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This article is about the Japanese era; for the Ryukyuan king, see Bunei (Ryukyu).

Bun'ei (文永 ?) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, ?, lit. "year name") after Kōchō and before Kenji. This period spanned the years from 1264 to 1275. The reigning emperor was Kameyama-tennō (亀山天皇 ?).[1]

Contents

Change of era

  • 1264 Bun'ei gannen (文永元年 ?); 1264: The new era name was created to mark an event or a number of events. The previous era ended and a new one commenced in Kōchō 4.

Events of the Bun'ei era

  • 1274 (Bun'ei 11, 1st month): In the 15th year of Kameyama-tennō 's reign (亀山天皇15年), the emperor abdicated; and the succession (‘‘senso’’) was received by his cousin.[2]
  • 1274 (Bun'ei 11, 3rd month): Emperor Go-Uda is said to have acceded to the throne (‘‘sokui’’).[3] The retired Emperor Kameyama continued to exercise power as cloistered emperor.
  • 1274 (Bun'ei 11, 10th month): Hirohito-shinnō was named Crown Prince and heir to his first cousin, the Daikakuji-tō Emperor Go-Uda. This was the result of political maeuvering by Hirohito's father, the Jimyōin-tō Emperor Go-Fukakusa.[4]
Japanese samurai defending the stone barrier -- from the narrative picture scroll Mōko Shūrai Ekotoba, which was painted between 1275 and 1293.[5]
  • November 19, 1274 (Bun'ei 11, 20th day of the 10th month): Battle of Bun'ei -- Kublai Khan's Mongol forces land at Hakata Bay near Fukuoka in Kyūshū. After landing and some armed skirmishes, the invaders withdraw to spend the night on shipboard. That night, a storm sinks several ships, and the fleet retreats to Korea rather than pressing their initial advantage.[6] In the course of the day's fighting, the Hakozaki Shrine was burned to the ground.[7] Nihon Ōdai Ichiran explains that the invaders were defeated because they lacked arrows.[8]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du Japon, pp. 253-261; Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki. p. 232-233.
  2. ^ Titsingh, p. 261; Varley, p. 44. [A distinct act of senso is unrecognized prior to Emperor Tenji; and all sovereigns except Jitō, Yōzei, Go-Toba, and Fushimi have senso and sokui in the same year until the reign of Go-Murakami.]
  3. ^ Titsingh, p. 262; Varley, p. 44.
  4. ^ Titsingh, p. 262, 270.
  5. ^ Mongol Invasions of Japan
  6. ^ Davis, Paul K. (2001). 100 decisive battles: from ancient times to the present, p. 147.
  7. ^ Turnbull, Stephen R. (2003). Genghis Khan & the Mongol Conquests 1190–1400, p. 66.
  8. ^ Titsingh, p. 262.

References

External links

Kōchō 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th
Gregorian 1264 1265 1266 1267 1268 1269 1270 1271 1272 1273 1274 1275
Preceded by
Kōchō
Era or nengō
Bun'ei

1264 – 1275
Succeeded by
Kenji
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Simple English

Bun'ei (文永?) was a Japanese era (年号, nengō,?, lit. "year name") after Kōchō and before Kenji. This era lasted from February 1264 to April 1275.[1] The reigning emperors were Kameyama-tennō (亀山天皇?) and Go-Uda-tennō (後宇多天皇?).[2]

Contents

Change of era

  • 1264 Bun'ei gannen (文永元年?): The new era name was created to mark an event or a number of events. The era before this ended and a new one started in Kōchō 4.

Events of the Bun'ei era

  • 1274 (Bun'ei 11, 1st month): In the 15th year of Kameyama's reign (亀山天皇15年), the emperor abdicated.[3]
  • 1274 (Bun'ei 11, 3rd month): Emperor Go-Uda is enthroned.[4] The retired Emperor Kameyama continued to be influential in what was called cloistered rule.
  • 1274 (Bun'ei 11, 10th month): The son of former Emperor Go-Fukakusa (Hirohito-shinnō) was named Crown Prince and heir to Emperor Go-Uda. Hirohito and Go-Uda were first cousins..[5]

[[File:|thumb|right|Japanese samurai defending a stone barrier near the coast of Fukuoka.[6]]]

  • November 19, 1274 (Bun'ei 11, 20th day of the 10th month): Kublai Khan sends a fleet and an army to invade Japan. Some military forces are landed near Fukuoka in Kyūshū. However, a storm sinks many of the ships with the major part of the invading army. The invaders retreat to Korea.[7] During the brief fighting, the Hakozaki Shrine was burned to the ground.[8]

Notes

  1. Nussbaum, Louis Frédéric et al. (2005). "Bun'ei" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 90.
  2. Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du Japon, pp. 253-261; Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki. p. 232-233.
  3. Titsingh, p. 261; Varley, p. 44.
  4. Titsingh, p. 262; Varley, p. 44.
  5. Titsingh, p. 262, 270.
  6. Mongol Invasions of Japan
  7. Davis, Paul K. (2001). 100 decisive battles: from ancient times to the present, p. 147.
  8. Turnbull, Stephen R. (2003). Genghis Khan & the Mongol Conquests 1190–1400, p. 66.

References

Other websites

Bun'ei 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th
Gregorian 1264 1265 1266 1267 1268 1269 1270 1271 1272 1273 1274 1275
Preceded by
Kōchō
Era or nengō
Bun'ei

1264 – 1275
Succeeded by
Kenji

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