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Bull Terrier (Miniature)
Bull terier i bull terier miniatura d46.jpg
Standard (left) and Miniature Bull Terriers
Other names Miniature Bull Terrier
Country of origin England
Traits

The Bull Terrier (Miniature) is a breed of dog developed using selective breeding to miniaturize the Bull Terrier.

Contents

Description

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Appearance

Miniature Bull Terriers have short, fine, and glossy coats that are very close to the skin, like the Standards. They are accepted in the ring to be white, white with another color, or fully colored. However, like the Standards, any blue or liver colored coats are undesirable. These dogs require very minimal grooming.

In the early 1900s, the difference between the breeds was determined by the dog's weight. However, this led to Miniature Bull Terriers becoming so small and fine that they looked more like a Chihuahua than a Bull Terrier. So, in the 1970s, the weight limit was replaced with a height limit of under fourteen inches. They are usually no smaller than ten inches. According to the AKC, miniature bull terriers weight must be proportionate to its height. However, they tend to range anywhere from 20–35 lbs.

The Miniature Bull Terriers have a very strong build. They have very muscular shoulders and a full body.

Miniature Bull Terriers, like the Standards, have a head described as "egg-shaped." It is flat on top with a Roman muzzle. The eyes are triangular and closely set.

The ears are carried erect and are not cropped or otherwise altered.

The tail is carried horizontally rather than vertically.

Temperament

Like the Standard Bull Terriers, Minis are loving and, like many terrier breeds, can be stubborn at times; but despite this they make great dogs for people with limited space.

Bull Terriers are known to be stubborn and courageous. They don't seem to realize their size, however, because even if confronting an enormous dog they will not back down. However, with the right training, confrontations can be avoided. This characteristic does not change in the Miniatures. Some people think that Miniature Bull Terriers are practically a different dog, but one must realize that they are the same dogs, just smaller. They are very energetic and playful. They love people, but often don't get along with other pets. They are variable around other dogs, and young children must be warned to treat them carefully.

Care

As mentioned before, Miniature Bull Terriers require little grooming. A quick brushing once a day or a few times a week is sufficient to keep the fur in order, as it cannot become tangled due to its length. Sunscreen must be used on any sparse white sections of fur around the face, ears, hindquarters or stomach when outdoors (especially in the summer between the hours of 10am and 2pm) to avoid sunburn and cancer.

Training

Miniatures do require a lot of training, particularly early on. They must be heavily socialized and trained to obey early in their lives.

They also are very energetic and seem to be able to play endlessly as puppies. However, as they grow older they become less energetic. They must be carefully exercised and dieted to avoid obesity.

Health

Miniature Bull Terriers are generally quite healthy, but there are hearing, eye, skin, kidney, heart and knee problems in some dogs:

Deafness occurs in both coloured and white Bull Terrier (Miniature). Puppies can be born unilaterally deaf (deaf in one ear) or bilaterally (deaf in both ears.) Deaf dogs should not be bred due to deafness being hereditary.[1] BEAP (or BAER) testing is done on puppies prior to sale to discover which puppies have hearing problems.

Bull Terrier (Miniature) are also susceptible to having luxating patellas. This is a knee problem common in small dogs. It can be treated by surgery.

Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) and Bull Terrier hereditary nephritis (BTHN) are autosomal dominant diseases. PKD is diagnosed by Ultrasonic scan by a specialist veterinarian. BTHN is diagnosed by a UPC test. Dogs with a score of .3 or below are considered clear of the disease. Clearing breeding stock prior to use ensures that progeny are not affected with the disease.

Miniatures are also susceptible to eye problems such as primary lens luxation. PLL is a late onset disease which typically affects dogs between the ages of 3 and 7. Younger and older cases are known. During September 2009 a definitive DNA test was released by the Animal Health Trust. This test gives three results: Clear, Carrier, Affected.

Aortic valve stenosis and mitral valve dysplasia are heart diseases. Diagnosis is made by colour doppler echocardiography scanning by a specialist veterinarian.

The skin of a Miniature can be a problem. Pyotraumatic dermatitis (hot spots), allergic reactions, and hives can be problematic. This is typically due to feeding a processed diet high in grains. Breeders with experience find that changing the dogs diet to unprocessed raw foods (BARF) eliminates skin problems in the breed.

History

However, when the Standard breed was first created in 19th century England, it was about the same size as Miniature Bull Terriers.[2] Crossbreeding with Pointers increased the size so it was an optimal fighting size. Miniature Bull Terriers were granted membership in the American Kennel Club (AKC) in May 14, 1991 (effective January 1, 1992).[3][4]

Interbreeding

Interbreeding, the process of mating together a Bull Terrier (Miniature) and Bull Terrier, is allowed in Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom. Interbreeding is undertaken to reduce the incidence of Primary Lens Luxation in the Miniature. The Bull Terrier does not carry the PLL gene so all progeny are phenotypically normal for the disease.

Each country which allows interbreding have their own protocols which govern which dogs can be mated. Australia has no protocols, while the United Kingdom and New Zealand requires strict adherence to health testing and identification of dogs used.

External links

References

  1. ^ "Bull Terrier Health: Deafness". Bull Terriers Health UK. http://bullterriershealthuk.homestead.com/deafness.html. Retrieved 2008-04-13.  
  2. ^ "Miniature Bull Terrier History". American Kennel Club. http://www.akc.org/breeds/miniature_bull_terrier/history.cfm. Retrieved 2008-04-13.  
  3. ^ "Miniature Bull Terrier Breed Standard". American Kennel Club. http://www.akc.org/breeds/miniature_bull_terrier/index.cfm. Retrieved 2008-04-13.  
  4. ^ "Miniature Bull Terrier (colored)". Dog.com. http://www.dog.com/Breeds/Breed.aspx?breed=149. Retrieved 2008-04-13.  

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