an embryonic state occur in the "Old Bulgarian" MSS. of the 10th and 11th centuries. In some Bulgarian dialects it assumes different forms according to the proximity or remoteness of the object mentioned. Thus zhena-ta is "the woman"; zhena-va or zhena-sa, " the woman close by"; zhena-na, " the woman yonder." In the borderland between the Servian and Bulgarian nationalities the local use of the article supplies the means of drawing an ethnological frontier; it is nowhere more marked than in the immediate neighbourhood of the Servian population, as, for instance, at Dibra and Prilep. The modern Bulgarian has admitted many foreign elements. It contains about 2000 Turkish and 1000 Greek words dispersed in the various dialects; some Persian and Arabic words have entered through the Turkish medium, and a few Rumanian and Albanian words are found. Most of these are rejected by the purism of the literary language, which, however, has been compelled to borrow the phraseology of modern civilization from the Russian, French and other European languages. The dialects spoken in the kingdom may be classed in two groups - the eastern and the western. The main point of difference is the pronunciation of the letter yedvoino, which in the eastern has frequently the sound of ya, in the western invariably that of e in "pet." The literary language began in the western dialect under the twofold influence of Servian literature and the Church Slavonic. In a short time, however, the eastern dialect prevailed, and the influence of Russian literature became predominant. An anti-Russian reaction was initiated by Borgoroff (1818-1892), and has been maintained by numerous writers educated in the German and Austrian universities. Since the foundation of the university of Sofia the literar y language has taken a middle course between the ultra-Russian models of the past generation and the dialectic Bulgarian. Little uniformity, however, has yet been attained in regard to diction, orthography or pronunciation.
The Bulgarians of pagan times are stated by the monk Khrabr, a contemporary of Tsar Simeon, to have employed a peculiar writing, of which inscriptions recently found near Kaspitchan may possibly be specimens. The earliest manuscripts of the "Old Bulgarian" are written in one or other of the two alphabets known as the glagolitic and Cyrillic (see Slavs). The former was used by Bulgarian writers concurrently with the Cyrillic down to the 12th century. Among the orthodox Sla y s the Cyrillic finally superseded the glagolitic; as modified by Peter the Great it became the Russian alphabet, which, with the revival of literature, was introduced into Servia and Bulgaria. Some Russian letters which are superfluous in Bulgarian have been abandoned by the native writers, and a few characters have been restored from the ancient alphabet.

Literature

The ancient Bulgarian literature, originating in the works of SS. Cyril and Methodius and their disciples, consisted for the most part of theological works translated from the Greek. From the conversion of Boris down to the Turkish conquest the religious character predominates, and the influence of Byzantine literature is supreme. Translations of the gospels and epistles, lives of the saints, collections of sermons, exegetic religious works, translations of Greek chronicles, and miscellanies such as the Sbornik of St Sviatoslav, formed the staple of the national literature. In the time of Tsar Simeon, himself an author, considerable literary activity prevailed; among the more remarkable works of this period was the Shestodnev, or Hexameron, of John the exarch, an account of the creation. A little later the heresy of the Bogomils gave an impulse to controversial writing. The principal champions of orthodoxy were St Kosmas and the monk Athanas of Jerusalem; among the Bogomils the Questions of St Ivan Bogoslof, a work containing a description of the beginning and the end of the world, was held in high esteem. Contemporaneously with the spread of this sect a number of apocryphal works, based on the Scripture narrative, but embellished with Oriental legends of a highly imaginative character, obtained great popularity. Together with these religious writings works of fiction, also of Oriental origin, made their appearance, such as the life of Alexander the Great, the story of Troy, the tales of Stephanit and Ichnilat and Barlaam and Josaphat, the latter founded on the biography of Buddha. These were for the most part reproductions or variations of the fantastical romances which circulated through Europe in the middle ages, and many of them have left traces in the national legends and folk-songs. In the 13th century, under the Asen dynasty, numerous historical works or chronicles (letopisi) were composed. State records appear to have existed, but none of them have been preserved. With the Ottoman conquest literature disappeared; the manuscripts became the food of moths and worms, or fell a prey to the fanaticism of the Phanariot clergy. The library of the patriarchs of Trnovo was committed to the flames by the Greek metropolitan Hilarion in 1825.
The monk Paisii (born about 1720) and Bishop Sofronii (1739-1815) have already been mentioned as the precursors of the literary revival. The Istoria Slaveno-Bolgarska (1762) of Paisii, written in the solitude of Mount Athos, was a work of little historical value, but its influence upon the Bulgarian race was immense. An ardent patriot, Paisii recalls the glories of the Bulgarian tsars and saints, rebukes his fellow-countrymen for allowing themselves to be called Greeks, and denounces the arbitrary proceedings of the Phanariot prelates. The Life and Sufferings of sinful Sofronii (1804) describes in simple and touching language the condition of Bulgaria at the beginning of the 19th century. Both works were written in a modified form of the church Slavonic. The first printed work in the vernacular appears to have been the Kyriakodromion, a translation of sermons, also by Sofronii, published in 1806. The Servian and Greek insurrections quickened the patriotic sentiments of the Bulgarian refugees and merchants in Rumania, Bessarabia and southern Russia, and Bucharest became the centre of their political and literary activity. A modest bukvar, or primer, published at Kronstadt by Berovitch in 1824, was the first product of the new movement. Translations of the Gospels, school reading-books, short histories and various elementary treatises now appeared. With the multiplication of books came the movement for establishing Bulgarian schools, in which the monk Neophyt Rilski (1793-1881) played a leading part. He was the author of the first Bulgarian grammar (1835) and other educational works, and translated the New Testament into the modern language. Among the writers of the literary renaissance were George Rakovski (1818-1867), a fantastic writer of the patriotic type, whose works did much to stimulate the national zeal, Liuben Karaveloff (1837-1879), journalist and novelist, Christo Boteff (1847-1876), lyric poet, whose ode on the death of his friend Haji Dimitr, an insurgent leader, is one of the best in the language, and Petko Slaveikoff (died 1895), whose poems, patriotic, satirical and erotic, moulded the modern poetical language and exercised a great influence over the people. Gavril Krstovitch, formerly governor-general of eastern Rumelia, and Marin Drinoff, a Slavist of high repute, have written historical works. Stamboloff, the statesman, was the author of revolutionary and satirical ballads; his friend Zacharia Stoyanoff (d.1889), who began life as a shepherd, has left some interesting memoirs. The most distinguished Bulgarian man of letters is Ivan Vazoff (b. 1850), whose epic and lyric poems and prose works form the best specimens of the modern literary language. His novel Pod Igoto (Under the Yoke) has been translated into several European languages. The best dramatic work is Ivanko, a historical play by Archbishop Clement, who also wrote some novels. With the exception of Zlatarski's and Boncheff's geological treatises and contributions by Georgieff, Petkoff, Tosheff and Urumoff to Velnovski's Flora Bulgarica, no original works on natural science have as yet been produced; a like dearth is apparent in the fields of philosophy, criticism and fine art, but it must be remembered that the literature is still in its infancy. The ancient folk-songs have been preserved in several valuable collections; though inferior to the Servian in poetic merit, they deserve scientific attention. Several periodicals and reviews have been founded in modern times. Of these the most important are the Perioditchesko Spisanie, issued since 1869 by the Bulgarian Literary Society, and the Sbornik, a literary and scientific miscellany, formerly edited by Dr Shishmanoff, latterly by the Literary Society, and published by the government at irregular intervals.
Authorities.-C. J. Jirecek, Das Fiirstenthum Bulgarien (Prague, 1891), and Cesty po Bulharsku (Travels in Bulgaria), (Prague, 1888), both works of the first importance; Leon Lamouche, La Bulgarie dans le passé et le present (Paris, 1892); Prince Francis Joseph of Battenberg, Die Volkswirthschaftliche Entwicklung Bulgariens (Leipzig, 1891); F. Kanitz, Donau-Bulgarien and der Balkan (Leipzig, 1882); A. G. Drander, Evenements politiques en Bulgarie (Paris, 1896); and Le Prince Alexandre de Battenberg (Paris, 1884); A. Strausz, Die Bulgaren (Leipzig, 1898); A. Tuma, Die ostliche Balkanhalbinsel (Vienna, 1886); A. de Gubernatis, La Bulgarie et les Bulgares (Florence, 1899); E. Blech, Consular Report on Bulgaria in 1889 (London, 1890); La Bulgarie contemporaine (issued by the Bulgarian Ministry of Commerce and Agriculture), (Brussels, 1905). Geology: F. Toula, Reisen and geologische Untersuchungen in Bulgarien (Vienna, 1890); J. Cvijic, "Die Tektonik der Balkanhalbinsel," in C.R. IX. Cong. geol. intern. de Vienne, pp. 348-370, with map, 1904. History: C. J. Jirecek, Geschichte der Bulgaren (Prague, 1876); (a summary in The Balkans, by William Miller, London, 1896); Sokolov, Iz drevnei istorii Bolgar (Petersburg, 1879) Uspenski, Obrazovanie vtorago Bolgarskago tsarstva (Odessa, 1879) Acta Bulgariae ecclesiastica, published by the South Slavonic Academy (Agram, 1887). Language: F. Miklosich, Vergleichende Grammatik (Vienna, 1879); and Geschichte d. Lautbezeichnung im Bulgarischen (Vienna, 1883); A. Leskien, Handbuch d. altbulgarischen Sprache (with a glossary), (Wiemar, 1886); L. Miletich, Staroblgarska Gramatika (Sofia, 1896); Das Ostbulgarische (Vienna, 1903); Labrov, Obzor zvulkovikh i formalnikh osobenostei Bolgarskago yezika (Moscow, 1893); W. R. Morfill, A Short Grammar of the Bulgarian Language (London, 1897); F. Vymazal, Die Kunst die bulgarische Sprache leicht and Schnell zu erlernen (Vienna, 1888). Literature: L. A. H. Dozon, Chansonsopulaires bulgares inedites (with French translations), (Paris, 187 5); A. Strausz, Bulgarische Volksdichtungen (translations with a preface and notes), (Vienna and Leipzig, 1895); Lydia Shishmanov, Legendes religieuses bulgares (Paris, 1896); Pypin and Spasovich, History of the Slavonic Literature (in Russian, St Petersburg, 1879), (French translation, Paris, 1881); Vazov and Velitchkov, Bulgarian Chrestomathy (Philippopolis, 1884); Teodorov, Blgarska Literatura (Philippopolis, 1896); Collections of folk-songs, proverbs, &c., by the brothers Miladinov (Agram, 1861), Bersonov (Moscow, 1855), Kachanovskiy (Petersburg, 1882), Shapkarev (Philippopolis, 1885), Iliev (Sofia, 1889), P. Slaveikov (Sofia, 1899). See also The Shade of the Balkans, by Pencho Slaveikov, H. Bernard and E. J. Dillon (London, 1904). (J. D. B.)


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

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Wikipedia has an article on:

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
Bulgaria
Plural
-
Bulgaria
.
  1. A country in Southeastern Europe.^ The domestic animals are the same as in the other countries of southeastern Europe; the fierce shaggy grey sheep - dog leaves a lasting impression on most travellers in the interior.

    Official name: Republic of Bulgaria.

Translations

Derived terms

See also


Finnish

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Finnish Wikipedia has an article on:
Bulgaria
Wikipedia fi

Proper noun

Bulgaria (stem Bulgari-*)
  1. Bulgaria

Galician

Proper noun

Bulgaria f.
  1. Bulgaria

Related terms


Italian

Wikipedia-logo.png
Italian Wikipedia has an article on:
Bulgaria
Wikipedia it

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /bulgaˈri.a/, SAMPA: /bulga"ri.a/

Proper noun

Bulgaria f.
  1. Bulgaria

Related terms


Norwegian

Proper noun

Bulgaria
  1. Bulgaria

Related terms


Spanish

Wikipedia-logo.png
Spanish Wikipedia has an article on:
Bulgaria
Wikipedia es

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /bulˈɣarja/

Proper noun

Bulgaria f.
  1. Bulgaria

Related terms


Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

.Bulgaria (Bulgarian: България , Bălgariya,[1] pronounced IPA: [bɤlˈgarijə]), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Bulgarian: Република България , Republika Bălgariya, pronounced IPA: [rɛˈpubliˌkə bɤlˈgarijə]), a state in Southeastern Europe, borders five other countries; Romania to the north (mostly along the Danube), Serbia and the Republic of Macedonia to the west, and Greece and Turkey to the south.^ The state of Bulgaria borders five other countries.
  • Bulgaria Articles, Posts, Blogs, Videos - Technorati 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC technorati.com [Source type: General]

^ Bulgaria shares borders with Serbia, Macedonia, Romania, Greece, and Turkey.
  • Bulgaria: History, Geography, Government, and Culture — Infoplease.com 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.infoplease.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bulgaria: History, Geography, Government, and Culture — FactMonster.com 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Geography Bulgaria is situated in Eastern Europe and bordered to the north by the River Danube and Romania, to the east by the Black Sea, to the south by Turkey and Greece and to the west by Serbia and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.
  • Bulgaria Overview | Bulgaria Tour Guide | iExplore 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.iexplore.com [Source type: News]

.It is bordered by the Black Sea to the east.^ Geography Bulgaria is situated in Eastern Europe and bordered to the north by the River Danube and Romania, to the east by the Black Sea, to the south by Turkey and Greece and to the west by Serbia and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.
  • Bulgaria Overview | Bulgaria Tour Guide | iExplore 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.iexplore.com [Source type: News]

^ Bulgaria is situated on the western side of the Black Sea, at the crossroads of the East and West.
  • Bulgaria - InterRail destination. Information on travelling to and in Bulgaria with an InterRail Pass 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.interrailnet.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Even more significant, Bulgaria is to become a vast principality bordered by the Danube in the north, the Black Sea in the east and the Aegean in the south.
  • History of BULGARIA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.historyworld.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Bulgaria comprises the classical regions of Thrace, Moesia, and Macedonia and has a civilized history spanning more than 6600 years.^ Bulgaria is more than a country we go to each year...

^ It has existed for more than 9,000 years.
  • Cheap Bulgaria Holidays Online - Olympic Holidays to Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.olympicholidays.com [Source type: General]

^ In return, Bulgaria received most of Thrace from Greece, and Macedonia as well as parts of eastern Serbia from Yugoslavia.
  • Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ushmm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ushmm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2] .It is the sovereign successor of a powerful European medieval empire, the First Bulgarian Empire, which at times covered most of the Balkans and spread its culture and literature among the Slavic peoples of Eastern Europe.^ The genetic and cultural origins of the Bulgarian people are largely but not exclusively Slavic.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Beautiful in nature, unique historically, rich culturally, and hot economically, Bulgaria has quickly emerged as one of the most exciting investment locations in Europe today!
  • Invest Bulgaria - The Bulgarian Investment Gateway 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.investbulgaria.com [Source type: News]

^ For homebuyers looking to re-locate, now is also a great time to look at Bulgarian property , while living standards within the country are rapidly reaching those of northern Europe.

.Centuries later, during the decline of the Second Bulgarian Empire, the country fell under five centuries of Ottoman rule.^ Under his son Peter (927-969) the kingdom began to decline; during the reign of Shishman I the western part proclaimed its independence; two years after Peter's death the eastern section was pledged to the Eastern Empire.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A predominantly Slavic-speaking, Orthodox country long influenced by Byzantine culture, Bulgaria was part of the Ottoman Empire for 500 years before gaining its independence in the 19th century.
  • BBC NEWS | Europe | Country profiles | Country profile: Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC news.bbc.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Bulgaria regained its independence in 1878 largely due to the intervention of the great powers, who clipped the wings of the declining Ottoman Empire and installed a minor German prince as Tsar of the newly independent country.
  • Bulgaria InfoNet - Travel Information 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC bulgaria-infonet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Bulgaria was re-established as a constitutional monarchy in 1878, also known as the birth of the Third Bulgarian Kingdom.^ Bulgaria is a constitutional monarchy; by Art.

^ Mar 1878 Treaty of San Stefano ratified, Bulgarian autonomous polity established ( Principality of Bulgaria ) under Ottoman suzerainty.

^ The ideas of a Constitution and Parliament, of electivity and representation emerged even before the restoration of the Bulgarian State in 1878 under the influence of European thinking and practices.
  • Bulgaria Info Bulgarian Map Properties 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.1-bulgaria.com [Source type: Original source]

.After World War II, Bulgaria became a communist state and part of the Eastern Bloc.^ This was later corrected in 1885 when Eastern Rumelia became part of Bulgaria.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In return, Bulgaria received most of Thrace from Greece, and Macedonia as well as parts of eastern Serbia from Yugoslavia.
  • Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ushmm.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For years Bulgaria has been a favorite holiday destination for Eastern Europeans, but it was only recently discovered as such by the rest of the world.
  • Balkan Dream Bulgarian Properties - feel the dream, Bulgarian Properties, Bulgaria Property,Property in Bulgaria, Real Estates in Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC bdb-properties.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Today, Bulgaria functions as a democratic, unitary, constitutional republic, a member of the European Union and of NATO.^ Bulgaria and Romania; both are European Union member ...
  • Bulgaria Travel News - Travel Industry Today 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC travel.einnews.com [Source type: News]

^ Bulgaria functions as a parliamentary democracy under a unitary constitutional republic.
  • Bulgaria Articles, Posts, Blogs, Videos - Technorati 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC technorati.com [Source type: General]

^ Bulgaria has been a member of the European Union since 2007.
  • Bulgaria Articles, Posts, Blogs, Videos - Technorati 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC technorati.com [Source type: General]

.It has a population of approximately 7.7 million, with Sofia as its capital and largest city.^ Capital and largest city (2003 est.
  • Bulgaria: History, Geography, Government, and Culture — Infoplease.com 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.infoplease.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bulgaria: History, Geography, Government, and Culture — FactMonster.com 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sofia – the Capital of Bulgaria   Sofia is the largest Bulgarian city.

^ Map of Bulgaria Regions in Bulgaria Capital Sofia Population 8 million (approx.
  • Cheap Bulgaria Holidays Online - Olympic Holidays to Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.olympicholidays.com [Source type: General]

Contents

Geography

Main article: Geography of Bulgaria
.Geographically and in terms of climate, Bulgaria features notable diversity, with the landscape ranging from the Alpine snow-capped peaks in Rila, Pirin and the Balkan Mountains to the mild and sunny weather of the Black Sea coast, from the typically continental Danubian Plain (ancient Moesia) in the north to the strong Mediterranean climatic influence in the valleys of Macedonia and the lowlands in the southernmost parts of Thrace.^ Climate is formed under the climatic influence of The Mediterranean Sea.

^ The Balkan Range The Balkan Range features the backbone of Bulgaria in terms of morphology and structure.

^ Bulgaria geography ranges from sunny Mediterranean beaches to snow-capped Alpine mountain ranges.

The Seven Rila Lakes in Bulgaria
.Bulgaria comprises portions of the regions known in Classical Greece as Thrace, Moesia, and Macedonia.^ Nov 1919 By Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine Bulgaria cedes Western Thrace to Greece; Dobruja ceded to Romania; the border areas of western Macedonia (Bosiligrad, Caribrod, and Strumica) ceded to Serbia/Yugoslavia.

^ Angered by the small portion of Macedonia it received after the battle—it considered Macedonia an integral part of Bulgaria—the country instigated the Second Balkan War (June–Aug.
  • Bulgaria history, coat, map 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC clients.ttm.bg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Angered by the small portion of Macedonia it received after the battle—it considered Macedonia an integral part of Bulgaria—the country instigated the Second Balkan War (June–Aug.
  • Bulgaria: History, Geography, Government, and Culture — Infoplease.com 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.infoplease.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bulgaria: History, Geography, Government, and Culture — FactMonster.com 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The mountainous southwest of the country has two alpine ranges — Rila and Pirin — and further east stand the lower but more extensive Rhodope Mountains.^ Thracian Plains as well as the Rhodope and Pirin Mountains in the south and southwest.
  • Bulgaria - Atlapedia Online 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.atlapedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More than 360 are the high-mountain alpine glacial lakes in Rila and Pirin     .

^ Its architectural heritage and extensive range of culture and leisure activities are two of its main attractions.

.Rila mountain includes the highest peak of the Balkan Peninsula, peak Musala at 2,925 meters (9,596 ft); the long range of the Balkan mountains runs west-east through the middle of the country, north of the famous Rose Valley.^ This is also the highest mountain in the Balkan pennisula with highest peak mount Musala (1925 m).
  • Bulgaria InfoNet - Travel Information 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC bulgaria-infonet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lakes in Bulgaria Lakes in Bulgaria - Go hiking in Seven lakes or famous Rila mountains in the Balkan peninsula.

^ Central Bulgaria is traversed from east to west by ranges of the Balkan Mts.
  • Bulgaria News - Breaking World Bulgaria News - The New York Times 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

.Hilly country and plains lie in the southeast, along the Black Sea coast in the east, and along Bulgaria's main river, the Danube in the north.^ Foreigners were keen to get their hands on properties along the Black Sea Coast.
  • Global Property Guide: Bulgaria - House prices start to fall in Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.globalpropertyguide.com [Source type: News]

^ Bulgaria is a country in Eastern Europe on the western side of the Black Sea.
  • Bulgaria InfoNet - Travel Information 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC bulgaria-infonet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bulgaria's Black Sea coast a few hours south of Varna.
  • Bulgaria InfoNet - Travel Information 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC bulgaria-infonet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other major rivers include the Struma and the Maritsa river in the south.^ The principal rivers are the Maritsa, Iskur, Yantra and Struma which flow either north or south.
  • Bulgaria - Atlapedia Online 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.atlapedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Danube, the Iskŭr, the Maritsa, and the Struma are the principal rivers.
  • Bulgaria Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bulgaria News - Breaking World Bulgaria News - The New York Times 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

.There are around 260 glacial lakes situated in Rila and Pirin, several large lakes on the Black Sea coast and more than 2,200 dam lakes.^ Black Sea Coast © bulgariatravel.org .
  • Bulgaria - Country Profile - Bulgariya - Balgarija, Destination South East Europe 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.nationsonline.org [Source type: News]

^ Bulgaria's Black Sea coast .
  • Buying Property in Bulgaria - Bulgarian Property & Home Investment Advice - BuyAssociation 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.buyassociation.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ More than 360 are the high-mountain alpine glacial lakes in Rila and Pirin     .

.Mineral springs are in great abundance located mainly in the south-western and central parts of the country along the faults between the mountains.Bulgaria has a temperate climate, with cool and damp winters, very hot and dry summers, and Mediterranean influence along the Black Sea coast.^ Climate is formed under the climatic influence of The Mediterranean Sea.

^ Foreigners were keen to get their hands on properties along the Black Sea Coast.
  • Global Property Guide: Bulgaria - House prices start to fall in Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.globalpropertyguide.com [Source type: News]

^ CLIMATE: Bulgaria has a continental climate with hot summers and cold winters.
  • Bulgaria - Atlapedia Online 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.atlapedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The barrier effect of the Balkan Mountains influences climate throughout the country: northern Bulgaria gets slightly cooler and receives more rain than the southern regions.^ Winter grains are more suitable than summer crops to Bulgaria and the Balkan climate.

^ Northern Bulgaria experiences colder temperatures and receives more rain than the southern lowlands.
  • Horseback Riding Vacations Bulgaria Horse Riding Holidays Europe Equestrian Tours 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.hiddentrails.com [Source type: General]

^ Mountains in Bulgaria - visit the Balkans!

.Average precipitation in Bulgaria is about 630 millimetres per year.^ Climate The predominant climate in Bulgaria is moderate and transitional continental with plenty of sunlight per year.
  • Balkan Dream Bulgarian Properties - feel the dream, Bulgarian Properties, Bulgaria Property,Property in Bulgaria, Real Estates in Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC bdb-properties.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The predominant climate in Bulgaria is moderate and transitional continental (2,000 to 2,400 hours of sunlight per year).
  • Bulgaria Cancellations, Cheap Holidays Bulgaria, Late Deals Bulgaria, Package Holidays Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.bulgariacancellations.com [Source type: General]

^ For a property of price 30,000 EURO insurance against theft, flood and fire costs about 125 EURO per year with a decent insurance company.
  • Bulgaria Property FAQ - Learn how to buy property in Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.bestbgproperties.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The driest areas are Dobrudzha and the northern coastal strip, while the higher parts of the mountains Rila and Stara Planina receive the highest levels of precipitation.^ Stara Planina or the Balkan Mountains in the center and (3.
  • Bulgaria - Atlapedia Online 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.atlapedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Horse riding opportunities are diverse – from coastal beach and Black Sea treks, to Rila Mountain trails and the Balkans .
  • Horseback Riding Vacations Bulgaria Horse Riding Holidays Europe Equestrian Tours 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.hiddentrails.com [Source type: General]

^ A European kingdom in the northeastern part of the Balkan Peninsula, bounded by the Black Sea, the Rhodope Mountains, Servia , and the Danube; it embraces an area of 37,200 sq.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In summer, temperatures in the south of Bulgaria often exceed 40 degrees Celsius, but remain cooler by the coast.^ ID 267 This is a fully contained holiday apartment village built in park land near Lozenets village south of Bourgas on Bulgaria's Black Sea coast.
  • Bulgaria property Real Estate bulgarian properties map 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.pdbulgaria.com [Source type: General]

^ The Black Sea Coast is well known for its clean, white sanded beaches, warm seas, and temperatures that average 80F (26C) during the summer.
  • Balkan Dream Bulgarian Properties - feel the dream, Bulgarian Properties, Bulgaria Property,Property in Bulgaria, Real Estates in Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC bdb-properties.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Average daytime temperatures in summer (June to September) are between 25 and 30 degrees Celsius, but over 40 degrees is possible more inland.
  • Bulgaria - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The highest recorded temperature is 46.7c near Plovdiv.
.The country possesses relatively rich mineral resources, including vast reserves of lignite and anthracite coal; non-ferrous ores such as copper, lead, zinc and gold.^ Natural resources: bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable land.
  • Bulgaria: History, Geography, Government, and Culture — FactMonster.com 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Natural resources: bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable land .
  • Bulgaria history, coat, map 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC clients.ttm.bg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bulgaria's chief mineral resources include bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, lignite, iron ore, and oil and natural gas.
  • Bulgaria Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bulgaria News - Breaking World Bulgaria News - The New York Times 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

It has large deposits of manganese ore in the north-east. Smaller deposits exist of iron, silver, chromite, nickel and others. .Bulgaria has abundant non-metalliferous minerals such as rock-salt, gypsum, kaolin, marble.^ Bulgaria is materially non-compliant with the Principle on consolidated supervision (CP 20); such supervision should be implemented.
  • IMF Report on Observance of Standards and Codes: Bulgaria -- Banking Supervision 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.imf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is also mining of non-metalliferous minerals, inert materials, limestone and granite are mined in Pernik Municipality.
  • Bulgaria Festivals 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.carnaval.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All such activities remain initiatives of the non-governmental sector in Bulgaria and rely mainly on external sources of funding.
  • Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Balkan peninsula derives its name from the Balkan or Stara Planina mountain-range, which runs through the centre of Bulgaria and extends into eastern Serbia.^ Pass through Bulgaria and pedal into the foothills of the Balkan Mountains.
  • Bicycle Tour Destinations: Bicycle Tours in Bulgaria - Experience Plus 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.experienceplus.com [Source type: General]

^ The heart of Bulgaria is mountainous and the main ranges include the Balkan Mountains (Stara Planina) in the centre and the Rhodope Mountains in the s .
  • Bulgaria Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mountains in Bulgaria - visit the Balkans!

View of the Pirin National Park.
Raysko Praskalo, the highest waterfall in the Balkans[3]
Bulgaria's larger cities include:
Bulgaria operates a scientific base on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands off Antarctica.
See also: List of cities in Bulgaria, Rivers of Bulgaria, and Reservoirs and dams in Bulgaria

History

Main article: History of Bulgaria

Prehistory

Further information: Neolithic EuropeImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif and Bronze Age EuropeImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
.
Prehistoric cultures of Bulgaria include the neolithic Hamangia culture and Vinča culture (6th to 3rd millennia BC), the eneolithic Varna culture (5th millennium BC, see also Varna Necropolis), and the Bronze Age Ezero culture.
^ The Thracians lived in Bulgaria in the 7th century BC, and there is a lot of archaelogical things to see about that important people.
  • A trip inside Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.seikilos.com.ar [Source type: Original source]

The Karanovo chronology serves as a gauge for the prehistory of the wider Balkans region.

Antiquity

Main article: Thrace
  • See this link for the Panagyurishte Treasure, which ranks among the most splendid achievements of the Thracian culture.
.The Thracians, the earliest known people to inhabit the present-day territory of Bulgaria, have left traceable marks among all the Balkan region despite its tumultuous history of many conquests.^ Bulgaria lost the war and all the territory it had gained in the First Balkan War.
  • Bulgaria history, coat, map 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC clients.ttm.bg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Present-day southern Bulgaria—then called Eastern Rumelia —became a separate autonomous province, and Macedonia remained under direct Turkish rule.
  • Bulgaria Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Predating the Greeks as the most important early European civilization is the Thracian ethnos which comprised not only the territory of present-day Bulgaria but also the land of present-day Romania, Eastern Serbia, Northern Greece and Northwestern Turkey.
  • Bulgaria Festivals 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.carnaval.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4][5] .The Thracians lived divided into numerous separate tribes until King Teres united most of them around 500 BC in the Odrysian kingdom, which peaked under the kings Sitalkes and Cotys I (383-359 BC).^ The first known Thracian state dates from the mid-5th century BC. Weakened by conflict with the Macedonians and Persians, the Thracian kingdom was finally absorbed by the Roman Empire after a 150-year struggle lasting into the first years of the Christian era.
  • Audit: Bulgaria 2000 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.heracles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to the 5th century BC Greek historian Herodotus, the Thracians were the most numerous people in Europe numbering around one million or about 4 to 5 times the total population of the Greek City States.
  • Bulgaria Festivals 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.carnaval.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In 188 BC, the Romans invaded Thrace, and the wars with them continued to 45. Thrace was never conquered: The Romans reached a ceasefire with the Thracians which allowed them to keep all their privileges and religious freedoms in exchange of accepting the Roman administration.
"The Great Bulgaria in Roman times had been called Moesia and had a mixed population of Thracians, Greeks and Dacians, most of whom spoke either Greek or a sub-Latin language known as Romance." This region "had been overrun by the Slavs in the mid 7th century.[6]

Old Great Bulgaria

.In 632 the Bulgars, led by Khan Kubrat, formed an independent state called Great Bulgaria, bounded by the Danube delta to the west, the Black Sea to the south, the Caucasus to the southeast, and the Volga River to the east.^ Bulgaria's Black Sea coast a few hours south of Varna.
  • Bulgaria InfoNet - Travel Information 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC bulgaria-infonet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is bounded by the Black Sea on the east, by Romania on the north, by Serbia and Macedonia on the west, by Greece on the south, and by European Turkey on the southeast.
  • Bulgaria Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bulgaria News - Breaking World Bulgaria News - The New York Times 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ Bulgaria's Black Sea coast .
  • Buying Property in Bulgaria - Bulgarian Property & Home Investment Advice - BuyAssociation 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.buyassociation.co.uk [Source type: News]

Byzantium recognized the new state by treaty in 635.
.Pressure from the Khazars led to the loss of the eastern part of Great Bulgaria in the second half of the seventh century.^ Angered by the small portion of Macedonia it received after the battle—it considered Macedonia an integral part of Bulgaria—the country instigated the Second Balkan War (June–Aug.
  • Bulgaria history, coat, map 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC clients.ttm.bg [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Angered by the small portion of Macedonia it received after the battle—it considered Macedonia an integral part of Bulgaria—the country instigated the Second Balkan War (June–Aug.
  • Bulgaria: History, Geography, Government, and Culture — FactMonster.com 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Burgas is located in the Eastern part of Bulgaria, lying on the Black Sea' cost, and it is the fourth largest city in the country.
  • A - BULGARIA.com - Bulgaria Hotels & Bulgaria Apartments, Accommodation in Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.a-bulgaria.com [Source type: News]

.Some of the Bulgars from that territory later migrated to the northeast to form a new state called Volga Bulgaria (around the confluence of the Volga and Kama Rivers), which lasted until the thirteenth century.^ The Bulgars, a Central Asian Turkic tribe, merged with the local Slavic inhabitants in the late 7th century to form the first Bulgarian state.
  • Jobs in Bulgaria Careers, Jobs, Education - Careers.org 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC international.careers.org [Source type: News]

^ In spite of the long resistance, at the end of the 14th century Bulgaria was conquered by the Turks, who were invading Europe; so the existence of the Bulgarian state was ceased for almost five centuries.

^ These involved consolidation of state and collective farms but with some provision for decentralization of decision-making, so-called planning from below .
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In the 8th century Hungarians have entered the Carpathian Basin through Transylvania, ruled by Bulgarian leaders at the time.^ The town occurred in the 8th – 7th century B.C. Since ancient times the city was famous for the abundance of cold and thermal mineral water springs.

^ It fell to Roman rule in 71 BC and was fought over by the Byzantines and the Bulgarians from the 5th century AD onwards.
  • Bulgaria - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The five centuries of Turkish rule (1396-1878) form a dark epoch in Bulgarian history.

.Bulgaria's borders were pushed lower to the southern Carpahian Mountains.^ Bulgaria is bounded by Romania on the north, most of the border being marked by the lower Danube River.
  • Audit: Bulgaria 2000 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.heracles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another mountain mass covers southern Bulgaria.
  • Audit: Bulgaria 2000 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.heracles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A significant number of victims come from Bulgarias southern mountainous region bordering Greece, Macedonia, and Turkey, as well as from other border areas.
  • Human Trafficking & Modern-day Slavery - Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.gvnet.com [Source type: News]

First Bulgarian Empire

.
The Battle of Anchialos, in which the Bulgarians defeated the Byzantines: one of the bloodiest battles of the Middle Ages.
^ The Orthodox Bulgarian National Church claims to be an indivisible member of the Eastern Orthodox communion, and asserts historic continuity with the autocephalous Bulgarian church of the middle ages.

^ British and French forces defeated the Bulgarian forces at the battle of Dobro Pole.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Simeon expanded Bulgarian control at the expense of the Byzantine Empire until in 924 he led his army too far into Byzantine territory and was defeated.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

[7]
The wedding of the daughter of Tsar Samuil.
.Kubrat’s successor, Khan Asparuh, migrated with some of the Bulgarian tribes to the lower courses of the rivers Danube, Dniester and Dniepr (known as Ongal), and conquered Moesia and Scythia Minor (Dobrudzha) from the Byzantine Empire, expanding Great Bulgaria further into the Balkan Peninsula.^ Located on the Balkan Peninsula, which is in the southeastern area of Europe, Bulgaria is less developed as a tourist resort than neighbouring Greece and Turkey.
  • Bulgarian holidays - beach holiday in Bulgaria, Black Sea resorts, Balkan holidays 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.holidays-direct.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ In the 1st century A.D. the Roman Empire started conquering the Balkan peninsula; Byzanthine, the successor of the Roman Empire, used to rule over all the Bulgarian territory up to the 7th century A.D. At the end of the 7th century (the year 681) the Bulgarian state was established and it united the local Slavonic tribes and the proto Bulgarians, who came form the proto-Bulgarian state which at that time existed in the region between the Black Sea and the Caspian sea.

^ Bulgaria has some great family ski resorts including Pamporovo , Bansko and Borovets all of which offer an excellent array of skiing facilities of differing levels for all the family.
  • Property in Bulgaria | Properties for sale in Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC apropertyinbulgaria.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Historians consider the peace-treaty with Byzantium in 681 and the establishment of the new Bulgar capital of Pliska south of the Danube as marking the beginning of the First Bulgarian Empire.^ The first Bulgarian empire (681-1018), established by Khan Asparuhk, or Isperikh (ruled 680-701), and his successor, Terrel (ruled 701-718), soon emerged as a significant Balkan power and a threat to Byzantium.
  • Bulgaria Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bulgaria News - Breaking World Bulgaria News - The New York Times 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ On two occasions during the Medieval period, the Bulgarians managed to establish empires, which existed in a state of armed conflict with Byzantium.
  • Bulgaria History | iExplore 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.iexplore.com [Source type: News]

^ Mar 1878 Treaty of San Stefano ratified, Bulgarian autonomous polity established ( Principality of Bulgaria ) under Ottoman suzerainty.

.At the same time one of Asparuh's brothers, Kuber, settled with another Bulgar group in present-day Macedonia.^ Present-day southern Bulgaria—then called Eastern Rumelia —became a separate autonomous province, and Macedonia remained under direct Turkish rule.
  • Bulgaria Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are also smaller groups of Macedonians and Armenians; however, Bulgaria, with its historic claim to Macedonia, refuses to recognize Macedonians as distinct from Bulgars.
  • Bulgaria Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bulgaria News - Breaking World Bulgaria News - The New York Times 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ Second Bulgarian Empire (located in present day Macedonia; also sometimes called the Empire of the Macedonian Slavs).

.In 718 the Bulgarians raised the Arab siege of Constantinople, killing some 40,000 to 60,000 Arab soldiers.^ During this six-year uprising from 1821 to 1827 Bulgarians helped as soldiers and in raising funds for the rebels.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The amount of radiation the average Bulgarian is summited in one day is enough to kill 2,000,000 normal people.
  • Bulgaria - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8] .Contemporaries referred to the Bulgarian Khan Tervel as "The Saviour of Europe". For centuries afterward Bulgarians and their allies saw themselves as the angel warriors of Europe.^ In spite of the long resistance, at the end of the 14th century Bulgaria was conquered by the Turks, who were invading Europe; so the existence of the Bulgarian state was ceased for almost five centuries.

^ The undisputed Bulgarian hegemony in Eastern Europe however, ended in the 14th century, when Bulgarians discovered that rotten fruit makes great alcohol.
  • Bulgaria - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the beginning of the 19th century the existence of the Bulgarian race was almost unknown in Europe, even to students of Slavonic literature.

The Family of Ivan Alexander.
.The influence and territorial expansion of Bulgaria increased further during the rule of Khan Krum, [9] who in 811 won a decisive victory against the Byzantine army led by Nicephorus I in the Battle of Pliska.^ In 809 Khan Krum (ruled 803-814) captured Sofia from the Byzantines, defeated (811) Emperor Nicephorus I, besieged Constantinople, and withdrew only after obtaining yearly tribute.
  • Bulgaria Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bulgaria News - Breaking World Bulgaria News - The New York Times 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ St George the Conqueror Chapel Mausoleum located in Pleven was built between 1903 and 1907 in Neo-Byzantine style in order to honor the soldiers who died for the Liberation of Bulgaria during the Siege of Pleven in 1877.
  • Bulgaria - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Considered the heart of the city, it was built between 1882 and 1912, in honour of the Russian soldiers, who fell when the Russian army helped liberate Bulgaria from Ottoman rule in 1878.
  • Bulgaria Festivals 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.carnaval.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10]
In 864 Bulgaria accepted the Orthodox faith. .[11] The country became a major European power in the ninth and the tenth centuries, while fighting with the Byzantine Empire for the control of the Balkans.^ The first Bulgarian Empire (681–1018) quickly became a major Balkan power.
  • Bulgaria Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ottoman domination of the Balkan Peninsula eventually affected Bulgaria in the late 14th century, and by 1396, Bulgaria had become part of the Ottoman Empire.

^ In succeeding centuries, Bulgaria struggled with the Byzantine Empire to assert its place in the Balkans, but by the end of the 14th century the country was overrun by the Ottoman Turks.
  • Bulgaria InfoNet - Travel Information 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC bulgaria-infonet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This happened under the rule of Boris I. .During his reign, the Cyrillic alphabet originated in Preslav and Ohrid,[12] adapted from the Glagolitic alphabet invented by the monks Saints Cyril and Methodius.^ In the year 855 the brothers Cyril and Methodius invented the Slavonic alphabet; after Christianity was adopted as official religion, this alphabet was accepted in Bulgaria and from here it was late on spread in other countries (such as Russia, Serbia).

^ However it is simpler than other Slavic tongues, once you get used to the Cyrillic, an alphabet of which the Bulgarians are justifiably proud (it having been invented by two Bulgarian monks, Cyril and Methodius).
  • Bulgaria InfoNet - Travel Information 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC bulgaria-infonet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13]
Bulgaria c.920
.The Cyrillic alphabet became the basis for further cultural development.^ Bulgaria received Byzantine culture through the Slavic literary language developed by St. Cyril and St. Methodius in Moravia and brought to the Balkans by their disciples.
  • Bulgaria News - Breaking World Bulgaria News - The New York Times 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ Among the orthodox Sla y s the Cyrillic finally superseded the glagolitic; as modified by Peter the Great it became the Russian alphabet , which, with the revival of literature, was introduced into Servia and Bulgaria.

.Centuries later, this alphabet, along with the Old Bulgarian language, fostered the intellectual written language (lingua franca) for Eastern Europe, known as Church Slavonic.^ The undisputed Bulgarian hegemony in Eastern Europe however, ended in the 14th century, when Bulgarians discovered that rotten fruit makes great alcohol.
  • Bulgaria - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Orthodox Bulgarian National Church claims to be an indivisible member of the Eastern Orthodox communion, and asserts historic continuity with the autocephalous Bulgarian church of the middle ages.

^ Many rebellions still at the beginning of the 15th century and later on indicated that the Bulgarian people did not agree with the Turkish domination.

.The greatest territorial extension was reached under Simeon I, the first Bulgarian Tsar,son of Boris I,[14] covering most of the Balkans.^ The most popular bulgarian newspaper with opera singer on the cover When discussing Bulgarian music, one must also mention chalga, which, although not really music, is the most popular musical genre in the country.
  • Bulgaria - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first Bulgarian empire flourished under Tsar Simeon (reigned 893-927) but was forced to accept Byzantine domination in 1018.
  • Audit: Bulgaria 2000 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.heracles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bulgarian children are most often the victims of trafficking and Bulgaria ranks as one of the most active human trafficking places in the Balkans.
  • Human Trafficking & Modern-day Slavery - Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.gvnet.com [Source type: News]

.However, his greatest achievement was that at that time Bulgaria developed rich, unique Christian Slavonic culture, which became an example for the other Slavonic peoples in Eastern Europe and ensured the continued existence of the Bulgarian nation regardless of the centrifugal forces that threatened to tear it into pieces throughout its long, rich and war-ridden history.^ Bulgaria is a beautiful piece of land in Eastern Europe with incredible nature and hospitable people.

^ Bulgaria was and continued to be for a long time primarily an agricultural economy.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Beginning in mysterious Russia with its fascinating architecture and rich political history, then winding our way through Eastern Europe via little known countries with extraordinary capital cities bustling with life, then on to the Middle East and finishing in Egypt, this tour will carry you through diverse cultures, extraordinary landscapes and allow you to meet interesting people along the way.

.Following a decline in the mid-tenth century (worn out by wars with Croatia, by frequent Serbian rebellions sponsored by Byzantine gold, and by disastrous Magyar and Pecheneg invasions[15]), Bulgaria collapsed in the face of an assault of the Rus' in 969-971.[16] The Byzantines then began campaigns to conquer Bulgaria.^ After World War II, the peace treaty restored Bulgaria to its borders of 1941-01-01, canceling out its conquests in Thrace and southern Yugoslavia.
  • Bulgaria Regions 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.statoids.com [Source type: Reference]

^ March - The day Bulgaria celebrates its Russia-aided liberation out of the Ottoman Empire after 5 centuries (1393-1878).
  • Bulgaria InfoNet - Travel Information 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC bulgaria-infonet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Following the closure of two nuclear power units in January 2007, Bulgaria has seen an abrupt decline in electricity capacity, leading to the current shortfall.

In 971, they seized the capital Preslav and captured Emperor Boris II[17]. .Resistance continued under Tsar Samuil in the western Bulgarian lands for nearly half a century.^ The first Bulgarian empire flourished under Tsar Simeon (reigned 893-927) but was forced to accept Byzantine domination in 1018.
  • Audit: Bulgaria 2000 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.heracles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A few years later his dynasty finally disappeared, and for more than a century and a half (1018-1186) the Bulgarian race remained subject to the Byzantine emperors.

^ In the earlier decades of the 18th century the Bulgarians suffered terribly from the ravages of the Turkish armies passing through the land during the wars with Austria.

.The country managed to recover and defeated the Byzantines in several major battle taking the control of the most of the Balkans and in 991 invaded the Serbian state.^ This exciting journey takes you from enigmatic Russia via the little known Baltic and Balkan states to Turkey, where Eastern Europe meets the Middle East.

^ Most major cultural events take place here.
  • Bulgaria Festivals 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.carnaval.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is one of the country’s major tourist attractions and is a highly popular area with several large luxury resorts.

[18] .However, the state was completely destroyed by the Byzantines led by Basil II (Basil the Bulgar-Slayer) in 1018 after their victory at Kleidion.^ In 1185 two Bulgarian noblemen led a revolt against Byzantine power and established a Bulgarian state with capital at Tûrnovo.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Empire was at its height in the early 10th century, but in 1018 it was annexed to the Byzantine Empire by Basil II .
  • Bulgaria Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bulgaria crumbled under the attacks of a reinvigorated Byzantium in the 10th cent., and in 1018 it was annexed by Emperor Basil II .
  • Bulgaria Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[19]

Byzantine Bulgaria

Bulgarians nominate Peter II Delyan as King of Bulgaria. John Skylitzes, Chronicle
.In the first decade after the establishment of Byzantine rule, no evidence remains of any major attempt at resistance or any uprising of the Bulgarian population or nobility.^ The first Bulgarian empire (681-1018), established by Khan Asparuhk, or Isperikh (ruled 680-701), and his successor, Terrel (ruled 701-718), soon emerged as a significant Balkan power and a threat to Byzantium.
  • Bulgaria Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It fell to Roman rule in 71 BC and was fought over by the Byzantines and the Bulgarians from the 5th century AD onwards.
  • Bulgaria - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1185 two Bulgarian noblemen led a revolt against Byzantine power and established a Bulgarian state with capital at Tûrnovo.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

Given the existence of such irreconcilable opponents to Byzantium as Krakra, Nikulitsa, Dragash and others, such apparent passivity seems difficult to explain. .Some historians [20] explain this fact by concessions that Basil II granted the Bulgarian nobility in order to gain their obedience.^ He also believes that Bulgarians secretly eat trees and lay eggs, but keep these facts a secret in order to be accepted by human society.
  • Bulgaria - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the first place, Basil II guaranteed the indivisibility of Bulgaria in its former geographic borders and did not abolish officially the local rule of the Bulgarian nobility that now became part of Byzantine aristocracy as archons or strategs.^ Also, Bulgaria has recently implemented a new law that you must place a special sticker on your car to drive on the highways, which you have to buy at the border while getting in.
  • Bulgaria InfoNet - Travel Information 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC bulgaria-infonet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once across the Bulgarian border everything changed: the landscape became more varied and interesting, ...
  • Bulgaria Travel Guide - Hotels, Restaurants, Sightseeing in Bulgaria - New York Times Travel 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC travel.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not only did Bulgaria have streams of Soviet tourists entering its borders, Moscow borrowed money to maintain Bulgarians middle-class lifestyle, including a week-long government-paid vacation for workers.
  • Audit: Bulgaria 2000 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.heracles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Second, special charters (royal decrees) of Basil II recognised the autocephaly of the Bulgarian Archbishopric of Ohrid and set up its boundaries, dioceses, property and other privileges.^ You can find flats, apartments & other investment property throughout Bulgaria as well as reading a helpful guide about the buying process for Bulgarian property .
  • Bulgaria Low Cost No Frills Airlines : Cheap Flights (attitude Travel) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.attitudetravel.com [Source type: General]

^ The law shall establish conditions favorable to the setting up of cooperatives and other forms of association of citizens and corporate entities in the pursuit of economic and social prosperity.
  • ICL - Bulgaria - Constitution 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.servat.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

^ Specialized courts may be set up by virtue of a law.
  • ICL - Bulgaria - Constitution 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.servat.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

.The people of Bulgaria challenged Byzantine rule several times in the 11th and then again later in the early 12th century.^ In succeeding centuries, Bulgaria struggled with the Byzantine Empire to assert its place in the Balkans, but by the end of the 14th century the country was overrun by the Ottoman Turks.
  • Bulgaria InfoNet - Travel Information 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC bulgaria-infonet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It fell to Roman rule in 71 BC and was fought over by the Byzantines and the Bulgarians from the 5th century AD onwards.
  • Bulgaria - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Constitutional Court shall rule upon any challenge to the legality of a presidential election no later than one month after the election.
  • National Assembly of the Republic of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.parliament.bg [Source type: Original source]

.The biggest uprising occurred under the leadership of Peter II Delyan, (proclaimed Emperor of Bulgaria in Belgrade in 1040).^ Bulgaria crumbled under the attacks of a reinvigorated Byzantium in the 10th cent., and in 1018 it was annexed by Emperor Basil II .
  • Bulgaria Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bulgaria News - Breaking World Bulgaria News - The New York Times 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

.In the mid to late 11th century, the Normans, fresh from their recent conquests in southern Italy and Sicily landed in the Balkans and began advancing against the Byzantine Empire.^ In succeeding centuries, Bulgaria struggled with the Byzantine Empire to assert its place in the Balkans, but by the end of the 14th century the country was overrun by the Ottoman Turks.
  • Bulgaria InfoNet - Travel Information 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC bulgaria-infonet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Empire was at its height in the early 10th century, but in 1018 it was annexed to the Byzantine Empire by Basil II .
  • Bulgaria Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 681, following an unsuccessful war with the Bulgars, the Byzantine Empire formally recognized Bulgar control of the region between the Balkans and the Danube.
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.It took the Byzantines until 1185 before the Normans were driven out but until then they posed a constant threat to Byzantine Bulgaria.^ They were able to wrest control of territories from the Byzantine Empire but Constantinople itself resisted their onslaught until 1453.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

In 1091 another invasion came in the form of the Pechenegs. However, these too were crushed at Levounion and again in c. 1120 by the Byzantine Empire. .After that, the Hungarians made an attempt to increase their influence beyond the Danube river; John Comnenus' campaigns along the Danube eventually drove back the Hungarians as well by c.1140. It would be another 45 years before Bulgaria would attain independence.^ Bulgaria has a dense network of about 540 rivers, but with the notable exception of the Danube, most have short lengths and low water-levels.

^ Within margins of this distance, if life exists, it would be tens of millions of years more advanced than life on Earth, both in an evolutionary along with a technological sense.
  • UFO Footage In Bulgaria - Video 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.metacafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1912 Bulgaria drove Ottoman forces out of Thrace (the region on the Aegean sea which includes the city of Salonika) and thus freed Macedonia as well from Ottoman control.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Until that time, Bulgarian nobles ruled the province in the name of the Byzantine Empire until a rebellion by the last vassal lord led to the establishment of the Second Bulgarian Empire.^ Chronology 584 Bulgarian Khanate 918 Bulgarian Empire 972 Re-incorporated into the Byzantine Empire.

^ The first Bulgarian empire (681-1018), established by Khan Asparuhk, or Isperikh (ruled 680-701), and his successor, Terrel (ruled 701-718), soon emerged as a significant Balkan power and a threat to Byzantium.
  • Bulgaria News - Breaking World Bulgaria News - The New York Times 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ Second Bulgarian Empire (located in present day Macedonia; also sometimes called the Empire of the Macedonian Slavs).

Second Bulgarian Empire

.From 1185 the Second Bulgarian Empire once again established Bulgaria as an important power in Europe for two more centuries.^ Two periods of Bulgarian Empire occurred.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It was reserved for a foreign race, altogether distinct in origin, religion and customs, to give unity and coherence to the scattered Slavonic groups, and to weld them into a compact and powerful state which for some centuries played an important part in the history of eastern Europe and threatened the existence of the Byzantine empire.

^ Roads passing through the territory of the Bulgaria have been connecting Europe with Asia and Africa for centuries.

.With its capital based in Veliko Turnovo and under the Asen dynasty, this empire fought for dominance in the region against the Byzantine Empire, the Crusader states and Hungary, reaching its zenith under Ivan Asen II (1218–1241).^ This empire flourished until the death of Bulgarian Tsar Ivan Asen II in 1241.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The height of Bulgar power was reached under Ivan II (Ivan Asen), whose rule (1218-1241) extended over nearly the whole Balkan Peninsula except Greece.
  • Bulgaria Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bulgaria News - Breaking World Bulgaria News - The New York Times 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ In order to make up for this the crafty North American Empire convinced Bulgaria to join them in their crusade against the rest of the world .
  • Bulgaria - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Аs a result of the .Tatar invasions (beginning in the later 13th century), of internal conflicts and of the constant attacks from the Byzantines and the Hungarians, the power of the country declined until the end of the 13th century.^ Centuries of Turkish control and military conflicts as well as decades of Communist Party rule and assorted political chaos took their toll on the country.

^ Beginning in the 3rd century AD, the Balkans suffered desolation brought about by successive invasions of Goths, Huns, Bulgars, and Avars.
  • Audit: Bulgaria 2000 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.heracles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the end of the last century Bulgaria extended its economic connections with Middle and West European countries.
  • soc.culture.bulgaria FAQ (monthly posting) (part 9/10) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.From 1300 under Emperor Theodore Svetoslav Bulgaria regained its strength, but by the end of the fourteenth century the country had disintegrated into several feudal principalities and was eventually conquered by the Ottoman Empire.^ Bulgaria began the 20th century as a tributary principality of the Ottoman Empire.
  • Bulgaria Regions 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.statoids.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Mar 1878 Treaty of San Stefano ratified, Bulgarian autonomous polity established ( Principality of Bulgaria ) under Ottoman suzerainty.

^ The Treaty of San Stefano created a large autonomous Bulgaria within the Ottoman Empire—a Bulgaria that Russia expected to dominate.
  • Bulgaria Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A Polish-Hungarian crusade under the rule of Władysław III of Poland to free the Balkans was crushed in 1444 in the battle of Varna.^ The Bulgarian lawyers are free to offer lawyers charges and fees under demand and supply market rule but no less than the lawyers’ charges fee rate that was passed by the lawyers in Bulgaria .

Ottoman rule

Main article: History of Ottoman Bulgaria
Shipka monument (located near Kazanlak) — one of the brightest symbols of Bulgarian liberation.
.The five centuries of Ottoman rule featured great violence and oppression.^ The five centuries of Turkish rule (1396-1878) form a dark epoch in Bulgarian history.

^ During the five centuries of Ottoman rule (1396-1878), imposed on Turkey by Russia, the Bulgarian nobility was destroyed and the peasantry enserfed to Turkish masters.
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^ The city took its name from the church in the 14th century, which was converted to a mosque under Ottoman rule, when the original 12th-century frescoes were destroyed and minarets added.
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[21] .The Ottomans decimated the Bulgarian population, which lost most of its cultural relics.^ Most of the population belongs to the Bulgarian Orthodox Church; in 1953 the Bulgarian patriarchate, which had been disbanded in 1946, was reestablished.
  • Bulgaria Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bulgaria News - Breaking World Bulgaria News - The New York Times 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

.Large towns and the areas where Ottoman power predominated remained severely depopulated until the nineteenth century[22].^ It remained a formitable force for a couple of centuries more but its hold on the Balkans was lifted in the nineteenth century, thanks in part to the expansion of another empire, the Russian.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In the mid-nineteenth century the Russian Empire was more than a match militarily for the Ottoman Empire.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

The Kingdom of Bulgaria

Bulgaria according to the Treaty of San Stefano
.Following the Russo-Turkish War (when Russian soldiers together with a Romanian expeditionary force and volunteer Bulgarian troops defeated the Ottoman armies), the Treaty of San Stefano of 3 March 1878, set up an autonomous Bulgarian principality.^ The victorious advance of the Russian army to Constantinople was followed by the treaty of San Stefano (3rd March 1878), which realized almost to the full the national aspirations of the Bulgarian race.

^ The Russian army routed the Ottoman forces in Bulgaria and marched to Istanbul.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Russian government forced the Ottoman sultan to accept the Treaty of San Stefano in March of 1878.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The Western Great Powers immediately rejected the treaty: they feared that a large Slavic country in the Balkans would serve Russian interests.^ In order to avert the expansion of Russian influence in the Balkans, a European congress was called to revise the treaty (see Berlin, Congress of ).
  • Bulgaria Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The elected members of the Supreme Judicial Council shall serve terms of five years.  They shall not be eligible for immediate re-election.
  • ICL - Bulgaria - Constitution 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.servat.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

^ The great powers, however, anticipating that this extensive territory would become a Russian dependency, intervened; and on the 13th of July of the same year was signed the treaty of Berlin , which in effect divided the "Big Bulgaria" of the treaty of San Stefano into three portions.

.This led to the Treaty of Berlin (1878) which provided for an autonomous Bulgarian principality comprising Moesia and the region of Sofia.^ Mar 1878 Treaty of San Stefano ratified, Bulgarian autonomous polity established ( Principality of Bulgaria ) under Ottoman suzerainty.

^ From 1878 until the 5th of October 1908, Bulgaria was an autonomous and tributary principality, under the suzerainty of the sultan of Turkey .

^ Towns.-The principal towns of Bulgaria are Sofia, the capital (Bulgarian Sredetz, a name now little used), pop.

.The first Bulgarian prince was Alexander von Battenberg.^ Alexander (Alexander of Battenberg), first prince of Bulgaria, annexed Eastern Rumelia in 1885 and repulsed a consequent Serbian attack.
  • Bulgaria Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bulgaria News - Breaking World Bulgaria News - The New York Times 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ Alexander of Battenberg, a nephew of the Russian emperor, was made prince.
  • Audit: Bulgaria 2000 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.heracles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most of Thrace was included in the autonomous region of Eastern Rumelia, whereas the rest of Thrace and all of Macedonia was returned under the sovereignty of the Ottomans.^ The Treaty of Berlin also left Eastern Rumelia under Ottoman control.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Present-day southern Bulgaria—then called Eastern Rumelia —became a separate autonomous province, and Macedonia remained under direct Turkish rule.
  • Bulgaria Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1912 Bulgaria drove Ottoman forces out of Thrace (the region on the Aegean sea which includes the city of Salonika) and thus freed Macedonia as well from Ottoman control.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.After the Serbo-Bulgarian War and unification with Eastern Rumelia in 1885, the principality was proclaimed a fully independent kingdom on October 5 (September 22 O.S.), 1908, during the reign of Ferdinand I of Bulgaria.^ Oct 1908 Independence declared ( Tsardom [Kingdom] of Bulgaria).

^ This was later corrected in 1885 when Eastern Rumelia became part of Bulgaria.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Eastern Rumelia 1878-1885?, 1885?

.Ferdinand, a prince from the ducal family of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, became the Bulgarian Prince after Alexander von Battenberg abdicated in 1886 following a coup d'état staged by pro-Russian army-officers.^ Alexander of Battenberg, a nephew of the Russian emperor, was made prince.
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^ Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha was made Bulgarian monarch in 1887.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Alexander's successor, Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, profiting from the revolution of the Young Turks in the Ottoman Empire in 1908, proclaimed Bulgaria independent with himself as czar.
  • Bulgaria News - Breaking World Bulgaria News - The New York Times 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

.(Although the counter-coup d'état coordinated by Stefan Stambolov succeeded, Prince Alexander decided not to remain the Bulgarian ruler without the approval of Alexander III of Russia.^ Stefan Stambolov was a strong leader, perhaps even dictatorial, who had a strong influence on the development of the Bulgarian state.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ With the departure of Alexander, the prime minister of the subranie , Stefan Stambolov, became the effective ruler of Bulgaria.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The prince's plans were favoured by the death of the tsar Alexander III .

) The struggle for liberation of the Bulgarians in the Adrianople, Vilayet and Macedonia continued throughout the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries culminating with the Ilinden-Preobrazhenie Uprising organised by the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization in 1903.
Veliko Tarnovo, the capital of the Second Bulgarian Empire (1185–1393).

The Balkan Wars and World War I

.In 1912 and 1913 Bulgaria became involved in the Balkan Wars, first entering into conflict alongside Greece, Serbia and Montenegro against the Ottoman Empire.^ The First Balkan War was fought to wrest control of the Balkans from the Ottoman Empire.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The first known Thracian state dates from the mid-5th century BC. Weakened by conflict with the Macedonians and Persians, the Thracian kingdom was finally absorbed by the Roman Empire after a 150-year struggle lasting into the first years of the Christian era.
  • Audit: Bulgaria 2000 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.heracles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ UN economic sanctions imposed during the 1990s on neighboring Yugoslavia (since dissolved into the nations of Serbia and Montenegro), a major trade partner, had serious negative effects on Bulgaria's economy.
  • Bulgaria Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bulgaria News - Breaking World Bulgaria News - The New York Times 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

.The First Balkan War (1912-1913) proved a success for the Bulgarian army, but a conflict for the division of Macedonia arose amongst the victorious the allies.^ Bulgaria was victorious in the first of the Balkan Wars (1912–13), but fell out with its allies in the second.
  • Bulgaria Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The second Bulgarian empire, with its capital at Turnovo, ruled much of the Balkan Peninsula before succumbing to internal divisions and foreign invasion.
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^ Bulgaria lost this war, along with most of the territory it had gained in the first conflict.
  • Audit: Bulgaria 2000 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.heracles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Second Balkan War (1913) pitted Bulgaria against Greece and Serbia, joined by Romania and Turkey.^ Bulgaria also has fair relations with it's neighbours Turkey, Greece and Serbia.
  • Bulgaria - eRepublik Official Wiki 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC wiki.erepublik.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nov 1919 By Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine Bulgaria cedes Western Thrace to Greece; Dobruja ceded to Romania; the border areas of western Macedonia (Bosiligrad, Caribrod, and Strumica) ceded to Serbia/Yugoslavia.

^ Predating the Greeks as the most important early European civilization is the Thracian ethnos which comprised not only the territory of present-day Bulgaria but also the land of present-day Romania, Eastern Serbia, Northern Greece and Northwestern Turkey.
  • Bulgaria Festivals 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.carnaval.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

After its defeat in the Second Balkan War, Bulgaria lost considerable territory conquered in the first war, as well as Southern Dobruja and parts of the region of Macedonia
.During World War I, Bulgaria found itself fighting on the losing side as a result of its alliance with the Central Powers.^ Bulgaria maintains a neutral stance on nearly every war in the New World.
  • Bulgaria - eRepublik Official Wiki 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC wiki.erepublik.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After World War II, the peace treaty restored Bulgaria to its borders of 1941-01-01, canceling out its conquests in Thrace and southern Yugoslavia.
  • Bulgaria Regions 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.statoids.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Boris finally established a royal dictatorship and, during World War II, sided with Germany in yet another unsuccessful attempt to expand westward.
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.The defeat led to new territorial losses (the Western Outlands to Serbia, Western Thrace to Greece and the re-conquered Southern Dobruja to Romania).^ Nov 1919 By Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine Bulgaria cedes Western Thrace to Greece; Dobruja ceded to Romania; the border areas of western Macedonia (Bosiligrad, Caribrod, and Strumica) ceded to Serbia/Yugoslavia.

^ Predating the Greeks as the most important early European civilization is the Thracian ethnos which comprised not only the territory of present-day Bulgaria but also the land of present-day Romania, Eastern Serbia, Northern Greece and Northwestern Turkey.
  • Bulgaria Festivals 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.carnaval.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Treaty of Craiova (1940-09-08) transferred Durostor (Silistra) and Caliacra (Tolbukhin) provinces (together known as Southern Dobruja) from Romania to Bulgaria.
  • Bulgaria Regions 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.statoids.com [Source type: Reference]

.The Balkan Wars and World War I led to the influx of over 250,000 Bulgarian refugees from Macedonia, Eastern and Western Thrace and Southern Dobruja.^ Nov 1919 By Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine Bulgaria cedes Western Thrace to Greece; Dobruja ceded to Romania; the border areas of western Macedonia (Bosiligrad, Caribrod, and Strumica) ceded to Serbia/Yugoslavia.

^ Present-day southern Bulgaria—then called Eastern Rumelia —became a separate autonomous province, and Macedonia remained under direct Turkish rule.
  • Bulgaria Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After World War II, the peace treaty restored Bulgaria to its borders of 1941-01-01, canceling out its conquests in Thrace and southern Yugoslavia.
  • Bulgaria Regions 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.statoids.com [Source type: Reference]

.These numbers increased in the 1930s following Serbian state-sponsored aggression against its native Bulgarian population.^ In Eastern Rumelia, where the Bulgarian population never ceased to protest against the division of the race, political life had developed on the same lines as in the principality.

^ In 1185 two Bulgarian noblemen led a revolt against Byzantine power and established a Bulgarian state with capital at Tûrnovo.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

The interwar years

.In September 1918 Tsar Ferdinand abdicated in favour of his son Boris III in order to head off revolutionary tendencies.^ Bulgaria's defeat in 1918 forced Ferdinand's abdication and the accession of his son, Boris.
  • Audit: Bulgaria 2000 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.heracles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ King Ferdinand was forced to abdicate in favor of his son, Boris.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The prince's plans were favoured by the death of the tsar Alexander III .

.Under the Treaty of Neuilly (November 1919), Bulgaria ceded its Aegean coastline to Greece, recognized the existence of Yugoslavia, ceded nearly all of its Macedonian territory to that new state, and had to give Dobruja back to the Romanians.^ The terms of the 1919 Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine were harsh for Bulgaria.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Nov 1919 By Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine Bulgaria cedes Western Thrace to Greece; Dobruja ceded to Romania; the border areas of western Macedonia (Bosiligrad, Caribrod, and Strumica) ceded to Serbia/Yugoslavia.

^ Following the Russo-Turkish War (1877-78) and the Treaty of Berlin (1885), Bulgaria gained some autonomy under the Ottoman Empire, but complete independence was not recognized until 1908.

The country had to reduce its army to 20,000 men, and to pay reparations exceeding $400 million. Bulgarians generally refer to the results of the treaty as the "Second National Catastrophe".
.Elections in March 1920 gave the Agrarians a large majority, and Aleksandar Stamboliyski formed Bulgaria's first peasant government.^ First-class investor certificates, the highest investor rank in Bulgaria, will be awarded to companies with a minimum investment volume of BGN 32 million, not BGN 70 million , the government decided on 4 March 2009.

^ Citizens for European Development of Bulgaria (CEDB) will continue to govern alone, despite lacking a parliamentary majority.
  • EIU online store - Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC store.eiu.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Parliamentary elections in June, 2005, resulted in a victory for the Socialists, but they did not win a majority and were initially unable to form a coalition, and subsequently NMS also failed to do so.
  • Bulgaria Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He faced huge social problems, but succeeded in carrying out many social reforms, although opposition from the middle and upper classes, the landlords and the officers of the army remained powerful.^ The great powers remained inactive, but Servia declared war in the following month, and her army was joined by 2000 Bulgarian volunteers .

^ By the middle of 1915 the German armies were defeating those of the Russian Empire, so Bulgaria decided in October 1919 to join the Central Powers.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Pro-Allied political forces (Communists, Agrarians, and the pro-Soviet army officers), headed by Georgiev, seized power immediately.
  • Bulgaria News - Breaking World Bulgaria News - The New York Times 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

.In March 1923 Stamboliyski signed an agreement with Yugoslavia recognising the new border and agreeing to suppress VMRO, which favoured a war to regain Macedonia for Bulgaria.^ Nov 1919 By Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine Bulgaria cedes Western Thrace to Greece; Dobruja ceded to Romania; the border areas of western Macedonia (Bosiligrad, Caribrod, and Strumica) ceded to Serbia/Yugoslavia.

^ In 1941, Bulgaria occupied parts of Yugoslavia and Greece (including Macedonia), and declared war on Great Britain and the United States—but not the Soviet Union, because the populace was pro-Russian.
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^ This effectively ended the expansion of the Bulgarian state, although Ferdinand sided with the Central Powers during World War I in an attempt to regain Macedonia.
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This triggered a nationalist reaction, and on 9 June there was a coup after which Stamboliykski was assassinated. .A right wing government under Aleksandar Tsankov took power, backed by the army and the VMRO, who waged a White terror against the Agrarians and the Communists.^ Communists staged an uprising against the Tsankov government which Tsankov had difficulty in suppressing.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Against all political logic, Stamboliiski's opponents of the right and the left united into one coalition under the leadership of Alexander Tsankov.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Mahommedan community is rapidly diminishing; it is organized under 16 muftis who with their assistants receive a subvention from the government.

.In 1926 the Tsar persuaded Tsankov to resign, a more moderate government under Andrey Lyapchev took office and an amnesty was proclaimed, although the Communists remained banned.^ In 1926 Tsankov was replaced by Andrei Liapchev as prime minister.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The BSP government under Videnov was no more able to cope with the economic problems of Bulgaria than its predecessors and Videnov resigned in December of 1996.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The government of Vasil Radoslavov resigned in June of 1916 and was replaced with one under the prime ministership of Alexander Malinov.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Popular alliance including the re-organised Agrarians won elections in 1931 under the name Popular Bloc.^ The ruling communist party changed its name to the Bulgarian Socialist Party and won the June 1990 elections.

^ In the April elections the UDP won a plurality and was able to form a new coalition government under the leadership of Ivan Kostov, a trained economist.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In May 1934 another coup took place, removing the Popular Bloc from power and establishing an authoritarian military régime headed by Kimon Georgiev.^ In 1934 Zveno organized a military coup d'etat .
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Agrarian party cabinet established (1919) by Stambuliski held power until overthrown (1923) in a bloody coup.
  • Bulgaria News - Breaking World Bulgaria News - The New York Times 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ Pro-Allied political forces (Communists, Agrarians, and the pro-Soviet army officers), headed by Georgiev, seized power immediately.
  • Bulgaria News - Breaking World Bulgaria News - The New York Times 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

.A year later the Tsar managed to remove the military régime from power, restoring a form of parliamentary rule without the re-establishment of the political parties and under his strict control.^ Todor Zhivkov, the head of the Bulgarian Communist Party, ruled the country for much of its time under communism, and during his 27 years as leader of Bulgaria, democratic opposition was crushed, agriculture and industry were nationalized, and the Bulgarian Orthodox Church fell under the control of the state.

^ The generals, who had made an unsuccessful attempt to remove the prince, withdrew; the constitution of Trnovo was restored by proclamation (19th September 1883), and a coalition ministry was formed under Tzankoff.

^ This liberalization suffered a severe setback when Liudmila Zhivkova died in 1981, due to a concussion she had suffered years earlier, 1 and Communist Party reactionaries reasserted control.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The Tsar's regime proclaimed neutrality but gradually Bulgaria gravitated into alliance with Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy.^ The Macedonian issue was largely responsible for the entry in 1915 of Bulgaria into World War I on the side of Germany and Austria-Hungary.
  • Bulgaria News - Breaking World Bulgaria News - The New York Times 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ In World War II, Bulgaria saw an alliance with Germany as an opportunity to satisfy its territorial claims.
  • Bulgaria News - Breaking World Bulgaria News - The New York Times 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ Germany used territorial acquistion as an inducement for Bulgaria to join its alliance.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

World War II

.After regaining control over Southern Dobruja in 1940, Bulgaria became allied with the Axis Powers, although no Bulgarian soldiers participated in the war against the USSR.^ Sep 1940 Romania restores Southern Dobruja to Bulgaria.

^ Bulgaria also lost in the Treaty of Bucharest the control of southern Dobruja to Romania.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Although the administration (1864-69) of Midhat Pasha made Bulgaria briefly a model province, by then Bulgarian nationalism was strong.
  • Bulgaria News - Breaking World Bulgaria News - The New York Times 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

.During World War II Nazi Germany allowed Bulgaria to occupy parts of Greece and of Yugoslavia, including territories long coveted by the Bulgarians.^ From the end of World War I Bulgaria's major trading partner was Germany.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In World War II, Bulgaria saw an alliance with Germany as an opportunity to satisfy its territorial claims.
  • Bulgaria News - Breaking World Bulgaria News - The New York Times 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ Although allied with Germany during World War II, Bulgaria never declared war on Russia.

.Bulgaria became one of three countries (with Finland and Denmark) that saved its entire Jewish population (around 50,000) from the Nazi camps by refusing to comply with a 31 August 1943 resolution.^ In 1946, Bulgaria became a one-party republic.
  • Bulgaria Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most numerous among them are the Bulgarians 84% of the countrys population, and the Turks - around 9,4%.
  • Bulgarian Properties for sale. Bulgarian properties: Villas, Homes, Apartments, Land, Vineyards and other Properties in Bulgaria - Bulgarian Properties 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.bulgarianview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under that agreement, however, Bulgarian forces transferred approximately 11,000 Jews from Bulgarian-occupied territory (Thrace and Macedonia) to Nazi concentration camps.
  • Bulgaria (11/09) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But the Bulgarian authorities sent Jews in territories newly acquired from Greece and Yugoslavia to death-camps at Germany's request.^ Bulgarian citizen by a place of birth is every person born on the territory of the Republic of Bulgaria if he does not acquire another citizenship by origin.
  • CDL(2002)074 - Legislation on Kin-Minorities: Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.venice.coe.int [Source type: Original source]

^ Upon entering the country, Bulgarian immigration authorities request that all foreigners declare the purpose of their visit and provide their intended address.
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^ Bulgaria participated in the German invasions of Greece and Yugoslavia only to the extent of occupying Thrace and Macedonia, territories to which Bulgaria had some historical claim.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In September 1944 the Soviet army entered Bulgaria, which enabled the Bulgarian Communists to later seize power and establish a Communist state.^ Mar 1878 Treaty of San Stefano ratified, Bulgarian autonomous polity established ( Principality of Bulgaria ) under Ottoman suzerainty.

^ Today Bulgaria is one of the European states and the Bulgarian culture is part of the European and world culture.
  • Bulgarian Properties for sale. Bulgarian properties: Villas, Homes, Apartments, Land, Vineyards and other Properties in Bulgaria - Bulgarian Properties 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.bulgarianview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1185 two Bulgarian noblemen led a revolt against Byzantine power and established a Bulgarian state with capital at Tûrnovo.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In 1944, Bulgaria's forces were turned against its former German ally (a 450,000 strong army in 1944, reduced to 130,000 in 1945).^ Bulgaria was victorious against Turkey in the first (1911-12) of the Balkan Wars , but claims to Macedonia involved it in the Second Balkan War with its former allies Greece and Serbia, and it was soon defeated.
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  • Bulgaria News - Breaking World Bulgaria News - The New York Times 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ The Russian army routed the Ottoman forces in Bulgaria and marched to Istanbul.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Bulgaria has refused to renegotiate its contract...should define its relationship with Bulgaria , a former loyal Soviet ally, even though...
  • Bulgaria Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.More than 20,000 Bulgarian soldiers and officers were killed in the war.^ The Bulgarian peasant makes an admirable soldier - courageous, obedient, persevering, and inured to hardship; the officers are painstaking and devoted to their duties.

^ More than 2500 apparel and textile companies generate a quarter of all Bulgarian exports and employ more than 170,000 people.
  • USAID Europe and Eurasia: Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.usaid.gov [Source type: General]

^ The spiritual domination of the Greek patriarchate had tended more effectually than the temporal power of the Turks to the effacement of Bulgarian nationality .

People's Republic of Bulgaria

.After World War II Bulgaria fell within the Soviet sphere of influence.^ After World War II, the peace treaty restored Bulgaria to its borders of 1941-01-01, canceling out its conquests in Thrace and southern Yugoslavia.
  • Bulgaria Regions 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.statoids.com [Source type: Reference]

^ King Simeon II assumed control of the throne in 1943 at the age of 6 following the death of his father Boris III. Following the defeat of the Axis Powers in World War II, communism emerged as the dominant political force within Bulgaria.

^ The first multi-party elections since World War II were held in 1990.

.It became a People's Republic in 1946 and one of the USSR's staunchest allies.^ In 1946, Bulgaria became a one-party republic.
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^ Sep 1946 People's Republic of Bulgaria 15 Nov 1990 Republic of Bulgaria .

.In the late 1970s it began normalizing relations with Greece, and in the 1990s with Turkey.^ Zhivkov normalized relations with Yugoslavia and Greece.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Relations with Greece and Turkey improved somewhat after 1954.
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.The People's Republic ended in 1989 as many Communist regimes in Eastern Europe, as well as the Soviet Union itself, began to collapse.^ This purge was mandated by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and was carried out under the direction of Todor Zhivkov.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ By DAN BILEFSKY Irina Bokova said that growing up in Communist Eastern Europe had made her a fervent advocate of political pluralism and European integration.
  • Bulgaria News - Breaking World Bulgaria News - The New York Times 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ By MATTHEW BRUNWASSER The 20th anniversary of the removal of Bulgaria's Communist leader went uncelebrated as many of the country's people remain undecided about the benefits of democracy.
  • Bulgaria News - Breaking World Bulgaria News - The New York Times 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

.Opposition forces removed the Bulgarian Communist leader Todor Zhivkov from power on 10 November 1989.^ In 1989 the Bulgarian Communist Party deposed Zhivkov.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Mar 1954 - 10 Nov 1989 Todor Khristov Zhivkov (b.

^ Todor Zhivkov, the head of the Bulgarian Communist Party, ruled the country for much of its time under communism, and during his 27 years as leader of Bulgaria, democratic opposition was crushed, agriculture and industry were nationalized, and the Bulgarian Orthodox Church fell under the control of the state.

The Republic of Bulgaria

.In February 1990 the Communist Party voluntarily gave up its monopoly on power, and in June 1990 the first free elections since 1931 took place, won by the moderate wing of the Communist Party, renamed the Bulgarian Socialist Party (BSP).^ The ruling communist party changed its name to the Bulgarian Socialist Party and won the June 1990 elections.
  • Bulgaria (11/09) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ The first multi-party elections since World War II were held in 1990.
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^ In June of 1990 an election was held for the legislature and the Bulgarian Socialist Party (the former Communists, won a majority.
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.In July 1991 the country adopted a new constitution which provided for a relatively weak elected President and for a Prime Minister accountable to the legislature.^ Constitution: Adopted July 12, 1991.
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^ The new government of Bulgaria, under Prime Minister Stanishev recently appointed Mr. Yavor Dimitrov, 41, as Deputy Minister of Labor and Social Policy...
  • USAID Europe and Eurasia: Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.usaid.gov [Source type: General]

^ The President's decrees shall be countersigned by the Prime Minister or the minister concerned.
  • ICL - Bulgaria - Constitution 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.servat.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

.The anti-Communist Union of Democratic Forces took office, and between 1992 and 1994 carried through the privatization of land and industry, but faced massive unemployment and economic difficulties.^ The reform-minded government of the Union of Democratic Forces (UDF), which took power in mid-1997, renewed Bulgaria's commitment to fundamental economic reforms, and established accession to the EU and NATO as national policy priorities.
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^ This purge was mandated by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and was carried out under the direction of Todor Zhivkov.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Communists and Social Democrats organized a strike of the transportation workers that lasted two to three months and finally had to be suppressed with military forces.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The reaction against economic reform allowed BSP to take office again in 1995, but by 1996 the BSP government had also encountered difficulties, and in the presidential elections of that year the UDF's Petar Stoyanov was elected.^ In January and February of 1997 there were massive demonstrations against the government of the Bulgarian Socialist Party which forced the BSP government to resign and schedule new elections for April.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Bulgarian Socialist Party candidate Georgi Parvanov won the November 2001 presidential election and was re-elected in October 2006 as an independent candidate in a run-off against Volen Siderov, the leader of extreme nationalist Ataka Party.
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^ The reform-minded government of the Union of Democratic Forces (UDF), which took power in mid-1997, renewed Bulgaria's commitment to fundamental economic reforms, and established accession to the EU and NATO as national policy priorities.
  • USAID CP FY2000: Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.usaid.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1997 the BSP government collapsed and the UDF came to power.^ In January and February of 1997 there were massive demonstrations against the government of the Bulgarian Socialist Party which forced the BSP government to resign and schedule new elections for April.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The reform-minded government of the Union of Democratic Forces (UDF), which took power in mid-1997, renewed Bulgaria's commitment to fundamental economic reforms, and established accession to the EU and NATO as national policy priorities.
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^ A new government under the leadership of Zhan Videnov of the BSP took power in September of 1994.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Unemployment, however, remained high and the electorate became increasingly dissatisfied with both parties.^ However, several key reforms remain to be implemented, including third-party access and a fully independent regulator.
  • USAID Europe and Eurasia: Support for East European Democracy (SEED) Report - Fiscal Year 2000 - Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.usaid.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On June 17, 2001 Simeon II, the son of Tsar Boris III and the former Head of state (as Tsar of Bulgaria from 1943 to 1946), won a narrow victory in the democratic elections held.^ Aug 1943 - 15 Sep 1946 Simeon II (b.

^ The child Simeon II succeeded when Boris died mysteriously (1943).
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  • Bulgaria News - Breaking World Bulgaria News - The New York Times 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ A general election in Bulgaria was held June 25, 2005.

.The king's party — National Movement Simeon II ("NMSII") — won 120 out of 240 seats in Parliament and overturned the two pre-existing political parties.^ Legislative body - National Assembly (Narodno Sabranie,one-chamber parliament) of 240 Members of Parlament (Naroden predstavitel or Deputat) with 4-year term.
  • Bulgarian Properties for sale. Bulgarian properties: Villas, Homes, Apartments, Land, Vineyards and other Properties in Bulgaria - Bulgarian Properties 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.bulgarianview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ King Simeon II assumed control of the throne in 1943 at the age of 6 following the death of his father Boris III. Following the defeat of the Axis Powers in World War II, communism emerged as the dominant political force within Bulgaria.

^ His actions gained him enough popularity with the electrorate that his BANU won enough of the vote not to need to form a coalition with other political parties.
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.Simeon's popularity declined during his four-year rule as Prime Minister, and the BSP won the elections in 2005, but could not form a single-party government and had to seek a coalition.^ Borisov will probably be the next prime minister, if negotiations to form a coalition government are successful.
  • Bulgaria News - Breaking World Bulgaria News - The New York Times 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ The new government of Bulgaria, under Prime Minister Stanishev recently appointed Mr. Yavor Dimitrov, 41, as Deputy Minister of Labor and Social Policy...
  • USAID Europe and Eurasia: Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.usaid.gov [Source type: General]

^ In January and February of 1997 there were massive demonstrations against the government of the Bulgarian Socialist Party which forced the BSP government to resign and schedule new elections for April.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Since 1989 Bulgaria has held multi-party elections and privatized its economy, but economic difficulties and a tide of corruption have led over 800,000 Bulgarians, most of them qualified professionals, to emigrate.^ The first multi-party elections since World War II were held in 1990.
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^ In January and February of 1997 there were massive demonstrations against the government of the Bulgarian Socialist Party which forced the BSP government to resign and schedule new elections for April.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Bulgaria became a member of the EU, but EU concerns over Bulgarian corruption led the EU in 2008 to suspend more than 500 million euros in aid to Bulgaria; roughly two fifths of that aid subsequently was denied to Bulgaria.
  • Bulgaria News - Breaking World Bulgaria News - The New York Times 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

.Economic conditions nevertheless continue to improve.^ The new government under Lyuben Berov was not able to improve economic conditions over the next two years and had to resign in September of 1994.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

Politics

The Largo, the home of the Presidency and of the Council of Ministers
The Parliament Building
The Palace of Justice
Main article: Politics of Bulgaria
.Bulgaria joined NATO on 29 March 2004 and signed the Treaty of Accession on 25 April 2005.^ DEFENSE Bulgaria became a member of NATO on March 29, 2004.
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^ DEFENSE In November 2002, Bulgaria was invited to become a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), and officially became a member of NATO on March 29, 2004 after depositing its instruments of treaty ratification in Washington, DC. Bulgaria's military is currently undergoing an ambitious restructuring program aimed to bring the army up to NATO standards.

^ Bulgaria is joined NATO, European Union, United Nations and became a founding member of OSCE. As a Consultative Party to the Antarctic Treaty, Bulgaria takes part in the administration of the territories situated south of 60° south latitude.

.It became a full member of the European Union on 1 January 2007.^ Bulgaria’s membership in the European Union, effective January 2007, will end economic assistance provided by USAID under the Support to Eastern European Democracy (SEED) Act in September 2008.
  • USAID Europe and Eurasia: Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.usaid.gov [Source type: General]

^ The two countries, now members of the European Union and NATO, have achieved key development milestones politically, economically, and socially...
  • USAID Europe and Eurasia: Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.usaid.gov [Source type: General]

^ The country's entry into the European Union on January 1, 2007, lifted visa restrictions for EU citizens, making it significantly easier for EU-member missionaries to work in the country.
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.The country had joined the United Nations in 1955, and became a founding member of OSCE in 1995.^ Bulgaria joined (1949) the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and in 1955 became a member of the Warsaw Treaty Organization and the United Nations.
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  • Bulgaria News - Breaking World Bulgaria News - The New York Times 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ Membership in international organisations: Bulgaria is a member of United Nations (14 December 1955), NATO (29 March 2004) and 53 other international organisations, associated member of the EU (February 1 1995); Bulgaria completed accession negotiations with the European Union in 2004.
  • Bulgarian Properties for sale. Bulgarian properties: Villas, Homes, Apartments, Land, Vineyards and other Properties in Bulgaria - Bulgarian Properties 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.bulgarianview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bulgaria is a member of the United Nations, and in 2002-2003 served a 2-year term as a nonpermanent member on the UN Security Council.
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.As a Consultative Party to the Antarctic Treaty, Bulgaria takes part in the governing of the territories situated south of 60° south latitude.^ HISTORICAL HIGHLIGHTS Ancient Thrace was partially located on the territory of modern Bulgaria, and Thracian culture provides a wealth of archeological sites within Bulgaria.
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^ Critics had also accused the government of failing to take adequate measures to minimize the impact of the global economic crisis, which hit Bulgaria later than the rest of Europe.
  • Bulgaria News - Breaking World Bulgaria News - The New York Times 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ By the Treaty of Bucharest (1913), Bulgaria lost S Dobruja and a large part of Macedonia.
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  • Bulgaria News - Breaking World Bulgaria News - The New York Times 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

.Georgi Parvanov, the President of Bulgaria since 22 January 2002, won re-election on 29 October 2006 and began his second term in office in January 2007. (Bulgarian voters directly elect their presidents for a five-year term with the right to one re-election.^ Article 93  [Elections] (1) The President is elected directly by the voters for a period of five years by a procedure established by law.
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^ Bulgaria joined the EU on 1 January 2007.
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^ The president, who is the head of state, is popularly elected for a five-year term and is eligible for a second term.
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  • Bulgaria News - Breaking World Bulgaria News - The New York Times 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

) .The president serves as the head of state and commander in chief of the armed forces.^ The President shall be the head of State.
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^ The president serves as the head of state and commander in chief of the armed forces.
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^ The President shall appoint and remove the higher command of the Armed Forces and shall bestow all higher military ranks on a motion from the Council of Ministers.
  • National Assembly of the Republic of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.parliament.bg [Source type: Original source]

.He is also the head of the Consultative Council for National Security and, while unable to initiate legislation other than Constitutional amendments, the President can return a bill for further debate, although the parliament can override the President's veto by vote of a majority of all MPs.^ The President shall preside over the Consultative National Security Council, the status of which shall be established by law.
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^ Parliament can overturn the president's veto with a simple majority vote.
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^ National Assembly for further debate; 5.
  • National Assembly of the Republic of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.parliament.bg [Source type: Original source]

.Since 17 August 2005 Sergey Stanishev as Prime Minister has chaired the Council of Ministers, the principal body of the executive branch, which presently consists of 20 ministers.^ The Council of Ministers shall consist of a Prime Minister, Deputy Prime Ministers and ministers.
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^ The prime minister is head of the Council of Ministers, which is the primary component of the executive branch.
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^ The new government of Bulgaria, under Prime Minister Stanishev recently appointed Mr. Yavor Dimitrov, 41, as Deputy Minister of Labor and Social Policy...
  • USAID Europe and Eurasia: Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.usaid.gov [Source type: General]

.The Prime Minister — usually nominated by the largest parliamentary group — receives the mandate of the President to form a cabinet.^ Should the Prime Minister candidate fail to form a government within seven days, the President shall entrust this task to a Prime Minister candidate nominated by the second largest parliamentary group.
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^ Should the new Prime Minister candidate also fail to form a government within the period established by the preceding paragraph, the President shall entrust the task to a Prime Minister candidate nominated by one of the minor parliamentary groups.
  • ICL - Bulgaria - Constitution 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.servat.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

^ Article 99  [Establishing Government] (1) Following consultations with the parliamentary groups, the President shall appoint the Prime Minister candidate nominated by the party holding the highest number of seats in the National Assembly to form a government.
  • ICL - Bulgaria - Constitution 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.servat.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

.The current governmental coalition comprises the Bulgarian Socialist Party (BSP), National Movement Simeon II (NMSII) and the Movement for Rights and Freedoms (representing mainly the Turkish minority).^ The UDF always refused to form a coalition with the BSP but willing cooperated with the Movement for Rights and Freedom (MRF) which represented the interests of the Turkish minority of Bulgaria.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In January and February of 1997 there were massive demonstrations against the government of the Bulgarian Socialist Party which forced the BSP government to resign and schedule new elections for April.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Bulgaria lagged behind its neighbours, Serbia and Greece, in the creation of a movement for independence; but, by the time of the Russo-Turkish War (1877-78), a movement known as the National Revival had brought about a widespread sense of Bulgarian identity.
  • Audit: Bulgaria 2000 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.heracles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Bulgarian unicameral parliament, the National Assembly or Narodno Sabranie (Народно събрание), consists of 240 deputies, each elected for four-year terms by popular vote.^ The unicameral National Assembly, or Narodno Subranie, consists of 240 deputies who are elected for 4-year terms through a system of proportional representation in 31 electoral regions.

^ Members are elected by popular vote of party/coalition lists of candidates for 4-year terms.

^ Legislative body - National Assembly (Narodno Sabranie,one-chamber parliament) of 240 Members of Parlament (Naroden predstavitel or Deputat) with 4-year term.
  • Bulgarian Properties for sale. Bulgarian properties: Villas, Homes, Apartments, Land, Vineyards and other Properties in Bulgaria - Bulgarian Properties 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.bulgarianview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The votes go to parties or to coalition lists of candidates for each of the 28 administrative divisions.^ Members are elected by popular vote of party/coalition lists of candidates for 4-year terms.

^ Party or coalition lists, rather than individual candidate names, appear on the ballots.

^ A party or coalition must garner a minimum of 4% of the vote in order to enter parliament.

.A party or coalition must win a minimum of 4% of the vote in order to enter parliament.^ A party or coalition must garner a minimum of 4% of the vote in order to enter parliament.

^ Parties and coalitions must win a minimum 4% of the national vote to enter parliament.
  • Bulgaria (11/09) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Members are elected by popular vote of party/coalition lists of candidates for 4-year terms.

.Parliament is responsible for enactment of laws, approval of the budget, scheduling of presidential elections, selection and dismissal of the Prime Minister and other ministers, declaration of war, deployment of troops outside of Bulgaria, and ratification of international treaties and agreements.^ Parliament selects and dismisses government ministers, including the prime minister, exercises control over the government, and sanctions deployment of troops abroad.
  • Bulgaria (11/09) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.virtualsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is responsible for enactment of laws, approval of the budget, scheduling of presidential elections, declaration of war, and ratification of international treaties and agreements.
  • Bulgaria (11/09) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.virtualsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The new government of Bulgaria, under Prime Minister Stanishev recently appointed Mr. Yavor Dimitrov, 41, as Deputy Minister of Labor and Social Policy...
  • USAID Europe and Eurasia: Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.usaid.gov [Source type: General]

The most recent elections took place in June 2005. The next scheduled elections should take place in summer 2009.
.The Bulgarian judicial system consists of regional, district and appeal courts, as well as a Supreme Court of Cassation.^ Justice shall be administered by the Supreme Court of Cassation, the Supreme Administrative Court, courts of appeal, regional courts, courts-martial and district courts.
  • National Assembly of the Republic of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.parliament.bg [Source type: Original source]

^ Seven years of USAID work toward Bulgarian court improvement became another USAID legacy on July 11 when the Supreme Judicial Council (SJC) created a Department of Court Administration...
  • USAID Europe and Eurasia: Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.usaid.gov [Source type: General]

^ Article 119  [Court Hierarchy] (1) Justice is administered by the Supreme Court of Cassation, the Supreme Administrative Court, courts of appeals, courts of assizes, courts-martial and district courts.
  • ICL - Bulgaria - Constitution 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.servat.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

.In addition, Bulgaria has a Supreme Administrative Court and a system of military courts.^ Article 119  [Court Hierarchy] (1) Justice is administered by the Supreme Court of Cassation, the Supreme Administrative Court, courts of appeals, courts of assizes, courts-martial and district courts.
  • ICL - Bulgaria - Constitution 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.servat.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

^ Sitting on it ex officio shall be the Chairman of the Supreme Court of Cassation, the Chairman of the Supreme Administrative Court and the Prosecutor General.
  • National Assembly of the Republic of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.parliament.bg [Source type: Original source]

^ The Supreme Administrative Court shall rule on all challenges to the legality of acts of the Council of Ministers and the ministers, and any other acts envisaged by the law.
  • National Assembly of the Republic of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.parliament.bg [Source type: Original source]

.The Presidents of the Supreme Court of Cassation and of the Supreme Administrative Court, as well as the Prosecutor General, are elected by a qualified majority of two-thirds from all the members of the Supreme Judicial Council and are appointed by the President of the Republic.^ The Supreme Administrative Court and the Supreme Court of Cassation are the highest courts of appeal and determine the application of all laws.
  • Bulgaria (11/09) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Supreme Court of Administration and Supreme Court of Cassation are the highest courts of appeal and determine the application of all laws.

^ Seven years of USAID work toward Bulgarian court improvement became another USAID legacy on July 11 when the Supreme Judicial Council (SJC) created a Department of Court Administration...
  • USAID Europe and Eurasia: Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.usaid.gov [Source type: General]

.The Supreme Judicial Council is in charge of the self-administration and organization of the Judiciary.^ Supreme Judicial Council for consideration; 2.
  • National Assembly of the Republic of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.parliament.bg [Source type: Original source]

^ Seven years of USAID work toward Bulgarian court improvement became another USAID legacy on July 11 when the Supreme Judicial Council (SJC) created a Department of Court Administration...
  • USAID Europe and Eurasia: Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.usaid.gov [Source type: General]

^ (New-SG 12/07) (1) An Inspectorate shall be established to the Supreme Judicial Council, which shall be composed of a chief inspector and ten inspectors.
  • National Assembly of the Republic of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.parliament.bg [Source type: Original source]

.The Constitutional Court supervises the review of the constitutionality of laws and statutes brought before it, as well as the compliance of these laws with international treaties that the Government has signed.^ The court that interprets the constitution and constitutionality of laws and treaties is the Constitutional Court.

^ The Constitutional Court, which is separate from the rest of the judiciary, interprets the constitution and constitutionality of laws and treaties.
  • Bulgaria (11/09) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It shall be governed by the Constitution and the laws of the country.
  • National Assembly of the Republic of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.parliament.bg [Source type: Original source]

.Parliament elects the twelve members of the Constitutional Court by a two-thirds majority: the members serve for a nine-year term.^ Members are elected through a mixed electoral system for 4-year terms.
  • Bulgaria (11/09) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The elected members of the Supreme Judicial Council shall serve terms of five years.
  • National Assembly of the Republic of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.parliament.bg [Source type: Original source]

^ The chief inspector shall be elected by the National Assembly by a majority of two-thirds of the Members for a term of five years.
  • National Assembly of the Republic of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.parliament.bg [Source type: Original source]

.The territory of the Republic of Bulgaria subdivides into provinces and municipalities.^ The territorial integrity of the Republic of Bulgaria is inviolable.
  • ICL - Bulgaria - Constitution 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.servat.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

^ Administratively, Bulgaria is divided into 28 provinces.
  • Bulgaria Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Article 2  [Territorial Integrity] (1) The Republic of Bulgaria is an integral state with local self-government.  No autonomous territorial formations shall exist.
  • ICL - Bulgaria - Constitution 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.servat.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

.In all, Bulgaria has 28 provinces, each headed by a provincial governor appointed by the government.^ Administratively, Bulgaria is divided into 28 provinces.
  • Bulgaria Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Zveno -sponsored government that was put in place tried to the international relations of Bulgaria with all other powers.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Prime Minister shall head, coordinate, and bear responsibility for the overall policy of the government.  He shall appoint and dismiss the deputy ministers.
  • ICL - Bulgaria - Constitution 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.servat.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

In addition, the country includes 263 municipalities.

Military

Main article: Military of Bulgaria
A Bulgarian Air Force MiG-29.
.The Military of Bulgaria consists of three services: the Bulgarian land forces, the Bulgarian Navy and the Bulgarian Air Force.^ While Bulgarian forces were occupied at the Bulgarian-Serbian border Turkish and Romanian forces invaded Bulgaria.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Bulgarian properties: Villas, Homes, Apartments, Land, Vineyards and other Properties in Bulgaria .
  • Bulgarian Properties for sale. Bulgarian properties: Villas, Homes, Apartments, Land, Vineyards and other Properties in Bulgaria - Bulgarian Properties 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.bulgarianview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Communists and Social Democrats organized a strike of the transportation workers that lasted two to three months and finally had to be suppressed with military forces.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

The armed forces have as their patron saint Sveti Georgi (St. George), and his feast day, 6 May, is also celebrated nationally as Valour and Army Day. .Despite active participation in all major European wars since the end of the nineteenth century, Bulgarian forces have never lost a flag.^ After 1878 the Bulgarian state was restored and strived to make up for the lost five centuries.
  • Bulgarian Properties for sale. Bulgarian properties: Villas, Homes, Apartments, Land, Vineyards and other Properties in Bulgaria - Bulgarian Properties 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.bulgarianview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Near the end of World War II, Bulgaria changed sides to fight the German army all the way to Austria; 30,000 Bulgarian troops were killed.
  • Bulgaria (11/09) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Citizens for European Development of Bulgaria (CEDB) will continue to govern alone, despite lacking a parliamentary majority.
  • EIU online store - Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC store.eiu.com [Source type: Academic]

[23] .Bulgaria first became a major military power in Europe under Khan Krum and Tsar Simeon I, in a series of wars with the Byzantine Empire for control of the Balkan Peninsula, in the late ninth century.^ In 1018, the Byzantine Empire conquered Bulgaria.
  • Bulgaria (11/09) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The First Balkan War was fought to wrest control of the Balkans from the Ottoman Empire.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1018, Bulgaria fell under the authority of the Byzantine Empire.

.By the use of approximately 12,000 heavy cavalry in tactics representing those of feudal knights, Simeon I's forces were able to reach as far as the Byzantine capital, Constantinople, in AD 896 .^ The first Bulgarian empire flourished under Tsar Simeon (reigned 893-927) but was forced to accept Byzantine domination in 1018.
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^ Under that agreement, however, Bulgarian forces transferred approximately 11,000 Jews from Bulgarian-occupied territory (Thrace and Macedonia) to Nazi concentration camps.
  • Bulgaria (11/09) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Bulgars were able to gain political recognition from the Byzantine Empire in 681 A.D. From the east with their capital at Pliska the Bulgarians gained territory to the west as far the Adriatic Sea and as far north as Belgrade.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.A formal peace treaty lasted until 912 when both sides were engaged in a war which ended with several major defeats of the Byzantines including one of the bloodiest battles in the Middle Ages at Anchialus in AD 917 .^ This effectively ended the expansion of the Bulgarian state, although Ferdinand sided with the Central Powers during World War I in an attempt to regain Macedonia.
  • Audit: Bulgaria 2000 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.heracles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Spices such as chopped cloves or cinnamon may be added, and the filling may be included in several layers instead of just one.
  • soc.culture.bulgaria FAQ (monthly posting) (part 9/10) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ From the end of World War I Bulgaria's major trading partner was Germany.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Bulgaria again became a significant military power under the rule of the Asen dynasty, in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.^ Although Bulgaria became a parliamentary democracy in 1990, it elected a socialist government into power in 1991.
  • Audit: Bulgaria 2000 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.heracles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under Roman rule Bulgaria was divided between the provinces of Moesia and Thrace and lay athwart the main land route from the west to the Middle East.
  • Audit: Bulgaria 2000 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.heracles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under the successive rule of the communist leaders Georgi Dimitrov, Vulko Chervenkov, and Todor Zhivkov, Bulgaria was transformed into a predominantly urban and industrial society.
  • Audit: Bulgaria 2000 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.heracles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the rule of Tsar Kaloyan (1197-1207), Bulgaria became the first European country to defeat the Crusader knights.^ Goods and services taken for granted in other European countries may not be available in many areas of Bulgaria.
  • Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ COUNTRY DESCRIPTION: Bulgaria is a quickly developing European nation undergoing significant economic changes.
  • Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the first half of the 20 th century, Bulgaria was marred by social and political unrest.

.Since gaining total independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1878, Bulgaria has been a small European country, frequently included in plans and wars of the Great Powers.^ Bulgaria, a former communist country that entered the eu on 1 january 2007, has experienced strong growth since a major economic downturn in 1996.
  • Jobs in Bulgaria Careers, Jobs, Education - Careers.org 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC international.careers.org [Source type: News]

^ Ottoman domination of the Balkan Peninsula eventually affected Bulgaria in the late 14th century, and by 1396, Bulgaria had become part of the Ottoman Empire.

^ In succeeding centuries, Bulgaria struggled with the Byzantine Empire to assert its place in the Balkans, but by the end of the 14th century the country was overrun by the Ottoman Turks.
  • Jobs in Bulgaria Careers, Jobs, Education - Careers.org 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC international.careers.org [Source type: News]

In 1913, Bulgarian forces introduced aviation bombardment, in the siege of Odrin. .Following a series of reductions beginning in 1989, the active troops of Bulgaria's army number as many as 68,450, today.^ With the collapse of the Soviet Union and the bringing down of the Berlin Wall in 1989, many of Bulgarias best and brightest fled the country.
  • Audit: Bulgaria 2000 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.heracles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Reserve forces include 303,000 soldiers and officers. ."PLAN 2004," an effort to modernize Bulgaria's armed forces, aims to better meet the military needs of NATO and the European Union.^ Membership in international organisations: Bulgaria is a member of United Nations (14 December 1955), NATO (29 March 2004) and 53 other international organisations, associated member of the EU (February 1 1995); Bulgaria completed accession negotiations with the European Union in 2004.
  • Bulgarian Properties for sale. Bulgarian properties: Villas, Homes, Apartments, Land, Vineyards and other Properties in Bulgaria - Bulgarian Properties 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.bulgarianview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bulgaria made substantial progress in meeting the Copenhagen Economic Criteria for European Union accession, defined largely in terms of competitiveness, the existence of a market economy with liberalized price and trade regimes, and an enforceable legal system.
  • USAID Europe and Eurasia: Support for East European Democracy (SEED) Report - Fiscal Year 2000 - Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.usaid.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bulgaria can grant tobacco producers BGN 116 mln state subsidies per year with the permission of the European Union.
  • Articles:Listing Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.tobacco.org [Source type: News]

.Bulgarian military personnel have participated in international missions in Cambodia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Afghanistan and Iraq.^ It currently has company-sized units working with coalition forces in Afghanistan and has maintained small contingents of troops deployed with international forces in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo.
  • Bulgaria (11/09) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Small contingents of Bulgarian troops are currently deployed with international forces serving in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo, as well as Afghanistan.

^ Bulgarian experts also participate in international fora on solid household waste.
  • Country Profile - Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Starting in 2008, Bulgaria will completely abolish compulsory military service. .Bulgaria's naval and air forces became fully professional in 2006, with the land forces scheduled to follow suit in 2008. Bulgaria's special forces have conducted missions with the SAS, Delta Force, KSK, and the Spetsnaz of Russia.^ Bulgarian forces retreated back into Bulgaria but the Entente forces followed and Bulgaria surrendered in September of 1918.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The failure of his mission was followed by the withdrawal of the Russian representatives from Bulgaria.

^ Following a period of social unrest and passage of a new constitution, the first fully democratic parliamentary elections were held in 1991 in which the Union of Democratic Forces won.
  • Bulgaria (11/09) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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.In April 2006 Bulgaria and the United States of America signed a defense-cooperation agreement providing for the development of the Bulgarian air bases at Bezmer (near Yambol) and Graf Ignatievo (near Plovdiv), the Novo Selo training range (near Sliven), and a logistics centre in Aytos as joint US-Bulgarian military facilities.^ The United States military intends to use this access to facilitate joint training with the Bulgarian and Romanian militaries.
  • Bulgaria (11/09) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In May 2005 the United States and the Republic of Bulgaria signed a Defense Cooperation Agreement, which gives the United States military access to and shared use of several Bulgarian military facilities.
  • Bulgaria (11/09) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are three Bulgarian bases identified as “joint-use facilities” (meaning the U.S. has the right to station troops and conduct training in them) in the U.S.-Bulgarian Defense Cooperation Agreement (DCA) signed April 28, 2006 by Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice: Novo Selo Training Area (including the Aytos Storage Facility), Bezmer Air Base, and Graf Ignatievo Air Base.
  • Bulgaria (11/09) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Bulgaria's navy comprises mainly Soviet-era ships, and two submarines. .With only 354 km of coastline, assault by sea is not considered a major risk for Bulgaria.^ Coastline (Black sea) - 354 km .
  • Bulgarian Properties for sale. Bulgarian properties: Villas, Homes, Apartments, Land, Vineyards and other Properties in Bulgaria - Bulgarian Properties 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.bulgarianview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Charming New House Brand new house for sale with garden, situated only 3 km from the sea shore more .

In the course of recent modernization efforts, one new frigate was purchased from Belgium, and the navy is finalizing a deal with French company DCN for the acquisition of four Gowind corvettes. .Bulgaria's air forces also use a large amount of Soviet equipment.^ Bulgaria has attracted large amounts of American and European investment, and is an active partner in coalition operations in Afghanistan as well as in UN-led peacekeeping operations in the Balkans.
  • Bulgaria (11/09) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Internationally Bulgaria was in disrepute because of Bulgarian security forces serving as surrogates for Soviet espinage and assassinations.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Plans to acquire transport and attack helicopters are underway, in addition to a major overhaul on old Soviet weapon systems.^ While current water shortages are related mainly to a prolonged drought, major problems exist with old and leaky distribution systems and with wasteful agricultural and industrial use.
  • Country Profile - Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Military spending accounts for nearly 2.6% of Bulgaria's GDP.[24]

Provinces and municipalities

SOFIA
Blagoevgrad
Burgas
Dobrich
Gabrovo
Haskovo
Kardzhali
Kyustendil
Lovech
Montana
Pazardzhik
Pernik
Pleven
Plovdiv
Razgrad
Ruse
Shumen
Silistra
Sliven
Smolyan
Sofia
Stara Zagora
Targovishte
Varna
Veliko Tarnovo
Vidin
Vratsa
Yambol
Black Sea
Danube
F.Y.R.O.M.
Serbia
Main articles: Provinces of Bulgaria and Municipalities of Bulgaria
.Between 1987 and 1999, Bulgaria consisted of nine provinces (oblasti, singular oblast); since 1999, it has consisted of twenty-eight.^ Under Roman rule Bulgaria was divided between the provinces of Moesia and Thrace and lay athwart the main land route from the west to the Middle East.
  • Audit: Bulgaria 2000 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.heracles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

All take their names from their respective capital cities:
The provinces subdivide into 287 municipalities.

Economy

Main article: Economy of Bulgaria
.A member of the European Union since 2007, Bulgaria has a rapidly growing, technologically developed economy.^ Bulgaria Holiday Homes 1st Half of 2007 The Bulgarian holiday homes market continues its’ significant development in both mountain and coastal resorts.
  • Colliers International: Market Reports 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.colliers.com [Source type: News]

^ Bulgaria Logistics & Industrial Market 1st Half of 2007 The supply of contemporary logistics and industrial facilities in Bulgaria continues to grow and is currently estimated at more than 1,000,000 m2.
  • Colliers International: Market Reports 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.colliers.com [Source type: News]

^ Membership in international organisations: Bulgaria is a member of United Nations (14 December 1955), NATO (29 March 2004) and 53 other international organisations, associated member of the EU (February 1 1995); Bulgaria completed accession negotiations with the European Union in 2004.
  • Bulgarian Properties for sale. Bulgarian properties: Villas, Homes, Apartments, Land, Vineyards and other Properties in Bulgaria - Bulgarian Properties 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.bulgarianview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The country boasts the second-highest standard-of-living in Southeastern Europe in terms of GDP per capita.^ The domestic animals are the same as in the other countries of southeastern Europe; the fierce shaggy grey sheep - dog leaves a lasting impression on most travellers in the interior.

^ Latest 1995 GDP per capita (current US$) .
  • Country Profile - Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The more optimistic interpretations of these figures have suggested that Bulgaria ranks among the top countries in the world in terms of the number of computers as compared to GDP per capita.
  • Audit: Bulgaria 2000 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.heracles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Inflation is well under control; unemployment stands lower than the average for the European Union and is steadily declining.^ This insurance (minimum 30,000 euros coverage) must be valid in the European Union and must cover the costs of emergency medical care as well as repatriation if necessary.
  • Bulgaria Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

Due to this positive economic profile, Bulgaria is expected to join the Eurozone in 2011, after having spent 3 years in ERM II, the entry for which is currently scheduled for early 2008. In comparison, the majority of EU member states, which are currently struggling with the Eurozone criteria, are expected to join the single currency union later than 2011.
.Bulgaria's economy contracted dramatically after 1989 with the dissolution of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON), with which the Bulgarian economy had integrated closely.^ ECONOMY Bulgaria's economy contracted dramatically after 1989 with the collapse of the COMECON system and the loss of the Soviet market, to which the Bulgarian economy had been closely tied.
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^ Article 19  [Economic Activity] (1) The economy of the Republic of Bulgaria shall be based on free economic initiative.
  • ICL - Bulgaria - Constitution 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.servat.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

^ Today, it is a key economic, cultural and tourist centre of southeastern Bulgaria, with the Burgas Airport serving the resorts of the southern Bulgarian coast.

.The standard of living fell by about 40%, but it regained pre-1990 levels in June 2004. United Nations sanctions against Yugoslavia and Iraq took a heavy toll on the Bulgarian economy.^ The standard of living fell by about 40%.
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^ The United Nations enforcement of economic sanctions against Serbia and Iraq further damaged the Bulgarian economy.
  • Audit: Bulgaria 2000 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.heracles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, UN sanctions against Yugoslavia and Iraq took a heavy toll on the Bulgarian economy.
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.The first signs of recovery emerged in 1994 when the GDP grew and inflation fell.^ The first signs of recovery emerged when GDP grew in 1994 for the first time since 1988, by 1.4% and then by 2.5% in 1995.
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^ Inflation, which surged in 1994 to 122%, fell to 32.9% in 1995.
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  • Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.virtualsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the government of Zhan Videnov's cabinet in 1996, the economy collapsed due to lack of international economic support and an unstable banking system.^ During 1996, however, the economy collapsed due to shortsighted economic reforms and an unstable and de-capitalized banking system.
  • Bulgaria (11/09) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.virtualsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, there are shelters and crisis centers that have closed or are about to close due to the lack of funding after international organizations that supported them began to withdraw.
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^ The BSP government under Videnov was no more able to cope with the economic problems of Bulgaria than its predecessors and Videnov resigned in December of 1996.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Since 1997, the country has been on the path to recovery, with GDP growing at a 4% – 5% rate, increasing FDI, macroeconomic stability and European Union membership.^ The first signs of recovery emerged when GDP grew in 1994 for the first time since 1988, by 1.4% and then by 2.5% in 1995.
  • Bulgaria (11/09) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.virtualsources.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The country's entry into the European Union on January 1, 2007, lifted visa restrictions for EU citizens, making it significantly easier for EU-member missionaries to work in the country.
  • Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to the World Bank, in 2006 Bulgaria attracted the highest levels of foreign direct investment, as a share of GDP, among Eastern European countries.
  • Bulgaria (11/09) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The former NMSII government elected in 2001 pledged to maintain the fundamental economic policy-objectives adopted by its predecessor in 1997, specifically: retaining the Currency Board, practising sound financial policies, accelerating privatisation, and pursuing structural reforms.^ Under the leadership of former Prime Minister Ivan Kostov (UDF), who came to power in 1997, an ambitious set of reforms was launched, including introduction of a currency board regime, bringing growth and stability to the Bulgarian economy.
  • Bulgaria (11/09) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A little over a year later the Dimitrov government had to resign as a consequence of the failure of economic policies.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Following declines in GDP in both 1996 and 1997, the Bulgarian government delivered strong, steady GDP growth in real terms (4.0% in 1998, 2.3 % in 1999, 5.4% in 2000 and 4.0% in 2001).

.Economic forecasts for 2005 and 2006 predicted continued growth in the economy.^ Real GDP growth: 6% (2008); 6.2% (2007); 6.3% (2006); 6.2% (2005); 6.6% (2004); 4.3% (2003).
  • Bulgaria (11/09) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Economists predicted annual year-on-year GDP growth for 2005 and 2006 of 5.3% and 6.0% respectively.^ The government was expecting a record-high GDP growth of 5.8% in 2004, following GDP growth of 4.9% and 4.3% in 2002 and 2003, respectively.

^ Following declines in GDP in both 1996 and 1997, the Bulgarian Government delivered strong, steady GDP growth in real terms in recent years.
  • Bulgaria (11/09) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Real GDP growth: 6% (2008); 6.2% (2007); 6.3% (2006); 6.2% (2005); 6.6% (2004); 4.3% (2003).
  • Bulgaria (11/09) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Industrial output for 2005 was forecast to rise by 11.9% from the previous year, and for 2006 by 15.2%.^ In comparing conditions in human settlements with previous years, there has been a decrease in environmental pollution caused by industry, due to reduced production and consumption.
  • Country Profile - Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.Unemployment for 2005 was projected at 11.5%, 9% for 2006 and 7.25% for 2007[25].^ Unemployment rate: 6.3% (2008); 6.9% (2007); 9.1% (2006); 10.7% (2005); 12.2% (2004); 14.3% (2003).
  • Bulgaria (11/09) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Real GDP growth: 6% (2008); 6.2% (2007); 6.3% (2006); 6.2% (2005); 6.6% (2004); 4.3% (2003).
  • Bulgaria (11/09) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Inflation rate: 7.8% (2008); 12.5% (2007), 6.5% (2006); 6.5% (2005); 4.0% (2004); 5.6% (2003).
  • Bulgaria (11/09) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As of 2006 the GDP structure is: agriculture 8.0%; industry 26,1%; services 65.9%.^ Decision-Making Structure: Ministry of Agriculture and Food Industry, Committee of Forests at the Council of Ministers, Ministry of Environment.
  • Country Profile - Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Agriculture --7.5%; industry --35.5%, services --57% (2007 est.
  • Bulgaria (11/09) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Agriculture

Agricultural output has decreased overall since 1989 but production has grown in recent years. Arable farming predominates over stock-breeding. .The prevalence of mechanisation is higher than most other Eastern European countries but there is lack of modern equipment.^ The domestic animals are the same as in the other countries of southeastern Europe; the fierce shaggy grey sheep - dog leaves a lasting impression on most travellers in the interior.

^ There are many Muslim and other religious communities in Bulgaria, but there is no tension and the country is often cited as an example of religious tolerance in the region.
  • Bulgarian Properties for sale. Bulgarian properties: Villas, Homes, Apartments, Land, Vineyards and other Properties in Bulgaria - Bulgarian Properties 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.bulgarianview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Goods and services taken for granted in other European countries may not be available in many areas of Bulgaria.
  • Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Alongside aeroplanes and other equipment, there are over 150,000 tractors and 10,000 combine harvesters.^ In all, there are about 40,000 registered tobacco producers in Bulgaria and 150,000 people working in the sector.
  • Articles:Listing Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.tobacco.org [Source type: News]

Industry

A view of the Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant
Industry plays a key role in the Bulgarian economy. .Although Bulgaria lacks large reserves of oil and gas, it produces much electricity, serving as the most important exporter in the region due to the Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant with a total capacity of 2000 MW. Construction has started on a second plant, the Belene Nuclear Power Plant with a capacity of 2,000 MW. There is a $1,400,000,000 project for construction of an additional 670 MW for the 500 MW Maritza Iztok 1 Thermal Power Plant[26] (see Energy in Bulgaria).^ New nuclear capacity - Belene .
  • Nuclear Power in Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Additional comments relevant to this chapter There is no oil or natural gas in Bulgaria.
  • Country Profile - Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Non-power uses of nuclear energy .
  • Nuclear Power in Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Ferrous metallurgy has major importance. The production of steel and pig iron concentrates in Kremikovtsi and Pernik. There is also a third metallurgical base in Debelt. In production of steel and steel products per capita the country is first in the Balkans.
.The largest refineries for lead and zinc operate in Plovdiv (the biggest refinery between Italy and the Ural mountains), Kardzhali and Novi Iskar; for copper in Pirdop and Eliseina; for aluminium in Shumen.^ Their original abode was the tract between the Ural mountains and the Volga , where the kingdom of Great (or Black) Bolgary existed down to the 13th century.

^ Natural resources: Bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, and timber.
  • Bulgaria (11/09) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In production of many metals per capita, Bulgaria ranks first in South Eastern Europe and among the first in Europe and in the world.^ Terrain: Bulgaria is located in South Central Europe.
  • Bulgaria (11/09) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Located in Eastern Europe, Located in Eastern Europe, with a beautiful and sandy beaches along the Black Sea, and spectacular mountains, Bulgaria is very good place for living and holiday.
  • Bulgarian Properties for sale. Bulgarian properties: Villas, Homes, Apartments, Land, Vineyards and other Properties in Bulgaria - Bulgarian Properties 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.bulgarianview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bulgaria participated in the First and Second Balkan Wars (1912 and 1913) and sided with the Central Powers, and later the Axis Powers, during the two World Wars.
  • Bulgaria (11/09) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.About 14% of the total industrial production relates to machine-building and 24% of the people work in this field.^ About 41% of the total population has been threatened by air and water pollution coming from the energy sector, industry and transportation.
  • Country Profile - Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Its importance decreased since 1989 but has started growing again.
Electronics and electric equipment-production have developed to a high degree. .The largest centres include Sofia, Plovdiv and surrounding area, Botevgrad, Stara Zagora, Varna, Pravets and many others.^ The chief centres of distribution for imports are Varna, Sofia, Rustchuk, Philippopolis and Burgas.

^ Goods and services taken for granted in other European countries may not be available in many areas of Bulgaria.
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^ Muslims comprise the largest minority, estimated at 13 percent; other minorities include Catholics, Protestants, Jews, Gregorian-Armenian Christians, and others.
  • Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These plants produce household appliances, computers, CDs, telephones, medical and scientific equipment.
Many factories producing transportation equipment do not work at full capacity. Plants produce trains (Burgas, Dryanovo), trams (Sofia), trolleys (Dupnitsa), buses (Botevgrad), trucks (Shumen), motorcars (automotive assembly plant in Lovech). Ruse serves as the main centre for agricultural machinery. Shipbuilding is concentrated in Varna, Burgas and Ruse. Arms production is mainly developed in central Bulgaria (Kazanlak, Sopot, Karlovo).
.Foreigners seeking additional homes have recently boosted the Bulgarian property-market.^ In early 2007, to attract additional foreign investment, the Bulgarian Government lowered corporate tax rates to 10%, reportedly the lowest rate in Europe.
  • Bulgaria (11/09) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Buyers come from right across Europe, but mostly from the United Kingdom, encouraged by relatively cheap property and finding the country more accessible through cheap air travel.^ TRAVEL AND BUSINESS INFORMATION The U.S. Department of State's Consular Information Program advises Americans traveling and residing abroad through Country Specific Information, Travel Alerts, and Travel Warnings.
  • Bulgaria (11/09) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[27]

Science, technology and telecommunications

.Bulgaria offers excellent conditions for high-tech and telecommunication industries and services with its strategic location, highly-qualified workforce, macroeconomic stability, growing domestic market and well-educated specialists due to country's traditionally strong educational system, with one of the highest rankings of youth mathematicians and informaticians in the world.^ House in excellent condition, Montana area for 5000 EUR! A solid house in good location 35 km from the river of Danube and 20 km from Montana.

^ With a fantastic combination of popular Eastern European hotspots and little known delights, this tour offers an excellent overview of a fascinating part of the world.

.For these reasons some multinational companies chose to build their regional offices and headquarters in Bulgaria — even before Bulgaria joined the EU. To date, the most notable is Hewlett-Packard, which built its Global Service Centre for Europe, the Middle East and Africa in Sofia.^ A certain amount of foreign capital has been invested in industrial enterprises; the most notable are sugar -refineries in the neighbourhood of Sofia and Philippopolis, and a cotton-spinning mill at Varna, on which an English company has expended about £60,000 Commerce.

^ Bulgaria hosts the only fully American university in the region, the American University of Bulgaria in Blagoevgrad, established in 1991, drawing students from throughout southeast Europe and beyond.
  • Bulgaria (11/09) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Encompassing numerous fascinating countries, this epic tour showcases the essential highlights and hidden corners of Eastern Europe and the Middle East.

Telecommunications has arguably grown faster than any other industry in the country. Three GSM mobile operators — Globul, Mobiltel and Vivatel — provide almost 100% coverage. .They have hundreds of service centres throughout the country, constantly growing in number and quality.^ The number:of goats in the country tends to decline, a relatively high tax being imposed on these animals owing to the injury they inflict on young trees.

^ The gipsies, who are scattered in considerable numbers throughout the country, came into Bulgaria in the 14th century.

.More than 6,245,000 Bulgarians[28] own mobile cellular phones.^ The spiritual domination of the Greek patriarchate had tended more effectually than the temporal power of the Turks to the effacement of Bulgarian nationality .

^ The other leaders of the Bulgarian Communist Party were more conscious of their vulnerability than Zhivkov was.
  • The Economy and Economic History of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ More than 1,000 projects went through the process in three years.
  • Country Profile - Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Mobikom is the only NMT 450 mobile phone operator. Internet is available in each town and lately in most villages with a fast connectivity and VoIP; DSL connection in bigger cities is offered by BTK. There are around 185,000[29] Internet hosts.
The country has some precedents for its current science industry. .The inventor of the earliest known electronic computer, John Atanasoff, had Bulgarian ancestry.^ The earliest manuscripts of the "Old Bulgarian" are written in one or other of the two alphabets known as the glagolitic and Cyrillic (see Slavs ).

.Bulgaria supplied many scientific and research instruments for the Soviet space-programmes, was the first European country to develop serial computer production, and has experience in pharmaceutical research and development.^ SG 18/05) Republic of Bulgaria shall participate in the building and development of the European Union.
  • National Assembly of the Republic of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.parliament.bg [Source type: Original source]

^ Goods and services taken for granted in other European countries may not be available in many areas of Bulgaria.
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^ COUNTRY DESCRIPTION: Bulgaria is a quickly developing European nation undergoing significant economic changes.
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.The Bulgarian Academy of Sciences is the leading scientific institution in the country with most of the researchers working for its numerous branches.^ The ancient Bulgarian literature, originating in the works of SS. Cyril and Methodius and their disciples, consisted for the most part of theological works translated from the Greek.

^ Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: The leading institutes (scientific and engineering) in the country are "Miniproject", "Rudmetalurgproject", the Institute of Non-metalliferous minerals and the Institute for Construction Materials.
  • Country Profile - Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ After 1824 several works written in modern Bulgarian began to appear, but the most important step was the foundation, in 1835, of the first Bulgarian school at Gabrovo.

.Bulgaria hosts two major astronomical observatories: the Rozhen Observatory, the biggest in South Eastern Europe, and the Belogradchik Observatory with three telescopes; as well as several "public astronomical observatories" with planetariums, focused on educationnal and outreach activities.^ Bulgaria hosts the only fully American university in the region, the American University of Bulgaria in Blagoevgrad, established in 1991, drawing students from throughout southeast Europe and beyond.
  • Bulgaria (11/09) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Beyond the well-trodden tourist trail, Eastern Europe has plenty to offer travellers in search of adventure.

^ To pass a bill, the Grand National Assembly shall require a majority of two-thirds of the votes of all Members, in three ballots on three different days.
  • National Assembly of the Republic of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.parliament.bg [Source type: Original source]

Transport

Main article: Transport in Bulgaria
Bulgaria occupies a unique and strategically important geographic location. .Since ancient times, the country has served as a major crossroads between Europe, Asia and Africa.^ The Thomas Cook European timetable has train & ferry times for every country in Europe plus currency & climate information.
  • How to travel by train from London to Sofia & Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Americas Central Asia & Caucasus East Asia Eastern & Central Europe Middle East & North Africa Oceania South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa Western Europe Based on the Wikipedia list of countries , details .

Five of the ten Trans-European corridors run through its territory. The total length of the roads is 102,016 km of which 93,855 km are paved and 416 km are motorways. Several motorways are planned, under construction or partially built: Trakiya motorway, Hemus motorway, Cherno More motorway, Struma motorway, Maritza motorway and Lyulin motorway. Other motorways are planned but their final track is yet to be decided. .They include a link between the capital Sofia and Vidin, a link between the Struma and Trakiya motorways south of Rila Mountain, a link between Rousse and Veliko Tarnovo, and the Sofia ringroad.^ On April 25, 2007, police stopped two Jehovah's Witnesses preaching in Veliko Tarnovo and asked them to produce proof that they had the right to preach publicly.
  • Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jehovah's Witnesses reported that police in Veliko Tarnovo required missionaries to present proof of registration before they could preach publicly.
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^ Jehovah's Witnesses reported that their branches had to wait up to 2 years before they could successfully register locally in Dimitrovgrad, Veliko Tarnovo, and Smolyan.
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Many roads have been recently reconstructed. .The length of railways is 6,500 km of which more than 60% are electrified.^ There is enough brown coal with more than 3.5% sulphur content and up to 60% humidity and 70% ash residuals.
  • Country Profile - Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

There is a €360,000,000 project for the modernization and electrification of the Plovdiv-Kapitan Andreevo railway.
.Air transportation has developed relatively comprehensively.^ TABLE VI. RATING OF ACTIVITIES IN THE AIR AND MARITIME TRANSPORT SECTORS IN THE SMALL ISLANDS DEVELOPING STATES (SIDS) .
  • Country Profile - Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.Bulgaria has six official international airports at Sofia, Burgas, Varna, Plovdiv, Rousse and Gorna Oryahovitsa.^ The chief centres of distribution for imports are Varna, Sofia, Rustchuk, Philippopolis and Burgas.

^ ADDITIONAL HEALTH INFORMATION The authorities in Bulgaria have implemented screening measures at the Sofia airport in response to the H1N1 Flu Virus outbreak.
  • Bulgaria Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ The National Bank, a state institution with a capital of £400,000, has its central establishment at Sofia, and branches at Philippopolis, Rustchuk, Varna, Trnovo and Burgas.

Massive investment plans exist for the first three. There are important domestic airports in Vidin, Pleven, Silistra, Targovishte, Stara Zagora, Kardzhali, Haskovo and Sliven. .After the fall of communism in 1989, most of them are not used as the importance of domestic flights declined.^ Capacity 21 resources can be most effectively used by supporting the Government of Bulgaria's and UNDP-Bulgaria's efforts to promote sustainable human development at the community level.
  • Country Profile - Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.There are many military airports and agricultural airfields.^ In addition to these there are 6 technical and 3 agricultural schools; 5 of pedagogy, I theological, I commercial, I of forestry, I of design, I for surgeons' assistants, and a large military school at Sofia.

128 of the 213 airports in Bulgaria are paved. .The ports of Varna and Burgas are by far the most important and have the largest turnover.^ About 10% of the exports passes over the Turkish frontier, but the government is making great efforts to divert the trade to Varna and Burgas, and important harbour works have been carried out at both these ports.

^ The new port of Burgas was formally opened in 1904, that of Varna in 1906.

^ Firmilian, a Servian prelate , to the important see of Uskub at the instance of Russia, the suspected designs of that power on the ports of Varna and Burgas, and her unsympathetic attitude in regard to the Macedonian Question, tended to diminish her popularity and that of the government.

Other than Burgas, Sozopol, Nesebar and Pomorie are big fishing ports. The largest ports on the Danube River are Rousse and Lom which serves the capital. .There is well organised public transport in the cities and in many smaller towns.^ There are also many Western Union branches in major towns and cities.
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^ By ohyeakiro 1159151973 Reply Spam [+0] Moderate Up Moderate Down Remove 2303110 2 You got a point there I didn't think of that, and probably that's why they choose smaller towns or the outskirt of the cities, to avoid traffic.
  • UFO Footage In Bulgaria - Video 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.metacafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

There are buses, trolleys (in about 20 cities) and trams (in Sofia). The Sofia Metro in the capital is to have three lines with total length of about 48 km and 52 stations, but only a section is currently completed.

Demographics

The Rila Monastery, one of Bulgaria's most important cultural and historical monuments
Main article: Demographics of Bulgaria
.According to the 2001 census,[30] Bulgaria's population consists mainly of ethnic Bulgarian (83.9%), with two sizable minorities, Turks (9.4%) and Roma (4.7%).^ A considerable portion of Macedonia , the districts of Pirot and Vranya belonging to Servia , the northern half of the vilayet of Adrianople , and large tracts of the Dobrudja , are, according to the best and most impartial authorities, mainly inhabited by a Bulgarian population.

^ The valleys of the Maritza and Arda are occupied by a mixed population consisting of Bulgarians, Greeks and Turks; the principal Greek colonies are in Stanimaka, Kavakly and Philippopolis.

^ According to the census of the 12th of January 1906, the population of northern Bulgaria was 2,853,704; of Eastern Rumelia, 1,174,535; of united Bulgaria, 4,028,239 or 88 per sq.

.Of the remaining 2.0%, 0.9% comprises some 40 smaller minorities, most prominently in numbers the Russians, Armenians, Vlachs, Jews, Crimean Tatars, Slavic Macedonians and Karakachans.^ Ethnic groups (2001): Bulgarian 83.94%, Turkish 9.42%, Roma 4.68%, and other 2% (including Macedonian, Armenian, Tatar).
  • Bulgaria (11/09) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

1.1% of the population did not declare their ethnicity in the latest census in 2001.
.84.8% of the population speak Bulgarian as their mother-tongue.^ Citizens whose mother tongue is not Bulgarian shall have the right to study and use their own language alongside the compulsory study of the Bulgarian language.
  • National Assembly of the Republic of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.parliament.bg [Source type: Original source]

.Bulgarian, a member of the Slavic language group, remains the only official language, but speakers of other languages (such as Turkish and Romany) correspond closely to ethnic proportions.^ Ethnic groups include Bulgarian, Turkish, Roma, and others.
  • Bulgaria (11/09) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bulgarian shall be the official language of the Republic.
  • National Assembly of the Republic of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.parliament.bg [Source type: Original source]

^ The official language is Bulgarian.
  • Bulgaria (11/09) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The country has a Roma population estimated at between 400,000 and 800,000. [31]
.Most Bulgarians (82.6%) belong, at least nominally, to the Bulgarian Orthodox Church, the national Eastern Orthodox church.^ The Orthodox Bulgarian National Church claims to be an indivisible member of the Eastern Orthodox communion, and asserts historic continuity with the autocephalous Bulgarian church of the middle ages.

^ Some of the leaders went so far as to open negotiations with Rome, and an archbishop of the Uniate Bulgarian church was nominated by the pope.

^ The northern slopes of the Balkans from Belogradchik to Elena are inhabited almost exclusively by Bulgarians; in Eastern Rumelia the national element is strongest in the Sredna Gora and Rhodope.

.Other religious denominations include Islam (12.2%), various Protestant denominations (0.8%), Roman Catholicism (0.5%), with other denominations, atheists and undeclared amounting approximately to 4.1%.^ Religions (2001): Bulgarian Orthodox 82.6%, Muslim 12.2%, Roman Catholic 0.6%, Protestant 0.5%, others.
  • Bulgaria (11/09) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the recent years Bulgaria has had one of the slowest population growth-rates in the world.^ Annual rate of growth of urban population (%) .
  • Country Profile - Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Government has undertaken measures to raise the rate of population growth.
  • Country Profile - Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Following declines in GDP in both 1996 and 1997, the Bulgarian Government delivered strong, steady GDP growth in real terms in recent years.
  • Bulgaria (11/09) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Negative population growth has occurred since the early 1990s,[32] due to economic collapse and high emigration.^ During 1996, however, the economy collapsed due to shortsighted economic reforms and an unstable and de-capitalized banking system.
  • Bulgaria (11/09) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1988 the population comprised 8,859,000 people, and in 2001 7,950,000. Now Bulgaria suffers a heavy demographic crisis .^ The candidature of the prince of Mingrelia was now set up by Russia, and General Kaulbars was despatched to Bulgaria to make known to the people the wishes of the tsar.

.Bulgaria has a fertility-rate of 1.4 children per woman as of 2007, with a predicted rate of 1.7 by the end of 2050. The fertility-rate will needed to reach 2.2 to restore natural growth in population.^ Annual rate of growth of urban population (%) .
  • Country Profile - Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ STATUS REPORT: The Government believes that population growth rates are too low.
  • Country Profile - Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Government has undertaken measures to raise the rate of population growth.
  • Country Profile - Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Culture

The Roman Theatre in Plovdiv
Main article: Culture of Bulgaria
See also: List of famous Bulgarians, Bulgarian customs, Music of Bulgaria, Bulgarian artists, Bulgarian dances, and Bulgarian cuisine
.A country often described as lying at the crossroads linking the East and West, Bulgaria functioned as the centre of Slavic Europe during much of the Middle Ages, exerting considerable literary and cultural influence over the Eastern Orthodox Slavic world by means of the Preslav and Ohrid Literary Schools.^ The Orthodox Bulgarian National Church claims to be an indivisible member of the Eastern Orthodox communion, and asserts historic continuity with the autocephalous Bulgarian church of the middle ages.

^ GEOGRAPHY AND PEOPLE Bulgaria shares a border with Turkey and Greece to the south, Macedonia and Serbia to the west, Romania to the north, and the Black Sea to the east.
  • Bulgaria (11/09) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the end of the last century Bulgaria extended its economic connections with Middle and West European countries.
  • soc.culture.bulgaria FAQ (monthly posting) (part 9/10) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

Bulgaria also gave the world the Cyrillic alphabet, the second most-widely used alphabet in the world, which originated in these two schools in the tenth century AD.
.Bulgaria has a reputation for rich folklore, distinctive traditional music, rituals and tales; but the country's contribution to humanity also continued in the nineteenth and twentieth century, when individuals such as John Atanasoff - born in USA with Bulgarian origin, regarded as the father of the digital computer, a number of noted opera singers (Nicolai Ghiaurov, Boris Christoff, Raina Kabaivanska, Ghena Dimitrova), Anna Veleva, and successful artists (Christo Javacheff, Pascin, Vladimir Dimitrov) popularized the culture of Bulgaria abroad.^ Any Bulgarian citizen abroad shall be accorded the protection of the Republic of Bulgaria.
  • National Assembly of the Republic of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.parliament.bg [Source type: Original source]

^ Please read this posting before posting to soc.culture.bulgaria The FAQ includes 11 parts numbered from 0 (table of contents) to 10.
  • soc.culture.bulgaria FAQ (monthly posting) (part 9/10) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ The Bulgarian tsar, Boris II., with the aid of the emperor John Zimisces, expelled the invaders, but the Greeks took advantage of their victory to dethrone Boris, and the first Bulgarian empire thus came to an end after an existence of three centuries.

.A number of ancient civilizations, most notably the Thracians, Greeks, Romans, Slavs and Bulgars, have left their mark on the culture, history and heritage of Bulgaria.^ STATUS REPORT: The urban network in Bulgaria (5336 human settlements) has been formed for millenniums and bears the signs of ancient culture (Tracian and Slavonic dwellings, ancient Greek and Roman towns) and all the negative consequences of contemporary urbanisation.
  • Country Profile - Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Please read this posting before posting to soc.culture.bulgaria The FAQ includes 11 parts numbered from 0 (table of contents) to 10.
  • soc.culture.bulgaria FAQ (monthly posting) (part 9/10) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ The ancient Bulgarian literature, originating in the works of SS. Cyril and Methodius and their disciples, consisted for the most part of theological works translated from the Greek.

The country has nine UNESCO World Heritage Sites:

Tourism

Main article: Tourism in Bulgaria
Church of St John the Baptist (11th century) in Nessebar
In the northern-hemisphere winter, Samokov, Borovets, Bansko and Pamporovo become well-attended ski-resorts. .Summer resorts exist on the Black Sea at Sozopol, Nessebur, Golden Sands, Sunny Beach, Sveti Vlas, Albena, Saints Constantine and Helena and many others.^ The coasting trade on the Black Sea is carried on by a Bulgarian steamship company; the steamers of the Austrian Lloyd, and other foreign companies call at Varna, and occasionally at Burgas.

^ On the Black Sea coast many types of the Crimean, Transcaucasian and even the Mediterranean flora present themselves.

^ Immense flocks of wild swans, geese, pelicans, herons and other waterfowl haunt the Danube and the lagoons of the Black Sea coast.

Spa resorts such as Bankya, Hisarya, Sandanski, Velingrad, Varshets and many others are popular all over the year. .Bulgaria is becoming an attractive destination because of the quality of the resorts and prices below those found in Western Europe.^ This is because the European computer reservations system covers all of Western Europe and much of Eastern Europe, but not trains originating in Bulgaria, Greece, Turkey, Russia, etc..
  • How to travel by train from London to Sofia & Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

Bulgaria has enjoyed a substantial growth in income from international tourism over the past decade. Beach resorts attract tourists from Germany, Russia, Scandinavia, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. The ski resorts are a favourite destination for British and Irish tourists.
Bulgaria now attracts close to 5 million visitors yearly. Tourism in Bulgaria makes a major contribution towards Bulgaria's annual economic growth of 6%-6.5%.

Sports

A football game in the Vasil Levski National Stadium.
Football has become by far the most popular sport in the country. .Many Bulgarian fans closely follow the top Bulgarian league, the Bulgarian "A" Professional Football Group; as well as the leagues of other European countries, such as those of Spain, England, Italy and Germany.^ The devastation of the country which followed the Turkish invasion resulted in the extirpation or flight of a large proportion of the Bulgarian inhabitants of the lowlands, who were replaced by Turkish colonists.

^ The Bulgarians alleged that during the strike Turkish troops were able to travel on the lines which were closed to all other traffic, and that this fact constituted a danger to their own autonomy .

^ The remnants of the declensions still existing in Bulgarian (mainly in pronominal and adverbial forms) show a close analogy to those of the old ecclesiastical language.

.The Bulgaria national football team achieved its greatest success with a fourth-place finish at the 1994 FIFA World Cup in the United States.^ The region shall be an administrative territorial unit for the conduct of a regional policy, the implementation of state governance on a local level, and the ensuring the concurrance of national and local interests.
  • National Assembly of the Republic of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.parliament.bg [Source type: Original source]

Hristo Stoichkov has arguably become the best-known Bulgarian footballer. He is widely regarded as one of the finest football players in the world , at the peak of his career between 1992 and 1995, while playing for FC Barcelona winning the Ballon d'Or in 1994. Additionally, he was named in the FIFA 100 ranking. Georgi Asparuhov-Gundi (1943-1971), was himself extremely popular at home and abroad having had offers from clubs in Italy and Portugal. He died tragically in a car accident at the peak of his career. He was awarded Bulgarian football player №1 for the twentieth century. .PFC CSKA Sofia (champion of Bulgaria 30 times) and PFC Levski Sofia (25 times champion of Bulgaria and 26 times holder of the National Cup as of 2007) are the most successful Bulgarian football clubs.^ The Bulgarian primates subsequently received the title of patriarch; their see was transferred from Preslav to Sofia, Voden and Prespa successively, and finally to Ochrida .

^ Towns.-The principal towns of Bulgaria are Sofia, the capital (Bulgarian Sredetz, a name now little used), pop.

Other popular clubs include PFC Lokomotiv Sofia, PFC Litex Lovech, PFC Cherno More Varna, PFC Lokomotiv Plovdiv and PFC Botev Plovdiv (the oldest club in Bulgaria,est. 1912). .PFC Levski Sofia is the first Bulgarian team to have participated in the modern UEFA Champions League (after 1989) having achieved this by qualifying for the 2006/2007 competition.^ After 1824 several works written in modern Bulgarian began to appear, but the most important step was the foundation, in 1835, of the first Bulgarian school at Gabrovo.

^ He was the author of the first Bulgarian grammar (1835) and other educational works, and translated the New Testament into the modern language.

Aside from football, Bulgaria boasts great achievements in a great variety of other sports. Maria Gigova and Maria Petrova have each held a record of three world-titles in rhythmic gymnastics. Other famous gymnasts include Simona Peycheva, Neshka Robeva (a highly successful coach as well) and Yordan Yovtchev. .Bulgarians also dominate in weightlifting, with around 1,000 gold medals in different competitions, and in wrestling; Stefan Botev, Nickolai Peshalov, Demir Demirev and Yoto Yotov figure among the most distinguished weightlifters and Serafim Barzakov, Armen Nazarian, Plamen Slavov, Kiril Sirakov and Sergey Moreyko rank as world-class wrestlers.^ The most distinguished Bulgarian man of letters is Ivan Vazoff (b.

Bulgarians also take great pride in the country's achievements in athletics. Stefka Kostadinova, who still holds the women's high jump world record, jumped 209 centimetres at the 1987 World Championships in Athletics in Rome to clinch the coveted title. Presently, Bulgaria is proud of its sprinters, namely Ivet Lalova and Tezdzhan Naimova. Volleyball recently marked a big resurgence. .The Bulgarian national volleyball team is one of the strongest teams in Europe, currently ranked fifth in the FIVB ranklist.^ The northern slopes of the Balkans from Belogradchik to Elena are inhabited almost exclusively by Bulgarians; in Eastern Rumelia the national element is strongest in the Sredna Gora and Rhodope.

At the 2006 Volleyball World Championship, they won the bronze medal. Chess is also very popular. One of the top chess-masters in the world, Veselin Topalov, is Bulgarian. .At the end of 2005, both men's and women's world chess champions were Bulgarian as well as the junior world champion.^ Equal Opportunities for Women and Men: Monitoring Law and Practice in Bulgaria , Center of Women’s Studies and Policies, 2005.
  • Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Albena Denkova and Maxim Staviski have won the ISU world figure skating championships twice in a row (2006 and 2007) for ice dance.

Religion

The Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in Sofia, one of the largest Orthodox cathedrals in Europe
Main article: Religion in Bulgaria
.Most citizens of Bulgaria have associations — at least nominally — with the Bulgarian Orthodox Church.^ The Orthodox Bulgarian National Church claims to be an indivisible member of the Eastern Orthodox communion, and asserts historic continuity with the autocephalous Bulgarian church of the middle ages.

^ Any Bulgarian citizen abroad shall be accorded the protection of the Republic of Bulgaria.
  • National Assembly of the Republic of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.parliament.bg [Source type: Original source]

^ Some of the leaders went so far as to open negotiations with Rome, and an archbishop of the Uniate Bulgarian church was nominated by the pope.

.Founded in 870 AD under the Patriarchate of Constantinople (from which it obtained its first primate, its clergy and theological texts), the Bulgarian Orthodox Church has had autocephalous status since 927. The Orthodox Church re-established the Bulgarian Patriarchate in Sofia in the 1950s after the promulgation of the Bulgarian Exarchate in 1870. The Bulgarian Orthodox Church is the independent national church of Bulgaria like the other national branches of Eastern Orthodoxy and is considered an inseparable element of Bulgarian national consciousness.^ Eventually the Turkish government intervened, and on the 28th of February 1870 a firman was issued establishing the Bulgarian exarchate, with jurisdiction over fifteen dioceses, including Nish, Pirot and Veles; the other dioceses in dispute were to be added to these in case two-thirds of the Christian population so desired.

^ The Orthodox Bulgarian National Church claims to be an indivisible member of the Eastern Orthodox communion, and asserts historic continuity with the autocephalous Bulgarian church of the middle ages.

^ Boris long wavered between Constantinople and Rome , but the refusal of the pope to recognize an autocephalous Bulgarian church determined him to offer his allegiance to the Greek patriarch.

.The church became subordinate within the Patriarchate of Constantinople, twice during the periods of Byzantine (1018 – 1185) and Ottoman (1396 – 1878) domination but has been revived every time as a symbol of Bulgarian statehood without breaking away from the Orthodox dogma.^ The five centuries of Turkish rule (1396-1878) form a dark epoch in Bulgarian history.

^ In Eastern Rumelia during the same period the" militia "was instructed by foreign officers; after the union it was merged in the Bulgarian army.

^ A few years later his dynasty finally disappeared, and for more than a century and a half (1018-1186) the Bulgarian race remained subject to the Byzantine emperors.

.In 2001, the Bulgarian Orthodox Church had 6,552,000 members in Bulgaria (82.6% of the population).^ The Orthodox Bulgarian National Church claims to be an indivisible member of the Eastern Orthodox communion, and asserts historic continuity with the autocephalous Bulgarian church of the middle ages.

However, many people raised during the 45 years of communist rule are not religious, even though they may formally be members of the church.
.Despite the dominant position of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church in Bulgarian cultural life, a number of Bulgarian citizens belong to other religious denominations, most notably Islam, Roman Catholicism and Protestantism.^ The Orthodox Bulgarian National Church claims to be an indivisible member of the Eastern Orthodox communion, and asserts historic continuity with the autocephalous Bulgarian church of the middle ages.

.Islam came to Bulgaria at the end of the fourteenth century after the conquest of the country by the Ottomans.^ The gipsies, who are scattered in considerable numbers throughout the country, came into Bulgaria in the 14th century.

^ By the end of the last century Bulgaria extended its economic connections with Middle and West European countries.
  • soc.culture.bulgaria FAQ (monthly posting) (part 9/10) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

.It gradually gained ground throughout the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries through the introduction of Turkish colonists and the conversion of native Bulgarians.^ Bands of bashi-bazouks were let loose throughout the district by the Turkish authorities, the Pomaks, or Moslem Bulgarians, and the Circassian colonists were called to arms, and a succession of horrors followed to which a parallel can scarcely be found in the history of the middle ages.

^ The devastation of the country which followed the Turkish invasion resulted in the extirpation or flight of a large proportion of the Bulgarian inhabitants of the lowlands, who were replaced by Turkish colonists.

^ The five centuries of Turkish rule (1396-1878) form a dark epoch in Bulgarian history.

At the time of Liberation (1878) no less than 40% of the population professed Islam, but by the end of the Liberation, ethnic cleansing had led to a major decrease in Muslim populations.[33]
In the sixteenth and the seventeenth centuries, missionaries from Rome converted Bulgarian Paulicians in the districts of Plovdiv and Svishtov to Roman Catholicism. Today, their descendants form the bulk of Bulgarian Catholics whose number stands at 44,000 in 2001.
.Missionaries from the United States introduced Protestantism into Bulgarian territory in 1857. Missionary work continued throughout the second half of the nineteenth and the first half of the twentieth century.^ The region shall be an administrative territorial unit for the conduct of a regional policy, the implementation of state governance on a local level, and the ensuring the concurrance of national and local interests.
  • National Assembly of the Republic of Bulgaria 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.parliament.bg [Source type: Original source]

^ Within ten years at least 53 Bulgarian schools came into existence, and five Bulgarian printing -presses' were at work.

^ A few years later his dynasty finally disappeared, and for more than a century and a half (1018-1186) the Bulgarian race remained subject to the Byzantine emperors.

In 2001, there were some 42,000 Protestants in Bulgaria.
According to the most recent Eurostat "Eurobarometer" poll, in 2005,[34] only 40% of Bulgarian citizens responded that "they believe there is a God", whereas 40% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force", 13% that "they do not believe there is a God, spirit, nor life force", and 6% did not answer.
See also: Bulgarian Orthodox Church, Islam in Bulgaria, Roman Catholicism in Bulgaria, and Protestantism in Bulgaria

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named translit
  2. ^ http://www.mfa.government.bg/history_of_Bulgaria/83.html
  3. ^ http://www.journey.bg/bulgaria/bulgaria.php?guide=1519
  4. ^ http://www.links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0009-840X(193102)1%3A45%3A1%3C41%3ADADBUD%3E2.0.CO%3B2-H
  5. ^ http://www.legmed.ro/files/revista/2004-4/02-Cardos-%20MtDNA.pdf
  6. ^ http://www.bulgarianestates.org.uk/real-estate-History-of-Bulgaria-27.html
  7. ^ Dimitrov, Bulgaria: illustrated history.
  8. ^ Theophanes, ibid., p. 397
  9. ^ Scriptor incertus, ibid., p. 337-339
  10. ^ Theophanes, ibid. , р. 492
  11. ^ Georgius Monachus Continuatus, loc. cit., Logomete
  12. ^ Vita S. démentis
  13. ^ Barford, P. M. (2001). The Early Slavs. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press
  14. ^ Fine, The Early Medieval Balkans, pp. 144-148.
  15. ^ Theophanes Continuatus, pp. 462—3,480
  16. ^ Cedrenus: II, p. 383
  17. ^ Leo Diaconus, pp. 158-9
  18. ^ Шишић, p. 331
  19. ^ Skylitzes, p. 457
  20. ^ Zlatarski, vol. II, pp. 1-41
  21. ^ http://pravoslavie.domainbg.com/20/documenti/islam_politika.html
  22. ^ Bulgaria Illustrated History, Bojidar Dimitrov, PhD., Author, BORIANA Publishing House 2002, ISBN 9545000449
  23. ^ http://www.motoroads.com/why_bul_history.html
  24. ^ http://www.theodora.com/wfbcurrent/bulgaria/bulgaria_military.html
  25. ^ http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/06/19/business/EU-FIN-ECO-Bulgaria-Growth.php
  26. ^ http://www.alstom.cz/boilers/en/enovinky.html#3
  27. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/working_lunch/6172095.stm
  28. ^ http://www.theodora.com/wfbcurrent/bulgaria/bulgaria_communications.html
  29. ^ http://www.theodora.com/wfbcurrent/bulgaria/bulgaria_communications.html Statistics of Bulgarian communications
  30. ^ National Statistical Institute of Bulgaria, retrieved July 31, 2006
  31. ^ http://www.migrationinformation.org/Feature/display.cfm?id=308
  32. ^ http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,2144,2287183,00.html
  33. ^ McCarthy, J. (1996). Death and Exile: The Ethnic Cleansing of Ottoman Muslims, 1821-1922. Princeton, N.J: Darwin Press, 88–91. ISBN 0878500944. 
  34. ^ Social values, science and technology (pdf). [[European Commission|]] (June 2005). Retrieved on 2007-01-01.

Further reading

  • Crampton, R. J. A Concise History of Bulgaria. Cambridge, UK ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 2005. ISBN 9780521616379
  • Detrez, Raymond. Historical Dictionary of Bulgaria Second Edition. 2006. lxiv + 638 pp. Maps, bibliography, appendix, chronology. ISBN 978-0-8108-4901-3.
  • Lampe, John R., and Marvin R. Jackson. Balkan Economic History, 1550-1950: From Imperial Borderlands to Developing Nations. 1982. online edition
  • Lampe, John R. The Bulgarian Economy in the Twentieth Century. 1986.

Pre 1939

  • Hall, Richard C. Bulgaria's Road to the First World War. Columbia University Press, 1996.
  • MacDermott, Mercia. A History of Bulgaria, 1393-1885 (1962) online edition
  • Perry, Duncan M. Stefan Stambolov and the Emergence of Modern Bulgaria, 1870-1895 (1993) online edition
  • Runciman, Steven. A History of the First Bulgarian Empire (1930) online edition
  • Zlatarski, Vasil N. (1934). Prof. Dr. (Bulgarian). Medieval History of the Bulgarian State. Royal Printing House, Sofia. Retrieved on 2007-08-05. (Васил Н. Златарски, История на българската държава през средните векове, Част II, II изд., Наука и изкуство, София 1970.)

World War II

  • Bar-Zohar, Michael. Beyond Hitler's Grasp: The Heroic Rescue of Bulgaria's Jews
  • Groueff, Stephane. Crown of Thorns: The Reign of King Boris III of Bulgaria, 1918–1943
  • Todorov, Tzvetan The Fragility of Goodness: Why Bulgaria's Jews Survived the Holocaust

Communist era

  • Todorov, Tzvetan. Voices from the Gulag: Life and Death in Communist Bulgaria
  • Dimitrova, Alexenia. The Iron Fist - Inside the Bulgarian secret archives

Contemporary

  • Bell, John D., ed. Bulgaria in Transition: Politics, Economics, Society, and Culture after Communism (1998) online edition

Guide-books

  • Paul Greenway, Lonely Planet World Guide: Bulgaria
  • Pettifer, James. Blue Guide: Bulgaria
  • Timothy Rice, Music of Bulgaria
  • Jonathan Bousfield. The Rough Guide To Bulgaria

External links

All wikimedia projects
Articles on this topic in other Wikimedia projects can be found at: Bulgaria

Official

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English-language Bulgarian media

(English) Southeast European Times

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