Bureaucracy: Wikis

  
  
  
  

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Bureaucracy

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

.Bureaucracy is the combined organizational structure, procedures, protocols, and set of regulations in place to manage activity, usually in large organizations.^ In this way the goal of moving from bureaucracy towards self-managing structures is much less likely to become sidetracked.
  • Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bureaucracy 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alexander understood the importance of political organizations and made sure, after each conquest, that he preserved the bureaucracy that had been in place.
  • Why bureaucracy will likely destroy America by John Silveira Issue #50 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.backwoodshome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mandels theory of bureaucracy is one of the central scientific foundations of the revolutionary political project of working class self-activity, self-organization and self-emancipation.
  • Ernest Mandel and the Marxian Theory of Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.ernestmandel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As opposed to adhocracy, it is often represented by standardized procedure (rule-following) that guides the execution of most or all processes within the body; formal division of powers; hierarchy; and relationships, intended to anticipate needs and improve efficiency.^ I've written before about the crazy process; McKay's experience was far, far worse, most of all because this time, the police actually followed the official procedure and made him get a permit.

^ In a bureaucratic system students learn how to follow rules and procedures, complete activities as a part of the school improvement plan, and become good test takers.
  • Why is there so much school bureaucracy and what can we do about it? - NewTalk 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC newtalk.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Furthermore, 'efficiency' is usually interpreted only under the presupposition that the process is controlled from the top: that is, efficiency within the existing power relations or efficiency in preserving them.
  • Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bureaucracy 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A bureaucracy traditionally does not create policy but, rather, enacts it.^ But working through bureaucracy on the inside, or demanding policy changes from the outside, does little to transform bureaucracy itself.
  • Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bureaucracy 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bureaucracies are necessary and work when when they impersonally carry out the policy rules created by the political arms of the goverment.
  • TPMCafe | Talking Points Memo | The Case for Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC tpmcafe.talkingpointsmemo.com [Source type: Original source]

.Law, policy, and regulation normally originates from a leadership, which creates the bureaucracy to implement.^ Let bureaucracies submit laws and regulations to Congress before they can be enacted.
  • Why bureaucracy will likely destroy America by John Silveira Issue #50 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.backwoodshome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bureaucracies are necessary and work when when they impersonally carry out the policy rules created by the political arms of the goverment.
  • TPMCafe | Talking Points Memo | The Case for Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC tpmcafe.talkingpointsmemo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Any principal who in the new freedom school environment attempts to establish excessive rules and regulations, and thereby create a one-school bureaucracy, will not last long in a competitive environment.
  • Why is there so much school bureaucracy and what can we do about it? - NewTalk 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC newtalk.org [Source type: Original source]

In practice, the interpretation and execution of policy, etc. can lead to informal influence - but not necessarily. .A bureaucracy is directly responsible to the leadership that creates it, such as a government executive or board of directors.^ The police, courts, executive branches of government, parents, teachers, librarians, and many other people or groups of people are also responsible for applying rules, yet we dont think of these as being bureaucracies.
  • Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.brianrude.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Perhaps it should also be possible to make a bureaucracy disappear by referendum so that bureaucracies are directly responsible to the public.
  • Why bureaucracy will likely destroy America by John Silveira Issue #50 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.backwoodshome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The first thing to note about Rowling's Ministry of Magic is that she has created a government structure that appears to be one hundred percent bureaucracy.
  • Harry Potter and the Half-Crazed Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC tarlton.law.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Conversely, the leadership is usually responsible to an electorate, shareholders, membership or whoever is intended to benefit. .As a matter of practicality, the bureaucracy is where the individual will interface with an organization such as a government etc., rather than directly with its leadership.^ I am a scholar activist, organizer, and consultant to businesses, organizations and individuals focused on increasing effectiveness by achieving transparency and accountability in bureaucracies, whether in the public or private sector.

^ And many other writers, such as Henry Mintzberg, see team-based organizations as narrow solutions to particular business problems rather than as a full-blown alternative to the bureaucratic model.
  • Can Business Beat Bureaucracy? | The American Prospect 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.prospect.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rather than seeing bureaucracy as a form of organisation designed for efficient administration, bureaucracy is better understood as a political or power system.
  • Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bureaucracy 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Generally, larger organizations result in a greater distancing of the individual from the leadership, which can be consequential or intentional by design.^ If, therefore, the movement of the individual parts is not calculated in terms of this general rule, the general result can only be an incoherence which will hamper their regular performance.
  • Bureaucracy by Eugene Kamenka 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The result is an increasing hostility to bureaucratization rather than to bureaucrats, a rejection of the application of general rules to individual cases.
  • Bureaucracy by Eugene Kamenka 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

Contents

Definition

.Bureaucracy is a concept in sociology and political science referring to the way that the administrative execution and enforcement of legal rules are socially organized.^ Alexander understood the importance of political organizations and made sure, after each conquest, that he preserved the bureaucracy that had been in place.
  • Why bureaucracy will likely destroy America by John Silveira Issue #50 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.backwoodshome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Rather than seeing bureaucracy as a form of organisation designed for efficient administration, bureaucracy is better understood as a political or power system.
  • Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bureaucracy 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mandels theory of bureaucracy is one of the central scientific foundations of the revolutionary political project of working class self-activity, self-organization and self-emancipation.
  • Ernest Mandel and the Marxian Theory of Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.ernestmandel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Four structural concepts are central to any definition of bureaucracy:
  1. a well-defined division of administrative labour among persons and offices,
  2. a personnel system with consistent patterns of recruitment and stable linear careers,
  3. a hierarchy among offices, such that the authority and status are differentially distributed among actors, and
  4. formal and informal networks that connect organizational actors to one another through flows of information and patterns of cooperation.
.Examples of everyday bureaucracies include governments, armed forces, corporations, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), intergovernmental organizations (IGOs), hospitals, courts, ministries, social clubs, sports leagues, professional associations and academic institutions.^ American social patterns; studies of race relations, popular heores, voting, union democracy, and government bureaucracy.

^ The professional bureaucracy relies for coordination on the standardization of skills and its associated design parameter, training and indoctrination.
  • Organizational Configurations (Mintzberg) 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.12manage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As I responded to another individual, it is factually correct that Japanese governmental organizations (Tokyo city government, for example) emulated American government during the (to be more specific) 1920s and earlier.
  • TPMCafe | Talking Points Memo | The Case for Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC tpmcafe.talkingpointsmemo.com [Source type: Original source]

Origins

.While the concept as such existed at least from the early forms of nationhood in ancient times, the word "bureaucracy" itself stems from the word "bureau", used from the early 18th century in Western Europe not just to refer to a writing desk, but to an office, i.e., a workplace, where officials worked.^ Between the mid-18th and mid-19th century, New York City schools underwent dramatic changes in structure and form.
  • Daily Kos: A thumbnail history of school bureaucracy (Ykos) 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Formal schooling existed in a variety of forms before and during the early 19th century, but you really cannot talk about school systems before the existence of multi-school governance arrangements and rules for those collections.
  • Daily Kos: A thumbnail history of school bureaucracy (Ykos) 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His argument was that incipient bureaucracy was one of four vigorous models of schooling in the early 19th century.
  • Daily Kos: A thumbnail history of school bureaucracy (Ykos) 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

The original French meaning of the word bureau was the baize used to cover desks. .The term bureaucracy came into use shortly before the French Revolution of 1789, and from there rapidly spread to other countries.^ The term bureaucracy came into use shortly before the French Revolution of 1789, and from there rapidly spread to other countries.
  • Bureaucracy encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Bureaucracy at AllExperts 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A number of monographs have been written which document gross examples of bureaucracy, both in this and other countries.4.
  • Bureaucracy and Democracy: A Happy Marriage?: William T. Gormley. 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC terrazadelpacifico.com [Source type: General]

^ There’s an awful lot of paperwork involved, considering that I’m moving between two first-world countries that are on fairly good terms with each other.

The Greek suffix - kratia or kratos - means "power" or "rule".

Development

.Perhaps the early example of a bureaucrat is the scribe, who first arose as a professional on the early cities of Sumer.^ First, it would antagonise those bureaucrats who were burdened with the ministerial correspondence.
  • Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bureaucracy 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A. The Democratic Defense The first line of attack against public-choice theory is always that bureaucrats must answer to elected officials, who must in turn answer to the voters.
  • Harry Potter and the Half-Crazed Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC tarlton.law.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Sumerian script was so complicated that it required specialists who had trained for their entire lives in the discipline of writing to manipulate it.^ What a slap in the face to people who spend four years of training to reach and improve the lives of children!
  • Why is there so much school bureaucracy and what can we do about it? - NewTalk 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC newtalk.org [Source type: Original source]

.These scribes could wield significant power, as they had a total monopoly on the keeping of records and creation of inscriptions on monuments to kings.^ The only kind of state-owned industries they could imagine were those that existed under the bureaucratic plan, with all the mismanagement that these involved.
  • Absurdist Republic - China’s Long March to Capitalism – Part Two 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC my.opera.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They may have problems with record keeping, and storing historic computers as a museum.
  • Local Recycle & Reuse Hits A Bureaucratic Roadblock - O'Reilly Radar 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC radar.oreilly.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The future of Japan as a powerful nation could only be maintained if they developed capitalism.
  • Absurdist Republic - China’s Long March to Capitalism – Part Two 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC my.opera.com [Source type: Original source]

.In later, larger empires like Achaemenid Persia, bureaucracies quickly expanded as government expanded and increased its functions.^ It's work to maintain a functioning bureaucracy that few people actually like.
  • TPMCafe | Talking Points Memo | The Case for Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC tpmcafe.talkingpointsmemo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Though this was not stated, the image spelled out for us was of a slick public relations and lobbying group, rather like that of the corporate lobbying groups that routinely interact with the government bureaucracies.
  • Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bureaucracy 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Socialists in the nineteenth century, before they attained government, had no time for bureaucracy and bureaucrats or, rather, for what they were more likely to call the state and its officials.
  • Bureaucracy by Eugene Kamenka 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

.In the Persian Empire, the central government was divided into administrative provinces led by satraps.^ Rabourdin's plan divided the government into three ministries, or departments.
  • BUREAUCRACY 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.fdungan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By the end of the eighteenth century systematic concern with the theory and practice of regularized administration as a central function of government was burgeoning throughout Europe.
  • Bureaucracy by Eugene Kamenka 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

The satraps were appointed by the Shah to control the provinces. .In addition, a general and a royal secretary were stationed in each province to supervise troop recruitment and keep records, respectively.^ "You master me," said the general-secretary, bowing with an air of profound respect, bordering however, on sarcasm.
  • BUREAUCRACY 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.fdungan.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Achaemenid Great Kings also sent royal inspectors to tour the empire and report on local conditions.^ Eaton, one of the advisers, was sent to Great Britain to report on the situation there after the implementation of the Northcote-Trevelyan proposal.
  • Bureaucracy by Eugene Kamenka 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

.The most modernesque of all ancient bureaucracies, however, was the Chinese bureaucracy.^ First of all, throughout all of history bureaucracies have had more power than most people realize.
  • Why bureaucracy will likely destroy America by John Silveira Issue #50 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.backwoodshome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The most powerful aspect of Rowling's portrait of the Ministry of Magic as a corrupt, self-perpetuating bureaucracy is how natural it all seems.
  • Harry Potter and the Half-Crazed Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC tarlton.law.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the chaos of the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period, Confucius recognized the need for a stable system of administrators to lend good governance even when the leaders were inept.^ The three books by Spicer, Richardson, and Cook, provide increasingly expansive roles for career administrators within our system of democratic governance.
  • Bureaucracy and the American Constitution: 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.eli.pdx.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1921, the Soviet government, appalled by the breakdown of the economy during the period of War Communism including the Civil War, proclaimed the New Economic Policy, encouraging state-licensed economic development on a capitalist basis.
  • Bureaucracy by Eugene Kamenka 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Much of Trotsky’s argument at this period emphasized the psychological attitudes created by immersion in administrative tasks in the context of a hierarchical state apparatus also gaining control over the party.
  • Bureaucracy by Eugene Kamenka 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

.Chinese bureaucracy, first implemented during the Qin dynasty but under more Confucian lines under the Han, calls for the appointment of bureaucratic positions based on merit via a system of examinations.^ Bureaucracy, positions and persons : role structures, interactions, and value-orientations of bureaucrats in Rajasthan / Narendra Kumar Singhi.

^ The first attempts to run a centralized school system with a public bureaucracy were in the Northeast in cities.
  • Daily Kos: A thumbnail history of school bureaucracy (Ykos) 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ First of all, throughout all of history bureaucracies have had more power than most people realize.
  • Why bureaucracy will likely destroy America by John Silveira Issue #50 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.backwoodshome.com [Source type: Original source]

.Although the power of the Chinese bureaucrats waxed and waned throughout China's long history, the imperial examination system lasted as late as 1905, and modern China still employs a formidable bureaucracy in its daily workings.^ From the point of view of the bureaucracy the system is "working".
  • Absurdist Republic - China’s Long March to Capitalism – Part Two 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC my.opera.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The bureaucracy is proud of having a history of over 1,000 years, and in the last 400 years this bureaucratic system has become so entrenched in society that it may take far longer than 20 years to downsize the system if they continue at the same pace.
  • Anthroculture: "Castration", Japan's Bureaucracy & HIV 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.nancho.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Action groups outside bureaucracies also need to be wary of working 'through the system.'
  • Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bureaucracy 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Modern bureaucracies arose as the government of states grew larger during the modern period, and especially following the Industrial Revolution.^ It started off as a relatively healthy workers' state and due to the isolation of the revolution it underwent a degeneration, with the bureaucracy usurping power.
  • Absurdist Republic - China’s Long March to Capitalism – Part Two 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC my.opera.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1921, the Soviet government, appalled by the breakdown of the economy during the period of War Communism including the Civil War, proclaimed the New Economic Policy, encouraging state-licensed economic development on a capitalist basis.
  • Bureaucracy by Eugene Kamenka 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During the period of Japanese industrialization, Europe was the dominant power.
  • TPMCafe | Talking Points Memo | The Case for Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC tpmcafe.talkingpointsmemo.com [Source type: Original source]

As the authors David Osborne and Ted Gaebler point out
."It is hard to imagine today, but a hundred years ago bureaucracy meant something positive.^ The constant criticism and negative opinions that have stirred over the past 25 years is the driving force behind the bureaucracy in schools today.
  • Why is there so much school bureaucracy and what can we do about it? - NewTalk 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC newtalk.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Our education system is very different than it was two hundred years ago.
  • Why is there so much school bureaucracy and what can we do about it? - NewTalk 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC newtalk.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The emergence and growth of bureaucracy, the non-propertied officialdom of various organizations, over the last two hundred years has been the subject of considerable discussion among social scientists.
  • Ernest Mandel and the Marxian Theory of Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.ernestmandel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It connoted a rational, efficient method of organization – something to take the place of the arbitrary exercise of power by authoritarian regimes.^ One is classical constitutionalism which is preoccupied with the need to limit the arbitrary exercise of political power.
  • Bureaucracy and the American Constitution: 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.eli.pdx.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ How can a utilitarian and democratic concern for advancing social welfare through the exercise of governmental power be joined to the long-standing concern for reducing arbitrariness in the exercise of that power?
  • Bureaucracy and the American Constitution: 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.eli.pdx.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Bureaucracy brought the same logic to government work that the assembly line brought to the factory.^ The working class in the east neither ruled nor governed, and the bureaucracy was not a layer of the working class.
  • Ernest Mandel and the Marxian Theory of Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.ernestmandel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He showed this convincingly first in his earlier work on emigration and the Passenger Acts and then went on to see the same mechanism at work in mines and factories, in shipping and public health.
  • Bureaucracy by Eugene Kamenka 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus the wife and the husband were besieging the same fortress, working on parallel lines, but without each other's knowledge.
  • BUREAUCRACY 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.fdungan.com [Source type: Original source]

.With the hierarchical authority and functional a specialization, they made possible the efficient undertaking of large complex tasks."^ The work of complex environments cannot be rationalized into simple tasks, and that of dynamic environments cannot be predicted, made repetitive, and so standardized.
  • Organizational Configurations (Mintzberg) 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.12manage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, one possible argument is that self-managing work groups are more efficient than hierarchically organised groups.
  • Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bureaucracy 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Task forces and autonomous teams have spread widely in many large companies, but they have not turned relations upside down.
  • Can Business Beat Bureaucracy? | The American Prospect 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.prospect.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1]
.Tax collectors, perhaps the most disliked of all bureaucrats, became increasingly necessary as states began to take in more and more revenue, while the role of administrators increased as the functions of government multiplied.^ Perhaps more revealing was the reluctance of many bureaucrats to be interviewed at all.
  • Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bureaucracy 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An increasingly vicious circle has emerged in which anxiety about control and accountability of public administration has led to more extensive, more complex controls which in turn have increased bureaucratic distance between administrators and the public they are expected to serve.
  • Bureaucracy and the American Constitution: 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.eli.pdx.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ All this encouraged governments to perform new functions and made possible and necessary the employment of many more civil servants on the basis of ever-increasing revenue through taxation.
  • Bureaucracy by Eugene Kamenka 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

.Along with this expansion, though, came the recognition of the corruption and nepotism often inherent within the managerial system, leading to civil service reform on a large scale in many countries towards the end of the 19th century.^ Finally, the development of school systems and bureaucracy in the 19th century did not dramatically expand access to or use of schooling, in and of itself.
  • Daily Kos: A thumbnail history of school bureaucracy (Ykos) 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Tyack's One Best System (1974) is the classic account of bureaucratization in the late 19th and early 20th century, bureaucratization in urban systems and also the consolidation of tiny rural districts.
  • Daily Kos: A thumbnail history of school bureaucracy (Ykos) 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Japanese Diet is a parliamentary system which has roots in the 19th century and takes lesson primarily from the German and British systems.
  • TPMCafe | Talking Points Memo | The Case for Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC tpmcafe.talkingpointsmemo.com [Source type: Original source]

Types of bureaucratic agencies

.Examining different agencies from a management point of view, they differ in two main ways: whether or not the activities of the operators can be observed, and whether the results of those activities can be observed.^ It seems that the leaders and managers, particularly of bigger organizations and those who have advanced from smaller ones, tend to be confused by the fact that the elements of bigger organizations are totally different.
  • Organizational Configurations (Mintzberg) 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.12manage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I’m not proposing that the functions performed by those agencies be dispensed with, but that amalgamations could result in not just cost savings, but enhanced performance.
  • The growing bureaucracy | Kiwiblog 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.kiwiblog.co.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are many studies of how to control and use bureaucracy, but always from the point of view of those at the top.
  • Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bureaucracy 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The first factor deals with outputs, or what the agency does on a day to day basis. The second factor deals with outcomes, or the overall results of agency work. The extreme cases where outputs and outcomes are either simple or difficult to observe yields four different kinds of agencies: production, procedural, craft, and coping[2].
.
  • Production organizations are those in which both outputs and outcomes are observable.^ Three of those were both important and indicative of the party’s organizational sophistication in building, consciously and deliberately, an apparatus.
    • Bureaucracy by Eugene Kamenka 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Examples include the Social Security Administration, United States Postal Service, and IRS.^ In case anyone was wondering how much it costs for the United States Postal Service to maintain the hulk of the vacated main post office building that straddles the Eisenhower Expressway in downtown Chicago, it's $2 million a year.

    ^ Under his administration, the United States gained more territory than under any administration before or since.
    • Why bureaucracy will likely destroy America by John Silveira Issue #50 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.backwoodshome.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Social Security Disability system is a typical example.
    • Harry Potter and the Half-Crazed Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC tarlton.law.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .In production organizations, managers can observe the outputs of officials, and can (for example in the IRS) measure the amount of money collected in taxes, and estimate with accuracy how much more tax money will be produced by increasing the level of auditing activity.
  • Procedural organizations are those where outputs can be observed, but outcomes are unclear or not observable.^ Mandel does much more than demonstrate that democratic self-organization of the working class in both capitalist and post-capitalist societies is possible .
    • Ernest Mandel and the Marxian Theory of Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.ernestmandel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Of that amount, 70 percent of all unpaid payroll taxes are owed by businesses with more than a year (4 tax quarters) of unpaid federal payroll taxes, and over a quarter of unpaid payroll taxes were owed by businesses that accumulated tax debt for more than 3 years (12 tax quarters).

    ^ But of course those are all generalizations, and in fact all those people are much more alike in reality.
    • TPMCafe | Talking Points Memo | The Case for Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC tpmcafe.talkingpointsmemo.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Examples include the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, and the United States armed forces during peace time.^ This young man held, during the whole time that this particular administration lasted, the position of private secretary to the minister.
    • BUREAUCRACY 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.fdungan.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But it's safe to say this--the accident is likely to increase calls for the federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration to play a more active role in helping to prevent such accidents.

    ^ The federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration should really take the lead in this area to ensure that training for crane operators coincides with changes in the industry.

    .OSHA may observe the actions of health inspectors, but may not be able to measure how these individual actions add up to improved safety and health in the workplace.^ These traditions stand far apart from Aristotelian constitutionalism where natural law provides a standard against which to measure the moral growth of individuals and the justice of regimes.
    • Bureaucracy and the American Constitution: 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.eli.pdx.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ These were now seen as inimical to democracy, to the efficient and technically competent care for the health and safety, the economic and political welfare, of citizens, and to honest government.
    • Bureaucracy by Eugene Kamenka 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ These "cost savings" are made up for by private insurance and individuals.
    • The American Spectator : Murder by Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

    .In the armed forces during peacetime, all aspects of training and deployment can be observed, but it cannot be measured how these activities deter aggression, or prepare for a future (unknown) conflict.
  • Craft organizations are those where outputs are hard to observe, but outcomes are fairly easy to evaluate.^ Plus, I'd have a way of recycling all those hard drives, motherboards, processors and CRTs I've got laying around.
    • Local Recycle & Reuse Hits A Bureaucratic Roadblock - O'Reilly Radar 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC radar.oreilly.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ All these aspects of the feudal system were resistant to the extensive division of labour and centralised control required for the operation of bureaucracy.
    • Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Bureaucracy 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The judges moved forward on rejiggering the organizational chart for court employees and how those workers will be evaluated, all in order to reduce overall compensation costs.

    Examples include the armed services at war, who may operate under a fog of war, but whose battle outcomes can be easily measured. .Another example is the United States Department of Labor and their "Wage and Hour Division". While the outputs of individual inspectors in the field are difficult to measure, overall outcomes of negotiated compliance agreements and referrals to federal attorneys for legal action are easily measurable.
  • Coping organizations are those where neither outputs nor outcomes are observable.^ Any powers not specifically given to the statein this case, the federal governmentare reserved to the people and the separate states that make up these United States.
    • Why bureaucracy will likely destroy America by John Silveira Issue #50 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.backwoodshome.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ As I responded to another individual, it is factually correct that Japanese governmental organizations (Tokyo city government, for example) emulated American government during the (to be more specific) 1920s and earlier.
    • TPMCafe | Talking Points Memo | The Case for Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC tpmcafe.talkingpointsmemo.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Will the United States ever fall like Athens, Rome, and those other countries?
    • Why bureaucracy will likely destroy America by John Silveira Issue #50 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.backwoodshome.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Typical examples include Police Departments, and the United States Department of State.^ It was never intended that this department was to last forever, nor was it intended that the federal government permanently own almost 30% of the United States.
    • Why bureaucracy will likely destroy America by John Silveira Issue #50 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.backwoodshome.com [Source type: Original source]

    Some of the activities of diplomats and policeman cannot be observed or measured (e.g. sensitive conversations with foreign leaders, and interactions with citizens on the street), and the outcomes are also difficult to judge (e.g. changes in foreign perceptions of US interests, and the level of order on a policeman's beat)
An agency's type substantially impacts its approach to its mission, (i.e. the degree to which its members are devoted to accomplishing the agency's stated mission) and to compliance with the law and existing policy.

Views on the concept

In a letter of July 1, 1790, the German Baron von Grimm declared: "We are obsessed by the idea of regulation, and our Masters of Requests refuse to understand that there is an infinity of things in a great state with which a government should not concern itself." Jean Claude Marie Vincent de Gournay sometimes used to say, "We have an illness in France which bids fair to play havoc with us; this illness is called bureaumania." Sometimes he used to refer to a fourth or fifth form of government under the heading of "bureaucracy".
.In another letter of July 15, 1765 Baron Grimm wrote also, "The real spirit of the laws in France is that bureaucracy of which the late Monsieur de Gournay used to complain so greatly; here the offices, clerks, secretaries, inspectors and intendants are not appointed to benefit the public interest, indeed the public interest appears to have been established so that offices might exist."^ Elisabeth quietly asked three questions:— "If Monsieur des Lupeaulx is on our side, will Monsieur Baudoyer be appointed in Monsieur de la Billardiere's place?"
  • BUREAUCRACY 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.fdungan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That may be okay in France where the two most powerful forces are the President and the bureaucracy, but in this country the individual is supposed to reign supreme and the government is supposed to exist for his benefit.
  • Why bureaucracy will likely destroy America by John Silveira Issue #50 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.backwoodshome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As difficult to decipher as a hieroglyphic inscription to the clerks, the vocation of the secretary and his usefulness were as plain as the rule of three to the self-interested.
  • BUREAUCRACY 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.fdungan.com [Source type: Original source]

[3]
.This quote refers to a traditional controversy about bureaucracy, namely the perversion of means and ends so that means become ends in themselves, and the greater good is lost sight of; as a corollary, the substitution of sectional interests for the general interest.^ About: Food quotes , Funny quotes , Bureaucracy quotes .
  • Bureaucracy quotes 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC thinkexist.com [Source type: General]

^ About: Bureaucracy quotes .
  • Bureaucracy quotes 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC thinkexist.com [Source type: General]

^ Submit a New Quote about Bureaucracy .
  • Bureaucracy quotes 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC thinkexist.com [Source type: General]

.The suggestion here is that, left uncontrolled, the bureaucracy will become increasingly self-serving and corrupt, rather than serving society.^ If I follow this correctly, you say that university bureaucracy and administrative structures are the product of a self-serving bureaucracy which does not understand and mistrusts 'clever' people like you.
  • Susanne Kord: Drowning in bureaucracy | Comment is free | The Guardian 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ In this way the goal of moving from bureaucracy towards self-managing structures is much less likely to become sidetracked.
  • Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bureaucracy 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rather than seeing bureaucracy as a form of organisation designed for efficient administration, bureaucracy is better understood as a political or power system.
  • Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bureaucracy 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Karl Marx

.In Karl Marx's and Friedrich Engels's theory of historical materialism, the historical origin of bureaucracy is to be found in four sources: religion, the formation of the state, commerce, and technology.^ Shlomo Avineri, however, in The Social and Political Thought of Karl M= (Cambridge, 1968) argued that Marx was far from overlooking the fact that bureaucracy and the state were becoming central phenomena of modern social and political fife.
  • Bureaucracy by Eugene Kamenka 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The first four books have been made into movies, albeit movies that greatly undersell the source material.
  • Harry Potter and the Half-Crazed Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC tarlton.law.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus, the earliest bureaucracies consisted of castes of religious clergy, officials and scribes operating various rituals, and armed functionaries specifically delegated to keep order.^ Thus, the earliest bureaucracies consisted of castes of religious clergy, officials and scribes operating various rituals, and armed functionaries specifically delegated to keep order.
  • Bureaucracy encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This leads to the third type of authority, the setting of impartial rules and standards, operated by trained officials in a ‘bureaucracy’, literally a place where paper is stored.
  • How the World Works: 17. What is bureaucracy for? 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC letters2lily.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus, nested in the problem of legislative delegation is the problem of keeping subordinates satisfied.
  • Determinants of bureaucratic turnover intention: evidence from the department of the treasury. | Goliath Business News 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC goliath.ecnext.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the historical transition from primitive egalitarian communities to a civil society divided into social classes and estates, beginning from about 10,000 years ago, authority is increasingly centralized in, and enforced by a state apparatus existing separately from society.^ A third had accumulated over $500,000 in unpaid payroll taxes over a 10-year period as well as another $500,000 in personal taxes.

^ Most importantly, the traditional Trotskyist conception is consistent with the fundamental Marxian axiom that every society torn by social conflicts, no matter how unstable and transitional, are ruled by a single social class.
  • Ernest Mandel and the Marxian Theory of Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.ernestmandel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Socialism, by contrast, is the first form of society created in a conscious struggle by a propertyless social class, the working class.
  • Ernest Mandel and the Marxian Theory of Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.ernestmandel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This state formulates, imposes and enforces laws, and levies taxes, giving rise to an officialdom enacting these functions.^ This state formulates, imposes and enforces laws, and levies taxes, giving rise to an officialdom enacting these functions.
  • Bureaucracy encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Bureaucracy at AllExperts 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In capitalist society, the state typically lacks an independent economic base, finances many activities on credit, and is heavily dependent on levying taxes as a source of income.
  • Bureaucracy encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Bureaucracy at AllExperts 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Parliament therefore delegates to public employees the power to pass regulations that have the force of law, to enforce these regulations and to penalize those who do not obey them.

Thus, the state mediates in conflicts among the people and keeps those conflicts within acceptable bounds; it also organizes the defense of territory. .Most importantly, the right of ordinary people to carry and use weapons of force becomes increasingly restricted; in civil society, forcing other people to do things becomes increasingly the legal right of the state authorities only.^ One other thing which might get confusing/frustrating on the > user side is that currently, Linux is the *only* product which requires > the bug reporter to find the fault change .
  • Bugs And Bureaucracy | KernelTrap 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC kerneltrap.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of course, I do use tests, and I make my own, and in most cases, there is not a single right answer, but rather, students show me their mastery of the material by taking it in a direction that only they can as an individual.
  • Daily Kos: A thumbnail history of school bureaucracy (Ykos) 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the case of the bureaucracy, or the MHW, the bureaucrats search for other people's faults, and use this to deflate their influence.
  • Anthroculture: "Castration", Japan's Bureaucracy & HIV 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.nancho.net [Source type: Original source]

[4]
.But the growth of trade and commerce adds a new, distinctive dimension to bureaucracy, insofar as it requires the keeping of accounts and the processing/recording of transactions, as well as the enforcement of legal rules governing trade.^ But the growth of trade and commerce adds a new, distinctive dimension to bureaucracy, insofar as it requires the keeping of accounts and the processing/recording of transactions, as well as the enforcement of legal rules governing trade.
  • Bureaucracy encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Bureaucracy at AllExperts 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Americans are being led to believe the government will then search them out and ship them home, which – if it even happens – will add still more layers of bureaucracy onto the overburdened immigration system, because it will add new duties and responsibilities to the federal government.
  • No more border bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.wnd.com [Source type: News]

^ One man's attempt to correct a record-keeping mistake pits him against the government's "central services" agency.
  • Bureaucracy: Definition and additional resources from BNET 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC dictionary.bnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If resources are increasingly distributed by prices in markets, this requires extensive and complex systems of record-keeping, management and calculation, conforming to legal standards.^ Lack of management talent: when you have such a centralized system and such complexity of regulations, coupled with a lack of clear accountability, what suffers is human resource development.
  • Why is there so much school bureaucracy and what can we do about it? - NewTalk 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC newtalk.org [Source type: Original source]

^ All these aspects of the feudal system were resistant to the extensive division of labour and centralised control required for the operation of bureaucracy.
  • Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bureaucracy 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Market discipline requires firms to be able to calculate economically, which requires prices and the profit/loss evaluation that comes with it.
  • Why is there so much school bureaucracy and what can we do about it? - NewTalk 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC newtalk.org [Source type: Original source]

.Eventually, this means that the total amount of work involved in commercial administration outgrows the total amount of work involved in government administration.^ Eventually, this means that the total amount of work involved in commercial administration outgrows the total amount of work involved in government administration.
  • Bureaucracy encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Bureaucracy at AllExperts 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Brian Cooks Bureaucracy and Self-Government , like the works of Spicer and Richardson, reconsiders the role of public administration in American politics.
  • Bureaucracy and the American Constitution: 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.eli.pdx.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In modern capitalist society, private sector bureaucracy is larger than government bureaucracy, if measured by the number of administrative workers in the division of labor as a whole.^ Mandels analysis of the labor officialdom under capitalism and the ruling bureaucracy in the post-capitalist social formations is a powerful alternative to the liberal, social-democratic and Stalinist theories that claim that the rule of a full-time corps of non-propertied officials is an unavoidable feature of modern society.
  • Ernest Mandel and the Marxian Theory of Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.ernestmandel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For Mandel, the emergence of bureaucracies in both the mass working class parties and unions under capitalism and in the post-capitalist societies is rooted in the reproduction of the social division of labor between mental-supervisory and manual labor.
  • Ernest Mandel and the Marxian Theory of Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.ernestmandel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Every private business or government agency is managed by a bureaucracy.
  • TPMCafe | Talking Points Memo | The Case for Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC tpmcafe.talkingpointsmemo.com [Source type: Original source]

.Some corporations nowadays have a turnover larger than the national income of whole countries, with large administrations supervising operations.^ Some corporations nowadays have a turnover larger than the national income of whole countries, with large administrations supervising operations.
  • Bureaucracy encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Bureaucracy at AllExperts 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In modern capitalist society, private sector bureaucracy is larger than government bureaucracy, if measured by the number of administrative workers in the division of labor as a whole.
  • Bureaucracy encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But rather than rely on controlling the nature of the work performed by administrators after they are employed, conflict-of-interest statutes seek to control the nature of the motivations operating on administrators before they begin work.
  • "Administrative Discretion and Bureaucratic Statesmanship: Serving the Public Interest" 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC www.eli.pdx.edu [Source type: Original source]

.A fourth source of bureaucracy Marxists have commented on inheres in the technologies of mass production, which require many standardized routines and procedures to be performed.^ As mentioned before, bureaucracies are characterised by hierarchical authority, a detailed division of labour, a set of rules and standard routines, and impersonal relations between staff.
  • Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bureaucracy 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Too many teachers are getting out of the profession due to the bureaucracy, and many young people are choosing not to go into the field due to the comments they hear from teachers now.
  • Why is there so much school bureaucracy and what can we do about it? - NewTalk 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC newtalk.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Picking up on Jane and Jean’s comments, what functional areas are best performed in a higher level, central bureaucracy?
  • Why is there so much school bureaucracy and what can we do about it? - NewTalk 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC newtalk.org [Source type: Original source]

.Even if mechanization replaces people with machinery, people are still necessary to design, control, supervise and operate the machinery.^ Even though your business is quite noble in its endeavors you still must realize that you can not put people in danger in the event of a fire.
  • Local Recycle & Reuse Hits A Bureaucratic Roadblock - O'Reilly Radar 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC radar.oreilly.com [Source type: Original source]

.The technologies chosen may not be the ones that are best for everybody, but which create incomes for a particular class of people or maintain their power.^ Solar power to over one million people .

^ The technologies chosen may not be the ones that are best for everybody, but which create incomes for a particular class of people or maintain their power.
  • Bureaucracy encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One of my superiors said to me after I first joined the ministry, "Do you know why we bureaucrats have such power over the people and politicians?
  • Anthroculture: "Castration", Japan's Bureaucracy & HIV 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.nancho.net [Source type: Original source]

.This type of bureaucracy is nowadays often called a technocracy, which owes its power to control over specialized technical knowledge or control over critical information.^ Specialization can result in a growing monopoly of knowledge, of centralized information.
  • Ernest Mandel and the Marxian Theory of Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.ernestmandel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bureaucratic elites obtain a great deal of power by controlling information and breaking up activities into narrow tasks.
  • Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bureaucracy 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In parallel with these state bureaucracies, penetrating them, controlling them and constrained by them is another powerful bureaucracy, the communist party.
  • Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bureaucracy 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Marx's theory, bureaucracy rarely creates new wealth by itself, but rather controls, co-ordinates and governs the production, distribution and consumption of wealth.^ In Marx's theory, bureaucracy rarely creates new wealth by itself, but rather controls, co-ordinates and governs the production, distribution and consumption of wealth.
  • Bureaucracy encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Bureaucracy at AllExperts 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Balzacs observation about the social mentality created by bureaucracy has spawned much thought, especially in the seminal work of Michel Foucault on govern-mentality regarded by him as a social phenomenon rather than simply the craft of bureaucrats.
  • 594 Amitabh Mukhopadhyay, Bureaucracy and democracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.india-seminar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In Karl Marx 's and Friedrich Engels 's theory of historical materialism , the historical origin of bureaucracy is to be found in four sources: religion, the formation of the state, commerce and technology.
  • Bureaucracy encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

.The bureaucracy as a social stratum derives its income from the appropriation of part of the social surplus product of human labor.^ For Mandel, like Trotsky, the bureaucracy in the post-capitalist societies is a caste, a social layer that, unlike a social class, plays no necessary role in social production.
  • Ernest Mandel and the Marxian Theory of Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.ernestmandel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mandel argued that bureaucracy is the product of specific, historically limited relations among human beings and between human beings and the natural worldof specific social relations and material forces of production.
  • Ernest Mandel and the Marxian Theory of Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.ernestmandel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alternatives help people see bureaucracy as a social product rather than as part of the inherent nature of society.
  • Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bureaucracy 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Wealth is appropriated by the bureaucracy by law through fees, taxes, levies, tributes, licensing etc.^ Wealth is appropriated by the bureaucracy by law through fees, taxes, levies, tributes, licensing etc.
  • Bureaucracy encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Bureaucracy at AllExperts 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This state formulates, imposes and enforces laws, and levies taxes, giving rise to an officialdom enacting these functions.
  • Bureaucracy encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Bureaucracy at AllExperts 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unfortunately, legislators can themselves benefit from helping constituents wend their way through the bureacracy rather than fixing the bureaucracy and the relavent law itself.
  • TPMCafe | Talking Points Memo | The Case for Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC tpmcafe.talkingpointsmemo.com [Source type: Original source]

.Bureaucracy is therefore always a cost to society, but this cost may be accepted insofar as it makes social order possible, and maintains it by enforcing the rule of law.^ It also has got to be possible to make a bureaucracy go away.
  • Why bureaucracy will likely destroy America by John Silveira Issue #50 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.backwoodshome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If one leaves open the possibility that governments and laws may lack legitimacy, it becomes much harder simply to order blind allegiance.
  • Harry Potter and the Half-Crazed Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC tarlton.law.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This, Mandel asserted, will only be possible when not only bureaucratic rule has been replaced in the east, but capitalism has been overthrown in a number of advanced industrial societies and their vast productive potential freed.
  • Ernest Mandel and the Marxian Theory of Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.ernestmandel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nevertheless there are constant conflicts about this cost, because it has the big effect on the distribution of incomes; all producers will try to get the maximum return from what they produce, and minimize administrative costs.^ For big producers, it can be done in-line at an affordable cost.
  • Bureaucracy or Irradiation: Which Should You Trust More? - Hit & Run : Reason Magazine 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC reason.com [Source type: General]

^ But because these are lawyers we're talking about, they made sure to stick in an important qualifier.

^ There is nothing commonplace about YOU." "We will be two old friends," said des Lupeaulx, "and suppress all tender nonsense and tormenting love; we will take things as they did under the Regency.
  • BUREAUCRACY 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.fdungan.com [Source type: Original source]

.Typically, in epochs of strong economic growth, bureaucracies proliferate; when economic growth declines, a fight breaks out to cut back bureaucratic costs.^ While the bureaucracys privilege undermines the effectivity of planning, leading to declining rates of growth in the 1970s and 1980s, there was no mechanism internal to the bureaucratic economy that could resolve the crisis.
  • Ernest Mandel and the Marxian Theory of Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.ernestmandel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mandels second, and stronger critique of the bureaucracy as a new ruling class points to the profound contradiction between bureaucratic power and the logic of effective economic planning.
  • Ernest Mandel and the Marxian Theory of Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.ernestmandel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They believe this is what must be cut and they back away under bureaucratic threats.
  • Why bureaucracy will likely destroy America by John Silveira Issue #50 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.backwoodshome.com [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]
.Whether or not a bureaucracy as a social stratum can become a genuine ruling class depends greatly on the prevailing property relations and the mode of production of wealth.^ Since the late 1930s, various Marxist critics of Stalinism have challenged this theory, arguing that the bureaucracy was a new exploiting class that organized a new, post-capitalist mode of production in the ex-USSR and the eastern bloc countries.
  • Ernest Mandel and the Marxian Theory of Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.ernestmandel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under bureaucratic collectivism, the ruling bureaucracy formed a class which collectively exploited the mass of the population and drew surplus value from its work.
  • Bureaucracy by Eugene Kamenka 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ All of them rejected sharply Trotsky’s traditional Marxist view that bureaucracies were only hirelings of a ruling class.
  • Bureaucracy by Eugene Kamenka 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

.In capitalist society, the state typically lacks an independent economic base, finances many activities on credit, and is heavily dependent on levying taxes as a source of income.^ In capitalist society, the state typically lacks an independent economic base, finances many activities on credit, and is heavily dependent on levying taxes as a source of income.
  • Bureaucracy encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The bureaucratization of the state, odd as it may initially seem, typically provided the basis for its democratization because it eliminated feudal, plutocratic, and patrimonial bases of administration.
  • bureaucracy :: Bureaucracy and the state -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Socialism is the first form of society based on conscious and deliberate planning of economic development.
  • Ernest Mandel and the Marxian Theory of Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.ernestmandel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Therefore, its power is limited by the costs which private owners of the productive assets will tolerate.^ Therefore, its power is limited by the costs which private owners of the productive assets will tolerate.
  • Bureaucracy encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But the taking of power (and the suppression of private ownership of the means of production) is only one necessary but in and of itself insufficient precondition for the building of socialism.
  • Why The Soviet Bureaucracy is not a New Ruling Class (1979) 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.ernestmandel.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Unlike the capitalist countries where wealth and power derive from private property, the bureaucracy did not succeed until recently in consolidating its control over the means of production by private ownership.
  • The Bureaucracy "Privatizes" its Own State - Class Struggle Article @ The Spark 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC the-spark.net [Source type: Original source]

.July 2007" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] If, however, the state owns the means of production itself, defended by military power, the state bureaucracy can become much more powerful, and act as a ruling class or power elite.^ And what class, if any, did this bureaucracy — which itself owned none of the means of production — constitute or represent?
  • Bureaucracy by Eugene Kamenka 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Still, this bureaucracy was not a class; it did not own the means of production in the traditional sense.
  • Bureaucracy by Eugene Kamenka 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If anything, market mechanisms enriched the bureaucracy and sharpened its antagonism with the working class and peasantry without forcing productive units to introduce new labor processes or use materials more efficiently.
  • Ernest Mandel and the Marxian Theory of Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.ernestmandel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because in that case, it directly controls the sources of new wealth, and manages or distributes the social product.^ Because in that case, it directly controls the sources of new wealth, and manages or distributes the social product.
  • Bureaucracy encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Bureaucracy at AllExperts 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Economically, modern left-wingers (dating back to FDR) wish to control means of production, distribution of wealth, speech and thought, and equality of outcome (instead of opportunity).
  • Worstall on Bureaucratic Actions 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC cafehayek.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Whether or not a bureaucracy as a social stratum can become a genuine ruling class depends greatly on the prevailing property relations and the mode of production of wealth.
  • Bureaucracy encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Bureaucracy at AllExperts 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is the subject of Marxist theories of bureaucratic collectivism.^ Mandels theory of the Stalinist bureaucracies in the post-capitalist societies deepened Trotskys pathbreaking Marxist analysis of the origins and contradictions of the bureaucratic rule of the Soviet Union.
  • Ernest Mandel and the Marxian Theory of Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.ernestmandel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The theory of bureaucratic collectivism has been held by a wide variety of revolutionary socialists, including many prominent anti-bureaucratic activists in the former eastern bloc.
  • Ernest Mandel and the Marxian Theory of Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.ernestmandel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mandel offers two different criticisms of the theory of bureaucratic collectivism.
  • Ernest Mandel and the Marxian Theory of Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.ernestmandel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Marx himself however never theorized this possibility in detail, and it has been the subject of much controversy among Marxists. .The core organizational issue in these disputes concerns the degree to which the administrative allocation of resources by government authorities and the market allocation of resources can achieve the social goal of creating a more free, just and prosperous society.^ The managers at the strategic apex of these organizations are concerned mainly with the fine-tuning of their bureaucratic machines.
  • Organizational Configurations (Mintzberg) 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.12manage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Socialism, by contrast, is the first form of society created in a conscious struggle by a propertyless social class, the working class.
  • Ernest Mandel and the Marxian Theory of Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.ernestmandel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, I care less for those things just now than I do for something else in which you are more personally concerned.
  • BUREAUCRACY 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.fdungan.com [Source type: Original source]

.Which decisions should be made by whom, at what level, so that an optimal allocation of resources results?^ Which decisions should be made by whom, at what level, so that an optimal allocation of resources results?
  • Bureaucracy encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Bureaucracy at AllExperts 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And they should be taken at the level where the greatest percentage of people actually affected by them can be involved in the decision-making process.
  • Ernest Mandel and the Marxian Theory of Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.ernestmandel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On so many levels, decisions are made to meet the needs of certain special interest groups or to address an issue specifically related someone’s own child.
  • Why is there so much school bureaucracy and what can we do about it? - NewTalk 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC newtalk.org [Source type: Original source]

.This is just as much a moral-political issue as an economic issue.^ This is just as much a moral-political issue as an economic issue.
  • Bureaucracy encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Bureaucracy at AllExperts 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Our political and administrative kitchen costs us sixty millions, but the gendarmerie, the courts of law, the galleys and the police cost just as much, and give no return.
  • BUREAUCRACY 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.fdungan.com [Source type: Original source]

.Central to the Marxian concept of socialism is the idea of workers' self-management, which assumes the internalization of a morality and self-discipline among people that would make bureaucratic supervision and control redundant, together with a drastic reorganization of the division of labor in society.^ (Gosplan, dozens of All-Union and Republican ministries, People’s Control, Party Control, supervision by central bodies, republican bodies and local soviets have expanded at a rate even greater than that with which police functions expanded, to the extent, indeed, that the Soviet Union is universally thought of as one of the most bureaucratized societies in the modern world.
  • Bureaucracy by Eugene Kamenka 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Faith in the social responsibility of self-managing groups of people must underlie any programme for changing bureaucracy from the grassroots.
  • Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bureaucracy 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The idea was that market forces would have to be introduced as a means of making sure the needs of the economy were met.
  • Absurdist Republic - China’s Long March to Capitalism – Part Two 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC my.opera.com [Source type: Original source]

.Bureaucracies emerge to mediate conflicts of interest on the basis of laws, but if those conflicts of interest disappear (because resources are allocated directly in a fair way), bureaucracies would also be redundant.^ Unlike the professional bureaucracy, the adhocracy cannot rely on the standardized skills of these experts to achieve coordination, because that would cause standardization instead of innovation.
  • Organizational Configurations (Mintzberg) 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.12manage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The material position and self-interest of the ruling bureaucracies in the east have led them to undermine the planning process and waste precious human and natural resources.
  • Ernest Mandel and the Marxian Theory of Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.ernestmandel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That way the two streams would come under different laws, and the waste question would not arise.
  • Local Recycle & Reuse Hits A Bureaucratic Roadblock - O'Reilly Radar 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC radar.oreilly.com [Source type: Original source]

.Marx's critics are however skeptical of the feasibility of this kind of socialism, given the continuing need for administration and the rule of law, as well as the propensity of people to put their own self-interest before the communal interest.^ Faith in the social responsibility of self-managing groups of people must underlie any programme for changing bureaucracy from the grassroots.
  • Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bureaucracy 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If I follow this correctly, you say that university bureaucracy and administrative structures are the product of a self-serving bureaucracy which does not understand and mistrusts 'clever' people like you.
  • Susanne Kord: Drowning in bureaucracy | Comment is free | The Guardian 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ As difficult to decipher as a hieroglyphic inscription to the clerks, the vocation of the secretary and his usefulness were as plain as the rule of three to the self-interested.
  • BUREAUCRACY 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.fdungan.com [Source type: Original source]

.That is, the argument is that self-interest and the communal interest might never coincide, or, at any rate, can always diverge significantly.^ That is, the argument is that self-interest and the communal interest might never coincide, or, at any rate, can always diverge significantly.
  • Bureaucracy encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Such action might create enemies politicians can ill-afford to make, given the structure of self-interest and opportunity built into the electoral process.
  • "Administrative Discretion and Bureaucratic Statesmanship: Serving the Public Interest" 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC www.eli.pdx.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The individual self-interest of the capitalist coincides with the operation of the law of value, but the individual self-interest of the bureaucrat runs counter to the logic of economic planning.
  • Ernest Mandel and the Marxian Theory of Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.ernestmandel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Max Weber

.Max Weber has probably been one of the most influential users of the word in its social science sense.^ In other words, most Russian revolutionaries saw the problem as one of bureaucratisminefficient administration and bad-decision making by incompetent officials.
  • Ernest Mandel and the Marxian Theory of Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.ernestmandel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In other words, the politics of the labor bureaucracies in the capitalist social formations are utopian in the most negative sense of the word.
  • Ernest Mandel and the Marxian Theory of Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.ernestmandel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

He is well-known for his study of bureaucratization of society; many aspects of modern public administration go back to him; a classic, hierarchically organized civil service of the continental type is — if perhaps mistakenly — called Weberian civil service several different years between 1818 and 1860, prior to Weber's birth in 1864.
.Weber described the ideal type bureaucracy in positive terms, considering it to be a more rational and efficient form of organization than the alternatives that preceded it, which he characterized as charismatic domination and traditional domination.^ But more than this, alternatives provide a concrete basis for challenges to bureaucracy.
  • Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bureaucracy 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is the sort of bureaucracy Max Weber described and largely favored, in that its impersonality was an alternative to the alternatives he called charismatic authority and traditional authority, which in different ways rested excessive power in individuals.
  • TPMCafe | Talking Points Memo | The Case for Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC tpmcafe.talkingpointsmemo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Feudal society, feudal institutions and feudal mores required and were therefore dominated by men of the sword organizing the society for war.
  • Bureaucracy by Eugene Kamenka 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

According to his terminology, bureaucracy is part of legal domination. .However, he also emphasized that bureaucracy becomes inefficient when a decision must be adopted to an individual case.^ However, he also emphasized that bureaucracy becomes inefficient when a decision must be adopted to an individual case.
  • Bureaucracy encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I believe bureaucracy has a place in our schools, however, the power must shift to the professionals on the "front lines."
  • Why is there so much school bureaucracy and what can we do about it? - NewTalk 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC newtalk.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If, however, the state owns the means of production itself, defended by military power, the state bureaucracy can become much more powerful, and act as a ruling class or power elite.
  • Bureaucracy encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

.According to Weber, the attributes of modern bureaucracy include its impersonality, concentration of the means of administration, a leveling effect on social and economic differences and implementation of a system of authority that is practically indestructible.^ According to Weber, the attributes of modern bureaucracy include its impersonality, concentration of the means of administration, a leveling effect on social and economic differences and implementation of a system of authority that is practically indestructible.
  • Bureaucracy encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bureaucracy may be defined as a formal organizational arrangement characterized by division of labour, specialization of functions, a hierarchy of authority and a system of rules, regulations and record keeping.

^ Weber’s theory of bureaucracy, however, emphasizes not only its comparative technical and proficiency advantages but also attributes its dominance as a form of organization to the diminution of caste systems (such as feudalism ) and other forms of inequitable social relations based upon a person’s status.
  • bureaucracy -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

Weber's analysis of bureaucracy concerns:
  • the historical and administrative reasons for the process of bureaucratization (especially in the Western civilisation)
  • the impact of the rule of law upon the functioning of bureaucratic organisations
  • the typical personal orientation and occupational position of a bureaucratic officials as a status group
  • the most important attributes and consequences of bureaucracy in the modern world
A bureaucratic organization is governed by the following seven principles:
.
  1. official business is conducted on a continuous basis
  2. official business is conducted with strict accordance to the following rules:
    1. the duty of each official to do certain types of work is delimited in terms of impersonal criteria
    2. the official is given the authority necessary to carry out his assigned functions
    3. the means of coercion at his disposal are strictly limited and conditions of their use strictly defined
  3. every official's responsibilities and authority are part of a vertical hierarchy of authority, with respective rights of supervision and appeal
  4. officials do not own the resources necessary for the performance of their assigned functions but are accountable for their use of these resources
  5. official and private business and income are strictly separated
  6. offices cannot be appropriated by their incumbents (inherited, sold, etc.^ To use this work, see also terms of use .
    • purple motes » COB-12: the art of bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC purplemotes.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Every organization of a given type must perform certain jobs in order do its work.
    • Organizational Structure - Organizational structure during the twentieth century, Traditional organizational structure, Basis for departmentalization, Matrix organizational structure 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC www.referenceforbusiness.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The functions are structured into offices, which are organized into a hierarchy that follows technical rules and norms.
    • Bureaucracy: Definition and additional resources from BNET 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC dictionary.bnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    )
  7. official business is conducted on the basis of written documents
A bureaucratic official:
  • is personally free and appointed to his position on the basis of conduct
  • exercises the authority delegated to him in accordance with impersonal rules, and his or her loyalty is enlisted on behalf of the faithful execution of his official duties
  • appointment and job placement are dependent upon his or her technical qualifications
  • administrative work is a full-time occupation
  • work is rewarded by a regular salary and prospects of advancement in a lifetime career
.An official must exercise his or her judgment and his or her skills, but his or her duty is to place these at the service of a higher authority; ultimately he/she is responsible only for the impartial execution of assigned tasks and must sacrifice his or her personal judgment if it runs counter to his or her official duties.^ As the routine of public business must go on, a certain number of indispensable clerks are kept in their places, though they hold these places on sufferance, anxious as they are to retain them.
  • BUREAUCRACY 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.fdungan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They must all remain optimistic that those in authority will not only listen, but take heed to the voices of those who are committed to the cause.
  • Why is there so much school bureaucracy and what can we do about it? - NewTalk 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC newtalk.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It will place the authority and responsibility for producing academic achievement results at the building level, while the central office supports buildings with the provision of transportation, facilities, maintenance, and food services.
  • Why is there so much school bureaucracy and what can we do about it? - NewTalk 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC newtalk.org [Source type: Original source]

.Weber's work has been continued by many, like Robert Michels with his Iron Law of Oligarchy.^ Robert Michels extended Webers theory of bureaucracy, originally developed to analyze the officialdom of the capitalist state, to the study of the mass working class parties and unions of the early twentieth century.
  • Ernest Mandel and the Marxian Theory of Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.ernestmandel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I've spent studying the culture and history, as well as working with Japanese in research here, going back many years and continuing today.
  • TPMCafe | Talking Points Memo | The Case for Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC tpmcafe.talkingpointsmemo.com [Source type: Original source]

Criticism
.As Max Weber himself noted, real bureaucracy will be less optimal and effective than his ideal type model.^ First of all, throughout all of history bureaucracies have had more power than most people realize.
  • Why bureaucracy will likely destroy America by John Silveira Issue #50 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.backwoodshome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His model seems to have less bureaucracy than our current public schools, and there is evidence that his schools are succeeding.
  • Why is there so much school bureaucracy and what can we do about it? - NewTalk 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC newtalk.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Max Weber saw bureaucracy as the most rational and effective mode of organizing the activities of large numbers of people because it ensured decision-making according to general rules rather than the whims of officials, cultivated trained experts, and reduced the possibilities of corruption and nepotism.
  • Ernest Mandel and the Marxian Theory of Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.ernestmandel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Each of Weber's seven principles can degenerate:[citation needed]
  • Competences can be unclear and used contrary to the spirit of the law; sometimes a decision itself may be considered more important than its effect;
  • Nepotism, corruption, political infighting and other degenerations can counter the rule of impersonality and can create a recruitment and promotion system not based on meritocracy but rather on oligarchy;
Even a non-degenerated bureaucracy can be affected by common problems:
  • Overspecialization, making individual officials not aware of larger consequences of their actions
  • Rigidity and inertia of procedures, making decision-making slow or even impossible when facing some unusual case, and similarly delaying change, evolution and adaptation of old procedures to new circumstances;
  • A phenomenon of group thinking - zealotry, loyalty and lack of critical thinking regarding the organisation which is perfect and always correct by definition, making the organisation unable to change and realise its own mistakes and limitations;
  • Disregard for dissenting opinions, even when such views suit the available data better than the opinion of the majority;
  • A phenomenon of Catch-22 (named after a famous book by Joseph Heller) - as bureaucracy creates more and more rules and procedures, their complexity rises and coordination diminishes, facilitating creation of contradictory and recursive rules, as described by the saying "the bureaucracy is expanding to meet the needs of the expanding bureaucracy".
  • Not allowing people to use common sense, as everything must be as is written by the law.
.In the most common examples bureaucracy can lead to the treatment of individual human beings as impersonal objects.^ Mandel argued that bureaucracy is the product of specific, historically limited relations among human beings and between human beings and the natural worldof specific social relations and material forces of production.
  • Ernest Mandel and the Marxian Theory of Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.ernestmandel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That may be okay in France where the two most powerful forces are the President and the bureaucracy, but in this country the individual is supposed to reign supreme and the government is supposed to exist for his benefit.
  • Why bureaucracy will likely destroy America by John Silveira Issue #50 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.backwoodshome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As most of you know, reducing school bureaucracy is at the heart of Common Good’s Education Initiative.
  • Why is there so much school bureaucracy and what can we do about it? - NewTalk 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC newtalk.org [Source type: Original source]

This process has been criticised by many philosophers and writers (Aldous Huxley, George Orwell, Hannah Arendt) and satirized in the comic strip Dilbert,TV show The Office, Franz Kafka's novels The Trial and The Castle , Douglas Adams' story The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, and the films Brazil and Office Space.

Michel Crozier

.Michel Crozier wrote The Bureaucratic Phenomenon[5] (1964) as a re-examination of Weber's (1922) concept of the efficient ideal bureaucracy in the light of the way that bureaucratic organizations had actually developed.^ In the FOE survey of bureaucrats in the Department of National Development and Energy, several interviewees told us we were approaching bureaucracy in the wrong way.
  • Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bureaucracy 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The development of school bureaucracies in the 19th century followed several decades of experimentation in the organization of schooling.
  • Daily Kos: A thumbnail history of school bureaucracy (Ykos) 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Deena Weinstein in her book Bureaucratic Opposition has developed most effectively the idea of bureaucracy as a political system.
  • Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bureaucracy 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Whereas for Weber, bureaucracy was the ultimate expression of a trend toward the efficient, rational organization, Crozier examined bureaucracy as a form of organization that evokes:
"... the slowness, the ponderousness, the routine, the complication of procedures and the maladapted responses of the bureaucratic organization to the needs which they should satisfy" (Crozier, 1964, p 3)
.He examined a number of culturally specific examples of bureaucratic organizations in an attempt to understand why bureaucracies so often became dysfunctional.^ November 9, 2008 3:27 PM I agree with Dr. Abbott when he said that we must consider the historical perspective to understand why schools have become so bureaucratic.
  • Why is there so much school bureaucracy and what can we do about it? - NewTalk 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC newtalk.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Some may spark creative initiatives or fall on fertile bureaucratic soil, and provide the example and inspiration for further efforts to change bureaucracy.
  • Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bureaucracy 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the numbers in the state bureaucracy is too high (re Key’s speech), why doesn’t he trim from next year.
  • The growing bureaucracy | Kiwiblog 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.kiwiblog.co.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

After reviewing the different ways in which the term is used, Crozier describes the sense in which he uses the term bureaucracy thus:
"A bureaucratic organization is an organization that can not correct its behaviour by learning from its errors" (Crozier, 1964, p 187)
Adding:
"... not only a system that does not correct its behaviour in view of its errors; it is also too rigid to adjust, without crises, to the transformations that the accelerated evolution of the industrial society makes more and more imperative" (Crozier, 1964, p 198)
.In essence, Crozier presents an argument against the Tayloristic notion of 'the one best way' to organize an activity and Weber's view of bureaucracy as the ultimate expression of rationality and efficiency.^ Mandels theory of bureaucracy is one of the central scientific foundations of the revolutionary political project of working class self-activity, self-organization and self-emancipation.
  • Ernest Mandel and the Marxian Theory of Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.ernestmandel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In praise of bureaucracy : Weber, organization and ethics / Paul du Gay.

^ Leave a comment Weber's phrase (at least in translation) for the 'good' kind of bureaucracy is "Rational-Legal Authority."
  • TPMCafe | Talking Points Memo | The Case for Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC tpmcafe.talkingpointsmemo.com [Source type: Original source]

He notes that in 1964 'advanced organizations' had already:
"... been obliged to discard completely the notion of the one best way [and] are beginning to understand that the illusion of perfect rationality has to long persisted, weakening the possibilities of action by insisting on rigorous logic and immediate coherence" (Crozier, 1964, p 159)
.From his analysis of his case studies, he develops a theory of bureaucratic dysfunction based on his observations.^ Mandels theory of the Stalinist bureaucracies in the post-capitalist societies deepened Trotskys pathbreaking Marxist analysis of the origins and contradictions of the bureaucratic rule of the Soviet Union.
  • Ernest Mandel and the Marxian Theory of Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.ernestmandel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the first, we will examine Mandels analysis of the origins and role of the labor bureaucracy in the capitalist social formations, and his theory of the revolutionary workers organization as an alternative to bureaucratic reformism.
  • Ernest Mandel and the Marxian Theory of Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.ernestmandel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although he later extends his ideas to cover other settings, the two main cases on which he bases his theory are both located in France: "The Clerical Agency" and "The Industrial Monopoly". Crozier chose these examples not only because he was French, but also because he claims that socially and culturally France has developed in such a way that it created organizations that closely resembled the Weberian notion of an ideal bureaucracy.^ She argues that bureaucracies are analogous to authoritarian states: in both cases people are expected to stay in their places, to do as they are told, to offer opinions only when asked, and to identify solely with the rulers and the official ideology.
  • Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bureaucracy 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even when these executives do not own stock (although most do), they are part of the capitalist class because they command the labor-power of others and dispose of the means of production.
  • Ernest Mandel and the Marxian Theory of Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.ernestmandel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And the only reason we can imprison as many people as we do is because were a rich enough country to support these immense bureaucracies.
  • Why bureaucracy will likely destroy America by John Silveira Issue #50 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.backwoodshome.com [Source type: Original source]

.His theory is based on the observation that in situations where almost every outcome has been decided in advance according to a set of impersonal and predefined rules and regulations, the only way in which people are able to gain some control over their lives is to exploit 'zones of uncertainty' where the outcomes are not already known.^ Currently, every school has to follow too many different sets of rules.
  • Why is there so much school bureaucracy and what can we do about it? - NewTalk 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC newtalk.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The government does not care how great or noble your cause is, nor does it care if it actually effects the health of citizenry, the regulators and bureaucrats only care about their rules.
  • Local Recycle & Reuse Hits A Bureaucratic Roadblock - O'Reilly Radar 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC radar.oreilly.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This, Mandel asserted, will only be possible when not only bureaucratic rule has been replaced in the east, but capitalism has been overthrown in a number of advanced industrial societies and their vast productive potential freed.
  • Ernest Mandel and the Marxian Theory of Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.ernestmandel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

"[an] unintended consequence of rationalisation [is] the predictability of ones behaviour is the sure test of ones own inferiority" (Crozier, 1964, p158)
For Crozier, organizations are not autonomous entities but social constructs that are:
"... man made and socially created [and] the indirect result of the power struggles within the organization" (Crozier, 1964, p 162)
Attacking both the rationalists and the human relations school for ignoring the role that such power struggles play in the shaping of an organization he argues that organizational relations are in fact a series of strategic games where the protagonists attempt either to exploit any areas of discretion for their own ends, or to prevent others from gaining an advantage:
."Each group fights to preserve and enlarge the area upon which it has some discretion, attempts to limit its dependence upon other groups and accept such dependence only insofar as it is a safeguard ...^ Good in some areas not so much in others.
  • The American Spectator : Murder by Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Printing some paper signs which can be fixed to various piles with clever names such as "Held for Further Assessment" (or some other mindless and meaningless Bureaucrat-speak).
  • Local Recycle & Reuse Hits A Bureaucratic Roadblock - O'Reilly Radar 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC radar.oreilly.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The only way private insurance companies can buidl the networks they have is by paying at least 110% of what medicare pays, in some cases approaching 125%, depending on the availabilty of doctors in certain areas.
  • The American Spectator : Murder by Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

[preferring] retreatisim if there is no other choice but submission" (Crozier, 1964, p 156)
.The result of this is that goals are subverted and the organization becomes locked into a series of inward looking power struggles.^ In a series of works, [3] Mandel presented a complex, coherent and empirically well grounded response to the notion that the arrogation of power by a minority of officials and experts is the inevitable result of complex, large-scale, modern social organization.
  • Ernest Mandel and the Marxian Theory of Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.ernestmandel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Thus, paradoxically, the result of attempting to design an efficient organization that runs on rational and impersonal lines is to create a situation where the opposite to is true.
Theory of bureaucratic dysfunction
Crozier argues that:
"... the bureaucratic system of organization is primarily characterized by the existence of a series of relatively stable vicious circles that stem from centralisation and impersonality" (Crozier, 1964, p 193)
He outlines four such 'vicious circles' that he observed in the organizations he studied.
  • The development of impersonal rules
.In an attempt to be rational and egalitarian, bureaucracies attempt to come up with a set of abstract impersonal rules to cover all possible events.^ State bureaucracies administer all possible aspects of life.
  • Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bureaucracy 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "I have come to tell you that all your notes and debts have been brought up by Gobseck and Gigonnet, under the name of a certain Samanon."
  • BUREAUCRACY 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.fdungan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As mentioned before, bureaucracies are characterised by hierarchical authority, a detailed division of labour, a set of rules and standard routines, and impersonal relations between staff.
  • Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bureaucracy 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Crozier gives the example of the concours (competitive examinations) which mean that, one the exams are passed, promotion become simply a matter of seniority and avoiding damaging conflicts.^ Recommended by: rolet , pop tart does not paint beauraucrats as all bad, although he gives examples of some bad ones.
  • Daily Kos: A thumbnail history of school bureaucracy (Ykos) 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But every senior who becomes medicare-eligible and has the means to do so purchases one.
  • The American Spectator : Murder by Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Systematic examinations of the merits of different treatments and dissemination of the results of these examinations to patients and providers is one mechanism for promoting high value health care.
  • The American Spectator : Murder by Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

.The result, he argues, is that hierarchical relationships decline in importance or disappear completely which means that higher level in the bureaucracy have effectively lost the power to govern the lower levels.^ Fred Emery argues that the key to bureaucracy is the location of authority and responsibility for coordination at least one level above those who are doing the work.
  • Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bureaucracy 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But, after that, the bureaucracy began to grow and assume more power, and more branches of government were formed and each needed its own bureaucracy to support it.
  • Why bureaucracy will likely destroy America by John Silveira Issue #50 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.backwoodshome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mandels second, and stronger critique of the bureaucracy as a new ruling class points to the profound contradiction between bureaucratic power and the logic of effective economic planning.
  • Ernest Mandel and the Marxian Theory of Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.ernestmandel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

  • The centralization of decisions
.If one wishes to maintain the impersonal nature of decision making, it is necessary to ensure that decision are made at a level where those who make them are protected from the influence of those who are affected by them.^ You and the dtsc are the only ones who have maintained this opinion during this issue.
  • Local Recycle & Reuse Hits A Bureaucratic Roadblock - O'Reilly Radar 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC radar.oreilly.com [Source type: Original source]

^ God made this epoch of the world for those who like to laugh.
  • BUREAUCRACY 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.fdungan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And they should be taken at the level where the greatest percentage of people actually affected by them can be involved in the decision-making process.
  • Ernest Mandel and the Marxian Theory of Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.ernestmandel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The effect of this is that problems are resolved by people who have no direct knowledge of the problems they are called upon to solve, and so, priority is given to the resolution of internal political problems instead.^ The infamous 'they' who are continually meddling in people's lives are often thought of as remote bureaucrats.
  • Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bureaucracy 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No doubt a lot of people next week will be wishing they could travel by private jumbo jet and motorcades with police escort to grandma's house.

^ Yet in spite of the precautions they take to keep this hour for private intimacies and affections, a good many great and little people manage to infringe upon it.
  • BUREAUCRACY 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.fdungan.com [Source type: Original source]

In this case, the power to influence events over which one has direct experience is lost and it is passed to some impartial central body.
  • The isolation of strata and group pressure within strata
The suppression of the possibility of exercising discretion among superiors and the removal of opportunities for bargaining from subordinates results in an organization that consists of a series of isolated strata. .The notional equality within the strata becomes the only defence for the individual against demands form other parts of the organization and allows groups some degree of control over their own domain.^ Second, the wage form, while a necessary characteristic of the working class is not sufficient to define a social group as part of the proletariat.
  • Ernest Mandel and the Marxian Theory of Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.ernestmandel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Based on actual data on oopses (which very clearly excludes other kinds of bugs, so I know I only see part of the story) we are doing reasonably well.
  • Bugs And Bureaucracy | KernelTrap 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC kerneltrap.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the other hand, I agree with Jane Hannaway, some bureaucracy is needed and will always exist within any organization to promote and sustain an efficient and effective environment.
  • Why is there so much school bureaucracy and what can we do about it? - NewTalk 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC newtalk.org [Source type: Original source]

The result is very strong per group pressure to conform to the norms of the strata regardless of individual beliefs or the wider goals of the organization.
  • The development of parallel power relationships
.It is impossible to account for every eventuality, even by the constant addition of impersonal rules and the progressive centralisation of decision making; consequently, individuals or groups that control the remaining zones of uncertainty, wield a considerable amount of power.^ Allowing individual schools to “govern” themselves and make decisions on how to meet federal mandates would be a huge step in the right direction.
  • Why is there so much school bureaucracy and what can we do about it? - NewTalk 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC newtalk.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the corporation I work in the central office makes many of the rules and regulations for the schools.
  • Why is there so much school bureaucracy and what can we do about it? - NewTalk 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC newtalk.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We have state legislators, Congress, state departments of education, the U.S.D.O.E., school boards, central offices, teacher unions, and other interest groups making the soup.
  • Why is there so much school bureaucracy and what can we do about it? - NewTalk 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC newtalk.org [Source type: Original source]

.This can lead to the creation of parallel power structures that give certain groups or individuals in certain situations, disproportionate power in an otherwise regulated and egalitarian organization.^ By reducing the regulations administrators on any level can lead their organizations in a more successful direction.
  • Why is there so much school bureaucracy and what can we do about it? - NewTalk 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC newtalk.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Our fore-fathers were so worried about the exploitation of individual power, that they created a complex system of bureaucracy focused on checks and balances.
  • Why is there so much school bureaucracy and what can we do about it? - NewTalk 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC newtalk.org [Source type: Original source]

.Once again, this can lead to decisions being made based on factors separate from the overall goals of the organization.^ For Nove, the complexity of economic decisions in an industrialized economy and the unlimited wants of human beings made the abolition of scarcity, the foundation of commodity production, impossible.
  • Ernest Mandel and the Marxian Theory of Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.ernestmandel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I am simply saying there are an array of decisions that are made concerning public education and some of those decisions are being made by the wrong people and groups.
  • Why is there so much school bureaucracy and what can we do about it? - NewTalk 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC newtalk.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Decisions are now being made from the central office with considerable influence by the politicians and board members.
  • Why is there so much school bureaucracy and what can we do about it? - NewTalk 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC newtalk.org [Source type: Original source]

American usage

Woodrow Wilson, writing as an academic, professed:[6]
...[A]dministration in the .United States must be at all points sensitive to public opinion.^ Over the past eight years the bureaucracy has grown out of all proportion to those parts of the state sector that actually service the public.” .
  • The growing bureaucracy | Kiwiblog 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.kiwiblog.co.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A body of thoroughly trained officials serving during good behavior we must have in any case: that is a plain business necessity.^ Berkeley is not what is was in the 1960s, and although this seems to be a case of two entities that serve the public good coming into conflict, a simple solution is probably the best.
  • Local Recycle & Reuse Hits A Bureaucratic Roadblock - O'Reilly Radar 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC radar.oreilly.com [Source type: Original source]

But the apprehension that such a body will be anything un-American clears away the moment it is asked. What is to constitute good behavior? .For that question obviously carries its own answer on its head.^ It requires great application of mind to carry on a system of questions and answers; that is why I ask you to be quiet and let me think, for the answers—" Thuillier [interrupting].
  • BUREAUCRACY 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.fdungan.com [Source type: Original source]

.Steady, hearty allegiance to the policy of the government they serve will constitute good behavior.^ Under a monarchy you will find none but courtiers and vassals, whereas under a constitutional government you may be flattered, served, and adulated by free men.
  • BUREAUCRACY 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.fdungan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ How would you separate that culture of bureaucracy from the fundamental economic/government/policy structure, if as you claim they're wholly distinct.
  • TPMCafe | Talking Points Memo | The Case for Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC tpmcafe.talkingpointsmemo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But at least the government has banned party pills, good to see they are dealing with the important issues of the day… .
  • The growing bureaucracy | Kiwiblog 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.kiwiblog.co.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.That policy will have no taint of officialism about it.^ What advice do we have for him and other newly elected officials about how to translate campaign aspirations into policy realities?
  • Why is there so much school bureaucracy and what can we do about it? - NewTalk 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC newtalk.org [Source type: Original source]

.It will not be the creation of permanent officials, but of statesmen whose responsibility to public opinion will be direct and inevitable.^ Because the opinions of teachers and administrators have not been truly valued by legislators and other public officials, we need to exercise our right to organize ourselves so that our voice will be heard.
  • Why is there so much school bureaucracy and what can we do about it? - NewTalk 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC newtalk.org [Source type: Original source]

.Bureaucracy can exist only where the whole service of the state is removed from the common political life of the people, its chiefs as well as its rank and file.^ I'd love to see our state of WA not only have a test at 4, 7th and 10th grade, but, also the have the curriculum so you knew if the kids were learning what they needed to learn to do well with the test.
  • Daily Kos: A thumbnail history of school bureaucracy (Ykos) 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sebastien, who admired his chief without reservation, and who was, as yet, wholly ignorant of the evils of bureaucracy, had the follies of guilelessness as well as its grace.
  • BUREAUCRACY 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.fdungan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Permalink As a political matter it would seem that most people dislike local governmental bureaucracies rather than Federal ones.
  • TPMCafe | Talking Points Memo | The Case for Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC tpmcafe.talkingpointsmemo.com [Source type: Original source]

Its motives, its objects, its policy, its standards, must be bureaucratic.
Popular dictionary definitions reflect a popular dislike for bureaucracy. .The American Heritage Dictionary', after two traditional definitions of the word, the third and last definition of bureaucracy reads in part: "numerous offices and adherence to inflexible rules of operation;...^ Any principal who in the new freedom school environment attempts to establish excessive rules and regulations, and thereby create a one-school bureaucracy, will not last long in a competitive environment.
  • Why is there so much school bureaucracy and what can we do about it? - NewTalk 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC newtalk.org [Source type: Original source]

any unwieldy administration." .According to Webster's New world Dictionary of the American Language, one of the definitions reads in part "bureaucracy is governmental officialism or inflexible routine."^ In the early 20th century the Japanese emulated the US, so their governmental practices (when not tied to Samurai traditions or other traditional practices), are similar to American ones.
  • TPMCafe | Talking Points Memo | The Case for Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC tpmcafe.talkingpointsmemo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is part and parcel of a much larger issue, one quite appropriate to a diary on bureaucracy.
  • Daily Kos: A thumbnail history of school bureaucracy (Ykos) 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Permalink As a political matter it would seem that most people dislike local governmental bureaucracies rather than Federal ones.
  • TPMCafe | Talking Points Memo | The Case for Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC tpmcafe.talkingpointsmemo.com [Source type: Original source]

Roget's Thesaurus gives among the synonyms for bureaucracy: "officialism", "officiousness", and "red tape".
American science fiction writer Jerry Pournelle has proposed a theory he refers to as "Pournelle's Iron Law of Bureaucracy", which states:
."In any bureaucracy, the people devoted to the benefit of the bureaucracy itself always get in control and those dedicated to the goals the bureaucracy is supposed to accomplish have less and less influence, and sometimes are eliminated entirely."^ Unfortunately, legislators can themselves benefit from helping constituents wend their way through the bureacracy rather than fixing the bureaucracy and the relavent law itself.
  • TPMCafe | Talking Points Memo | The Case for Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC tpmcafe.talkingpointsmemo.com [Source type: Original source]

This robust tendency is purported to operate to the effect that:
."...in any bureaucratic organization there will be two kinds of people: those who work to further the actual goals of the organization, and those who work for the organization itself.^ I've been in this business for 3 years, I constantly work with / for bureaucrats who've been in the business for decades, AND .
  • Daily Kos: A thumbnail history of school bureaucracy (Ykos) 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I am simply saying there are an array of decisions that are made concerning public education and some of those decisions are being made by the wrong people and groups.
  • Why is there so much school bureaucracy and what can we do about it? - NewTalk 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC newtalk.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The administrators are the people that should be making the decisions about what goes on and who works in our schools.
  • Why is there so much school bureaucracy and what can we do about it? - NewTalk 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC newtalk.org [Source type: Original source]

Examples in education would be teachers who work and sacrifice to teach children, vs. union representative who work to protect any teacher including the most incompetent. The Iron Law states that in all cases, the second type of person will always gain control of the organization, and will always write the rules under which the organization functions."

Austrian School analysis

.The analysis of bureaucracy by the Austrian school reflects its characteristic focus on economics, and emphasizes the distinction between bureaucratic management and profit management.^ There seems to be a heavy door between participation and observation in our high schools, and this might be a deep cause of some of our frustration with bureaucracy.
  • Why is there so much school bureaucracy and what can we do about it? - NewTalk 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC newtalk.org [Source type: Original source]

^ C. Brian Howard asked a thought provoking question "...are we losing the focus of the greater purpose of education through bureaucratic micro-management of schools?".
  • Why is there so much school bureaucracy and what can we do about it? - NewTalk 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC newtalk.org [Source type: Original source]

^ How would you separate that culture of bureaucracy from the fundamental economic/government/policy structure, if as you claim they're wholly distinct.
  • TPMCafe | Talking Points Memo | The Case for Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC tpmcafe.talkingpointsmemo.com [Source type: Original source]

[7]

Current academic debates

Modern academic research has debated the extent to which elected officials can control their bureaucratic agents. .Because bureaucrats have more information than elected officials about what they are doing and what they should be doing, bureaucrats might have the ability to implement policies or regulations that go against the public interest.^ He was interested in the buildings going up in Paris, and spent his Sundays in walking about to examine them.
  • BUREAUCRACY 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.fdungan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As the routine of public business must go on, a certain number of indispensable clerks are kept in their places, though they hold these places on sufferance, anxious as they are to retain them.
  • BUREAUCRACY 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.fdungan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Recommended by: teacherken First, if teaching is more about process than outcome (which I kind of doubt....I think that some sort of outcome is highly important) then ANY form of testing should be abolished, including teacher made tests, standardized tests, and any others.
  • Daily Kos: A thumbnail history of school bureaucracy (Ykos) 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

In the American context, these concerns led to the "Congressional abdication" hypotheses—the claim that Congress had abdicated its authority over public policy to appointed bureaucrats.
Theodore Lowi initiated this debate by concluding in a 1979 book that the U.S. Congress does not exercise effective oversight of bureaucratic agencies. .Instead, policies are made by "iron triangles", consisting of interest groups, appointed bureaucrats, and Congressional subcommittees (who, according to Lowi, were likely to have more extreme views than the Congress as a whole).^ It is true that former students looking back are far more likely to have been inspired by a teacher than by a principal, but that is more a function of the closeness of the relationship.
  • Daily Kos: A thumbnail history of school bureaucracy (Ykos) 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ CBM, to be most effective, also requires more frequent probes and consistent charting than every six weeks.
  • Daily Kos: A thumbnail history of school bureaucracy (Ykos) 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ God made this epoch of the world for those who like to laugh.
  • BUREAUCRACY 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.fdungan.com [Source type: Original source]

[8] .It is thought that since 1979 interest groups have taken a large role and now do not only effect bureaucracy, but also the money in congress.^ We have state legislators, Congress, state departments of education, the U.S.D.O.E., school boards, central offices, teacher unions, and other interest groups making the soup.
  • Why is there so much school bureaucracy and what can we do about it? - NewTalk 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC newtalk.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, these hierarchical levels have continued to tighten control with influence from special interest groups to the extreme control that we now experience as educators.
  • Why is there so much school bureaucracy and what can we do about it? - NewTalk 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC newtalk.org [Source type: Original source]

The idea of "iron triangles" has since evolved to "iron hexagons" and then to a "hollow sphere."
.The relationships between the Legislatures, the Interest Groups, Bureaucrats, and the general public all have an effect on each other.^ We have state legislators, Congress, state departments of education, the U.S.D.O.E., school boards, central offices, teacher unions, and other interest groups making the soup.
  • Why is there so much school bureaucracy and what can we do about it? - NewTalk 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC newtalk.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Individual fortunes are usually revealed in France by rentals, by the number of servants, horses, carriages, and luxuries, the costs of which are all to the interest of the public treasury.
  • BUREAUCRACY 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.fdungan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The general public as well needs to understand that sped is more than mental retardation, orthopedic impairment, and the other low-incidence disabilities.
  • Daily Kos: A thumbnail history of school bureaucracy (Ykos) 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

Without one of these pieces the entire structure would completely change. .This relationship is considered "mu", or such that not one single piece can describe or control the entire process.^ Justin: that kind of thing generally doesn't work (legally) except in cases where it is entirely unecessary (such as this one).
  • Local Recycle & Reuse Hits A Bureaucratic Roadblock - O'Reilly Radar 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC radar.oreilly.com [Source type: Original source]

The public votes in the legislatures and the interest groups provide information, but the legislature and bureaucrats also have an effect on the interest groups and the public. The entire system is codependent on each other.
.William Niskanen's earlier (1971) 'budget-maximizing' model complemented Lowi's claims; where Lowi claimed that Congress (and legislatures more generally) failed to exercise oversight, Niskanen argued that rational bureaucrats will always and everywhere seek to increase their budgets, thereby contributing strongly to state growth.^ Budget-maximizing bureaucrat : appraisals and evidence.

.Niskanen went on to serve on the U.S. Council of Economic Advisors under President Reagan, and his model provided a strong underpinning for the worldwide move towards cutbacks of public spending and the introduction of privatization in the 1980s and '90s.^ Second, private schooling often has pressures very similar to the pressures in public schools, as Sandra Glass's Markets and Myths (1997) points out: private schools often are under pressures that are remarkably parallel to public schools.
  • Daily Kos: A thumbnail history of school bureaucracy (Ykos) 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Public-private partnerships can offer the same easily manipulated ambiguity, under the guise of innovation and post-big-government.
  • TPMCafe | Talking Points Memo | The Case for Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC tpmcafe.talkingpointsmemo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Logic of bureaucratic conduct : an economic analysis of competition, exchange, and efficiency in private and public organizations / Albert Breton, Ronald Wintrobe.

[citation needed]
Two branches of theorizing have arisen in response to these claims. .The first focuses on bureaucratic motivations; Niskanen's universalist approach was critiqued by a range of pluralist authors who argued that officials' motivations are more public interest-orientated than Niskanen allowed.^ This ferret of ideas did not deny himself the pleasure of spying upon sentiment, and this woman interested him more than any of the others to whom he had attached himself.
  • BUREAUCRACY 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.fdungan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Civil servants are a pyramid with far more people on the bottom than the "elite" at the top, and range from street sweepers to low level officials to dept heads.
  • TPMCafe | Talking Points Memo | The Case for Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC tpmcafe.talkingpointsmemo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are certainly a lot more enlightened charter schools than government public schools.
  • Why is there so much school bureaucracy and what can we do about it? - NewTalk 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC newtalk.org [Source type: Original source]

.The bureau-shaping model (put forward by Patrick Dunleavy) also argues against Niskanen that rational bureaucrats should only maximize the part of their budget that they spend on their own agency's operations or give to contractors or powerful interest groups (that are able to organize a flowback of benefits to senior officials).^ Budget-maximizing bureaucrat : appraisals and evidence.

^ And that's not counting the part they can't talk about, such as the costs of containing information at the Central Intelligence Agency and National Security Agency.

^ On so many levels, decisions are made to meet the needs of certain special interest groups or to address an issue specifically related someone’s own child.
  • Why is there so much school bureaucracy and what can we do about it? - NewTalk 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC newtalk.org [Source type: Original source]

For instance, rational officials will get no benefit from paying out larger welfare checks to millions of poor people, since the bureaucrats' own utilities are not improved. .Consequently we should expect bureaucracies to significantly maximize budgets in areas like police forces and defense, but not in areas like welfare state spending.^ Perhaps, as the newly elected President of the United States did, we need an electronic media campaign to build grassroots support to significantly reduce the "bad" bureaucracy.
  • Why is there so much school bureaucracy and what can we do about it? - NewTalk 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC newtalk.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The areas where bureaucracy is needed should be well thought out and remain in those designated areas.
  • Why is there so much school bureaucracy and what can we do about it? - NewTalk 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC newtalk.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Those areas should be where bureaucracy can be of use, not where it hinders student achievement.
  • Why is there so much school bureaucracy and what can we do about it? - NewTalk 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC newtalk.org [Source type: Original source]

.A second branch of responses has focused more on Lowi's claims, asking whether legislatures (and usually the American Congress in particular) can control bureaucrats.^ But there is one more thing Americans must do and that is pass a constitutional amendment that makes Congress a participant in every "benefit" they provide for us.
  • The American Spectator : Murder by Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

.This empirical research is motivated by a normative concern: If we wish to believe that we live in a democracy, then it must be true that appointed bureaucrats cannot act contrary to elected officials' interests.^ "Yes, in the interests of our noble tongue, it is proper to observe that although the head of a bureau, strictly speaking, may be called a clerk, the head of a division must be called a bureaucrat.
  • BUREAUCRACY 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.fdungan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ True change in the bureaucratic arena must be accompanied by an effective oration outlining the reasons and methods for successful change.
  • Why is there so much school bureaucracy and what can we do about it? - NewTalk 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC newtalk.org [Source type: Original source]

.(This claim is itself debatable; if we fully trusted elected officials, we would not spend so much time implementing constitutional checks and balances.^ We practitioners -- and policy wonks in particular -- spend too much time debating politics and policies and not enough time thinking hard about how they will be actually implemented.
  • TPMCafe | Talking Points Memo | The Case for Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC tpmcafe.talkingpointsmemo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Republic and a Constitution if our elected officials will not stand up for them on our behalf?
  • Daily Kos: A thumbnail history of school bureaucracy (Ykos) 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Members of Congress are spending as much time in their home districts as they are on Capitol Hill.

[9])
Within this second branch, scholars have published numerous studies debating the circumstances under which elected officials can control bureaucratic outputs. Most of these studies examine the American case, though their findings have been generalized elsewhere as well.[10][11] .These studies argue that legislatures have a variety of oversight means at their disposal, and they use many of them regularly.^ The problem with both these organizations is that their membership is full of politicians, many of whom have regularly offered legislation to "fix public schools."
  • Why is there so much school bureaucracy and what can we do about it? - NewTalk 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC newtalk.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These rapid remarks, murmured as they were, struck his ear by one of those acoustic rebounds which are very little studied.
  • BUREAUCRACY 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.fdungan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They had no better way of amusing their idle hours than by observing these personages and studying their peculiarities.
  • BUREAUCRACY 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.fdungan.com [Source type: Original source]

.These oversight mechanisms have been classified into two types: "Police patrols" (actively auditing agencies and looking for misbehavior) and "fire alarms" (imposing open administrative procedures on bureaucrats to make it easier for adversely affected groups to detect bureaucratic malfeasance and bring it to the legislature's attention).^ Senator Whitehouse developed the charts from the written policies of the two administrations, which make the point even more starkly.
  • TPMCafe | Talking Points Memo | The Case for Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC tpmcafe.talkingpointsmemo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The man was firmly resolved to make his way in the administration by bringing a strong light to bear upon it.
  • BUREAUCRACY 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.fdungan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I guess that what I'm getting at is was the method chosen to make life easier for bureaucrats?
  • Daily Kos: A thumbnail history of school bureaucracy (Ykos) 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[12]
.A third concept of self-interested bureaucracy and its effect on the production of public goods has been forwarded by Faizul Latif Chowdhury.^ I suggest the following as an outline for a new vision of public school governance that will diminish the bad effects of bureaucracy: .
  • Why is there so much school bureaucracy and what can we do about it? - NewTalk 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC newtalk.org [Source type: Original source]

.In contrast to Niskanen and Dunleavy, who primarily focused on the self-interested behaviour of only the top-level bureaucrats involved in policy making, Chowdhury in his thesis submitted to the London School of Economics in 1997 drew attention to the impact of the low level civil servants whose rent-seeking behaviour pushes up the cost of production of public goods.^ The rich supernumerary never alarms the other clerks; they know he does not endanger their interests, for he seeks only the highest posts in the administration.
  • BUREAUCRACY 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.fdungan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Power of the street-level bureaucrat in public service bureaucracies / Jeffrey Manditch Prottas.

^ It is not the bureaucrats who are at fault, it is the rigid top-down organizational design that is defective.
  • TPMCafe | Talking Points Memo | The Case for Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC tpmcafe.talkingpointsmemo.com [Source type: Original source]

.Particularly, it was shown with reference to the tax officials how rent-seeking by them causes loss in government revenue.^ The government does not care how great or noble your cause is, nor does it care if it actually effects the health of citizenry, the regulators and bureaucrats only care about their rules.
  • Local Recycle & Reuse Hits A Bureaucratic Roadblock - O'Reilly Radar 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC radar.oreilly.com [Source type: Original source]

[13] .Chowdhury’s model of rent-seeking bureaucracy captures the case of administrative corruption whereby public money is directly expropriated by public servants in general.^ Broader terms: Bureaucracy Political science -- Japan Public administration -- Japan Japan Narrower term: Bureaucracy -- Japan -- History .

^ Language of public administration : bureaucracy, modernity, and postmodernity / David John Farmer.

^ His model seems to have less bureaucracy than our current public schools, and there is evidence that his schools are succeeding.
  • Why is there so much school bureaucracy and what can we do about it? - NewTalk 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC newtalk.org [Source type: Original source]

See also

References

  1. ^ Osborne, David and Gaebler, Ted. Reinventing Government : How the Entrepreneurial Spirit is Transforming the Public Sector. Plume. February, 1993. ISBN 0452269423
  2. ^ Wilson, James Q. Bureaucracy. Basic Books, 1989. ISBN 0465007856
  3. ^ Baron de Grimm and Diderot, Correspondence littéraire, philosophique et critique, 1753-69, 1813 edition, Vol. 4, p. .146 & 508 - cited by Martin Albrow, Bureaucracy.^ The best starting-point for the student of sociology is still Martin Albrow's Bureaucracy (1970).
    • bureaucracy – Dictionary definition of bureaucracy | Encyclopedia.com: FREE online dictionary 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Max Weber, as Martin Albrow has reminded us, was also concerned with placing limitations on bureaucracy.
    • Bureaucracy by Eugene Kamenka 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Bureaucracy by Albrow, Martin Call Number: Loading Located: Loading Loading...

    .London: Pall Mall Press, 1970, p.^ London: Pall Mall Press, 1970, p.
    • Bureaucracy at AllExperts 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    16
  4. ^ Friedrich Engels; The origin of the family, private property and the state. Marxists.org
  5. ^ Crozier, M. (1964). The Bureaucratic Phenomenon (M. Crozier, Trans.). London: Tavistock Publications.
  6. ^ Wilson, Woodrow. The Study of Administration. Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 2, No. 2 (Jun., 1887), pp. 197-222
  7. ^ von Mises, Ludwig (1962) [1944]. Bureaucracy. http://www.mises.org/etexts/bureaucracy.pdf. Retrieved 2006-11-10. 
  8. ^ Lowi. 1979. The end of liberalism. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.
  9. ^ Scholz and Wood. 1988. Controlling the IRS: Principals, principles, and public administration. American Journal of Political Science 42 (January): 141-162.
  10. ^ Huber and Shipan. 2002. Deliberate discretion: The institutional foundations of bureaucratic autonomy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  11. ^ Ramseyer and Rosenbluth. 1993. Japan's political marketplace. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  12. ^ McCubbins and Schwartz. 1984. Congressional oversight overlooked: Police patrols versus fire alarms. American Journal of Political Science 28: 16-79.
  13. ^ Chowdhury, Faizul Latif (2006). Corrupt Bureaucracy and Privatization of Tax Enforcement. 

Further reading

  • Albrow, Martin. Bureaucracy. London: Macmillan, 1970.
  • On Karl Marx: Hal Draper, Karl Marx's Theory of Revolution, Volume 1: State and Bureaucracy. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1979.
  • Marx comments on the state bureaucracy in his Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right and Engels discusses the origins of the state in Origins of the Family.
  • Ernest Mandel, Power and Money: A Marxist Theory of Bureaucracy. London: Verso, 1992.
  • On Weber: Watson, Tony J. (1980). Sociology, Work and Industry. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-32165-4. 
  • Neil Garston (ed.), Bureaucracy: Three Paradigms. .Boston: Kluwer, 1993.
  • Chowdhury, Faizul Latif (2006), Corrupt Bureaucracy and Privatization of Tax Enforcement.^ Just privatize everything, no more bureaucracy, give them huge tax cuts, and the "self correcting" market will take care of everything and everyone.
    • TPMCafe | Talking Points Memo | The Case for Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC tpmcafe.talkingpointsmemo.com [Source type: Original source]

    Dhaka: Pathak Samabesh, ISBN 984-8120-62-9.
  • Weber, Max. The Theory of Social and Economic Organization. Translated by A.M. Henderson and Talcott Parsons. London: Collier Macmillan Publishers, 1947.
  • Wilson, James Q. (1989). Bureaucracy. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-00785--6. 

External links

.

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

.Bureaucracy is the structure and set of regulations in place to control activity, usually in large organizations and government.^ But now it is time to show another set of teredos, who burrowed and swarmed in the government offices where the principal scenes of our present study took place.
  • BUREAUCRACY 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.fdungan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mandels theory of bureaucracy is one of the central scientific foundations of the revolutionary political project of working class self-activity, self-organization and self-emancipation.
  • Ernest Mandel and the Marxian Theory of Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.ernestmandel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You must first enable the government to control the governed; and in the next place oblige it to control itself ....
  • "Administrative Discretion and Bureaucratic Statesmanship: Serving the Public Interest" 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC www.eli.pdx.edu [Source type: Original source]

Sourced

  • Le courant des affaires devant toujours s'expédier, il surnage une certaine quantité de commis qui se sait indispensable quoique congéable à merci et qui veut rester en place. .La bureaucratie, pouvoir gigantesque mis en mouvement par des nains, est née ainsi.
    • As routine business must always be dispatched, there is always a fluctuating number of supernumeraries who cannot be dispensed with, and yet are liable to dismissal at a moment's notice.^ As the routine of public business must go on, a certain number of indispensable clerks are kept in their places, though they hold these places on sufferance, anxious as they are to retain them.
      • BUREAUCRACY 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.fdungan.com [Source type: Original source]
      • Bureaucracy by Honore de Balzac: Chapter 1 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.online-literature.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ "I? I always rated Monsieur de la Billardiere's talents higher than the rest of you."
      • BUREAUCRACY 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.fdungan.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ At this particular moment, while he talked confidentially with a supernumerary of his office who was destined, later, to play an unconscious part in a political intrigue resulting from the death of La Billardiere, he watched, though half- abstractedly, his wife and des Lupeaulx.
      • BUREAUCRACY 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.fdungan.com [Source type: Original source]

      .All of these naturally are anxious to be "established clerks."^ As the routine of public business must go on, a certain number of indispensable clerks are kept in their places, though they hold these places on sufferance, anxious as they are to retain them.
      • BUREAUCRACY 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.fdungan.com [Source type: Original source]
      • Bureaucracy by Honore de Balzac: Chapter 1 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.online-literature.com [Source type: Original source]

      .And thus Bureaucracy, the giant power wielded by pigmies, came into the world.
    • Honoré de Balzac, Les Employés [The Government Clerks], 1838, trans.^ That may be okay in France where the two most powerful forces are the President and the bureaucracy, but in this country the individual is supposed to reign supreme and the government is supposed to exist for his benefit.
      • Why bureaucracy will likely destroy America by John Silveira Issue #50 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.backwoodshome.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ The Chinese Communist Party had been transformed into a Stalinist organisation long before it came to power.
      • Absurdist Republic - China’s Long March to Capitalism – Part Two 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC my.opera.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Today, China should be the preeminent power in the world, but because of its bureaucracy it didnt happen.
      • Why bureaucracy will likely destroy America by John Silveira Issue #50 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.backwoodshome.com [Source type: Original source]

      .James Waring; also known as Bureaucracy, or, A Civil Service Reformer.
  • Our society is run by a managerial bureaucracy, by professional politicians; people are motivated by mass suggestion, their aim is producing more and consuming more, as purposes in themselves.^ But bureaucracies are ever duty-bound to resist the urge to magnify themselves for their own good, to suck ever more out of the economy, to insinuate themselves ever more into our lives, to make themselves indispensable, or to increase their staff and facilities for growth’s sake.
    • Thinking About Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.cobbers.org.au [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I believe bureaucracy has a place in our schools, however, the power must shift to the professionals on the "front lines."
    • Why is there so much school bureaucracy and what can we do about it? - NewTalk 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC newtalk.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This contradiction suggests to Cook that the crises of legitimacy has less to do with the merely instrumental role that public bureaucracies perform in the delivery of services and more to do with the constitutive role that administrators play in shaping public policy and the pattern of interactions among citizens.
    • Bureaucracy and the American Constitution: 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.eli.pdx.edu [Source type: Original source]

  • Bureaucracy destroys initiative. .There is little that bureaucrats hate more than innovation, especially innovation that produces better results than the old routines.^ Are we to believe bureaucrats know more about what the American people want than the legislators?
    • Why bureaucracy will likely destroy America by John Silveira Issue #50 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.backwoodshome.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ [DPF: Nothing is more glorious a sound than a leftie unhappy that John Key has produced a policy which can not be easily attacked.
    • The growing bureaucracy | Kiwiblog 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.kiwiblog.co.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ There's more than a hundred people down at district H.Q., they are the highest paid people in our system and they never have any contact with kids and it is considered a model of efficiency.
    • Daily Kos: A thumbnail history of school bureaucracy (Ykos) 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Improvements always make those at the top of the heap look inept.^ There are many studies of how to control and use bureaucracy, but always from the point of view of those at the top.
    • Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Bureaucracy 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I hear they're always looking for ignorant fools who honestly believe a college education makes them superior to those without.
    • Susanne Kord: Drowning in bureaucracy | Comment is free | The Guardian 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

    ^ To be fair, the government has tried to make those improvements for almost a decade.
    • Bureaucracy hinders 9/11 commission recommendations (1/13/06) -- GovExec.com 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.govexec.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
  • Bureaucracy is ever desirous of spreading its influence and its power.^ One reason for bureaucracies to grow is the desire to increase power and pay.
    • How the World Works: 17. What is bureaucracy for? 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC letters2lily.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

    .You cannot extend the mastery of the government over the daily working life of a people without at the same time making it the master of the people's souls and thoughts.^ The little people working for government are not the problem.
    • The Federal Bureaucracy-Plutocracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Unlike Goodwill, you are specifically in a business that encourages people to drop off toxic materials which, prior to any work you do on them, have negative economic value on the open market.
    • Local Recycle & Reuse Hits A Bureaucratic Roadblock - O'Reilly Radar 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC radar.oreilly.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It looks more like a personal endevore to make the world a better place by reusing something that would other wise have great costs for "proper" disposal (if you consider dumping stuff into the ground "proper"), and helping people in need at the same time!
    • Local Recycle & Reuse Hits A Bureaucratic Roadblock - O'Reilly Radar 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC radar.oreilly.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • There are more agriculture bureaucrats than there are farmers in this country.^ But the bureaucrats dont see it that way, nor do the politicians, or even the electorate anymore, and because of that this country is becoming more and more European and less and less American.
    • Why bureaucracy will likely destroy America by John Silveira Issue #50 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.backwoodshome.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It was an amazing amount of land, over a million square miles, more land than has made up most countries that have ever existed.
    • Why bureaucracy will likely destroy America by John Silveira Issue #50 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.backwoodshome.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Are we to believe bureaucrats know more about what the American people want than the legislators?
    • Why bureaucracy will likely destroy America by John Silveira Issue #50 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.backwoodshome.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • My symbol for Hell is something like the bureaucracy of a police state or the offices of a thoroughly nasty business concern.^ At this time we are still in the realm of the bureaucracy of a deformed workers' state using capitalist methods to develop the economy as a whole.
    • Absurdist Republic - China’s Long March to Capitalism – Part Two 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC my.opera.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Though this was not stated, the image spelled out for us was of a slick public relations and lobbying group, rather like that of the corporate lobbying groups that routinely interact with the government bureaucracies.
    • Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Bureaucracy 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Socialists in the nineteenth century, before they attained government, had no time for bureaucracy and bureaucrats or, rather, for what they were more likely to call the state and its officials.
    • Bureaucracy by Eugene Kamenka 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • Bureaucratic thought does not deny the possibility of the science of politics, but regards it as identical with the science of administration.^ Broader terms: Bureaucracy Political science -- Japan Public administration -- Japan Japan Narrower term: Bureaucracy -- Japan -- History .

    ^ It now offers the best possibility for overcoming the limits of our current, bureaucratic form of democracy, and rebuilding a sense of shared political goals.
    • Can Business Beat Bureaucracy? | The American Prospect 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.prospect.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Cook argues that career administrators need to have a liberal education that is well grounded in the kind of political science set forth in the Elkin and Soltan volume.
    • Bureaucracy and the American Constitution: 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.eli.pdx.edu [Source type: Original source]

    • Karl Mannheim, Ideology and Utopia, 1929; trans. .Louis Wirth and Edward Shils, 1936
  • The only thing that saves us from the bureaucracy is inefficiency.^ But they may help us see alternatives to school bureaucracy, if only showing that one can create pictures in people's heads of what else might be.
    • Daily Kos: A thumbnail history of school bureaucracy (Ykos) 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    An efficient bureaucracy is the greatest threat to liberty. .
  • Bureaucracy, the rule of no one, has become the modern form of despotism.^ Unless you can get inside the head of a Government Bureaucrat -- or have been one at one time as I have -- you will not be able to understand that "the inspector is just doing his/her duty and following the rules and regulations".
    • Local Recycle & Reuse Hits A Bureaucratic Roadblock - O'Reilly Radar 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC radar.oreilly.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Egypt itself was ruled by one of the first great bureaucracies.
    • Why bureaucracy will likely destroy America by John Silveira Issue #50 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.backwoodshome.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ December 12, 2008 5:03 PM Bureaucracy is bureaucracy no matter what field we look at.
    • Why is there so much school bureaucracy and what can we do about it? - NewTalk 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC newtalk.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Mary McCarthy, "The Vita Activa", The New Yorker, 18 October 1958
  • A bureaucracy always tends to become a pedantocracy.^ Liberals attack the bureaucracy for becoming a vested interest with a will of its own to the neglect of those concerns for equity and humanness reflected in the writings of the "new public administration".
    • "Administrative Discretion and Bureaucratic Statesmanship: Serving the Public Interest" 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC www.eli.pdx.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Reply lowly grunt says: October 22, 2009 at 6:09 am I always think of bureaucracy as annoying to the point of insanity.
    • BUREAUCRACY - Pundit Kitchen: Lol News and Lol Sarah Palin, Barack Obama, John McCain, Joe Biden and more 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC punditkitchen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ If a new, "post-bureaucratic" form of work is genuinely emerging, is it robust and effective enough to become the successor to bureaucracy?
    • Can Business Beat Bureaucracy? | The American Prospect 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.prospect.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • John Stuart Mill, On Representative Government, 1861, Ch.^ Part V concludes that Rowling may do more for libertarianism than anyone since John Stuart Mill.
      • Harry Potter and the Half-Crazed Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC tarlton.law.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      VI
  • It is increasingly clear that the fate of the universe will come to depend more and more on individuals as the bungling of bureaucracy permeates every corner of our existence.^ December 6, 2008 10:50 PM I am in agreement that when it comes to school bureaucracy less is going to give us more.
    • Why is there so much school bureaucracy and what can we do about it? - NewTalk 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC newtalk.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Paternalist companies invade the privacy of the individual more than purer bureaucracies do.
    • Can Business Beat Bureaucracy? | The American Prospect 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.prospect.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This focus helps to develop a more client-centered approach in our schools that will cut out the red tape of the large school bureaucracy.
    • Why is there so much school bureaucracy and what can we do about it? - NewTalk 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC newtalk.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Edna O'Brien, New York Times Book Review, February 14, 1993
  • Bureaucrats want bigger bureaus.^ New York Times plots return to profitability through bake sale and brain-damaged subscription scheme but mostly brain-damaged subscription scheme Doug Ross @ Journal .
    • Michelle Malkin » Inside the monstrous Obamacare bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC michellemalkin.com [Source type: News]

    ^ The Hoover Commission Report on the Organization of the Executive Branch of Government (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1949) p.
    • "Administrative Discretion and Bureaucratic Statesmanship: Serving the Public Interest" 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC www.eli.pdx.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ See F. Claudin, The Communist Movement: From Comintern to Cominform , Volume I (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1975).
    • Ernest Mandel and the Marxian Theory of Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.ernestmandel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Special interests are interested in whatever's special to them. .
  • Earth is still going round the sun, and neither the dictators nor the bureaucrats, deeply as they disapprove of the process, are able to prevent it.^ Did they take scores for all the miscreants all over the world?
    • Worstall on Bureaucratic Actions 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC cafehayek.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The only kind of state-owned industries they could imagine were those that existed under the bureaucratic plan, with all the mismanagement that these involved.
    • Absurdist Republic - China’s Long March to Capitalism – Part Two 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC my.opera.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Given this bureaucratic mentality, ignoring the existence of these internal files is why they did not go into the shredder.
    • Anthroculture: "Castration", Japan's Bureaucracy & HIV 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.nancho.net [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • George Orwell, "Some Thoughts on the Common Toad," Tribune, 12 April 1946
  • When despotism has established itself for ages in a country, as in France, it is not in the person of the king only that it resides.^ In France ministers are better off than kings or women; they have some one who thoroughly understands them.
    • BUREAUCRACY 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.fdungan.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "I am not sulking," he returned; "I came to announce some good news, but the thought has overtaken me that it will only add to your severity towards me.
    • BUREAUCRACY 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.fdungan.com [Source type: Original source]

    It has the appearance of being so in show, and in nominal authority; but it is not so in practice and in fact. It has its standard everywhere. Every office and department has its despotism, founded upon custom and usage. Every place has its Bastille, and every Bastille its despot. The original hereditary despotism resident in the person of the king, divides and sub-divides itself into a thousand shapes and forms, till at last the whole of it is acted by deputation. .This was the case in France; and against this species of despotism, proceeding on through an endless labyrinth of office till the source of it is scarcely perceptible, there is no mode of redress.^ In these cases there was no "bourgeois revolution" but a kind of "cold" transition from one system to another.
    • Absurdist Republic - China’s Long March to Capitalism – Part Two 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC my.opera.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ March 12, 1996 : The Tokyo District Public Prosecutor's Office forms a special squad to look into the case.
    • Anthroculture: "Castration", Japan's Bureaucracy & HIV 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.nancho.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Records, statistics, documents, failing which France would have been ruined, circumlocution, without which there could be no advance, increased, multiplied, and grew majestic.
    • BUREAUCRACY 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.fdungan.com [Source type: Original source]

    It strengthens itself by assuming the appearance of duty, and tyrannises under the pretence of obeying. .
  • In a hierarchy every employee tends to rise to his level of incompetence.^ In the kiwi hierarchically structured administrations, people tend to be promoted up to their level of incompetence.
    • The growing bureaucracy | Kiwiblog 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.kiwiblog.co.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

  • Bureaucracy defends the status quo long past the time when the quo has lost its status.^ The status quo in the Japanese bureaucracy is labeled as precedence and one should always respect precedents that have been set.
    • Anthroculture: "Castration", Japan's Bureaucracy & HIV 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.nancho.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ During the past twenty years, in a profound shift, the leaders of large businesses have turned against the models of bureaucracy that long served as corporate ideals.
    • Can Business Beat Bureaucracy? | The American Prospect 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.prospect.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

  • Pournelle's Iron Law of Bureaucracy states that in any bureaucratic organization there will be two kinds of people: those who work to further the actual goals of the organization, and those who work for the organization itself.^ It's work to maintain a functioning bureaucracy that few people actually like.
    • TPMCafe | Talking Points Memo | The Case for Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC tpmcafe.talkingpointsmemo.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And of course Pournelle's Iron Law of Bureaucracy makes it inevitable that we will get there.
    • View 406 April 3 - 9, 2006 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.jerrypournelle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Pournelle's Iron Law of Bureaucracy states that in any bureaucratic organization there will be two kinds of people: those who work to further the actual goals of the organization, and those who work for the organization itself.
    • View 406 April 3 - 9, 2006 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.jerrypournelle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [...] .The Iron Law states that in all cases, the second type of person will always gain control of the organization, and will always write the rules under which the organization functions.^ Examples in education would be teachers who work and sacrifice to teach children, vs. The Iron Law states that in all cases, the second type of person will always gain control of the organization, and will always write the rules under which the organization functions.
    • View 406 April 3 - 9, 2006 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.jerrypournelle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I know all that is trying to support recycling organizations in the state, but some areas require you to drive way out of your way to drop off stuff.
    • Local Recycle & Reuse Hits A Bureaucratic Roadblock - O'Reilly Radar 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC radar.oreilly.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The only kind of state-owned industries they could imagine were those that existed under the bureaucratic plan, with all the mismanagement that these involved.
    • Absurdist Republic - China’s Long March to Capitalism – Part Two 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC my.opera.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • If you are going to sin, sin against God, not the bureaucracy.^ But the farther you go, the more the economy runs into the problem of quality, which slips out of the hands of a bureaucracy like a shadow...
    • Ernest Mandel and the Marxian Theory of Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.ernestmandel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    God will forgive you but the bureaucracy won't. .
  • Forecasting by bureaucrats tends to be used for anxiety relief rather than for adequate policy making.^ Bureaucratic organizations tend to degenerate over time.
    • Can Business Beat Bureaucracy? | The American Prospect 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.prospect.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Rather than 'efficiency,' it is better to use principles such as free speech, job satisfaction and production for social use.
    • Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Bureaucracy 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Rather than being misfits who are disturbing efficient functioning, bureaucratic oppositions should be analysed as political oppositions, that is as challenges to the use or distribution of power in the bureaucracy.
    • Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Bureaucracy 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
  • How easily we Indians see the several sides to every question!^ As a mentor to an intern my approach has usually been one of questioning, seeking to get the intern to apply some metacognition, to see what worked and why, and what didn't and why, and how s/he experienced each of the aspects.
    • Daily Kos: A thumbnail history of school bureaucracy (Ykos) 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We also have to see, however, that Trotsky provided us with an insight into how the bureaucracy could easily adapt to a capitalist restoration.
    • Absurdist Republic - China’s Long March to Capitalism – Part Two 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC my.opera.com [Source type: Original source]

    .That is what makes us such good bureaucrats, and such poor totalitarians.^ It's one thing to make big investments in programs likely to generate good outcomes, but quite another to make big investments in programs with uncertain and sometimes poor outcomes.

    ^ "Monsieur," said the good man, "if we can serve you in any way, make use of us."
    • BUREAUCRACY 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.fdungan.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Maybe they can even make her National “Spokesperson” for Social Development, since she has such good experience from her time at WINZ. .
    • The growing bureaucracy | Kiwiblog 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.kiwiblog.co.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

  • Bureaucracy is [...] simultaneously the most crippling of Indian diseases and the highest of Indian art-forms.^ First, he claimed that the bureaucracys derived most of its privileges in the form of wages: .
    • Ernest Mandel and the Marxian Theory of Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.ernestmandel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ For most social action groups, including gay activists, feminists, antiracists, education activists, environmentalists and antiwar activists, bureaucracy as the dominant form of social organisation has not been a focus of attention.
    • Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Bureaucracy 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC www.uow.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

  • Bureaucracy and social harmony are inversely proportional to each other.^ Externally, the ruling bureaucracies sought to subordinate the struggle of working people in other countries to the defense of socialism in one (choose your favorite) country.
    • Ernest Mandel and the Marxian Theory of Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.ernestmandel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In other words, the politics of the labor bureaucracies in the capitalist social formations are utopian in the most negative sense of the word.
    • Ernest Mandel and the Marxian Theory of Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.ernestmandel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • Leon Trotsky, The Revolution Betrayed, 1936, p.^ The most complete statement of Trotsky's mature analysis of the Soviet bureaucracy is The Revolution Betrayed: What is the Soviet Union and Where Is It Going?
      • Ernest Mandel and the Marxian Theory of Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.ernestmandel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Trotsky's more elaborate discussion of the transition is found in Revolution Betrayed , Chapter III. For Mandel's contribution to this discussion, see: Marxist Economy Theory , II, Chapter 16.
      • Ernest Mandel and the Marxian Theory of Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.ernestmandel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Trotsky, The Revolution Betrayed , 104-105.
      • Ernest Mandel and the Marxian Theory of Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.ernestmandel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      41

Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010
(Redirected to The Government Clerks article)

From Wikisource

The Government Clerks
by Honoré de Balzac, translated by Katharine Prescott Wormeley
.Information about this edition
Original French title: "Les Employés", sometimes translated as "Bureaucracy". First published 1837. Included as part of La Comédie humaine.^ But perhaps the most Kafkaesque reaction came from a French bureaucrat, who was quoted in Le Figaro stating, “It isn’t about putting pressure on the Irish.
  • Arrogant European Bureaucracy Run Amok | Cato @ Liberty 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.cato-at-liberty.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Bureaucracy is one of the games included in The Lost Treasures of Infocom II (not to be confused with the first volume with the Hitchhiker's Text Adventure on it), and The Infocom Comedy Collection.
  • afdaFAQ: Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.zootle.net [Source type: General]

^ But the most dangerous part of Title XIII is where "the Board [of Immigration Appeals] shall have de novo review of any decision by an immigration judge, including any final order of removal."
  • 08/27/02 - Immigration bureaucracy in a Trojan horse 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC www.vdare.com [Source type: Original source]

DEDICATION
To the Comtesse Seraphina San Severino, with the respectful
homage of sincere and deep admiration
De Balzac
PD-icon.svg This work published before January 1, 1923 is in the .public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago.^ It will start in a public hospital with a 100-year-old woman who has multiple health problems and 'wants' to die so as not to 'burden' anyone.
  • The American Spectator : Murder by Bureaucracy 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ That is because the so-called "merit pay" increases for most librarians are very small and very few --- even after librarians have worked many years serving the public.
  • STRATEGIC BUREAUCRATIC PROBLEM 15 September 2009 4:47 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A Public Servant wrote 4 days ago : Effective writing skills are arguably one of the least important skills for a public servant to have … more → .
  • Bureaucracy — Blogs, Pictures, and more on WordPress 10 February 2010 12:47 UTC en.wordpress.com [Source type: General]


Simple English

Bureaucracy is typical for large organizations and government. It means the structure and set of regulations that control the activities of people that work for these organizations.

It is characterized by standardized procedure (rule-following), formal division of responsibility, hierarchy, and impersonal relationships. In practice the interpretation and execution of policy can lead to informal influence.

Bureaucracy is a concept in sociology and political science. Four structural concepts are central to any definition of bureaucracy: a well-defined division of administrative labor among persons and offices, a personnel system with consistent patterns of recruitment and stable linear careers, a hierarchy among offices, such that the authority and status are differentially distributed among actors, and formal and informal networks that connect organizational actors to one another through flows of information and patterns of cooperation.

Examples of everyday bureaucracies include governments, armed forces, corporations, hospitals, courts, ministries and schools.

Other websites


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 15, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Bureaucracy, which are similar to those in the above article.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message