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Union of Myanmar
ဴပညေ္ထာင္စုဴမန္မာနုိင္ငံေတာ္
Pyi-daung-zu Myan-mar Naing-ngan-taw
Flag Coat of arms
AnthemKaba Ma Kyei
Location of  Burma  (green)

in ASEAN  (white)  —  [Legend]

Capital Naypyidaw
19°45′N 96°6′E / 19.75°N 96.1°E / 19.75; 96.1
Largest city Yangon (Rangoon)
Official language(s) Burmese
Recognised regional languages Jingpho, Kayah, Karen, Chin, Mon, Rakhine, Shan
Official scripts Burmese script
Demonym Burmese/Myanmarese
Government Military junta (de facto Military Dictatorship)
 -  Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Sr. Gen. Than Shwe
 -  Vice Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Vice-Sr. Gen. Maung Aye
 -  Prime Minister Gen. Thein Sein
 -  Secretary-1 of the State Peace and Development Council Thiha Thura Tin Aung Myint Oo
Formation
 -  Bagan 1044 
 -  Independence 4 January 1948 (from United Kingdom) 
 -  Current constitution May 2008 
Area
 -  Total 676,578 km2 (40th)
261,227 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 3.06
Population
 -  2009 estimate 50,020,000[1] (24th)
 -  1983 census 33,234,000 
 -  Density 73.9/km2 (119th)
191.5/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $67.963 billion[2] 
 -  Per capita $1,156[2] 
GDP (nominal) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $26.205 billion[2] 
 -  Per capita $445[2] 
HDI (2007) 0.586[3] (medium) (138th)
Currency kyat (K) (mmK)
Time zone MST (UTC+6:30)
Drives on the right[4]
Internet TLD .mm
Calling code 95
1 Some governments recognise Rangoon as the national capital.[5]
2 Estimates for this country take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected.
Burma, officially the Union of Myanmar, is the largest country by geographical area in Indochina (mainland Southeast Asia). The country is bordered by China on the north-east, Laos on the east, Thailand on the south-east, Bangladesh on the west, India on the north-west and the Bay of Bengal to the south-west with the Andaman Sea defining its southern periphery. One-third of Burma's total perimeter, 1,930 kilometres (1,199 mi), forms an uninterrupted coastline.
The country's culture, heavily influenced by neighbours, is based on Theravada Buddhism intertwined with local elements. Burma's diverse population has played a major role in defining its politics, history and demographics in modern times, and the country continues to struggle to mend its ethnic tensions. The military has dominated government since General Ne Win led a coup in 1962 that toppled the civilian government of U Nu. Burma remains under the tight control of the military-led State Peace and Development Council.

Contents

Name

The name "Burma" is derived from the Burmese word "Bamar" (ဗမာ), which in turn is the colloquial form of Myanmar (မြန်မာ) (or Mranma in old Burmese), both of which historically referred to the majority Burmans (or the Bamar). Depending on the register used the pronunciation would be "Bama" or "Myanmah". The name "Burma" has been in use in English since the time of British colonial rule.
In 1989, the military government officially changed the English translations of many colonial-era names, including the name of the country to "Myanmar". This prompted one scholar to coin the term "Myanmarification" to refer to the top-down programme of political and cultural reform in the context of which the renaming was done. The renaming remains a contested issue.[6]
While some of the name changes are closer to their actual Burmese pronunciations, many opposition groups and countries continue to oppose their use in English because they recognise neither the legitimacy of the ruling military government nor its authority to rename the country or towns in English.[7] Various non-Burman ethnic groups choose to not recognise the name because the term Myanmar has historically been used as a label for the majority ethnic group rather than for the country.[8][9][10]
Various world entities have chosen to accept or reject the name change. The United Nations, of which Burma (under the name Myanmar) is a member, endorsed the name change five days after its announcement by the junta.[11] However, governments of many countries including Australia, Canada, France,[12], the United Kingdom and the United States[13] still refer to the country as "Burma", with varying levels of recognition of the validity of the name change itself. .Others, including the Association of Southeast Asian Nations and the governments of Germany, India, Japan,[14] Russia[15] and the People's Republic of China recognise "Myanmar" as the official name.^ India Calling Card USA Calling Card UK Calling Card Philippines Calling Card Africa Calling Card Pakistan Calling Card Japan Calling Card Nigeria Calling Card Indonesia Calling Card China Calling Card .
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Media usage is also mixed. In spite of the usage by the US government, some American news outlets including The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, The International Herald Tribune and CNN, and international news agencies the Associated Press, Reuters and Agence France-Presse have adopted the name "Myanmar". The name "Burma" is still widely used by other news outlets, including Voice of America, The Washington Post, the BBC, ITN and most British newspapers, The Times of India and Time. Other sources often use combined terms such as "Burma, also known as Myanmar." Some media outlets that use "Myanmar" refer to "Burma" as the nation's "colonial name."[16][17][18]
Confusion among English speakers on how to pronounce "Myanmar" gives rise to pronunciations such as /ˈmjɑːnmɑr/, /maɪənˈmɑr/, /ˈmiːənmɑr/ and /miːˈænmɑr/. The BBC recommends /mjænˈmɑ or /mjænˈmɑr.[19][20][21]

Geography

Burma, which has a total area of 678,500 square kilometres (262,000 sq mi), is the largest country in mainland Southeast Asia, and the 40th-largest in the world.
It is bordered to the northwest by Chittagong Division of Bangladesh and Mizoram, Manipur, Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh of India to the northwest. It shares its longest borders with Tibet to the north and Yunnan of China to the northeast for a total of 2,185 kilometres (1,358 mi). It is bounded by Laos and Thailand to the southeast. Burma has 1,930 kilometres (1,200 mi) of contiguous coastline along the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea to the southwest and the south, which forms one quarter of its total perimeter.[22]
The Irrawaddy Delta, which is approximately 50,400 km2 (19,500 sq mi) in area, is largely used for rice cultivation.[23]
In the north, the Hengduan Shan mountains form the border with China. Hkakabo Razi, located in Kachin State, at an elevation of 5,881 metres (19,295 ft), is the highest point in Burma.[24] Three mountain ranges, namely the Rakhine Yoma, the Bago Yoma, and the Shan Plateau exist within Burma, all of which run north-to-south from the Himalayas.[25] The mountain chains divide Burma's three river systems, which are the Ayeyarwady, Salween (Thanlwin), and the Sittaung rivers.[23] The Ayeyarwady River, Burma's longest river, nearly 2,170 kilometres (1,350 mi) long, flows into the Gulf of Martaban. Fertile plains exist in the valleys between the mountain chains.[25] The majority of Burma's population lives in the Ayeyarwady valley, which is situated between the Rakhine Yoma and the Shan Plateau.
Limestone landscape of Mon State.
Much of the country lies between the Tropic of Cancer and the Equator. It lies in the monsoon region of Asia, with its coastal regions receiving over 5,000 mm (200 in) of rain annually. Annual rainfall in the delta region is approximately 2,500 mm (100 in), while average annual rainfall in the Dry Zone, which is located in central Burma, is less than 1,000 mm (40 in). Northern regions of the country are the coolest, with average temperatures of 21 °C (70 °F). Coastal and delta regions have mean temperatures of 32 °C (90 °F).[23]
The country's slow economic growth has contributed to the preservation of much of its environment and ecosystems. Forests, including dense tropical growth and valuable teak in lower Burma, cover over 49% of the country. Other trees indigenous to the region include acacia, bamboo, ironwood, mangrove, michelia champaca coconut and betel palm and rubber has been introduced. In the highlands of the north, oak, pine and various rhododendrons cover much of the land.[26] The lands along the coast support all varieties of tropical fruits. In the Dry Zone, vegetation is sparse and stunted.
Typical jungle animals, particularly tigers and leopards, occur sparsely in Burma. In upper Burma, there are rhinoceros, wild buffalo, wild boars, deer, antelope, and elephants, which are also tamed or bred in captivity for use as work animals, particularly in the lumber industry. Smaller mammals are also numerous, ranging from gibbons and monkeys to flying foxes and tapirs. The abundance of birds is notable with over 800 species, including parrots, peafowl, pheasants, crows, herons, and paddybirds. Among reptile species there are crocodiles, geckos, cobras, Burmese pythons, and turtles. Hundreds of species of freshwater fish are wide-ranging, plentiful and are very important food sources.[27]

History

After the First Burmese War, the Ava kingdom ceded the provinces of Manipur, Tenassarim, and Arakan to the British.[28] Rangoon and southern Burma were incorporated into British India in 1853. All of Burma came directly or indirectly under British India in 1886 after the Third Burmese War and the fall of Mandalay.[28] Burma was administered as a province of British India until 1937 when it became a separate, self-governing colony. The country became independent from the United Kingdom on 4 January 1948, as the "Union of Burma".
It became the "Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma" on 4 January 1974, before reverting to the "Union of Burma" on 23 September 1988. On 18 June 1989, the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) adopted the name "Union of Myanmar" for English transliteration. This controversial name change in English, while accepted in the UN and in many countries, is not recognised by opposition groups and by nations such as the United Kingdom and the United States.[29]

Early history

Archaeological evidence suggests that civilisation in the region which now forms Burma is quite old. The oldest archaeological find was of cave paintings and a Holocene assemblage in a hunter-gatherer cave site in Padah Lin in Shan State.[30][31]
The Mon people are thought to be the earliest group to migrate into the lower Ayeyarwady valley, and by the mid-900s BC were dominant in southern Burma.[32]
The Tibeto-Burman speaking Pyu arrived later in the 1st century BC, and established several city states – of which Sri Ksetra was the most powerful – in central Ayeyarwady valley. The Mon and Pyu kingdoms were an active overland trade route between India and China. The Pyu kingdoms entered a period of rapid decline in early 9th century AD when the powerful kingdom of Nanzhao (in present-day Yunnan) invaded the Ayeyarwady valley several times.

Bagan (1044–1287)

Tibeto-Burman speaking Burmans, or the Bamar, began migrating to the Ayeyarwady valley from present-day Yunnan's Nanzhao kingdom starting in 7th century AD. Filling the power gap left by the Pyu, the Burmans established a small kingdom centred in Bagan in 849. But it was not until the reign of King Anawrahta (1044–1077) that Bagan's influence expanded throughout much of present-day Burma.
After Anawrahta's capture of the Mon capital of Thaton in 1057, the Burmans adopted Theravada Buddhism from the Mons. The Burmese script was created, based on the Mon script, during the reign of King Kyanzittha (1084–1112). Prosperous from trade, Bagan kings built many magnificent temples and pagodas throughout the country – many of which can still be seen today.
Bagan's power slowly waned in 13th century. Kublai Khan's Mongol forces invaded northern Burma starting in 1277, and sacked Bagan city itself in 1287. Bagan's over two century reign of Ayeyarwady valley and its periphery was over.
Pagodas and temples continue to exist in present-day Bagan, the capital of the Bagan Kingdom.

Small kingdoms (1287–1531)

The Mongols could not stay for long in the searing Ayeyarwady valley. But the Tai-Shan people from Yunnan who came down with the Mongols fanned out to the Ayeyarwady valley, Shan states, Laos, Siam and Assam, and became powerful players in Southeast Asia.
The Bagan empire was irreparably broken up into several small kingdoms:
This period was characterised by constant warfare between Ava and Bago, and to a lesser extent, Ava and the Shans. Ava briefly controlled Rakhine (1379–1430) and came close to defeating Bago a few times, but could never quite reassemble the lost empire. Nevertheless, Burmese culture entered a golden age. Hanthawady Bago prospered. Bago's Queen Shin Saw Bu (1453–1472) raised the gilded Shwedagon Pagoda to its present height.
By the late-15th century, constant warfare had left Ava greatly weakened. Its peripheral areas became either independent or autonomous. In 1486, King Minkyinyo (1486–1531) of Taungoo broke away from Ava and established a small independent kingdom. In 1527, Mohnyin (Shan: Mong Yang) Shans finally captured Ava, upsetting the delicate power balance that had existed for nearly two centuries. The Shans would rule Upper Burma until 1555.

Taungoo (1531–1752)

Reinforced by fleeing Burmans from Ava, the minor Burman kingdom of Taungoo under its young, ambitious king Tabinshwehti (1531–1551) defeated the more powerful Mon kingdom at Bago, reunifying all of Lower Burma by 1540. Tabinshwehti's successor King Bayinnaung (1551–1581) would go on to conquer Manipur (1556), Shan states (1557), Chiang Mai (1557), Ayutthaya (1564, 1569) and Lan Xang (1574), bringing most of western South East Asia under his rule. Bayinnaung died in 1581, preparing to invade Rakhine, a maritime power controlling the entire coastline west of Rakhine Yoma, up to Chittagong province in Bengal.
Bayinnaung's massive empire unravelled soon after his death in 1581. Ayutthaya Siamese had driven out the Burmese by 1593 and went on to take Tanintharyi. In 1599, Rakhine forces aided by the Portuguese mercenaries sacked the kingdom's capital Bago. Chief Portuguese mercenary Filipe de Brito e Nicote (Burmese: Nga Zinga) promptly rebelled against his Rakhine masters and established Portuguese rule in Thanlyin (Syriam), then the most important seaport in Burma. The country was in chaos.
The Burmese under King Anaukpetlun (1605–1628) regrouped and defeated the Portuguese in 1611. Anaukpetlun reestablished a smaller reconstituted kingdom based in Ava covering Upper Burma, Lower Burma and Shan states (but without Rakhine or Taninthayi). After the reign of King Thalun (1629–1648), who rebuilt the war-torn country, the kingdom experienced a slow and steady decline for the next 100 years. The Mons successfully rebelled starting in 1740 with French help and Siamese encouragement, broke away Lower Burma by 1747, and finally put an end to the House of Taungoo in 1752 when they took Ava.

Konbaung (1752–1885)

A British 1825 lithograph of Shwedagon Pagoda reveals early British occupation in Burma during the First Anglo-Burmese War.
King Alaungpaya (1752–1760), established the Konbaung Dynasty in Shwebo in 1752.[33] He founded Yangon in 1755. By his death in 1760, Alaungpaya had reunified the country. In 1767, King Hsinbyushin (1763–1777) sacked Ayutthya. The Qing Dynasty of China invaded four times from 1765 to 1769 without success. The Chinese invasions allowed the new Siamese kingdom based in Bangkok to repel the Burmese out of Siam by the late 1770s.
King Bodawpaya (1782–1819) failed repeatedly to reconquer Siam in 1780s and 1790s. Bodawpaya did manage to capture the western kingdom of Rakhine, which had been largely independent since the fall of Bagan, in 1784. Bodawpaya also formally annexed Manipur, a rebellion-prone protectorate, in 1813.
King Bagyidaw's (1819–1837) general Maha Bandula put down a rebellion in Manipur in 1819 and captured then independent kingdom of Assam in 1819 (again in 1821). The new conquests brought the Burmese adjacent to the British India. The British defeated the Burmese in the First Anglo-Burmese War (1824–1826). Burma had to cede Assam, Manipur, Rakhine (Arakan) and Tanintharyi (Tenessarim).
In 1852, the British attacked a much weakened Burma during a Burmese palace power struggle. After the Second Anglo-Burmese War, which lasted 3 months, the British had captured the remaining coastal provinces: Ayeyarwady, Yangon and Bago, naming the territories as Lower Burma.
King Mindon (1853–1878) founded Mandalay in 1859 and made it his capital. He skilfully navigated the growing threats posed by the competing interests of Britain and France. In the process, Mindon had to renounce Kayah (Karenni) states in 1875. His successor, King Thibaw (1878–1885), was largely ineffectual. In 1885, the British, alarmed by the French conquest of neighbouring Laos, occupied Upper Burma. The Third Anglo-Burmese War (1885) lasted a mere one month insofar as capturing the capital Mandalay was concerned. The Burmese royal family was exiled to Ratnagiri, India. British forces spent at least another four years pacifying the country – not only in the Burmese heartland but also in the Shan, Chin and Kachin hill areas. By some accounts, minor insurrections did not end until 1896.

Colonial era (1886–1948)

The British began conquering Burma in 1824. For a period of sixty-two years, Burma was under British control. By 1886, Britain had incorporated it into the British Raj. Burma was administered as a province of British India until 1937 when it became a separate, self-governing colony. To stimulate trade and facilitate changes, the British brought in Indians and Chinese, who quickly displaced the Burmese in urban areas. To this day Rangoon and Mandalay have large ethnic Indian populations. Railways and schools were built, as well as a large number of prisons, including the infamous Insein Prison, then as now used for political prisoners. Burmese resentment was strong and was vented in violent riots that paralysed Yangon on occasion all the way until the 1930s.[34]
Much of the discontent was caused by a perceived disrespect for Burmese culture and traditions, for example, what the British termed the Shoe Question: the colonisers' refusal to remove their shoes upon entering Buddhist temples or other holy places. In October 1919, Eindawya Pagoda in Mandalay was the scene of violence when tempers flared after scandalised Buddhist monks attempted to physically expel a group of shoe-wearing British visitors. The leader of the monks was later sentenced to life imprisonment for attempted murder. Such incidents inspired the Burmese resistance to use Buddhism as a rallying point for their cause. Buddhist monks became the vanguards of the independence movement, and many died while protesting. One monk-turned-martyr was U Wisara, who died in prison after a 166-day hunger strike to protest a rule that forbade him from wearing his Buddhist robes while imprisoned.[35]
Eric Blair (George Orwell), served in the Indian Imperial Police in Burma for five years; his experience yielded the novel Burmese Days (1934) and the essays "A Hanging" (1931) and "Shooting an Elephant" (1936). An earlier writer with the same convoluted career path was Saki. During the colonial period, intermarriage between European male settlers and Burmese women, as well as between Anglo-Indians (who arrived with the British) and Burmese caused the birth of the Anglo-Burmese community. This influential community was to dominate the country during colonial rule and through the mid 1960's.
The Colonial Flag (1937–1948)
On 1 April 1937, Burma became a separately administered territory, independent of the Indian administration. The vote for keeping Burma in India, or as a separate colony "khwe-yay-twe-yay" divided the populace, and laid the ground work for the insurgencies to come after independence. In the 1940s, the Thirty Comrades, commanded by Aung San, founded the Burma Independence Army. The Thirty Comrades received training in Japan.[36]
During World War II, Burma became a major front-line in the Southeast Asian Theatre. The British administration collapsed ahead of the advancing Japanese troops, jails and asylums were opened and Rangoon was deserted except for the many Anglo-Burmese and Indians who remained at their posts. A stream of some 300,000 refugees fled across the jungles into India; known as 'The Trek', all but 30,000 of those 300,000 arrived in India. Initially the Japanese-led Burma Campaign succeeded and the British were expelled from most of Burma, but the British counter-attacked using primarily troops of the British Indian Army. By July 1945, the British had retaken the country.
Although many Burmese fought initially for the Japanese, some Burmese, mostly from the ethnic minorities, also served in the British Burma Army. In 1943, the Chin Levies and Kachin Levies were formed in the border districts of Burma still under British administration. The Burma Rifles fought as part of the Chindits under General Orde Wingate from 1943 to 1945. Later in the war, the Americans created American-Kachin Rangers who also fought against the Japanese. Many others fought with the British Special Operations Executive. The Burma Independence Army under the command of Aung San and the Arakan National Army fought with the Japanese from 1942 – 1944, but switched allegiance to the Allied side in 1945.
In 1947, Aung San became Deputy Chairman of the Executive Council of Burma, a transitional government. But in July 1947, political rivals assassinated Aung San and several cabinet members.[36]

Democratic republic (1948–1962)

On 4 January 1948, the nation became an independent republic, named the Union of Burma, with Sao Shwe Thaik as its first President and U Nu as its first Prime Minister. Unlike most other former British colonies and overseas territories, it did not become a member of the Commonwealth. A bicameral parliament was formed, consisting of a Chamber of Deputies and a Chamber of Nationalities,[37] and multi-party elections were held in 1951–1952, 1956 and 1960.
The geographical area Burma encompasses today can be traced to the Panglong Agreement, which combined Burma Proper, which consisted of Lower Burma and Upper Burma, and the Frontier Areas, which had been administered separately by the British.[9]
In 1961, U Thant, then the Union of Burma's Permanent Representative to the United Nations and former Secretary to the Prime Minister, was elected Secretary-General of the United Nations; he was the first non-Westerner to head any international organisation and would serve as UN Secretary-General for ten years.[38] Among the Burmese to work at the UN when he was Secretary-General was a young Aung San Suu Kyi, winner of the 1991 Nobel Peace Prize.

Rule by military junta (1962 – present)

Democratic rule ended in 1962 when General Ne Win led a military coup d'état. He ruled for nearly 26 years and pursued policies under the rubric of the Burmese Way to Socialism. Between 1962 and 1974, Burma was ruled by a revolutionary council headed by the general, and almost all aspects of society (business, media, production) were nationalised or brought under government control (including the Boy Scouts).[28] In an effort to consolidate power, Ne Win and many other top generals resigned from the military and took civilian posts and, from 1974, instituted elections in a one party system.
Between 1974 and 1988, Burma was effectively ruled by Ne Win through the Burma Socialist Programme Party (BSPP),[39] which from 1964 until 1988 was the sole political party. During this period, Burma became one of the world's most impoverished countries. The Burmese Way to Socialism[40][41] combined Soviet-style nationalisation and central planning with the governmental implementation of superstitious beliefs.[41] Criticism was scathing, such as an article published in a February 1974 issue of Newsweek magazine describing the Burmese Way to Socialism as 'an amalgam of Buddhist and Marxist illogic'.[42]
Almost from the beginning, there were sporadic protests against the military rule, many of which were organised by students, and these were almost always violently suppressed by the government. On 7 July 1962, the government broke up demonstrations at Rangoon University, killing 15 students.[28] In 1974, the military violently suppressed anti-government protests at the funeral of U Thant. Student protests in 1975, 1976 and 1977 were quickly suppressed by overwhelming force.[39]
Ne Win's rise to power in 1962 and his relentless persecution of "resident aliens" (immigrant groups not recognised as citizens of the Union of Burma) led to an exodus of some 300,000 Burmese Indians.[43] They migrated to escape racial discrimination and wholesale nationalisation of private enterprise a few years later in 1964.[44]
Hundreds of thousands of Rohingya Muslims fled Burma and many refugees inundated neighbouring Bangladesh including 200,000 in 1978 as a result of the King Dragon operation in Arakan.[45]
In 1988, unrest over economic mismanagement and political oppression by the government led to widespread pro-democracy demonstrations throughout the country known as the 8888 Uprising. Security forces killed thousands of demonstrators, and General Saw Maung staged a coup d'état and formed the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC). In 1989, SLORC declared martial law after widespread protests. The military government finalised plans for People's Assembly elections on 31 May 1989.[46] SLORC changed the country's official English name from the "Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma" to the "Union of Myanmar" in 1989.
In May 1990, the government held free elections for the first time in almost 30 years. The National League for Democracy (NLD), the party of Aung San Suu Kyi, won 392 out of a total 489 seats, but the election results were annulled by SLORC, which refused to step down.[47] Led by Than Shwe since 1992, the military regime has made cease-fire agreements with most ethnic guerilla groups. In 1992, SLORC unveiled plans to create a new constitution through the National Convention, which began 9 January 1993. In 1997, the State Law and Order Restoration Council was renamed the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC).
On 23 June 1997, Burma was admitted into the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). The National Convention continues to convene and adjourn. Many major political parties, particularly the NLD, have been absent or excluded, and little progress has been made.[citation needed] On 27 March 2006, the military junta, which had moved the national capital from Yangon to a site near Pyinmana in November 2005, officially named the new capital Naypyidaw, meaning "city of the kings".[48] The CIA World Factbook, however, still considers the capital to be Rangoon.[49]
In November 2006, the International Labour Organization (ILO) announced it will be seeking – at the International Criminal Court[50] – "to prosecute members of the ruling Myanmar junta for crimes against humanity" over the continuous forced labour of its citizens by the military. According to the ILO, an estimated 800,000 people are subject to forced labour in Myanmar.[51]
The 2007 Burmese anti-government protests were a series of anti-government protests that started in Burma on 15 August 2007. The immediate cause of the protests was mainly the unannounced decision of the ruling junta, the State Peace and Development Council, to remove fuel subsidies which caused the price of diesel and petrol to suddenly rise as much as double, and the price of compressed natural gas for buses to increase fivefold in less than a week.[52] The protest demonstrations were at first dealt with quickly and harshly by the junta, with dozens of protesters arrested and detained. Starting 18 September, the protests were led by thousands of Buddhist monks, and those protests were allowed to proceed until a renewed government crackdown on 26 September.[53] During the crack-down, there were rumours of disagreement within the Burmese armed forces, but none were confirmed. Some news reports referred to the protests as the Saffron Revolution.[54][55]
Protesters in Yangon with a banner that reads non-violence: national movement in Burmese, in the background is Shwedagon Pagoda
During the 2007 anti-government protests a significant role was played by Aung San Suu Kyi, the leader of the opposition to the Burmese military government. Aung San Suu Kyi had been under strict house arrest since 1989. In September 2007, hundreds of monks paid respects to her at the gate of her home, which was the first time in four years that people were able to see her in public. She was then given a second public appearance on 29 September, when she was allowed to leave house arrest briefly and meet with a UN envoy trying to persuade the junta to ease its crackdown against a pro-democracy uprising, to which the Myanmar government reluctantly agreed.
On 7 February 2008, SPDC announced that a referendum for the Constitution would be held and Elections by 2010. The Burmese constitutional referendum, 2008 was held on 10 May and promised a "discipline-flourishing democracy" for the country in the future.
World governments remain divided on how to deal with the military junta. Calls for further sanctions by Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States and France are opposed by neighbouring countries; in particular, China has stated its belief that "sanctions or pressure will not help to solve the issue".[56] There is some disagreement over whether sanctions are the most effective approach to dealing with the junta, such as from a Cato Institute study and from prominent Burmese such as Thant Myint-U (a former senior UN official and Cambridge historian), who have opined that sanctions may have caused more harm than good to the Burmese people.[57][58]
In 1950, the Karen became the largest of 20 minority groups participating in an insurgency against the government of Burma. The conflict continues as of 2009.[59] In 2004, the BBC, citing aid agencies, estimates that up to 200,000 Karen have been driven from their homes during decades of war, with 120,000 more refugees from Burma, mostly Karen, living in refugee camps on the Thai side of the border. Many accuse the military government of Burma of ethnic cleansing.[60] As a result of the ongoing war in minority group areas, more than two million people have fled Burma to Thailand.[61]
On 3 May 2008, Cyclone Nargis devastated the country when winds of up to 215 km/h (135 mph)[62] touched land in the densely populated, rice-farming delta of the Irrawaddy Division.[63] It was the worst natural disaster in Burmese history. Reports estimated that more than 200,000 people were dead or missing, and damage totaled to 10 billion dollars (USD). The World Food Programme reported, "Some villages have been almost totally eradicated and vast rice-growing areas are wiped out."[64] The United Nations projects that as many as 1 million were left homeless; and the World Health Organization "has received reports of malaria outbreaks in the worst-affected area."[65] Yet in the critical days following this disaster, Burma's isolationist regime hindered recovery efforts by delaying the entry of United Nations planes delivering medicine, food, and other supplies. The government's action was described by the United Nations as "unprecedented."[66]
On 4 May 2009, an American, John Yettaw, allegedly swam across the lake uninvited to the house of Aung San Suu Kyi and remained there for two nights, resulting in the arrest of Yettaw and Suu Kyi, who are currently being held in Insein prison near Yangon.[67] As a result, Suu Kyi is being charged with violating the terms of her house arrest, and faces a sentence of up to five years.[68] Suu Kyi's current house arrest was due to end on 27 May 2009.[69] On 11 August 2009, Suu Kyi was sentenced to an additional 18 months of house arrest following conviction on charges of violating the terms of her previous incarceration.[70] British Prime Minister Gordon Brown stated, "This is a purely political sentence designed to prevent her from taking part in the regime’s planned elections next year."
In early August 2009, a conflict known as the Kokang incident broke out in Shan State in northern Burma. For several weeks, junta troops fought against ethnic minorities including the Han Chinese,[71] Va, and Kachin.[72][73] On from August 8–12, the first days of the conflict, as many as 10,000 Burmese civilians fled to Yunnan province in neighbouring China.[72][73][74]

List of historical capitals

Government and politics

Burma is governed by a military junta with the current head of state being Senior General Than Shwe, who holds the posts of "Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council" and "Commander in Chief of the Defence Services" as well as the Minister of Defence. General Khin Nyunt was prime minister until 19 October 2004, when he was replaced by General Soe Win, after the purge of Military Intelligence sections within the Myanmar armed forces. The current Prime Minister is General Thein Sein, who took over upon the death of General Soe Win on 2 October 2007. The majority of ministry and cabinet posts are held by military officers, with the exceptions being the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Labour, and the Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development, posts which are held by civilians.[75]
Elected delegates in the 1990 People's Assembly election formed the National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma (NCGUB), a government-in-exile since December 1990, with the mission of restoring democracy.[76] Dr. Sein Win, a first cousin of Aung San Suu Kyi, has held the position of prime minister of the NCGUB since its inception. The NCGUB has been outlawed by the military government.
Major political parties in the country are the National League for Democracy and the Shan Nationalities League for Democracy, although their activities are heavily regulated and suppressed by the military government. Many other parties, often representing ethnic minorities, exist.[citation needed] The military government allows little room for political organisations and has outlawed many political parties and underground student organisations. The military supported the National Unity Party in the 1990 elections and, more recently, an organisation named the Union Solidarity and Development Association.[77]
Government propaganda poster states: "Tatmadaw and the people, cooperate and crush all those harming the union."
In 1988, the army violently repressed protests against economic mismanagement and political oppression. On 8 August 1988, the military opened fire on demonstrators in what is known as 8888 Uprising and imposed martial law. However, the 1988 protests paved way for the 1990 People's Assembly elections. The election results were subsequently annulled by Senior General Saw Maung's government. The National League for Democracy, led by Aung San Suu Kyi, won over 60% of the vote and over 80% of parliamentary seats in the 1990 election, the first held in 30 years. The military-backed National Unity Party won less than 2% of the seats.
Aung San Suu Kyi has earned international recognition as an activist for the return of democratic rule, winning the Nobel Peace Prize in 1991. The ruling regime has repeatedly placed her under house arrest. Despite a direct appeal by former UN Secretary General Kofi Annan to Senior General Than Shwe and pressure by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the military junta extended Aung San Suu Kyi's house arrest another year on 27 May 2006 under the 1975 State Protection Act, which grants the government the right to detain any persons on the grounds of protecting peace and stability in the country.[78][79]
The junta faces increasing pressure from the United States and the United Kingdom. Burma's situation was referred to the UN Security Council for the first time in December 2005 for an informal consultation. In September 2006, ten of the United Nations Security Council's 15 members voted to place Myanmar on the council's formal agenda.[80] On Independence Day, 4 January 2007, the government released 40 political prisoners, under a general amnesty, in which 2,831 prisoners were released.[81] On 8 January 2007, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon urged the national government to free all political prisoners, including Aung San Suu Kyi.[82] Three days later, on 11 January, five additional prisoners were released from prison.[81]
ASEAN has also stated its frustration with the Union of Myanmar's government. It has formed the ASEAN Inter-Parliamentary Myanmar Caucus to address the lack of democratisation in the country.[83] Dramatic change in the country's political situation remains unlikely, due to support from major regional powers such as India, Russia, and, in particular, China.[84][85]
In the annual ASEAN Summit in January 2007, held in Cebu, Philippines, member countries failed to find common ground on the issue of Burma's lack of political reform.[86] During the summit, ASEAN foreign ministers asked Burma to make greater progress on its roadmap toward democracy and national reconciliation.[87] Some member countries contend that Burma's human rights issues are the country's own domestic affairs, while others contend that its poor human rights record is an international issue.[87]
Burma's army-drafted constitution was overwhelmingly approved (by 92.4% of the 22 million voters with alleged voter turnout of 99%) on 10 May in the first phase of a two-stage referendum amid Cyclone Nargis. It was the first national vote since the 1990 election. Multi-party elections in 2010 would end 5 decades of military rule, as the new charter gives the military an automatic 25% of seats in parliament. NLD spokesman Nyan Win, inter alia, criticised the referendum: "This referendum was full of cheating and fraud across the country; In some villages, authorities and polling station officials ticked the ballots themselves and did not let the voters do anything."[88] The constitution would bar Aung San Suu Kyi, from public office. 5 million citizens will vote 24 May in Yangon and the Irrawaddy delta, worst hit by Cyclone Nargis.[89] Burma has a high level of corruption, and ranks 178th out of 180 countries worldwide in the Corruption Perceptions Index.[90]

Issues

Human rights in Burma are a long-standing concern for the international community and human rights organisations. There is general consensus that the military regime in Burma is one of the world's most repressive and abusive regimes.
Several human rights organisations, including Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science have reported on human rights abuses by the military government.[91][92] They have claimed that there is no independent judiciary in Burma. The military government restricts Internet access through software-based censorship that limits the material citizens can access on-line.[93][94] Forced labour, human trafficking, and child labour are common.[95] The military is also notorious for rampant use of sexual violence as an instrument of control, including systematic rapes and taking of sex slaves as porters for the military. A strong women's pro-democracy movement has formed in exile, largely along the Thai border and in Chiang Mai. There is a growing international movement to defend women's human rights issues.[96]
The Freedom in the World 2004 report by Freedom House notes that "The junta rules by decree, controls the judiciary, suppresses all basic rights, and commits human rights abuses with impunity. Military officers hold all cabinet positions, and active or retired officers hold all top posts in all ministries. Official corruption is reportedly rampant both at the higher and local levels."[97]
Brad Adams, director of Human Rights Watch's Asia division, in a 2004 address described the human rights situation in the country as appalling: "Burma is the textbook example of a police state. Government informants and spies are omnipresent. Average Burmese people are afraid to speak to foreigners except in most superficial of manners for fear of being hauled in later for questioning or worse. There is no freedom of speech, assembly or association."[98]
Evidence has been gathered suggesting that the Burmese regime has marked certain ethnic minorities such as the Karen for extermination or 'Burmisation'.[99] This, however, has received little attention from the international community since it has been more subtle and indirect than the mass killings in places like Rwanda.[100]
In April 2007, the U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) identified financial and other restrictions that the military government places on international humanitarian assistance. The GAO report, entitled "Assistance Programs Constrained in Burma", outlined the specific efforts of the government to hinder the humanitarian work of international organisations, including restrictions on the free movement of international staff within the country. The report notes that the regime has tightened its control over assistance work since former Prime Minister Khin Nyunt was purged in October 2004. The military junta passed guidelines in February 2006, which formalised these restrictive policies. According to the report, the guidelines require that programs run by humanitarian groups "enhance and safeguard the national interest" and that international organisations coordinate with state agents and select their Burmese staff from government-prepared lists of individuals. United Nations officials have declared these restrictions unacceptable.
Burma's government spends the least percentage of its GDP on health care of any country in the world, and international donor organisations give less to Burma, per capita, than any other country except India.[101] According to the report named "Preventable Fate", published by Doctors without Borders, 25,000 Burmese AIDS patients died in 2007, deaths that could largely have been prevented by Anti Retroviral Therapy drugs and proper treatment.[101]

Divisions and states

The 14 states and divisions of Burma.
The country is divided into seven states (pyine) and seven divisions (yin).[102] Divisions (တိုငး္) are predominantly Bamar. States (Pyinè.svg), in essence, are divisions which are home to particular ethnic minorities. The administrative divisions are further subdivided into districts, which are further subdivided into townships, wards, and villages.
Below are the number of districts, townships, cities/towns, wards, village Groups and villages in each divisions and states of Burma as of 31 December 2001:[103]
No. State/Division Districts Townships Cities/Towns Wards Village groups Villages
1 Kachin State 3 18 20 116 606 2630
2 Kayah State 2 7 7 29 79 624
3 Kayin State 3 7 10 46 376 2092
4 Chin State 2 9 9 29 475 1355
5 Sagaing Division 8 37 37 171 1769 6095
6 Taninthayi Division 3 10 10 63 265 1255
7 Bago Division 4 28 33 246 1424 6498
8 Magway Division 5 25 26 160 1543 4774
9 Mandalay Division 7 31 29 259 1611 5472
10 Mon State 2 10 11 69 381 1199
11 Rakhine State 4 17 17 120 1041 3871
12 Yangon Division 4 45 20 685 634 2119
13 Shan State 11 54 54 336 1626 15513
14 Ayeyawady Division 6 26 29 219 1912 11651
Total 63 324 312 2548 13742 65148

Foreign relations and military

The country's foreign relations, particularly with Western nations, have been strained. The United States has placed a ban on new investments by U.S. firms, an import ban, and an arms embargo on the Union of Myanmar, as well as frozen military assets in the United States because of the military regime's ongoing human rights abuses, the ongoing detention of Nobel Peace Prize recipient Aung San Suu Kyi, and refusal to honour the election results of the 1990 People's Assembly election.[104] Similarly, the European Union has placed sanctions on Burma, including an arms embargo, cessation of trade preferences, and suspension of all aid with the exception of humanitarian aid.[105] U.S. and European government sanctions against the military government, coupled with boycotts and other direct pressure on corporations by supporters of the democracy movement, have resulted in the withdrawal from the country of most U.S. and many European companies. However, several Western companies remain due to loopholes in the sanctions[citation needed].
Despite Western isolation, Asian corporations have generally remained willing to continue investing in the country and to initiate new investments, particularly in natural resource extraction. The country has close relations with neighbouring India and China with several Indian and Chinese companies operating in the country. There remains active debate as to the extent to which the American-led sanctions have had adverse effects on the civilian population or on the military rulers.[106][107] Burma has also received extensive military aid from India and China in the past.[108] According to some estimates, Burma has received more than US$200 million in military aid from India.[109] Under India's Look East policy, fields of cooperation between India and Burma include remote sensing,[110] oil and gas exploration,[111] information technology,[112] hydro power[113] and construction of ports and buildings.[114] In 2008, India suspended military aid to Burma over the issue of human rights abuses by the ruling junta, although it has preserved extensive commercial ties which provide the regime with much needed revenue.[115]
The country's armed forces are known as the Tatmadaw, which numbers 488,000. The Tatmadaw comprises the Army, the Navy, and the Air Force. The country ranked twelfth in the world for its number of active troops in service.[22] The military is very influential in the country, with top cabinet and ministry posts held by military officers. Official figures for military spending are not available. Estimates vary widely because of uncertain exchange rates, but military spending is very high.[116] The country imports most of its weapons from Russia, Ukraine, China and India.
The country is building a research nuclear reactor near May Myo (Pyin Oo Lwin) with help from Russia. It is one of the signatories of the nuclear non-proliferation pact since 1992 and a member of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) since 1957. The military junta had informed the IAEA in September 2000 of its intention to construct the reactor. The research reactor outbuilding frame was built by ELE steel industries limited of Yangon and water from Anisakhan/BE water fall will be used for the reactor cavity cooling system.
ASEAN will not defend the country in any international forum following the military regime's refusal to restore democracy. In April 2007, the Malaysian Foreign Ministry parliamentary secretary Ahmad Shabery Cheek said Malaysia and other ASEAN members had decided not to defend Burma if the country's issue was raised for discussion at any international conference. "Now Myanmar has to defend itself if it is bombarded in any international forum," he said when winding up a debate at committee stage for the Foreign Ministry. He was replying to queries from opposition leader Lim Kit Siang on the next course of action to be taken by Malaysia and ASEAN with the military junta. Lim had said Malaysia must play a proactive role in pursuing regional initiatives to bring about a change in Burma and support efforts to bring the situation in Burma to the UN Security Council's attention.[117] In November 2008, Burma's political situation with neighbouring Bangladesh became tense as they began searching for natural gas in a disputed block of the Bay of Bengal.[118]
Until 2005, the United Nations General Assembly annually adopted a detailed resolution about the situation in Burma by consensus.[119][119][120][121][122] But in 2006 a divided United Nations General Assembly voted through a resolution that strongly called upon the government of Burma to end its systematic violations of human rights.[123] In January 2007, Russia and China vetoed a draft resolution before the United Nations Security Council[124] calling on the government of Myanmar to respect human rights and begin a democratic transition. South Africa also voted against the resolution.[125]
The country is a corner of the Golden Triangle (Southeast Asia) of opium production. In 1996 the United States Embassy in Rangoon released a "Country Commercial Guide", which states "Exports of opiates alone appear to be worth about as much as all legal exports." It goes on to say that investments in infrastructure and hotels are coming from major opiate-growing and opiate-exporting organisations and from those with close ties to these organisations.[126] A four-year investigation concluded that Burma's national company Myanma Oil and Gas Enterprise (MOGE) was "the main channel for laundering the revenues of heroin produced and exported under the control of the Burmese army." The main player in the country's drug market is the United Wa State Army, ethnic fighters who control areas along the country's eastern border with Thailand, part of the infamous Golden Triangle. The Wa army, an ally of Burma's ruling military junta, was once the militant arm of the Beijing-backed Burmese Communist Party. Burma has been a significant cog in the transnational drug trade since World War II.[127][128] The number of hectares used to grow the crops increased 29% in 2007. A United Nations report cites corruption, poverty and a lack of government control as causes for the jump.[129]

Economy

The Sakura Tower in Yangon is virtually vacant due to a lack of major foreign investment.
The country is one of the poorest nations in Southeast Asia, suffering from decades of stagnation, mismanagement and isolation. Burma's GDP grows at an average rate of 2.9% annually – the lowest rate of economic growth in the Greater Mekong Subregion.[22]
Under British administration, Burma was the wealthiest country in South-East Asia. It had been the world's largest exporter of rice. During British administration, Burma supplied oil through the Burmah Oil Company. Burma also had a wealth of natural and labour resources. It produced 75% of the world's teak and had a highly literate population.[7] The country was believed to be on the fast track to development.[7]
After a parliamentary government was formed in 1948, Prime Minister U Nu disastrously attempted to make Burma a welfare state and adopted central planning. Rice exports fell by two thirds and mineral exports by over 96%. Plans were partly financed by printing money, which led to inflation.[130] The 1962 coup d'état was followed by an economic scheme called the Burmese Way to Socialism, a plan to nationalise all industries, with the exception of agriculture. The catastrophic program turned Burma into one of the world's most impoverished countries.[40][41] Burma's admittance to Least Developed Country status by the UN in 1987 highlighted its economic bankruptcy.[131]
After 1988, the regime retreated from totalitarian rule. It permitted modest expansion of the private sector, allowed some foreign investment, and received needed foreign exchange.[132] The economy is still rated as the least free in Asia (tied with North Korea).[133] All fundamental market institutions are suppressed.[133][134] Private enterprises are often co-owned or indirectly owned by state. The corruption watchdog organisation Transparency International in its 2007 Corruption Perceptions Index released on 26 September 2007 ranked Burma the most corrupt country in the world, tied with Somalia.[135]
The national currency is Kyat. Burma has a dual exchange rate system similar to Cuba.[136] The market rate was around two hundred times below the government-set rate in 2006.[134] Inflation averaged 30.1% between 2005 and 2007.[133] Inflation is a serious problem for the economy. In April 2007, the National League for Democracy organised a two-day workshop on the economy. The workshop concluded that skyrocketing inflation was impeding economic growth. "Basic commodity prices have increased from 30 to 60 percent since the military regime promoted a salary increase for government workers in April 2006," said Soe Win, the moderator of the workshop. "Inflation is also correlated with corruption." Myint Thein, an NLD spokesperson, added: "Inflation is the critical source of the current economic crisis."[137]
In recent years, both China and India have attempted to strengthen ties with the government for economic benefit. Many nations, including the United States and Canada, and the European Union, have imposed investment and trade sanctions on Burma. The United States has banned all imports from Burma.[134] Foreign investment comes primarily from People's Republic of China, Singapore, South Korea, India, and Thailand.[138]
The major agricultural product is rice which covers about 60% of the country's total cultivated land area. Rice accounts for 97% of total food grain production by weight. Through collaboration with the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), 52 modern rice varieties were released in the country between 1966 and 1997, helping increase national rice production to 14 million tons in 1987 and to 19 million tons in 1996. By 1988, modern varieties were planted on half of the country's ricelands, including 98 percent of the irrigated areas.[139]
The lack of an educated workforce skilled in modern technology contributes to the growing problems of the economy.[140]
Today, the country lacks adequate infrastructure. Goods travel primarily across the Thai border, where most illegal drugs are exported and along the Ayeyarwady River. Railways are old and rudimentary, with few repairs since their construction in the late nineteenth century.[141] Highways are normally unpaved, except in the major cities.[141] Energy shortages are common throughout the country including in Yangon. Burma is also the world's second largest producer of opium, accounting for 8% of entire world production and is a major source of illegal drugs, including amphetamines.[142] Other industries include agricultural goods, textiles, wood products, construction materials, gems, metals, oil and natural gas.
The Union of Myanmar's rulers depend on sales of precious stones such as sapphires, pearls and jade to fund their regime. Rubies are the biggest earner; 90% of the world's rubies come from the country, whose red stones are prized for their purity and hue. Thailand buys the majority of the country's gems. Burma's "Valley of Rubies", the mountainous Mogok area, 200 km (125 miles) north of Mandalay, is noted for its rare pigeon's blood rubies and blue sapphires.[143] Many U.S. and European jewellery companies, including Bulgari, Tiffany, and Cartier, refuse to import these stones based on reports of deplorable working conditions in the mines. Human Rights Watch has encouraged a complete ban on the purchase of Burmese gems based on these reports and because nearly all profits go to the ruling junta, as the majority of mining activity in the country is government-run.[144]
Since 1992, the government has encouraged tourism in the country. However, fewer than 750,000 tourists enter the country annually.[145] Aung San Suu Kyi has requested that international tourists not visit Burma. The junta's forced labour programmes were focused around tourist destinations which have been heavily criticised for their human rights records. Burma’s Minister of Hotels and Tourism Maj-Gen Saw Lwin has stated that the government receives a significant percentage of the income of private sector tourism services.[146] Much of the country is completely off-limits to tourists, and the military very tightly controls interactions between foreigners and the people of Burma. They are not to discuss politics with foreigners, under penalty of imprisonment, and in 2001, the Myanmar Tourism Promotion Board issued an order for local officials to protect tourists and limit "unnecessary contact" between foreigners and ordinary Burmese people.[147]
The M9 gas field in Burma is expected to go online in 2012.[148]

Units of measure

Burma is one of three countries that still predominately uses a non-metric system of measure. Aside from a few imperial units, the common units of measure are unique to Burma.

Demographics

A block of flats in down-town Yangon, facing Bogyoke Market. Much of Yangon's urban population resides in densely populated flats.
Burma has a population of about 56 million.[149] Current population figures are rough estimates because the last partial census, conducted by the Ministry of Home and Religious Affairs under the control of the military junta, was taken in 1983.[150] No trustworthy nationwide census has been taken in Burma since 1931. There are over 600,000 registered migrant workers from Burma in Thailand, and millions more work illegally. Burmese migrant workers account for 80% of Thailand's migrant workers.[151] Burma has a population density of 75 inhabitants per square kilometre (194/sq mi), one of the lowest in Southeast Asia. Refugee camps exist along Indian, Bangladeshi and Thai borders while several thousand are in Malaysia. Conservative estimates state that there are over 295,800 refugees from Burma, with the majority being Rohingya, Kayin, and Karenni.[152]
A girl from the Padaung minority, one of the many ethnic groups that make up Burma's population.
Burma is home to four major linguistic families: Sino-Tibetan, Kradai, Austro-Asiatic, and Indo-European.[153] Sino-Tibetan languages are most widely spoken. They include Burmese, Karen, Kachin, Chin, and Chinese. The primary Kradai language is Shan. Mon, Palaung, and Wa are the major Austroasiatic languages spoken in Burma. The two major Indo-European languages are Pali, the liturgical language of Theravada Buddhism, and English.[154]
According to the UNESCO Institute of Statistics, Burma's official literacy rate as of 2000 was 89.9%.[155] Historically, Burma has had high literacy rates. To qualify for least developed country status by the UN in order to receive debt relief, Burma lowered its official literacy rate from 78.6% to 18.7% in 1987.[156]
Burma is ethnically diverse. The government recognises 135 distinct ethnic groups. While it is extremely difficult to verify this statement, there are at least 108 different ethnolinguistic groups in Burma, consisting mainly of distinct Tibeto-Burman peoples, but with sizeable populations of Daic, Hmong-Mien, and Austroasiatic (Mon-Khmer) peoples.[157] The Bamar form an estimated 68% of the population.[158] 10% of the population are Shan.[158] The Kayin make up 7% of the population.[158] The Rakhine people constitute 4% of the population. Overseas Chinese form approximately 3% of the population.[158][159]
Mon, who form 2% of the population, are ethno-linguistically related to the Khmer.[158] Overseas Indians comprise 2%.[158] The remainder are Kachin, Chin, Anglo-Indians and other ethnic minorities. Included in this group are the Anglo-Burmese. Once forming a large and influential community, the Anglo-Burmese left the country in steady streams from 1958 onwards, principally to Australia and the U.K.. Today, it is estimated that only 52,000 Anglo-Burmese remain in the country. There are currently 110,000 Myanmarian refugees in Thai border camps.[160]
89% of the country's population are Buddhist, according to a report on abc World News Tonight in May 2008.

Culture

An ear-piercing ceremony at the Mahamuni Pagoda in Mandalay is one of the many coming-of-age ceremonies in Burmese culture.
A diverse range of indigenous cultures exist in Burma, the majority culture is primarily Buddhist and Bamar. Bamar culture has been influenced by the cultures of neighbouring countries. This is manifested in its language, cuisine, music, dance and theatre. The arts, particularly literature, have historically been influenced by the local form of Theravada Buddhism. Considered the national epic of Burma, the Yama Zatdaw, an adaptation of Ramayana, has been influenced greatly by Thai, Mon, and Indian versions of the play.[161] Buddhism is practised along with nat worship which involves elaborate rituals to propitiate one from a pantheon of 37 nats.[162][163]
Mohinga, rice noodles in fish soup, is widely considered to be Burma's national dish.
In a traditional village, the monastery is the centre of cultural life. Monks are venerated and supported by the lay people. A novitiation ceremony called shinbyu is the most important coming of age events for a boy when he enters the monastery for a short period of time.[164] All boys of Buddhist family need to be a novice (beginner for Buddhism) before the age of twenty and to be a monk after the age of twenty. It is compulsory for all boys of Buddhism. The duration can be as little as one week. Girls have ear-piercing ceremonies (Nathwin.gif) at the same time.[164] Burmese culture is most evident in villages where local festivals are held throughout the year, the most important being the pagoda festival.[165][166] Many villages have a guardian nat, and superstition and taboos are commonplace.
British colonial rule also introduced Western elements of culture to Burma. Burma's educational system is modelled after that of the United Kingdom. Colonial architectural influences are most evident in major cities such as Yangon.[167] Many ethnic minorities, particularly the Karen in the southeast, and the Kachin and Chin (people) who populate the north and north-east, practice Christianity.[168] According to CIA World Factbook, the Burman population is 68%, and the Ethnic groups comprise of 32%. However, the exiled leaders and organisations claims that Ethnic population is 40% which is implicitly contrasted with CIA report (official U.S report).
Members of the Buddhist monkhood are venerated throughout Burma, which is one of the most predominantly Theravada Buddhist countries in the world.

Language

Burmese, the mother tongue of the Bamar and official language of Burma, is related to Tibetan and to the Chinese languages.[154] It is written in a script consisting of circular and semi-circular letters, which were adapted from the Mon script, which in turn was developed from a southern Indian script in the 700s. The earliest known inscriptions in the Burmese script date from the 1000s. It is also used to write Pali, the sacred language of Theravada Buddhism, as well as several ethnic minority languages, including Shan, several Karen dialects, and Kayah (Karenni), with the addition of specialised characters and diacritics for each language.[169] The Burmese language incorporates widespread usage of honorifics and is age-oriented.[165] Burmese society has traditionally stressed the importance of education. In villages, secular schooling often takes place in monasteries. Secondary and tertiary education take place at government schools.

Religion

Many religions are practised in Burma. Religious edifices and orders have been in existence for many years. Festivals can be held on a grand scale. The Christian and Muslim populations do, however, face religious persecution and it is hard, if not impossible, for non-Buddhists to join the army or get government jobs, the main route to success in the country.[170] Such persecution and targeting of civilians is particularly notable in Eastern Burma, where over 3000 villages have been destroyed in the past ten years.[171][172][173] More than 200,000 Rohingya Muslims have settled in Bangladesh, to escape persecution, over the past 20 years.[174]
89% of the population embraces Buddhism (mostly Theravada). Other religions are practiced largely without obstruction, with the notable exception of some ethnic minorities such as the Muslim Rohingya people, who have continued to have their citizenship status denied and therefore do not have access to education, and Christians in Chin State.[175] Four percent of the population practices Christianity; 4 percent, Islam; 1 percent, traditional animistic beliefs; and 2 percent follow other religions, including Mahayana Buddhism, Hinduism, Chinese religions and the Bahá'í religion.[176][177][178] However, according to a U.S. State Department’s 2006 international religious freedom report, official statistics underestimate the non-Buddhist population which could be as high as 30%. Muslim leaders estimated that approximately 20 percent of the population was Muslim. A tiny Jewish community in Rangoon had a synagogue but no resident rabbi to conduct services.[179]

Education

The educational system of Burma is operated by the government Ministry of Education. Universities and professional institutes from upper Burma and lower Burma are run by two separate entities, the Department of Higher Education of Upper Burma and the Department of Higher Education of Lower Burma. Headquarters are based in Yangon and Mandalay respectively. The education system is based on the United Kingdom's system, due to nearly a century of British and Christian presences in Burma. Nearly all schools are government-operated, but there has been a recent increase in privately funded English language schools. Schooling is compulsory until the end of elementary school, probably about 9 years old, while the compulsory schooling age is 15 or 16 at international level.
There are 101 universities, 12 institutes, 9 degree colleges and 24 colleges in Burma, a total of 146 higher education institutions.[180]
There are 10 Technical Training Schools, 23 nursing training schools, 1 sport academy and 20 midwifery schools.
There are 2047 Basic Education High Schools, 2605 Basic Education Middle Schools, 29944 Basic Education Primary Schools and 5952 Post Primary Schools. 1692 multimedia classrooms exist within this system.
There are three international schools which are acknowledged by WASC and College Board – The International School Yangon (ISY), Yangon International School (YIS) and Yangon International Educare Center (YIEC) in Yangon.

Media

Due to Burma's political climate, there are not many media companies in relation to the country's population, although a certain number exists. Some are privately owned, but all programming must meet with the approval of the censorship board.

Depiction in popular media

The situation in Burma has figured in several motion pictures, such as Beyond Rangoon, starring Patricia Arquette and Rambo IV, starring Sylvester Stallone. Burma is also featured in the hit show Seinfeld. In 2009, a documentary about Burmese videojournalists called Burma VJ was released.[181] This film has been nominated for a 2010 Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature.[182]

See also

Notes

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  170. ^ "Ethnic and Religious Diversity: Myanmar's Unfolding Nemesis", Matthews, Bruce, Institute of South East Asian Studies, Visiting Researcher Series, Volume 2001, No. 3. 2001.
  171. ^ Thailand Burma Border Consortium (2007). "Internal Displacement in Eastern Burma 2006 Survey". http://tbbc.org/resources.html#reports. Retrieved 4 February 2007. 
  172. ^ Priestly, Harry (17 January 2006). "The Outsiders". The Irrawaddy. http://www.irrawaddy.org/article.php?art_id=5380. Retrieved 7 July 2006. 
  173. ^ Samuel Ngun Ling (2003). "The Encounter of Missionary Christianity and Resurgent Buddhism in Post-colonial Myanmar" (PDF). Payap University. http://isrc.payap.ac.th/document/papers/paper23.pdf. Retrieved 14 July 2006. 
  174. ^ Burmese exiles in desperate conditions. BBC News. 29 September 2007.
  175. ^ "Burma-International Religious Freedom Report 2007". U.S. Department of State. http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2007/90131.htm. 
  176. ^ CIA Factbook – Burma
  177. ^ International Religious Freedom Report 2007 – Burma
  178. ^ Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs – Background Note: Burma
  179. ^ "Burma—International Religious Freedom Report 2006". U.S. Department of State. 15 September 2006. http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2006/71335.htm. Retrieved 25 September 2007. 
  180. ^ Chronicle of National Development Comparison Between Period Preceding 1988 and after (up to 31.12.2006)
  181. ^ Burma VJ – Academy Award Nominee – Best Documentary Feature
  182. ^ Burma VJ Nominated for the 2010 Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature « Rev. Danny Fisher

External links

Government
General information

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Myanmar article)

From Wikitravel

Asia : Southeast Asia : Myanmar
noframe
Location
Image:LocationMyanmar.png
Flag
Image:bm-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital Naypyidaw
Government Military dictatorship
Currency kyat (MMK)
Area total: 678,500 km2
land: 657,740 km2
water: 20,760 km2
Population 42,909,464 (July 2006 estimate)
Language Burmese (official), English, Shan dialects, Kayin, Mon, Chinese dialects (Hokkien, Cantonese), Hindi, Tamil
Religion Buddhist 89%, Christian 4% (Baptist 3%, Roman Catholic 1%), Muslim 4%, animist 1%, other 2% (mostly Hindu)
Electricity 220V/50Hz (American and/or Central Europe plug)
Calling Code +95
Internet TLD .mm
Time Zone UTC+6:30
Myanmar[1] (ြန်မာပြည်), or Burma, officially the Union of Myanmar (ပြည်ထောင်စုမြန်မာနိုင်ငံတော်‌) is a country in Southeast Asia. It lies on the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea coast with Bangladesh and India to the west, China to the north, and Laos and Thailand to the east.

Understand

History

Like most of Southeast Asia's countries, Myanmar's people and history is a glorious mishmash of settlers and invaders from all fronts. The Mon and the Pyu are thought to have come from India, while the now dominant Bamar (Burmese) migrated through Tibet and, by 849, had founded a powerful kingdom centered on Pagan. For the next millennium, the Burmese empire grew through conquests of Thailand (Ayutthaya) and India (Manipur), and shrank under attacks from China and internal rebellions.
Eventually, Britain conquered Burma over a period of 62 years (1824-1886) and incorporated it into its Indian Empire. It was administered as a province of India until 1937 when it became a separate self-governing colony. During the Second World War, Burma was a major battleground as the Allies fought the Japanese for dominance over Asia. The Burma Road was built to get supplies to China. The Thailand-Burma railroad (the so-called "Death Railway") from Kanchanaburi in Thailand over the River Kwai to Burma was built by the Japanese using forced labour — Allied prisoners-of-war, indentured Thai labourers, and Burmese people. They had to work in appalling conditions and a great number of them died (estimated at 80,000) during construction of the railway. Large parts of Western Burma, particularly the hilly areas bordering India and the city of Mandalay were severely damaged during the war. Independence from the Commonwealth under the name Union of Burma was attained in 1948.
General Ne Win dominated the government from 1962 to 1988, first as military ruler, then as self-appointed president, and later as political kingpin. Pro-democracy demonstrations in 1988 were violently crushed, with general Saw Maung taking over in a coup and installing the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) to rule the country, now renamed Myanmar.
Multiparty legislative elections were held in 1990, with the main opposition party - the National League for Democracy (NLD) - winning a landslide victory (392 of 489 seats). But SLORC refused to hand over power, instead placing NLD leader and Nobel Peace Prize recipient Aung San Suu Kyi under house arrest, which she has endured for 14 of the last 20 years.
Today Myanmar, a resource-rich country, suffers from pervasive government controls, inefficient economic policies, and rural poverty. The junta took steps in the early 1990s to liberalize price controls after decades of failure under the "Burmese Way to Socialism," but had to reinstate subsidized prices on staples in the face of food riots, upon which the democracy movement grafted its agenda. The government called out troops and the rioters were defiant until the monks intervened: standing between both sides, they told everyone to go home and they did. The riots caused overseas development assistance to cease and the government subsequently nullified the results of the 1990 legislative elections.
In response to the government's attack in May 2003 on Aung San Suu Kyi and her convoy, the USA imposed new economic sanctions against Myanmar, including bans on imports of products from Myanmar and on provision of financial services by US citizens.
The summer of 2007 was marked by demonstrations against the military government which were again brutally suppressed. The demonstrations started in August, apparently in an uncoordinated manner, as a protest against a stiff hike in the price of gasoline, but morphed into a more serious challenge to the government after three monks were beaten at a protest march in the town of Pakokku. The monks demanded an apology but none was forthcoming and soon processions of monks with begging bowls held upside down filled many cities (including Sittwe, Mandalay, and Yangon). Yangon, particularly the area around Sule Pagoda in the downtown area, became the center of these protests. While the monks marched, and many ordinary citizens came out in support of the monks, the world watched as pictures, videos, and blogs flooded the Internet. However, the government soon suppressed the protests by firing on crowds, arresting monks and closing monasteries, and temporarily shut down Internet communications with the rest of the world. This led the USA, Australia, Canada and the European Union to impose additional sanctions, some targeting the families and finances of the military leaders. Dialogue between the UN and the military government has stalled.
Despite international condemnation, Aung San Suu Kyi is presently imprisoned in Rangoon's Insein prison and being tried on charges of breaching the terms of her most recent 6-year period of house arrest (she was arrested in late May 2009, just days before expiry of her house arrest).

Climate

Generally, Myanmar is considered to have 3 seasons. The hot season is usually from March-April, and temperatures would then cool off during the rainly season from May-October. The peak tourism season is the cool season from November-February. Temperatures can climb as high as 36°C in Yangon in the hot season while in the cool season, noontime temperatures are usually a more bearable 32°C, with night temperatures falling to around 19°C. Mandalay is slightly cooler in the cool season, with temperatures falling as low as 13°C, while temperatures in the hot season can go as high as 37°C. Generally, Lower Myanmar, the area around Yangon, receives more rainfall than the drier Upper Myanmar (around Mandalay).
In the highlands such as Inle Lake and Pyin U Lwin, winter temperatures can fall below 10°C at night, while daytime temperatures tend to be very pleasant. Even in the summer, temperatures rarely climb above 32°C. Near the Indian border in Kachin State, there are mountains which are permanently snow capped throughout the year.
  • The River of Lost Footsteps by Thant Myint-U. Easily the most accessible history of Myanmar available. Read it before you go and you will marvel at how the once great and rich cities (like Martaban, Syriam, and Mrauk-U) have been transformed into the dingy and smoky villages of today. (ISBN 0374163421)
Map of Myanmar with regions colour coded
Map of Myanmar with regions colour coded
Irrawaddy (Yangon Division, Ayeyarwady Division, Bago Division)
the lowlands of the Irrawaddy Delta and the largest city and former capital
Central Myanmar (Mandalay Division, Magwe Division)
Mandalay, historical and archaeological sites and cool hill towns
Western Myanmar (Chin State, Rakhine State)
remote mountainous regions and some lovely beaches on the Bay of Bengal
Northeastern Myanmar (Kachin State, Kayah State, Shan State, Sagaing Division)
a huge, fractious region including the infamous Golden Triangle, the southern reaches of the Himalayas and a bewildering number of ethnic groups
Southeastern Myanmar (Kayin State, Mon State, Tanintharyi Division)
the southern coastal stretch bordering Thailand with a vast number of offshore islands
  • Bago (formerly Pegu) - historic city near Yangon full of wonderful Buddhist sights
  • Kawthaung - beach town in the far south which is as much like Thailand as Myanmar gets
  • Mandalay - former capital of the Konbaung Dynasty built around the Mandalay Royal Palace
  • Mawlamyine (Moulmein) - capital of Mon State and the third largest city
  • Pyin U Lwin (Maymo) - cool town which was a wonderful old British colonial hill station
  • Taunggyi - capital of Shan State in the heart of the Golden Triangle
  • Twante - a delta town that is famous for pottery
  • Yangon (formerly Rangoon) - the commercial capital, known for its pagodas and colonial architecture
  • Bagan - an archaeological zone with thousands of pagodas near the banks of the Ayeyarwady River
  • Inle Lake - a large shallow lake good for beautiful boat trips, visiting floating villages inhabited by the Intha people, hiking, and also a source of excellent silk
  • Kengtung - between Mong La (on the border with China) and Tachileik (on the border with Thailand) in the Golden Triangle, known for the Ann (black teeth people) and Akha tribes and trekking
  • Kyaiktiyo - a gold-gilded rock sitting atop a cliff and a major pilgrimage site
  • Mount Popa - an extinct volcano regarded as the Mount Olympus of Myanmar, a green oasis high above the hot plains and an easy day trip from Bagan
  • Mrauk U - former capital of the Rakhine kingdom
  • Pyay - a town on the Ayeyarwady River midway between Yangon and Bagan, known for its archaeological site Sri Kittara, the ancient Pyu capital from 2 to 9 AD
To go or not to go?
Aung San Suu Kyi, the leader of Myanmar's opposition National League for Democracy, as well as most Western governments, have called for tourists not to visit the country, as this helps prop up the military junta and some infrastructure has been constructed using forced and child labour. On the other hand, other pro-democracy advocates such as Ma Thanegi, and the vast majority of people in Myanmar, encourage tourism as a way of getting funds into local hands - despite the fact that the government will also derive some financial benefit. In addition, many feel that the presence of foreign tourists deters the government from the worst of its excesses.
In the end, the choice is yours. If you want to visit and avoid supporting the junta, then: avoid five star hotels, eat at local restaurants, and generally attempt to ensure that your money is going to locals, rather than large, partially government-owned enterprises. Remember that foreign corporations only can operate in-country as joint partners with the junta.

Visa / Visa Free Entry

Visa Free Entry

Visa-free entry is possible at some border crossings - however you must then exit Myanmar via the same border crossing, usually (but not always) on the same day that you enter, and fees apply (normally US$10).

Visa In Advance

For all entries, other than those where vise-free entry is possible, a visas must be obtained in advance by all visitors. While ASEAN and PRC nationals may have had visa-free access in the past, the Myanmar Embassy in Singapore declares that "all nationalities" must obtain visas before travel (9 April 2008). Some additional restrictions, requirements or conditions may be applied to applications - reports have included a need for a detailed itinerary, a detailed job history, etc. be prepared for some unusual questions (either on the forms, or from the Consulate staff) when applying for your visa.
Actually, the easiest way to get the visa is to apply through a travel agency. The form is simple and requires an ID photo or two. In Bangkok, it takes one or two business days.
A standard application for a tourist visa requires: a completed visa form (available from the Embassy), a completed arrival form (again, from the Embassy), a photocopy of the photo page from your passport, two passport sized photos, the applicable fee (810 Thai Baht - US$24 as at September 2009).
Tourist visas are issued for a single entry, valid for two months from the date of issue. The visa is good for a stay of up to four weeks (from date of entry), although you can overstay if you are willing to pay a $3 a day fee when you leave. Successful applicants will also be issued an "Arrival Form", which will be stapled into your passport and must be presented on arrival in Myanmar, along with your passport containing the visa sticker. Ensure that the visa sticker, and arrival form have both been signed by the immigration officer before leaving the Embassy. Note that you will still have to fill in the usual customs and immigration forms on your flight into the country.

By plane

Due to economic santions from most western countries, international flights into Myanmar are limited. The usual way to get into Myanmar would be to fly into Yangon from either Bangkok or Singapore, both which have good connections from around the world and have several flights into Yangon daily. The only other international point of entry to Myanmar is Mandalay, which is served by a flight to Kunming.
  • Thai AirAsia [2] has one daily flight from Bangkok to Yangon (from 2150 baht) and one daily return flight (from 1450 baht).
  • Bangkok Airways [3] has one daily flight from Bangkok to Yangon and one daily return flight, costing from 3500 baht.
  • Thai Airways International [4] flies Bangkok to Yangon and back 2-3 times daily from 3500 baht one-way (tickets best bought from a Bangkok travel agency).
  • Air Mandalay [5] flies direct both ways between Chiang Mai (in northern Thailand) and Yangon, and Chiang Mai to Mandalay (but no direct flights in the opposite direction) for about US$80. The Chiang Mai - Mandalay flight currently does not seem to be scheduled.
  • Air Bagan [6] flies the Yangon-Bangkok route.
  • Silk Air [9] links Yangon with Singapore daily.
  • China Southern Airlines [10] links Yangon with Guangzhou twice a week.
  • China Eastern Airlines [11] links Mandalay with Kunming three times a week.

By land

Hopping across the Thai border into Myanmar's border towns is easy, but crossing into or out of Myanmar proper by land varies between difficult and impossible.
  • Tachileik / Mae Sai - foreigners can access this crossing from either side, and enter and/or exit either country here. As of March 2007, travel beyond Kengtung to the rest of Myanmar is not possible, even with a valid tourist visa. Travelers wishing to exit Myanmar at Tachileik can only do so with a permit from the MTT office in Yangon.
  • Myawaddy / Mae Sot - foreigners can only access this crossing from the Thai side; neither onward travel into Myanmar (ie beyond the border town) nor overnight stays are possible. No visa needed; instead there's an entry stamp fee - US$10 if paid with US$ notes, more (500 baht) if paid with Thai currency. As of August 2009, only Thai baht is accepted.
  • Three Pagodas Pass (Payathonzu / Sangkhlaburi) - foreigners can only access this crossing from the Thai side; onward travel into Myanmar (ie beyond the border town) is not possible; entry/exit stamps are NOT issued here, and foreigners passports are held at the Myanmar checkpoint, where a fee is levied - US$10 if paid with US$ notes, more (500 baht) if paid with Thai currency. However, as of November 25, 2008, this crossing is temporarily closed.
  • Kawthoung / Ranong - foreigners can access this crossing from either side, and enter and/or exit either country here. If entering without a visa, maximum stay is 3 days / 2 nights, travel beyond Kawthoung is not permitted, and there's an entry stamp fee - US$10 if paid with US$ notes, more (500 baht) if paid with Thai currency. As of March 2007, the only way to continue onward from here appears to be by plane to Mergui or Yangon, although there have previously been ferries on these routes as well.
China - foreigners can enter Myanmar at Lashio via Ruili (in Yunnan), although a permit (as well as a visa) and a guide are needed. You will most likely need to join an organized tour, costing 1450 RMB as of January 2009. As of April 2009, it is impossible for foriegners to across over from Ruili, even for the day, without first getting a visa in Kunming, ie a tour group. Crossing in the opposite direction is more difficult to arrange and details are uncertain; however, it's possible to fly from Mandalay to Kunming, and there's even a Chinese consulate that issues visas in Mandalay.
India - a land border crossing exists between India and Myanmar at Moreh/Tamu. While there have been confirmed reports of some travellers crossing into Myanmar from India, with their own transport as well as with permits arranged in advance, the general consensus is that obtaining all the necessary permits is very hard. At the least, a foreign (a person who is neither a citizen of India nor a citizen of Myanmar) will need to get a Indian permit to visit the state of Manipur, and an MTT permit to enter or leave Myanmar at Tamu. Travellers may also need a permit to travel from Tamu to Kalewa, although there are unconfirmed reports that this is no longer required.
Bangladesh / Laos - it is not currently feasible to independently cross the borders between Myanmar and Bangladesh or Laos.

Get around

Myanmar's infrastructure is in poor shape. As a result of the political situation, Myanmar is subject to trade sanctions from much of the western world, and this can cause problems for unwary travellers. Travel to certain regions is prohibited; for others, special permits must be obtained, and a guide/interpreter/minder may be mandatory - although whether these "guides" accompany you to look after you, or to keep you from going to places the government doesn't want you to see, is moot.

Restricted areas

Much of Myanmar is closed to foreign travelers, and many land routes to far-flung areas are also closed (for example, to Mrauk U, Kalewa, Putao, Kengtung). Thus, while travelers can travel freely in the Bamar majority Burmese heartland, travel tends to be restricted or circumscribed in other places. In theory, any tourist can apply for a permit to visit any restricted area or to travel on any restricted land route. In practice, it is unlikely that any such permit will be issued in a reasonable amount of time, or at all. Permit requests can be made locally in some cases (for example, requests for the land route to Kalewa can be made in Shwebo) but, in most cases, the request has to be made in Yangon. Requests to visit restricted areas must be made at the MTT (Myanmar Travel and Tours) office in Yangon (Number 77-91, Sule Pagoda Road, Yangon, [12]). Applications for local permits can often be made at a local MTT office or at a police station. As of writing this, local permits are available only for the following places/routes:
  • Shwebo - Kalewa. A permit is necessary if going by road. It is uncertain whether one is required if going by boat.
  • Kengtung - Tachilek. This used to be straightforward but the availability is now uncertain.
  • Myitkyina - Indawgyi Lake. Easily available in Myitkyina but must travel with a guide. Your hotel or a local tour company can arrange this for you.
  • Mrauk U Chin/ Zomi village tours. Easily available in Mrauk U but must visit with a guide. Your hotel or a local tour company can arrange this for you.
All other permits must be obtained in Yangon.
Nevertheless, Myanmar is not North Korea, so unless specifically instructed otherwise, leaving your hotel for a walk on the streets is fine and should not cause you any problems.

By plane

The poor state of Myanmar's roads and railways make flying by far the most comfortable option of travelling long distances.
State-run Myanma Airways[13] (UB) - not to be confused with Myanmar Airways International (8M) "MAI" - is known for its poor safety record. Even locals prefer to avoid it whenever possible.
There are also three privately owned airlines serving the main domestic routes in Myanmar. They are Air Bagan[14] (W9), Air Mandalay[15] (6T) and Yangon Airways[16] (YH). While more expensive, they are a safer option and would get you to all the main tourist destinations from Yangon or Mandalay.

By rail

Myanmar has an extensive but ancient rail network. Trains are slow, often delayed, and charge exorbitant prices from foreign travelers making buses a cheaper and faster alternative. Still, a journey on a train is a great way to see the country and meet people. The rail journey from Mandalay, up switchbacks and hairpin bends to Pwin U Lwin, and then across the mountains and the famous bridge at Gokteik, is one of the great railway journeys of the world. Trains in lower Mandalay (Yangon - Pathein and Yangon Mawlymaing) are little communities of their own with hawkers selling everything imaginable. Sleepers are available on many overnight express trains, although, in the high season, you may want to reserve a few days in advance (the Yangon-Mandalay trains now run in the daytime only, apparently because the government does not want trains passing Pyinmana at night). Food service is available on the express up and the express down between Yangon and Mandalay as well as on the Yangon - Mawlymaing run.
Except for the new bridge and rail line that connects Mawlymaing to points on the western side of the Salween River, the rail network is exactly the way it was in British times. The most used line is the 325km line from Yangon to Mandalay with several trains a day (this is also the only double line in Myanmar), and the only one that is competitive in time with buses (note that the fastest trains take 15 hours for the 385km run, an effective rate of 25km/hour!). A second line connects Yangon with Pyay (9 hours for the 175km journey!) with a branch heading off into the delta region town of Pathein. These tracks, the earliest constructed are in poor shape. With the construction of the bridge across the Salween, it is now possible to go by train from Yangon to Mawlymaing (8 hours for the 200km journey) and on to Ye (Ye is closed to foreign travelers). From Mandalay, trains continue on to Myitkyina in Kachin State (350km in 24hours) and to Lashio. There are also rail connections between Yangon-Bagan and Mandalay-Bagan, but bus or ferry are better alternatives (The 175km from Mandalay to Bagan takes 10hrs).
The following table summarizes travel time and prices between most visitable places in Myanmar (note: prices are approximate, check with more up to date and reliable sources!):
Train travel times and fares between important destinations
From To Time Ordinary Upper Sleeper
Yangon Mandalay 16 hrs US$15 US$30 US$40-50
Yangon Kyaiktiyo 6 hrs US$-- US$9 None
Mandalay Pyin U Lwin 4 hrs US$2 US$4 None
Pyin U Lwin Hsipaw 7 hrs US$2 US$6 None

By boat

There is also a large river ferry network. Both are to a large extent run by the government, although there are now some private ferry services. The trip from Mandalay to Bagan takes the better part of a day, from Bagan to Yangon is several days.

By bus

Buses of all types ply the roads of Myanmar. Luxury (relatively speaking) buses do the Mandalay-Yangon run while lesser vehicles can get travelers to other places. Fares are reasonable and in Kyat and, for the budget traveler, there is no other option because of the high price of train tickets for foreign nationals. Many long distance buses assign seats so it is best to book seats at least a day in advance. Because the roads are bad, avoid the rear of the bus and try to sit as far up front as you can get. Long distance buses also have an extra jump seat that blocks the aisle and, because it is not well secured to the chassis, can be uncomfortable (which also means that there is no such thing as a side seat where taller travelers can thrust their legs). A window near the front of the bus is always the best option.
A scam about bus tickets seems to be popular in Yangon currently. While many travelers make a stopover in Bago, they are told at their guesthouse or at the bus station it's not possible to buy tickets up there in the direction to Mandalay. In a country where everything might be possible when it comes to transport, some people tend to believe is. Actually, this is not the case and tracking back to Yangon for a bus ticket up north is not necessary at all. Bago has a bus terminal with several bus offices. Buying your ticket at Bago might be slightly cheaper (of course depending upon your bargaining skills) and gives you more freedom for the rest of your journey.
The following table summarizes travel times and approximate fares between important tourist destinations in Myanmar (Note: most bus fares have gone up with the recent gas price hike, the fares listed here are rough estimates):
Bus Travel times and fares between important destinations
From To Time Fare
Yangon Mandalay 11 hrs K10400
Yangon Kyaiktiyo 6 hrs K6000
Mandalay Pyin U Lwin 2 hrs K1500
Mandalay Hsipaw 5.5 hrs K4500

By pickup

Old Toyota pickup trucks run everywhere in Myanmar, inexpensively ferrying men, women, children, and monks from one place to another. The rear of the truck is converted into a canvas covered sitting area with three benches, one on each side and one running along the center of the truck (some smaller trucks have only two rows), and the running board is lowered and fixed into place providing room for six or more people to stand on (holding on to the truck frame). Pickups are ubiquitous in Myanmar and every town has a central point somewhere from where they depart to places both near and far. Travelers who go off the beaten track will find them indispensable because often the only alternative is an expensive taxi or private car.
The basics of pickups are fairly straightforward, wait till it is reasonably full before heading out. On well traveled routes (Mandalay - Pyin U Lwin, for example), they fill up quickly and the journey is quick. On less well-traveled routes (Bhamo-Katha, for example), passengers arrive (early, usually around 6AM), mark their place, and then hang around drinking tea and chatting until the truck fills up. When the pickup does get moving, it may linger or go out of its way in the hope of picking up more passengers. The inside of a pickup can be hot and uncomfortable - passengers, packed in like sardines, face away from the windows (which are tiny) and into the truck - and standing on the running board can be tiring and tough on the arms! On the other hand, the window side seat next to the driver is very comfortable and well worth the little extra that you have to pay, so it is best to go early and reserve that seat.

By car

You can hire a private car and driver at reasonable rates to tour independently. The licensed guides at Schwedagon Paya in Yangon can arrange to have a driver with a car meet you at your hotel. Another way is to arrange for a car through a travel agency, though it can be quite expensive. You can "test" the driver and the car by driving around the city for 10 or 15 minutes. If you are satisfied, a departure date and time and per diem rates (inclusive of petrol) can be negotiated. Some guides are willing to travel with you to serve as interpreters.
Road travel to tourist destinations is generally safe, although some roads may be rough. Highways are often 2-lane, and cars often pass one another recklessly. Allow two days to drive from Yangon to Bagan in fair weather. Pyay provides a good midway stopover point. Allow a day to drive from Bagan to Inle Lake.
In cities, it is also considered illegal to cross an amber light without stopping. Despite having crossed 3/4 of the way, you will be required to stop in the middle of the road and make your way back in reverse!
Accidents and fatalities are common. Night-time road travel is not recommended, and medical facilities are extraordinarily limited in rural areas. At government hospitals, bribes may be required for expedient services. Make sure needles are new or carry your own. HIV is a major problem in Myanmar.

By bike

In Yangon, riding motorcycles and bicycles is illegal. Mandalay's streets, on the other hand, are filled with both.

On foot

Cars and pedestrians may not follow the established rules, and crossing the road can be difficult.

Talk

The official language of Myanmar is Burmese (known by the government as Myanmar). A majority of Burmese pronunciation is derived from the ancient language of Pali (at the time of the Buddha), but the language is a Sino-Tibetan language related to Chinese and hence tonal (word pitch matters) and analytic (most words are one syllable long). It is written using the Burmese script, based on the ancient Pali script. Bilingual signs (English and Burmese) are available in most tourist spots. Numbers often are also written in Burmese script.
There are also many other ethnic groups in Myanmar such as the Mon, Shan, Pa-O and many others who continue to speak their own languages. There is also a sizeable ethnic Chinese community, most visible in the city of Mandalay, and many of whom speak Mandarin. Some areas are also home to various ethnic Indian communities who continue to speak various Indian languages. However, with the exception of the elderly, it is rare to find any locals who do not speak Burmese.
Myanmar is a former British colony, and as a result - and because English is still being taught in kindergartens and primary schools - many Burmese understand at least some rudimentary English. In fact, you may find more English spoken in Myanmar than in Thailand.
Unfunny money
In a misguided attempt to fight rampant black marketeering, the Myanmar government has an unfortunate habit of declaring notes to be worthless: this happened for the first time on May 15, 1964, when the 50 and 100 kyat notes were demonetized. On November 3, 1985, the 20, 50 and 100 kyat notes were demonetized again and replaced with new kyat notes in the unusual denominations of 25, 35 and 75, possibly chosen because of dictator Ne Win's predilection for numerology; the 75-kyat note was introduced on his 75th birthday.
Only two years later, on September 5, 1987, the government once again demonetized the 25, 35 and 75 kyat notes with no prior warning, rendering some 75% of the country's currency worthless. A new series of 15, 45 and 90-kyat notes was issued, incorporating Ne Win's favorite number 9. The resulting economic disturbances led to serious riots and eventually the 1989 coup by General Saw Maung, The post-coup notes come in more normal denominations from 1 to 1000 kyat, and this time the old ones remain legal tender... so far.
Myanmar's currency is the kyat (abbreviated K), pronounced "chut/chat". Pya are coins, and are rarely seen. Foreign travelers are required to pay in US$ for hotels, tourist attractions, rail and air tickets, ferry travel, and sometimes for bus tickets as well, and are technically required to pay in kyat for most other transactions (trishaws, pickups, tips, food, etc.). According to the law, it is illegal for a Myanmar citizen to accept (or hold) dollars without a license but this law is mostly ignored and dollars are generally accepted. Never insist though because it may be dangerous for the receiver. FECs are still legal tender but are rarely seen.
Kyat officially cannot be exchanged abroad, though money changers in places with large overseas Burmese populations such as Singapore will often exchange anyway. Bring US$ cash, and dispose of remaining kyat before leaving.

Foreign currencies

Visitors must bring enough cash with them to cover their entire visit, as there's no easy way to get more without leaving the country. However in an emergency, some hotels in Yangon will do a cash advance on a credit card through Singapore. People have reported that hotels charge a commission ranging from 7% up to 30% and may need to sight your passport to process the transaction.
The currency of choice in Myanmar is the US$ nationwide, though you can readily also exchange euros in Yangon and Mandalay but perhaps not beyond. Other solid options are the Chinese Yuan (CNY) and Thai baht (THB). Your best rates would be in Yangon and Mandalay.
Be sure to bring a mix of US$ denominations when visiting Myanmar because money changers will not give change and 20/10/5/1-dollar notes are deliciously useful for some entry fees and transportation.

Official and Blackmarket Rates

Never exchange money in a bank or at the airport as the rates are excruciatingly uncompetitive: the official rate "floats" around a farcical 6 (yes, six) kyats to the US dollar [17] while the going street rate fluctuates considerably around 1000 kyat (1050 Kyat to the US$ in September 2009 in Yangon, slightly less in Mandalay), and dissident newspaper The Irrawaddy [18] is a good source for recent exchange rates. Exchanging money on the black market is only theoretically illegal: ask in any farmers' market, jewelry shop or travel agents.

Check Your Banknotes

This cannot be stressed enough. A good number of travellers find themselves in possession of a small fortune in worthless bills (at least, worthless when dealing with Myanmar moneychangers) due to their condition being less than perfect.
Ensure that your banknotes:
  • Do not have any marks, stamps, anti-counterfeit pen, ink, or any other mark on them at all. Pencil can be removed with a good eraser, but any permanent marks will greatly decrease a bills value and ability to be exchanged.
  • Are fresh, crisp and as close to brand new as possible. Moneychangers have been known to reject notes just for being creased and/or lightly worn.
  • Are undamaged. No tears, missing bits, holes, repairs, or anything of that sort.
  • Are, preferably, the new US Dollar designs, with the larger portrait, and the multiple-color prints. Although, old-style US$1 are still commonly traded.
  • If carrying US$100 bills, notes with serial numbers starting "CB" may not be accepted. This is because they are associated with a counterfeit "superbill" which was in circulation some time ago.

When Exchanging Money/Making Purchases With US Dollars

There are a number of tricks and scams running around Myanmar trapping tourists who are carrying US Dollars. Sometimes, guesthouses or traders will try and pass you damaged or nonexchangeable bills in change. Always inspect all notes when making a purchase and request that the vendor swap any bills you think you will have trouble using down the track (this is perfectly acceptable behavior for vendors and customers, so don't be shy).
Some moneychangers will also attempt sleight of hand tricks to either swap your good banknotes for damaged, or lower denomination bills. Other reports suggest that the kyats may be counted and then somehow, some disappear from the table during the transaction. For example, after going through an elaborate counting process for piles of ten 1000 kyat notes, some money changers will pull some notes out as they count the piles of ten.
When changing money, be sure that, after any money is counted, it is not touched by anyone until the deal is sealed. Also do not allow your US Dollars to be removed from your sight until all is agreed - in fact it is not even necessary to pull our your US Dollars until your are paying for the kyats you received. It sounds extreme, but ending up in a country where you cannot access whatever savings you have, and having a good portion of your budget rendered useless (until you get to more relaxed changers in Bangkok) can really put a dampener on your plans.
Is it safe?
So, you're traveling around carrying 100s, if not 1000s, of dollars stuffed into your pockets in a country where most people subsist on a few dollars a day. Everyone around you knows that if they could get their hands on the money in your pockets, they'll be set for life. What, you may ask, are the odds that someone will try to relieve you of your money? The answer: almost nil. There have been almost no instances of a tourist being mugged and only the rare pilferage. Myanmar is an extremely safe country for travelers. Some say it is because of the nature of the people. Others say it is because the punishment for robbing from a foreigner is draconian. Actually, it's the Buddhism: you do not take what is not given you, which is stricter than "Thou shalt not steal" because it rewords as "Thou shalt not help thyself, even in the home of dear friend." Whatever the cause, your money will be safe!

Foreign Exchange Certificates (FECs)

Visitors to Myanmar were previously required to change US$200 into FECs upon arrival, but this was abolished in August 2003. FECs are still valid tender, but should be avoided at all costs as they are no longer worth their face value (although a one FEC note has good souvenir potential).

Credit cards & ATMs

Due to EU and US sanctions, credit cards are rarely accepted in Myanmar. There are places where cash can be obtained with a credit card, however the rates are extremely uncompetitive (with premiums certainly no lower than around 7%, and with quotes of 30% and more frequently reported). An exceptionally small minority of up-market hotels accept credit card payments (and will surcharge accordingly).
Some ATMs can be found in large cities, but these are purely for locals and cannot be used for withdrawing money.

Travellers cheques

Travellers cheques are not accepted in Myanmar. The only exception might be some especially shady money changer - but be prepared to pay an astronomical commission (30% is not uncommon).

Costs

It's quite possible to be comfortable on less than US$20/day. Foreigners will likely be charged fees, including video camera, digital camera, entrance, parking, and zone fees.
  • Lacquerware A popular purchase in Myanmar is lacquerware, which is made into bowls, cups, vases, tables and various items, and is available almost anywhere. The traditional centre of Lacquerware production though is Bagan in central Myanmar. Beware of fraudulent lacquerware, though, which is poorly made, but looks authentic. (As a general rule, the stiffer the lacquer, the poorer the quality and the more you can bend and twist it, the finer the quality.)
  • Precious stones Myanmar is a significant miner of jade, rubies, and sapphire (the granting of a license to the French over the ruby mines in Mogok was one of the causes leading to the Third Burmese War) and these can be obtained at a fraction of what it would cost in the West. Be warned, however, that there are a lot of fakes for sale amongst the genuine stuff and, unless you know your gems, buy from an official government store or risk being cheated. Bogoyoke Aung San Market in Yangon has many licensed shops and is generally a safe place for the purchase of these stones.
  • Tapestries, known as kalaga, or shwe chi doe. There is a long tradition of weaving tapestries in Burma. These are decorated with gold and silver thread and sequins and usually depict tales from the Buddhist scriptures (the jatakas) or other non-secular objects from Burmese Buddhism (mythical animals, the hintha and the kalong are also popular subjects). The tapestry tradition is dying out but many are made for tourists and are available in Mandalay and Yangon. Burmese tapestries don't last so be warned if someone tries to sell you an antique shwe chi doe!
  • Antiques Myanmar is probably the last unspoiled market for antiques and, with a good eye, it is easy to pick up bargains there. Old Raj coins are the most popular (and have little value except as souvenirs) but everything ranging from Ming porcelain to Portuguese furniture (in Moulmein) can be found. Unfortunately, the Burmese antique sellers are becoming increasingly sophisticated and, increasingly, the bargains were probably made the day before in the shop-owners backyard! It is against the law to export religious antiques (manuscripts, Buddhas, etc.).
  • Textiles Textiles in Myanmar are stunning. Each region and each ethnic group has its own style. Chin fabrics are particularly stunning. They are handwoven in intricate geometric patterns, often in deep reds and mossy greens and white. They can be quite pricy, perhaps US$20 for the cloth to make a longyi (sarong).
There is also a wide variety of beautiful silverware and jewellery as well as textiles, including gorgeous silks and handcrafts such as wooden carvings, silk paintings and stonework.
Some items may require customs permits.

Eat

Burmese food is a blend of Chinese, Indian and Mon influences. Rice is at the core of most Burmese food, and good vegetarian food is widely available. Burmese food is often extremely pungent. Food is inexpensive at most restaurants (around 500-1500 kyat), but there are many upscale restaurants in Yangon and Mandalay for upmarket food.
What to eat
Because the Burmese cuisine is a medley of many regional influences, it has many characteristics. Seafood is more common along the coastline, while preserved meats are more common in inland areas. Many Indian, Chinese, and Shan dishes are served throughout the country. Some dishes to try are:
  • Mohinga (pronounced mo-HIN-ga) is a dish of rice vermicelli with fish gravy(orange in colour) and is usually accompanied by corriander and with chilli powder (the Burmese eat chilli). Its taste can range from sweet to spicy, and is usually eaten during breakfast. It is considered by many to be the national dish of Myanmar, and is widely available throughout the country, albeit in slightly different styles in different regions.
  • Onnokauswe (pronounced oun-NO-kao-sui) is a dish of thicker noodles in a thick soup of coconut milk. Often added is chicken, and it has a strong taste and odour.
  • Laphet thote (pronounced la-peh THOU) is a salad of fermented tea leaves and a variety of nuts. It is commonly mixed with sliced lettuce, and is eaten with rice. The dish originally comes from Shan State.
  • Mee swan (pronounced mee-SUAN) is a Chinese dish of noodles in a broth, served with herbs and little meat.
  • Palata (prounced pa-la-ta) is an Indian bread (parata), which is fried and served with sugar for breakfast, or with curried meats for lunch and dinner.
  • Shan food The Shan are an ethnic group who inhabit Shan State around Inle lake, near the Thai border. Their food is marvelous and spicy. It can be found in Yangon if you search.
  • Curry Myanma people have a very different definition of curry than other countries. It is very spicy compared to Indian and Thai options, and although you may find it served at room temperature in cheaper restaurants, in a typical Burmese home all curry dishes are served hot. The Burmese curry does not contain coconut milk, unlike its south-east asian counterparts, and has a large quantity of onion. Myanmar is the highest per-capita consumer of onions in the world.
Where to eat
  • Black Canyon Coffee Found in Mandalay (Next to Sedona Hotel) and in Yangon (next to International Hotel) offers Air-conditioned dining and wonderful Starbucks-style coffee for all those yearning for a quality caffeine shot in this country.
  • Mac Burger Due to US sanctions American corporations aren't allowed to do business in Myanmar. However, this Yangon McDonalds knock-off is the closest you'll get. Mind the roaches.

Drink

Tap water in Myanmar is not safe to drink, likewise ice may be contaminated. Bottled water is readily available at many tourist sites.
Similar to ChineseTea Yenwejan is usually provided free at restaurant tables. While not flavourful, it is boiled water, and so safe to drink (do not drink plain water - even in restaurants - unless it is bottled water). Dried tea leaves similar to Laphet thote's tea leaves (except these are wet) are added to the boiled water to give Yenwejan Be sure to order it with Laphet thote (Customary/Good combination).
Alcohol is frowned upon by conservative Buddhists, Hindus, and Muslims, but consumed widely, mostly among men. Myanmar Beer (lager) is most popular in the country. Other variants, including Mandalay Beer exist. However, many of such companies are government-owned and/or have links to the drug trade. Toddy juice (ta-YEI) is popular in central Myanmar, and is made from fermented palm sugar. An alcoholic drink popular in the Shan State is Shwe le maw, and is reportedly very strong. It is also possible to buy full strength Beer Chang imported from Thailand; exports to most countries are not nearly as strong.
Beware of alcoholic drinks served in the far northern states. The locals refer to it as alcohol which does not burn when lit, and it is widely suspected to be an opiate concoction rather than a fermented beverage.
There are a lot of nightclubs, including those attached to the five star hotels (eg Grand Plaza), and also local entertainment centres (eg JJs, Asia plaza).

Sleep

While not as inexpensive as neighboring Thailand, Myanmar has surprisingly good hotel accommodation at reasonable prices. Rooms with attached bath are available for under US$10 everywhere except in Yangon and with shared bath for anywhere from US$3 to US$6 in most places. Almost every hotel licensed for foreigners has running hot water (though, in remote areas, availability may be restricted to certain hours of the day). Hotels, with a few exceptions, are usually clean though, at the budget end, sheets and blankets may be threadbare and the rooms may be poorly ventilated. A few low-end hotels, particularly in Yangon and other large cities, specialize in cubicle rooms - small single rooms with no windows - which, while cheap and clean, are not for the claustrophobic. Rates are quoted as single/double but the rooms are usually the same whether one person or two stay in the room, making good hotels a real bargain if traveling as a couple. Except at the top-end, breakfast is always included in the price of the room.
Myanmar has a problem providing enough electricity to its people and power supply is severely restricted everywhere. In many places, electricity may be available only for a few hours each evening or, in some cases, only every alternate evening. If you don't want to spend your nights without a fan or AC, ask if the hotel has a generator (most mid-priced hotels do). On generator nights, the AC in your room may not work (the price is usually lower as well).
At the top-end, Myanmar has some excellent hotels including one or two great ones (The Strand in Yangon and Kandawgyi Palace Hotel in Yangon). The Myanmar government runs many hotels, including some beautiful colonial era ones (though not the two listed in the previous sentence). Many large five-star hotels in Yangon and Mandalay are run by friends of the government or by people with connections to the drug trade. Socially conscious travelers may want to avoid these two types of hotels.

Work

Work in Myanmar for foreigners is hard to come by. NGOs and other aid groups operate in the capital and remote rural areas but may require specific skill sets to hire you. Another option is European and Asian companies, mostly operating on a small scale. Teaching English is feasible in private schools but skip the education ministry, which only hires citizens with teaching certification.

Stay safe

Crime

The government punishes crime, particularly against tourists, severely; it has a hard enough time convincing tourists to go there due to its international reputation. In addition, many locals, being devout Buddhists, are wary of retribution in their next life should they commit any crimes against others. As a result, as far as crime and personal safety go, Myanmar is extremely safe for tourists, and it is generally safe to walk on the streets alone at night. In fact, you are less likely to be a victim of crime in Myanmar than in Thailand or Malaysia. However, as with anywhere else, little crime does not mean no crime and it is still no excuse to ditch your common sense.
Since 2005, Yangon and Mandalay have seen a barely perceptible rise in the very low level of street robberies. Several years ago, there were isolated bombings: 26 April 2005 in Mandalay; 7 May, 21 October and 5 December 2005 in Yangon; 2 January 2006 in Bago.

Begging

Despite traditional taboos against it, begging has become a major problem in the main tourist areas such as Bago and Bagan. Children and "mothers" carrying babies are often the ones who beg as they are more effective at soliciting pity. Note that most beggars are part of larger begging syndicates or just after easy money, as tourists are usually seen to be rich. In addition, the poor can always obtain food for free from the nearest monastery if they can't afford to pay for it, so begging is not necessary for their survival. If you really must give, note that most Burmese earn only US$20 a month doing manual labour; giving US$1 to a beggar is very generous.

Corruption

Myanmar is one of the world's most corrupt countries. Officials and other civil servants may discreetly ask you for a bribe, or invent issues (missing forms, closed offices, etc) in order to get you to suggest one. Pretending not to understand or asking to speak to a superior may work. However, visitors of Caucasian descent are rarely targeted, while those of Asian descent (including South Asians and East Asians) may be forced to give bribes, but the brunt of the problem hits normal Burmese.
Again, Westerners are very rarely asked for bribes. Then too, most bribes are in the order of a US dollar or less and requested by folks earning as little as US$30/month.

Civil conflict

Various insurgent groups continue to operate in the Shan, Mon, Chin (Zomi), and Karen States of Myanmar, along the Thai and Chinese borders. Travel to these regions is generally requires a government permit. The government also restricts travel to Kayah State and Rakhine State due to insurgent activity. However travel is entirely unrestricted to the districts of Yangon, Bago, Ayeyarwady, Sagaing, Taninthayi, Mandalay and Magwe.

Internet

The price of computers and a home internet connection is prohibitive so most people surf at Internet cafés. Web-based email websites such as Yahoo! or Hotmail can be accessed in savvy cafés. The blocking is because Myanmar Telecom sells email addresses and free web-based email address suppliers cut into their bottomline. The government records screenshots every five minutes from PCs in Internet cafés to monitor Internet usage. If you don't want your privacy violated in this way, save your surfing for Thailand or wherever you head next.

Politics

Myanmar has been under strong military rule for the past 40 years, with a reputation for repressing dissent, as in the case of the frequent house arrests of democracy campaigner Aung San Suu Kyi, and currently has more than 1,500 political prisoners [sentences of 65 years and hard labor in remote camps were given to leaders of the Saffron Revolution]. When in Myanmar, abstain from political activities and don't insult the government.
Discuss politics, if you must, with people who have had time to get a feel for you. The danger however, is primarily posed to those you speak with, and thus you should take care with their safety. Let them lead the conversation. Also, realize that many phone lines are tapped. And if you absolutely must wave a democracy banner in front of a cop shop, you'll simply find yourself on the next outbound flight.
Avoid doing things that might make the military or police feel uncomfortable, such as taking pictures of police and police buildings or vehicles.

Stay healthy

Ice and tap water are a gamble. Always buy bottled water and check that the cap is sealed on, not simply screwed on. When in doubt, shop at City Mart, a reputable local food retailing chain. Diseases such as dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis and malaria are endemic. Drug-resistant strains of malaria and tuberculosis are common in many areas. Hepatitis vaccinations are highly recommended but unvaccinated travellers have survived after suffering no more than the odd case of diarrhea. At the dinner table, Burmese use a knife and fork, or their fingers when this is more convenient. You might feel better rinsing all of them before meals.
As in any other developing country: "if you can't fry, roast, peel or boil it - then forget it".

Healthcare

Myanmar's healthcare system is in a poor state. If you should fall sick in Myanmar, you can visit the doctor in major cities for minor ailments such as coughs and colds. However, for more serious medical care, hospital conditions tend to be unsanitary and there is often a shortage of medical supplies due to economic sanctions. Most of the government officials and rich locals head to Singapore for more serious medical treatment and hospitalisation and you will be better off doing so too. Just ensure your insurance is in order as arranging to be airlifted in an emergency can be rather costly.
Mrauk U, the old capital of Rakhine in Myanmar
Mrauk U, the old capital of Rakhine in Myanmar
The people cover their arms and legs; they are also courteous and considerate and low-key dress is highly appreciated, particularly in temples and monasteries (of which there are thousands). Miniskirts, shorts and sleeveless shirts are not allowed in consecrated areas, where you also have to remove your shoes, so prefer loafers and flip-flops that can slip on & off at the entrance--Myanmar has some of the most stunning temples in Asia and you will be tempted to visit more than you think.
Both men and women wear a longyi, a sort of sarong sold everywhere. They are wrapped in different ways for men and women, so find out how to tie yours. If you turn up at a temple in inappropriate dress, you can always rent a longyi for a pittance.
Also avoid t-shirts with images of Buddhas or Buddhist imagery, which is considered highly disrespectful. Folks are forgiving about it, but one should not look like a bigger fool than is necessary.
Give generously at temples and monasteries but women are not allowed into some sacred areas--actually the restriction should cover only women in menstruation, but since it would be rude to ask and unthinkable to verify, they keep all ladies out. You will often see monks begging for alms in the streets in the morning (they are not allowed to eat after 12pm). Note that monks are not allowed to come into contact with the opposite sex. In addition, you should only donate food to the monks, as they are not allowed to accept money under any circumstances - those that accept money are almost always fakes.
You can also purchase little squares of gold leaf to apply to consecrated statues.
When praying or paying respects, it is important to ensure that the *soles* of your feet do not point towards the Buddha or anyone else. However, statues are arranged so that won't happen unless you get acrobatic about it. Do not point to images of Buddha. Tuck your feet underneath you when kneeling at shrines and temples.
Tourists of Caucasian descent are commonly referred to as bo, which translates "leader", as a sign of respect. Address elders with U (pronounced "oo", as in soon) or "Uncle" for men, and Daw or "Auntie" for women.

Contact

Telephone

International phone calls can be arranged at the Central Telephone & Telegraph Office at the corner of Ponsodan and Mahabandoola Streets in Yangon. International Direct Dial calls are also available at most hotels and at many public call offices (often a phone in a shop), but they are expensive, e.g. a call to the US costs $6 to $7/min.

Mail

International mail out of Myanmar is reportedly quite efficient. As elsewhere, there is always a risk if you send valuables as ordinary parcels.
The hotel in Yangon said that postcards mailed in the country had less than 1% chance of being delivered abroad.

Internet

Internet is now widely and cheaply available in Yangon, Mandalay and Bagan, but more limited elsewhere. However access is very slow and many sites are inaccessible. Rates are around 1000 kyat/hour in Yangon and 2000-5000 kyat/hour elsewhere.
A list of proxys to circumvent blocks can be found at proxy.org [19].
Webmail: most free webmail providers are blocked, however many Internet cafés circumvent this - jot down the workaround in case it's still unknown in the next café you visit. If one Internet café can't connect you, the next one probably will the next day. As of January 2010, Hotmail and Yahoo are blocked, while Gmail is available.
As of May 2006, the following workarounds worked:
  • Yahoo - use wap.oa.yahoo.com - the WAP (mobile phone) gateway, which gets you the basic interface.
Myanmar has two ISPs, MPT and Bagan. Proxy sites are blocked by MPT, but may work with the Bagan ISP.
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.BURMA, a province of British India, including the former kingdom of independent Burma, as well as British Burma, acquired by the British Indian government in the two wars of 1826 and 1852. It is divided into Upper and Lower Burma, the former being the territory annexed on 1st January 1886. The province lies to the east of the Bay of Bengal, and covers a range of country extending from the Pakchan river in 9° 55' north latitude to the Naga and Chingpaw, or Kachin hills, lying roughly between the 27th and 28th degrees of north latitude; and from the Bay of Bengal on the west to the Mekong river, the boundary of the dependent Shan States on the east, that is to say, roughly, between the 92nd and tooth degrees of east longitude.^ It is a narrow strip of country lying between the Bay of Bengal and the high range of hills which form the eastern boundary of the province towards Siam.

^ It is divided into Upper and Lower Burma, the former being the territory annexed on 1st January 1886.

^ On 4 January 1948, Burma achieved independence from the United Kingdom as the "Union of Burma".
  • Myanmar Liveaboard Cruises Info about Myanmar / Burma 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.highclass-adventure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The extreme length from north to south is almost 1200 m., and the broadest part, which is in about latitude 210 north, is 575 m.^ The extreme length from north to south is almost 1200 m., and the broadest part, which is in about latitude 210 north, is 575 m.

^ Its total length from north to south is about 1,275 miles (2,050 km), and its width at the widest part, across the centre of the country at about the latitude of the city of Mandalay , is approximately 580 miles (930 km) from east to west.
  • Myanmar -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ His infantrymen had dug in along a ridge about a mile and a half west of the road, with the 124th Cavalry Regiment to the north and the 475th Infantry Regiment to the south.
  • HyperWar: The U.S. Army Campaigns of World War II: CentralBurma 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

from east to west. .On the N. it is bounded by the dependent state of Manipur, by the Mishmi hills, and by portions of Chinese territory; on the E. by the Chinese Shan States, portions of the province of Yunnan, the French province of Indo-China, and the Siamese Shan, or Lao States and Siam; on the S. by the Siamese Malay States and the Bay of Bengal; and on the W. by the Bay of Bengal and Chittagong.^ It is a narrow strip of country lying between the Bay of Bengal and the high range of hills which form the eastern boundary of the province towards Siam.

^ Khun Sa's son is not the only trafficker reaping benefits in the Shan State area which borders Thailand and China and serves as Burma's primary poppy growing area.
  • Singapore: Burma-Singapore Axis: Globalising the Heroin Trade 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.singapore-window.org [Source type: News]

^ A. Demographics Burma is a country in Southeast Asia bordered by Bangladesh, China, India, Laos, Thailand, the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea.
  • Internet Filtering in Burma in 2005: A Country Study | OpenNet Initiative 18 September 2009 10:25 UTC opennet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The coast-line from Taknaf, the mouth of the Naaf, in the Akyab district on the north, to the estuary of the Pakchan at Maliwun on the south, is about 1200 m.^ The coast-line from Taknaf, the mouth of the Naaf, in the Akyab district on the north, to the estuary of the Pakchan at Maliwun on the south, is about 1200 m.

^ It is bordered by the People's Republic of China on the north, Laos on the east, Thailand on the south east, Bangladesh on the west, and India on the north west, with the Andaman Sea to the south, and the Bay of Bengal to the south west (for a total of over 2,000 kilometers of coast line).

^ This river, rising in the Sham-Karen hills, flows first due north and then southward through the Kyaukse, Yamethin and Toungoo districts, its line being followed by the Mandalay-Rangoon railway as far south as Nyaunglebin in the Pegu district.

.The total area of the province is estimated at 238,738 sq.^ Total area (sq mi) .
  • Myanmar -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Total area (sq km) .
  • Myanmar -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Labor force (%) .......1.6 Total Area...................................................................261,589 sq.
  • Myanmar / Burma - Education Resource - StudySphere 11 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.studysphere.com [Source type: General]

m., of which .Burma proper occupies 168,573 sq.^ Burma proper occupies 168,573 sq.

m., the .Chin hills 10,250 sq.^ Chin hills 10,250 sq.

m., and the .Shan States, which comprise the whole of the eastern portion of the province, some 59,915 sq.^ Shan Plateau of eastern Shan state.
  • Ethnologue report for Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ Shan States, which comprise the whole of the eastern portion of the province, some 59,915 sq.

^ In addition, opinion has been voiced in Shan State and in neighbouring Thailand, and to some extent in farther-reaching exile communities, in favour of the goal of "total independence for Shan State."
  • BGAN Burma Global Action Network - About Burma 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.burma-network.com [Source type: Original source]

m.
Table of contents

Natural Divisions

.The province falls into three natural divisions: Arakan with the Chin hills, the Irrawaddy basin, and the old province of Tenasserim, together with the portion of the Shan and Karen-ni states in the basin of the Salween, and part of Kengtung in the western basin of the Mekong.^ Kengtung District of Shan state.
  • Ethnologue report for Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ Upper Rakhine state, Arakan Hills, and coastal area; Chin state.
  • Ethnologue report for Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ The climate of the Chin and Kachin hills and also of the Shan States is temperate.

.Of these Arakan is a strip of country lying on the seaward slopes of the range of hills known as the Arakan Yomas.^ Of these Arakan is a strip of country lying on the seaward slopes of the range of hills known as the Arakan Yomas.

^ Between the Bay of Bengal and the hills of the Arakan Yoma is Rakhine State , a narrow coastal plain with the port of Sittwe , which is home to the Rakhines.
  • Myanmar Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Perched on a distinctive outcrop amidst a sharp range of hills, the temple here is known for the worship of nats guardian spirits who are either good or evil.
  • Burma asian culture and recipe links 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC asiarecipe.com [Source type: General]

.It stretches from Cape Negrais on the south to the Naaf estuary, which divides it from the Chittagong division of Eastern Bengal and Assam on the north, and includes the districts of Sandoway, Kyaukpyu, Akyab and northern Arakan, an area of some 18,540 sq.^ It stretches from Cape Negrais on the south to the Naaf estuary, which divides it from the Chittagong division of Eastern Bengal and Assam on the north, and includes the districts of Sandoway , Kyaukpyu , Akyab and northern Arakan, an area of some 18,540 sq.

^ Rakhine (Arakan) Hills, Akyab area.
  • Ethnologue report for Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ This delta, which includes the districts of Bassein , Myaungmya , Thongwa, Henzada , Hantha waddy, Tharrawaddy , Pegu and Rangoon town, consists almost entirely of a rich alluvial deposit , and the whole area, which between Cape Negrais and Elephant Point is 137 m.

m. .The northern part of this tract is barren hilly country, but in the west and south are rich alluvial plains containing some of the most fertile lands of the province.^ The northern part of this tract is barren hilly country, but in the west and south are rich alluvial plains containing some of the most fertile lands of the province.

^ Myanmar was affected by the 2004 tsunami which struck off the west coast of Indonesia but the damage was far less severe in Myanmar than in other countries and travel, for the most part, has been unaffected.
  • Myanmar | Kuoni Destination Management | Incoming Travel Europe 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.kuoni-dmc.com [Source type: News]

^ Its total length from north to south is about 1,275 miles (2,050 km), and its width at the widest part, across the centre of the country at about the latitude of the city of Mandalay , is approximately 580 miles (930 km) from east to west.
  • Myanmar -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.Northwards lie the Chin and some part of the Kachin hills.^ British forces spent at least another four years pacifying the country – not only in the Burman heartland but also in the Shan, Chin and Kachin hill areas.
  • BGAN Burma Global Action Network - About Burma 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.burma-network.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Kachin are one of the largest Christian minorities with around 10 percent following Buddhist practices, with some elements of spirit worship still continuing in the hills.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Briefing papers : Minorities in Burma 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

.To the east of the Arakan division, and separated from it by the Arakan Yomas, lies the main body of Burma in the basin of the Irrawaddy.^ To the east of the Arakan division, and separated from it by the Arakan Yomas, lies the main body of Burma in the basin of the Irrawaddy.

^ The ensuing Treaty of Yandabo left the British in control of Arakan to the west and Tenasserim to the east of the Irrawaddy delta.
  • MYANMAR, 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ East of the Rangoon river and still within the deltaic area, though cut off from the main delta by the southern end of the Pegu Yomas, lies the mouth of the Sittang.

This tract falls into four subdivisions. .First, there is the highland tract including the hilly country at the sources of the Chindwin and the upper waters of the Irrawaddy, the Upper Chindwin, Katha, Bhamo, Myitkyina and Ruby Mines districts, with the Kachin hills and a great part of the Northern Shan states.^ Upper Irrawaddy gorges, north of Bhamo.
  • Ethnologue report for Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ In Kyawkme area in the northern Shan state.
  • Ethnologue report for Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ Kengtung District of Shan state.
  • Ethnologue report for Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

.In the Shan States there are a few open plateaus, fertile and well populated, and Maymyo in the Mandalay district, the hill-station to which in the hot weather the government of Burma migrates, stands in the Pyin-u-lwin plateauYsome 3500 ft.^ Shan Plateau of eastern Shan state.
  • Ethnologue report for Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ Kengtung District of Shan state.
  • Ethnologue report for Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ Shan state, Kentung District.
  • Ethnologue report for Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

above the sea. .But the greater part of this country is a mass of rugged hills cut deep with narrow gorges, within which even the biggest rivers are confined.^ King Anawrahtā (1044–77) unified the country by conquering the southern part and gave his allegiance to the Theravāda , although it is likely the Theravāda was dominant even before then.
  • Burma Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Burma 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Enclosed within the mountain barriers are the flat lands of Ayeyarwady, Chindwin and Sittaung River valleys where most of the country's agricultural land and population are concentrated.

^ Trekking tours in Myanmar usually take place in the hill regions in the upper part of the country.

.The second tract is that known as the dry zone of Burma, and includes thewhole of the lowlands lying between the Arakan Yomas and the western fringe of the Southern Shan States.^ The second tract is that known as the dry zone of Burma, and includes thewhole of the lowlands lying between the Arakan Yomas and the western fringe of the Southern Shan States.

^ Myanmar may be divided into five main regions: the northern mountains, the western ranges, the coastal plains, the central lowlands, and the Shan Plateau in the east.
  • Myanmar -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Between the Bay of Bengal and the hills of the Arakan Yoma is Rakhine State , a narrow coastal plain with the port of Sittwe , which is home to the Rakhines.
  • Myanmar Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It stretches along both sides of the Irrawaddy from the north of Mandalay to Thayetmyo, and embraces the Lower Chindwin, Shwebo, Sagaing, Mandalay, Kyaukse, Meiktila, Yamethin, Myingyan, Magwe, Pakokku and Minbu districts.^ They broke out in several areas beyond Rangoon - Pakokku, Bokalay, Lattputta, Sittwe as well as Pegu; and, most significantly, in Kyaukse, near Mandalay.
  • Burma’s question | openDemocracy 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The temples of Pagan stretch along a forty square kilometre zone on the banks of the Irrawaddy river.
  • History of South East Asia 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.aseanfocus.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Around the 8th century, the Pyu moved their capital to Halin, in Shwebo, 100 km north of Mandalay.
  • Myanmar Travel Guide | AsiaExplorers 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.asiaexplorers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This tract consists mostly of undulating lowlands, but it is broken towards the south by the Pegu Yomas, a considerable range of hills which divides the two remaining tracts of the Irrawaddy basin.^ Situated on an elevated high plain, ideal spot, surrounded by all Bagan's picturesque natural beauties of hill ranges, high plains, lowlands.
  • Myanmar Visa Online Service - Visa On Arrival and eVisa Travel Information on Burma 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC myanmarvisa.com [Source type: General]

^ Myanmar may be divided into five main regions: the northern mountains, the western ranges, the coastal plains, the central lowlands, and the Shan Plateau in the east.
  • Myanmar -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The area is a highly dissected upland, consisting of ranges of hills that form the Chindwin-Irrawaddy watershed (Chhibber, 1934b).
  • Burmese Jade, Pt. 1: Mines 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.palagems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On the west, between the Pegu and the Arakan Yomas, stretches the Irrawaddy delta, a vast expanse of level plain 12,000 sq.^ Between the Bay of Bengal and the hills of the Arakan Yoma is Rakhine State , a narrow coastal plain with the port of Sittwe , which is home to the Rakhines.
  • Myanmar Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Irrawaddy Delta south-west of Rangoon was worst hit and Rangoon was also affected.
  • Burma Country Brief - Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.dfat.gov.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Arakan (Rakhine) Yoma range, with peaks reaching more than 2740 m (more than 9000 ft), forms a barrier between Myanmar and the subcontinent of India.
  • MYANMAR, 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

m. in area falling in a gradual unbroken slope from its .apex not far south of Prome down to the sea.^ Prome down to the sea.

.This delta, which includes the districts of Bassein, Myaungmya, Thongwa, Henzada, Hantha waddy, Tharrawaddy, Pegu and Rangoon town, consists almost entirely of a rich alluvial deposit, and the whole area, which between Cape Negrais and Elephant Point is 137 m.^ They broke out in several areas beyond Rangoon - Pakokku, Bokalay, Lattputta, Sittwe as well as Pegu; and, most significantly, in Kyaukse, near Mandalay.
  • Burma’s question | openDemocracy 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Burma moves capital 400km north (from Rangoon to remote rural area near the town of Pyinmana).
  • Burma Larkin Orwell Finding 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.orwelltoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Most gems are recovered from alluvial deposits situated near the towns of Mogok and Kathé.
  • Ruby & Sapphire from Burma (Myanmar) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

wide, is fertile in the highest degree. .To the east lies a tract of country which, though geographically a part of the Irrawaddy basin, is cut off from it by the Yomas, and forms a separate system draining into the Sittang river.^ Basin and delta of the Irrawaddy River ringed by a horseshoe of high mountains that isolates the country from India, China and Thailand.
  • Operation World - Detailed Information 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.operationworld.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Land and People The most densely populated part of the country is the valley of the Ayeyarwady (Irrawaddy) River, which, with its vast delta, is one of the main rice-growing regions of the world.
  • Myanmar Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The other parts of the country are known as States, where other ethnic groups form the majority eg Chin State, Shan State, Karen State each named after majority ethnic group.

.The northern portion of this tract, which on the east touches the basin of the Salween river, is hilly; the remainder towards the confluence of the Salween, Gyaing and Attaran rivers consists of broad fertile plains.^ Northeast Shan state, upper Salween River area; East Shan state, Kengtung area.
  • Ethnologue report for Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ Northern Shan state, around Lashio and the road north to the border, Nam Kham, North Hsenwi, Tawngpeng (the ancient Palaung state), and some east of Lashio and east of the Salween.
  • Ethnologue report for Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ Some villages east of Salween River in Kokaing area.
  • Ethnologue report for Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

.The whole is comprised in the districts of Toungoo and Thaton, part of the Karen-ni hills, with the Salween hill tract and the northern parts of Amherst, which form the northern portion of the Tenasserim administrative division.^ Tens of thousands of people are presently living this way in central Shan State, throughout Karenni (Kayah) State, in Toungoo, Papun and Nyaunglebin districts of northern Karen State and eastern Pegu Division, and Tenasserim Division of southern Burma.
  • Karen Human Rights Group | Background On Burma 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.khrg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Karen sources on the Thai-Burmese border said DKBA soldiers will replace Burmese government troops positioned along the Salween River border in Papun District by 2010.
  • Candle4Burma : NEWS ABOUT HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS IN BURMA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC candle4burma.blogspot.com [Source type: News]

^ "Myanmar’s regime has made plans to build an airbase in the southern district of Tenasserim, with support form China, opposition radio monitored in Bangkok reported Sunday.
  • Armed Conflicts Report - Burma 17 September 2009 1:36 UTC www.ploughshares.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The third natural division of Burma is the old province of Tenasserim, which, constituted in 1826 with Moulmein as its capital, formed the nucleus from which the British supremacy throughout Burma has grown.^ The third natural division of Burma is the old province of Tenasserim, which, constituted in 1826 with Moulmein as its capital, formed the nucleus from which the British supremacy throughout Burma has grown.

^ Burma became a province of British India in 1886 and gained independence in 1948.

^ The British conquest of Burma was piecemeal, beginning in 1826 and not reaching completion until 1885.
  • Burma Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Burma 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is a narrow strip of country lying between the Bay of Bengal and the high range of hills which form the eastern boundary of the province towards Siam.^ Between the Bay of Bengal and the hills of the Arakan Yoma is Rakhine State , a narrow coastal plain with the port of Sittwe , which is home to the Rakhines.
  • Myanmar Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Burma is a multiethnic country of about 54 million people which borders India to its west, China to its north, and Thailand lies on its eastern side.
  • Aiya Burma Fund 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC aiyafund.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Another son, Bodawpaya (1740?–1819), lost control of Siam but captured the Arakan, a rich coastal province bordering on Bengal.
  • MYANMAR, 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It comprises the districts of Mergui and Tavoy and a part of Amherst, and includes also the Mergui Archipelago.^ It comprises the districts of Mergui and Tavoy and a part of Amherst, and includes also the Mergui Archipelago .

^ The whole is comprised in the districts of Toungoo and Thaton , part of the Karen-ni hills, with the Salween hill tract and the northern parts of Amherst , which form the northern portion of the Tenasserim administrative division.

The surface of this part of the country is mountainous and much intersected with streams. .Northward from this lies the major portion of the Southern Shan States and Karen-ni and a narrowing strip along the Salween of the Northern Shan States.^ In Kyawkme area in the northern Shan state.
  • Ethnologue report for Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ Southern Shan state.
  • Ethnologue report for Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ The northern Karen area and southern Shan State have the highest rates of recent displacement, according to the report.

Mountains

.Burma proper is encircled on three sides by a wall of mountain ranges.^ Burma proper is encircled on three sides by a wall of mountain ranges.

^ Three mountain ranges, namely the Rakhine Yoma, the Bago Yoma, and the Shan Plateau exist within Myanmar, all of which run north-to-south from the Himalayas.
  • Myanmar Liveaboard Cruises Info about Myanmar / Burma 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.highclass-adventure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Arakan Yomas starting from Cape Negrais extend northwards more or less parallel with the coast till they join the Chin and Naga hills.^ The Arakan Yomas starting from Cape Negrais extend northwards more or less parallel with the coast till they join the Chin and Naga hills .

^ Between the Bay of Bengal and the hills of the Arakan Yoma is Rakhine State , a narrow coastal plain with the port of Sittwe , which is home to the Rakhines.
  • Myanmar Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You’ll join the locals in Yangon as they make merit at the temples and celebrate in the streets before heading to the coast to witness rural festivities.
  • Myanmar Tours and Myanmar Package Tours by Exotissimo Travel Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC myanmar.exotissimo.com [Source type: General]

.They then form part of a system of ranges which curve north of the sources of the Chindwin river, and with the Kumon range and the hills of the Jade and Amber mines, make up a highland tract separated from the great Northern Shan plateau by the gorges of the Irrawaddy river.^ Upper Irrawaddy gorges, north of Bhamo.
  • Ethnologue report for Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ They then form part of a system of ranges which curve north of the sources of the Chindwin river, and with the Kumon range and the hills of the Jade and Amber mines, make up a highland tract separated from the great Northern Shan plateau by the gorges of the Irrawaddy river.

^ To reach the Mogok ruby mines you must travel for a day from Mandalay up the Irrawaddy by steamer and thence for sixty miles by motor along a road that leads through gorgeous forests toward the heart of the mountains.
  • Ruby Buying Guide 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.palagems.com [Source type: General]

.On the east the Kachin, Shan and Karen hills, extending from the valley of the Irrawaddy into China far beyond the Salween gorge, form a continuous barrier and boundary, and tail off into a narrow range which forms the eastern watershed of the Salween and separates Tenasserim from Siam.^ On the east the Kachin, Shan and Karen hills, extending from the valley of the Irrawaddy into China far beyond the Salween gorge , form a continuous barrier and boundary, and tail off into a narrow range which forms the eastern watershed of the Salween and separates Tenasserim from Siam.

^ Several Shan states in the Shan hills in the east and the Kachin hills in the north.
  • BGAN Burma Global Action Network - About Burma 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.burma-network.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ethnic Burmans still dominate in state administrative positions, and many young Kachin women have been driven by poverty into the sex trade, including into China.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Briefing papers : Minorities in Burma 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: Original source]

.The highest peak of the Arakan Yomas, Liklang, rises nearly io,000 ft.^ The highest peak of the Arakan Yomas, Liklang, rises nearly io,000 ft.

^ The Arakan (Rakhine) Yoma range, with peaks reaching more than 2740 m (more than 9000 ft), forms a barrier between Myanmar and the subcontinent of India.
  • MYANMAR, 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the west, between the Pegu and the Arakan Yomas, stretches the Irrawaddy delta , a vast expanse of level plain 12,000 sq.

above the sea, and in the eastern .Kachin hills, which run northwards from the state of Meng Mit to join the high range dividing the basins of the Irrawaddy and the Salween, are two peaks, Sabu and Worang, which rise to a height of 11,200 ft.^ Kachin hills, which run northwards from the state of Meng Mit to join the high range dividing the basins of the Irrawaddy and the Salween, are two peaks, Sabu and Worang, which rise to a height of 11,200 ft.

^ Situated on an elevated high plain, ideal spot, surrounded by all Bagan's picturesque natural beauties of hill ranges, high plains, lowlands.
  • Myanmar Visa Online Service - Visa On Arrival and eVisa Travel Information on Burma 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC myanmarvisa.com [Source type: General]

^ This tract consists mostly of undulating lowlands, but it is broken towards the south by the Pegu Yomas, a considerable range of hills which divides the two remaining tracts of the Irrawaddy basin.

above the sea. .The Kumon range running down from the Hkamti country east of Assam to near Mogaung ends in a peak known as Shwedaunggyi, which reaches some 5750 ft.^ The Kumon range running down from the Hkamti country east of Assam to near Mogaung ends in a peak known as Shwedaunggyi, which reaches some 5750 ft.

^ The Arakan (Rakhine) Yoma range, with peaks reaching more than 2740 m (more than 9000 ft), forms a barrier between Myanmar and the subcontinent of India.
  • MYANMAR, 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kachin hills, which run northwards from the state of Meng Mit to join the high range dividing the basins of the Irrawaddy and the Salween, are two peaks, Sabu and Worang, which rise to a height of 11,200 ft.

.There are several peaks in the Ruby Mines district which rise beyond 7000 ft.^ There are several peaks in the Ruby Mines district which rise beyond 7000 ft.

^ There is a gold mine at Kyaukpazat in the Mawnaing circle of the Kathra district, where the quartz is crushed by machinery and treated by chemical processes.

^ Consisting of heavily-jungled hills rising to a height of 2347 m (7700 ft) above sea level, the ruby mines district covers about 400 sq miles, although only a portion (70 sq miles) is gem bearing.
  • Ruby & Sapphire from Burma (Myanmar) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

and .Loi Ling in the Northern Shan States reaches woo ft.^ In Kyawkme area in the northern Shan state.
  • Ethnologue report for Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ Loi Ling in the Northern Shan States reaches woo ft.

^ In addition, opinion has been voiced in Shan State and in neighbouring Thailand, and to some extent in farther-reaching exile communities, in favour of the goal of "total independence for Shan State."
  • BGAN Burma Global Action Network - About Burma 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.burma-network.com [Source type: Original source]

.Compared with these ranges the Pegu Yomas assume the proportions of mere hills.^ Compared with these ranges the Pegu Yomas assume the proportions of mere hills.

^ This tract consists mostly of undulating lowlands, but it is broken towards the south by the Pegu Yomas, a considerable range of hills which divides the two remaining tracts of the Irrawaddy basin.

^ Of these Arakan is a strip of country lying on the seaward slopes of the range of hills known as the Arakan Yomas.

.Popa, a detached peak in the Myingyan district, belongs to this system and rises to a height of nearly 5000 f t., but it is interesting mainly as an extinct volcano, a landmark and an object of superstitious folklore, throughout the whole of Central Burma.^ Popa, a detached peak in the Myingyan district, belongs to this system and rises to a height of nearly 5000 f t., but it is interesting mainly as an extinct volcano , a landmark and an object of superstitious folklore , throughout the whole of Central Burma.

^ Yenangyaung the extinct volcano of Popa rises to a height of 3000 ft.

^ Loimye Bum, an extinct volcano north of Kansi and the highest peak in the area, is 1,562 m above sea level.
  • Burmese Jade, Pt. 1: Mines 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.palagems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Mud volcanoes occur at Minbu, but they are not in any sense mountains, resembling rather the hot springs which are found in many parts of Burma.^ Mud volcanoes occur at Minbu, but they are not in any sense mountains, resembling rather the hot springs which are found in many parts of Burma.

^ From studies of this fauna and some associated plant remains, together with an understanding of the type of rocks in which they occur, we can reconstruct the paleoenvironment of this part of Burma in the late Eocene.
  • Russell Ciochon -- Fossil Ancestors of Burma 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.uiowa.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An accompanying letter stated that they had found many more fossil mammal specimens, several of which they thought could also be primates.
  • Russell Ciochon -- Fossil Ancestors of Burma 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.uiowa.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They are merely craters raised above the level of the surrounding country by the gradual accretion of the soft oily mud, which overflows at frequent intervals whenever a discharge of gas occurs.^ They are merely craters raised above the level of the surrounding country by the gradual accretion of the soft oily mud, which overflows at frequent intervals whenever a discharge of gas occurs.

.Spurs of the Chin hills run down the whole length of the Lower Chindwin district, almost to Sagaing, and one hill, Powindaung, is particularly noted on account of its innumerable cave temples, which are said to hold no fewer than 446,444 images of Buddha.^ Spurs of the Chin hills run down the whole length of the Lower Chindwin district, almost to Sagaing, and one hill, Powindaung, is particularly noted on account of its innumerable cave temples, which are said to hold no fewer than 446,444 images of Buddha .

^ Street Zip code Cross street Restaurant name Hold down Control (PC) or Command (Mac) key + mouseclick to select more than one option .
  • Burma Superstar - San Francisco Restaurant - MenuPages Burmese Restaurant Search 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC sanfrancisco.menupages.com [Source type: General]

^ No one in Burma politics appears to appreciate this principle more than Than Shwe.
  • Burma News - Topix 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.topix.com [Source type: News]
  • Burma News - Topix 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.topix.net [Source type: News]

.Huge caves, of which the most noted are the Farm Caves, occur in the hills near Moulmein, and they too are full of relics of their ancient use as temples, though now they are chiefly visited in connexion with the bats, whose flight viewed from a distance, as they issue from the caves, resembles a cloud of smoke.^ Though the kyat is subdivided into 100 pyas, pya coins are scarce in their existence and instead, notes up to 1000 kyat are most commonly used.
  • Myanmar Kyat and Myanmar currency information including currency exchange rates 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.gocurrency.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They have now allowed some of these victims to visit relatives in Japan, but since they are not allowing their Korean families out of the country, the victims are expected to dutifully return to their North Korean prison -- most have not, hoping that their families will eventually be allowed to follow.
  • Korea, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Burma, Tibet, & Mongolia 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He said the protesters also repeatedly refused to heed polices advice to use lawful channels to express their views and proceeded to stage demonstrations knowing that they were not permitted to do so.

Rivers

.Of the rivers of Burma the Irrawaddy is the most important.^ Of the rivers of Burma the Irrawaddy is the most important.

^ In the past two decades, China has been Burma's most important source of military hardware, during a period in which the West has effectively banned sale of armaments to the junta.
  • Burma Larkin Orwell Finding 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.orwelltoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Gold is found in most of the rivers in Upper Burma, but the gold-washing industry is for the most part spasmodic in the intervals of agriculture.

.It rises possibly beyond the confines of Burma in the unexplored regions, where India, Tibet and China meet, and seems to be formed by the junction of a number of considerable streams of no great length.^ It rises possibly beyond the confines of Burma in the unexplored regions, where India , Tibet and China meet, and seems to be formed by the junction of a number of considerable streams of no great length.

^ Burma is a multiethnic country of about 54 million people which borders India to its west, China to its north, and Thailand lies on its eastern side.
  • Aiya Burma Fund 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC aiyafund.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mae Sae sits in the heart of the so-called Golden Triangle, the region containing the point on the map where the borders of Thailand, Burma and Laos meet.
  • Andy Carvin's Waste of Bandwidth: Burma Archives 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.andycarvin.com [Source type: General]

.Two rivers, the Mali and the N'mai, meeting about latitude 25° 45' some 150 m.^ Two rivers, the Mali and the N'mai, meeting about latitude 25° 45' some 150 m.

north of .Bhamo, contribute chiefly to its volume, and during the dry weather it is navigable for steamers up to their confluence.^ Bhamo, contribute chiefly to its volume, and during the dry weather it is navigable for steamers up to their confluence.

^ The vessels of the Irrawaddy Flotilla Company now ply to Bassein and to all points on the Irrawaddy as far north as Bhamo, and in the dry weather to Myitkyina, and also on the Chindwin as far north as Kindat, and to Homalin during the rains.

^ Steamers can navigate the Ayeyarwady for 1500 km, all the way to Bhamo in the north, close to the border with China.
  • Myanmar Travel Guide | AsiaExplorers 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.asiaexplorers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Up to Bhamo, a distance of 900 m.^ Up to Bhamo, a distance of 900 m.

from the sea, it is navigable throughout the year, and its chief tributary in .Burma, the Chindwin, is also navigable for steamers for 300 in.^ Burma, the Chindwin, is also navigable for steamers for 300 in.

from its junction with the Irrawaddy at Pakokku. .The Chindwin, called in its upper reaches the Tanai, rises in the hills south-west of Thama, and flows due north till it enters the southeast corner of the Hukawng valley, where it turns north-west and continues in that direction cutting the valley into two almost equal parts until it reaches its north-west range, when it turns almost due south and takes the name of the Chindwin.^ The Chindwin, called in its upper reaches the Tanai, rises in the hills south-west of Thama, and flows due north till it enters the southeast corner of the Hukawng valley, where it turns north-west and continues in that direction cutting the valley into two almost equal parts until it reaches its north-west range, when it turns almost due south and takes the name of the Chindwin.

^ In the western mountain ranges the beds are thrown into a series of folds which form a gentle curve running from south to north with its convexity facing westward.

^ Burma (called Myanmar by Burma's ruling military State Peace and Development Council or SPDC) is in mainland Southeast Asia and is bordered by Thailand and Laos on the East, India and Bangladesh on the West, and China on the North.

.It is a swift clear river, fed in its upper reaches by numerous mountain streams.^ It is a swift clear river, fed in its upper reaches by numerous mountain streams.

^ In addition to the numerous solid gold plates, the upper reaches are embedded with literally thousands of diamonds and other precious stones.
  • Ruby & Sapphire from Burma (Myanmar) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Mogaung river, rising in the watershed which divides the Irrawaddy and the Chindwin drainages, flows south and south-east for 180 m.^ The Mogaung river, rising in the watershed which divides the Irrawaddy and the Chindwin drainages, flows south and south-east for 180 m.

^ The area is a highly dissected upland, consisting of ranges of hills that form the Chindwin-Irrawaddy watershed (Chhibber, 1934b).
  • Burmese Jade, Pt. 1: Mines 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.palagems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The battle for Burma entered its final stage on 9 April 1945 when the Fourteenth Army launched a two-pronged drive south down the Irrawaddy River, and the Sittang River, which .
  • HyperWar: The U.S. Army Campaigns of World War II: CentralBurma 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

before it joins the .Irrawaddy, and is navigable for steamers as far as Kamaing for about four months in the year.^ Steamers plied on the Irrawaddy as far as Thayetmyo.

^ Irrawaddy, and is navigable for steamers as far as Kamaing for about four months in the year.

.South of Thayetmyo, where arms of the Arakan Yomas approach the river and almost meet that spur of the Pegu Yomas which formed till 1886 the northern boundary of British Burma, the valley of the Irrawaddy opens out again, and at Yegin Mingyi near Myanaung the influence of the tide is first felt, and the delta may be said to begin.^ South of Thayetmyo, where arms of the Arakan Yomas approach the river and almost meet that spur of the Pegu Yomas which formed till 1886 the northern boundary of British Burma, the valley of the Irrawaddy opens out again, and at Yegin Mingyi near Myanaung the influence of the tide is first felt, and the delta may be said to begin.

^ Background: The influence of Europe begins to be felt in the Irrawaddy delta in the 16th Century.
  • Aung San Suu Kyi hero file 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.moreorless.au.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of the rivers of Burma the Irrawaddy is the most important.

.The so-called rivers of the delta, the Ngawun, Pyamalaw, Panmawaddy, Pyinzalu and Pantanaw, are simply the larger mouths of the Irrawaddy, and the whole country towards the sea is a close network of creeks where there are few or no roads and boats take the place of carts for every purpose.^ The so-called rivers of the delta, the Ngawun, Pyamalaw, Panmawaddy, Pyinzalu and Pantanaw, are simply the larger mouths of the Irrawaddy, and the whole country towards the sea is a close network of creeks where there are few or no roads and boats take the place of carts for every purpose.

^ Net fisheries, worked by licence-holders in the principal rivers and along the sea-shore, are not nearly so profitable as the closed fisheries - called In - which are from time to time sold by auction for fixed periods of years.

^ I was also struck by the fact that with so much sophisticated cyclone forecasting technology and warning systems available in the region, apparently no attempt was made to evacuate people from Haing-Gyi Island in the mouth of the Irrawaddy River.

.There is, however, one true river of some size, the Hlaing, which rises near Prome, flows southwards and meets the Pegu river and the Pazundaung creek near Rangoon, and thus forms the estuary which is known as the Rangoon river and constitutes the harbour of Rangoon.^ There is, however, one true river of some size, the Hlaing, which rises near Prome, flows southwards and meets the Pegu river and the Pazundaung creek near Rangoon, and thus forms the estuary which is known as the Rangoon river and constitutes the harbour of Rangoon.

^ In 1754 Prome was besieged by the king of Pegu, who was again defeated by Alompra, and the war was transferred from the upper provinces to the mouths of the navigable rivers, and the numerous creeks and canals which intersect the lower country.

^ One night, while preaching at a village crusade near Kale, some men from the village tried to kill him.
  • Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.pctii.org [Source type: Original source]

.East of the Rangoon river and still within the deltaic area, though cut off from the main delta by the southern end of the Pegu Yomas, lies the mouth of the Sittang.^ East of the Rangoon river and still within the deltaic area, though cut off from the main delta by the southern end of the Pegu Yomas, lies the mouth of the Sittang.

^ But the greater part of this country is a mass of rugged hills cut deep with narrow gorges, within which even the biggest rivers are confined.

^ It is amateur video shot within the stricken Irrawaddy Delta and smuggled past the soldiers guarding what is now a restricted area.
  • Burma Live Chat: …because Peace, Justice, and Democracy are possible! 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.burmalivechat.com [Source type: News]

.This river, rising in the Sham-Karen hills, flows first due north and then southward through the Kyaukse, Yamethin and Toungoo districts, its line being followed by the Mandalay-Rangoon railway as far south as Nyaunglebin in the Pegu district.^ This river, rising in the Sham-Karen hills, flows first due north and then southward through the Kyaukse, Yamethin and Toungoo districts, its line being followed by the Mandalay-Rangoon railway as far south as Nyaunglebin in the Pegu district.

^ Yamethin District of Mandalay Division, Toungoo District of Bago Division, Thandaunggyi Township of north Kayin (Karen) state, Mobyè area of south Shan state.
  • Ethnologue report for Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ Karen sources on the Thai-Burmese border said DKBA soldiers will replace Burmese government troops positioned along the Salween River border in Papun District by 2010.
  • Candle4Burma : NEWS ABOUT HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS IN BURMA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC candle4burma.blogspot.com [Source type: News]

.At Toungoo it is narrow, but below Shwegyin it widens, and at Sittang it is half a mile broad.^ At Toungoo it is narrow, but below Shwegyin it widens, and at Sittang it is half a mile broad.

.It flows into the Gulf of Martaban, and near its mouth its course is constantly changing owing to erosion and corresponding accretions.^ It flows into the Gulf of Martaban , and near its mouth its course is constantly changing owing to erosion and corresponding accretions.

^ The Ayeyarwady River, Myanmar's longest river, nearly 2,170 km (1,348 mi) long, flows into the Gulf of Martaban.
  • Myanmar Liveaboard Cruises Info about Myanmar / Burma 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.highclass-adventure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The second river in the province in point of size is the Salween, a huge river, believed from the volume of its waters to rise in the Tibetan mountains to the north of Lhasa.^ The second river in the province in point of size is the Salween, a huge river, believed from the volume of its waters to rise in the Tibetan mountains to the north of Lhasa .

^ The Gyaing and the Attaran rivers meet the Salween at its mouth, and the three rivers form the harbour of Moulmein, the second seaport of Burma.

.It is in all probability actually longer than the Irrawaddy, but it is not to be compared to that river in importance.^ It is in all probability actually longer than the Irrawaddy, but it is not to be compared to that river in importance.

^ Mrauk U is actually on the Aungdat Chatung River, a tributary of the Kaladan River, less than 40 miles from Sittwe.

.It is, in fact, walled in on either side, with banks varying in British territory from 3000 to 6000 ft.^ It is, in fact, walled in on either side, with banks varying in British territory from 3000 to 6000 ft.

^ Despite the fact that Britain was on the winning side in the war, it could no longer uphold its old dominant position, either economically or militarily.
  • Burma: A potential paradise haunted by poverty and war 9 October 2009 6:10 UTC www.socialistworld.net [Source type: Original source]

high and at present unnavigable owing to serious rapids in .Lower Burma and at one or two places in the Shan States, but quite open to traffic for considerable reaches in its middle course.^ Lower Burma and at one or two places in the Shan States, but quite open to traffic for considerable reaches in its middle course.

^ In addition, opinion has been voiced in Shan State and in neighbouring Thailand, and to some extent in farther-reaching exile communities, in favour of the goal of "total independence for Shan State."
  • BGAN Burma Global Action Network - About Burma 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.burma-network.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In Lower Burma alone the enumeration of the trees made by Sulpiz Kurz in his Forest Flora of British Burma (1877) includes some 1500 species, and the unknown species of Upper Burma and the Shan States would probably increase this total very considerably.

.The Gyaing and the Attaran rivers meet the Salween at its mouth, and the three rivers form the harbour of Moulmein, the second seaport of Burma.^ The Gyaing and the Attaran rivers meet the Salween at its mouth, and the three rivers form the harbour of Moulmein, the second seaport of Burma.

^ The atrocities that I am reading about and the repercussions that I am witnessing are current events, happening just over those hills and across the Moei or the Salween river in Burma.
  • Clear Path International: Assisting Landmine Survivors, their Families and their Communities 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC clearpathinternational.org [Source type: General]

^ The second river in the province in point of size is the Salween, a huge river, believed from the volume of its waters to rise in the Tibetan mountains to the north of Lhasa .

Lakes

.The largest lake in the province is Indawgyi in the Myitkyina district.^ The largest lake in the province is Indawgyi in the Myitkyina district.

^ Yangon domestic terminal Continue reading "Myitkyina and Indawgyi Lake, Myanmar (Burma)" » .

^ Indawgyi Guest House II Continue reading "From Indawgyi Lake Back to Myitkyina, Myanmar (Burma)" » .

.It has an area of nearly too sq.^ It has an area of nearly too sq.

m. and is surrounded on three sides by ranges of hills, but is open to the north where it has an outlet in the Indaw river. .In the highlands of the Shan hills there are the Inle lakes near Yawnghwe, and in the Katha district also there is another Indaw which covers some 60 sq.^ The Meiktila lake covers an area of some 5 sq.

^ In the highlands of the Shan hills there are the Inle lakes near Yawnghwe, and in the Katha district also there is another Indaw which covers some 60 sq.

^ In the Shan States there are a few open plateaus, fertile and well populated, and Maymyo in the Mandalay district, the hill-station to which in the hot weather the government of Burma migrates, stands in the Pyin-u-lwin plateauYsome 3500 ft.

m. .Other lakes are the Paunglin lake in Minbu district, the Inma lake in Prome, the Tu and Duya in Henzada, the Shahkegyi and the Inyegyi in Bassein, the sacred lake at Ye in Tenasserim, and the Nagamauk, Panzernyaung and Walonbyan in Arakan.^ Other lakes are the Paunglin lake in Minbu district, the Inma lake in Prome, the Tu and Duya in Henzada, the Shahkegyi and the Inyegyi in Bassein, the sacred lake at Ye in Tenasserim, and the Nagamauk, Panzernyaung and Walonbyan in Arakan.

^ In 1902 a railway from Henzada to Bassein was formed and a connecting link with the Prome line from Henzada to Letpadan was opened in 1903.

.The Meiktila lake covers an area of some 5 sq.^ The Meiktila lake covers an area of some 5 sq.

^ Nowaday it is a bustling city of some 5 million inhabitants, covering an area of over 570 sq km.
  • Myanmar - The Internet Travel Guide (FAQ) (part 1/2) 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ In the highlands of the Shan hills there are the Inle lakes near Yawnghwe, and in the Katha district also there is another Indaw which covers some 60 sq.

m., but it is to some extent at least an artificial reservoir. .In the heart of the delta numerous large lakes or marshes abounding in fish are formed by the overflow of the Irrawaddy river during the rainy season, but these either assume very diminutive proportions or disappear altogether in the dry season.^ In the heart of the delta numerous large lakes or marshes abounding in fish are formed by the overflow of the Irrawaddy river during the rainy season, but these either assume very diminutive proportions or disappear altogether in the dry season.

^ Basin and delta of the Irrawaddy River ringed by a horseshoe of high mountains that isolates the country from India, China and Thailand.
  • Operation World - Detailed Information 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.operationworld.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The rainy season is from mid-May to mid-October with an average temperature of 25-30 C. Although it rains heavily in Yangon and Inle Lake, traveling in Myanmar during this season is still enjoyable because Mandalay and Bagan lies in dry zones where it barely rains.
  • myanmar travel , burma travel , travel to burma 11 September 2009 16:16 UTC www.travelmyanmar.com [Source type: News]

Climate

.The climate of the delta is cooler and more temperate than in Upper Burma, and this is shown in the fairer complexion and stouter physique of the people of the lower province as compared with the inhabitants of the drier and hotter upper districts as far as Bhamo, where there is a great infusion of other types of the TibetoBurman family.^ The staple crop of the province in both Upper and Lower Burma is rice.

^ The climate of the delta is cooler and more temperate than in Upper Burma, and this is shown in the fairer complexion and stouter physique of the people of the lower province as compared with the inhabitants of the drier and hotter upper districts as far as Bhamo, where there is a great infusion of other types of the TibetoBurman family.

^ The famous ruby mines of Upper Burma are in metamorphic rock, while the jadeite of the Bhamo neighbourhood is associated with the Tertiary intrusions of serpentine-like rock already noticed.'

.North of the apex of the delta and the boundary between the deltaic and inland tracts, the rainfall gradually lessens as far as Minbu, where what was formerly called the rainless zone commences and extends as far as Katha.^ North of the apex of the delta and the boundary between the deltaic and inland tracts, the rainfall gradually lessens as far as Minbu, where what was formerly called the rainless zone commences and extends as far as Katha.

^ Their domain advanced from the dry zone to incorporate the delta Mon centers at Pegu and Thaton; they extended political and religious ties overseas to Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) and fought off a Chinese invasion from the north.
  • MYANMAR, 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of Myanmar has a tropical monsoon climate; however, N of the Bago Hills around Mandalay is the so-called Dry Zone with a rainfall of 20 to 40 in.
  • Myanmar Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The rainfall in the coast districts varies from about 200 in.^ The rainfall in the coast districts varies from about 200 in.

^ The rainfall in the hills varies very considerably, but seems to range from about 60 in.

^ The coast-line from Taknaf, the mouth of the Naaf, in the Akyab district on the north, to the estuary of the Pakchan at Maliwun on the south, is about 1200 m.

in the .Arakan and Tenasserim divisions to an average of 90 in Rangoon and the adjoining portion of the Irrawaddy 'delta.^ Arakan and Tenasserim divisions to an average of 90 in Rangoon and the adjoining portion of the Irrawaddy 'delta.

^ The Cyclone Nagris hit the country most populated areas, Rangoon Division, Irrawaddy Division, Pegu Division, Mon State and Karen State during the weekend.
  • Statements of Ethnic Nationalites Council (Union of Burma) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.encburma.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The province falls into three natural divisions: Arakan with the Chin hills, the Irrawaddy basin, and the old province of Tenasserim , together with the portion of the Shan and Karen-ni states in the basin of the Salween , and part of Kengtung in the western basin of the Mekong.

.In the extreme north of Upper Burma the rainfall is rather less than in the country adjoining Rangoon, and in the dry zone the annual average falls as low as 20 and 30 in.^ In the extreme north of Upper Burma the rainfall is rather less than in the country adjoining Rangoon, and in the dry zone the annual average falls as low as 20 and 30 in.

^ Burma moves capital 400km north (from Rangoon to remote rural area near the town of Pyinmana).
  • Burma Larkin Orwell Finding 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.orwelltoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Burma is a multiethnic country of about 54 million people which borders India to its west, China to its north, and Thailand lies on its eastern side.
  • Aiya Burma Fund 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC aiyafund.com [Source type: Original source]

.The temperature varies almost as much as the rainfall.^ The temperature varies almost as much as the rainfall.

.It is highest in the central zone, the mean of the maximum readings in such districts as Magwe, Myingyan, Kyaukse, Mandalay and Shwebo in the month of May being close on 100° F., while in the littoral and sub-montane districts it is nearly ten degrees less.^ The mean of the minimum readings in December in the central zone districts is a few degrees under 60° F. and in the littoral districts a few degrees over that figure.

^ It is highest in the central zone, the mean of the maximum readings in such districts as Magwe, Myingyan, Kyaukse, Mandalay and Shwebo in the month of May being close on 100° F., while in the littoral and sub-montane districts it is nearly ten degrees less.

^ Popa, a detached peak in the Myingyan district, belongs to this system and rises to a height of nearly 5000 f t., but it is interesting mainly as an extinct volcano , a landmark and an object of superstitious folklore , throughout the whole of Central Burma.

.The mean of the minimum readings in December in the central zone districts is a few degrees under 60° F. and in the littoral districts a few degrees over that figure.^ The mean of the minimum readings in December in the central zone districts is a few degrees under 60° F. and in the littoral districts a few degrees over that figure.

^ It is highest in the central zone, the mean of the maximum readings in such districts as Magwe, Myingyan, Kyaukse, Mandalay and Shwebo in the month of May being close on 100° F., while in the littoral and sub-montane districts it is nearly ten degrees less.

^ In the hilly district of Mogok (Ruby Mines) the December mean minimum is 36.8° and the mean maximum 79°.

.In the hilly district of Mogok (Ruby Mines) the December mean minimum is 36.8° and the mean maximum 79°.^ In the hilly district of Mogok (Ruby Mines) the December mean minimum is 36.8° and the mean maximum 79°.

^ Tunnelling into the limestone in search of rubies at the Linyaungchi mine in the Mogok area.
  • Ruby & Sapphire from Burma (Myanmar) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are several peaks in the Ruby Mines district which rise beyond 7000 ft.

.The climate of the Chin and Kachin hills and also of the Shan States is temperate.^ The climate of the Chin and Kachin hills and also of the Shan States is temperate.

^ Several Shan states in the Shan hills in the east and the Kachin hills in the north.
  • BGAN Burma Global Action Network - About Burma 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.burma-network.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are two superintendents of the Shan States, one for the northern and one for the southern Shan States, and an assistant superintendent in the latter; a superintendent of the Arakan hill tracts and of the Chin hills, and a Chinese political adviser taken from the Chinese consular service.

.In the shade and off the ground the thermometer rarely rises above 80° F. or falls below 25° F. In the hot season and in the sun as much as 150° F. is registered, and on the grass in the cold weather ten degrees of frost are not uncommon.^ In the shade and off the ground the thermometer rarely rises above 80° F. or falls below 25° F. In the hot season and in the sun as much as 150° F. is registered, and on the grass in the cold weather ten degrees of frost are not uncommon.

.Snow is seldom seen either in the Chin or Shan hills, but there are snow-clad ranges in the extreme north of the Kachin country.^ Snow is seldom seen either in the Chin or Shan hills, but there are snow-clad ranges in the extreme north of the Kachin country.

^ The climate of the Chin and Kachin hills and also of the Shan States is temperate.

^ Several Shan states in the Shan hills in the east and the Kachin hills in the north.
  • BGAN Burma Global Action Network - About Burma 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.burma-network.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the narrow valleys of the Shan hills, and especially in the Salween valley, the shade maximum reaches 100° F. regularly for several weeks in April.^ In the narrow valleys of the Shan hills, and especially in the Salween valley, the shade maximum reaches 100° F. regularly for several weeks in April.

^ The population of Burma’s Kachin State consists mainly of Shan, who dominate the major towns and valleys, and Kachin, who traditionally inhabit the hills (Hertz, 1912).
  • Burmese Jade, Pt. 1: Mines 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.palagems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the east the Kachin, Shan and Karen hills, extending from the valley of the Irrawaddy into China far beyond the Salween gorge , form a continuous barrier and boundary, and tail off into a narrow range which forms the eastern watershed of the Salween and separates Tenasserim from Siam.

The rainfall in the hills varies very considerably, but seems to range from about 60 in. in the broader valleys to about 100 in. on the higher forest-clad ranges.

Geology

.Geologically, British Burma consists of two divisions, an eastern and a western.^ Geologically, British Burma consists of two divisions, an eastern and a western.

^ The geographical area Burma encompasses today can be traced to the Panglong Agreement, which combined Burma Proper, which consisted of Lower Burma and Upper Burma, and the Frontier Areas, which had been administered separately by the British.
  • BGAN Burma Global Action Network - About Burma 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.burma-network.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The geographical area Myanmar encompasses today can be traced to the Panglong Agreement, which combined Burma Proper, which consisted of Lower Burma and Upper Burma, and the Frontier Areas, which had been administered separately by the British.
  • Myanmar Liveaboard Cruises Info about Myanmar / Burma 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.highclass-adventure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The dividing line runs from the mouth of the Sittang river along the railway to Mandalay, and thence continues northward, with the same general direction but curving slightly towards the east.^ The dividing line runs from the mouth of the Sittang river along the railway to Mandalay, and thence continues northward, with the same general direction but curving slightly towards the east.

^ To reach the Mogok ruby mines you must travel for a day from Mandalay up the Irrawaddy by steamer and thence for sixty miles by motor along a road that leads through gorgeous forests toward the heart of the mountains.
  • Ruby Buying Guide 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.palagems.com [Source type: General]

^ This river, rising in the Sham-Karen hills, flows first due north and then southward through the Kyaukse, Yamethin and Toungoo districts, its line being followed by the Mandalay-Rangoon railway as far south as Nyaunglebin in the Pegu district.

West of this line the rocks are chiefly Tertiary and Quaternary; east of it they are mostly Palaeozoic or gneissic. .In the western mountain ranges the beds are thrown into a series of folds which form a gentle curve running from south to north with its convexity facing westward.^ The valley is surrounded by a chain of mountains that stem from the E Himalayas and spread out roughly in the shape of a giant horseshoe; the ranges and river valleys of the Chindwinn (a tributary of the Ayeyarwady) and of the Sittoung and the Thanlwin, or Salween (both to the E of the Ayeyarwady), run from north to south.
  • Myanmar Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The new city was designed and constructed in a chequerboard fashion, with the roads running north-south and east-west.
  • Myanmar - The Internet Travel Guide (FAQ) (part 1/2) 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Never held in the South, in the North they were, of course, run in the typical totalitarian fashion, with predictable results.
  • Korea, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Burma, Tibet, & Mongolia 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.There is an axial zone of Cretaceous and Lower Eocene, and this is flanked on each side by the Upper Eocene and the Miocene, while the valley of the Irrawaddy is occupied chiefly by the Pliocene.^ There is an axial zone of Cretaceous and Lower Eocene , and this is flanked on each side by the Upper Eocene and the Miocene , while the valley of the Irrawaddy is occupied chiefly by the Pliocene .

^ The first known kingdoms emerged in the lower Irrawaddy valley from the 5th century.
  • History of South East Asia 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.aseanfocus.com [Source type: Original source]

.Along the southern part of the Arakan coast the sea spreads over the western Miocene zone.^ Along the southern part of the Arakan coast the sea spreads over the western Miocene zone.

^ Fisheries and fish-curing exist both along the sea-coast of Burma and in inland tracts, and afforded employment to 126,651 persons in 1907.

^ The states included in eastern and western Karen-ni are not part of British India, and are not subject to any of the laws in force in the Shan States, but they are under the supervision of the superintendent of the southern Shan States.

.The Cretaceous beds have not yet been separated from the overlying Eocene, and the identification of the system rests on the discovery of a single Cenomanian ammonite.^ The Cretaceous beds have not yet been separated from the overlying Eocene, and the identification of the system rests on the discovery of a single Cenomanian ammonite.

.The Eocene beds are marine and contain nummulites.^ The Eocene beds are marine and contain nummulites.

The Miocene beds are also marine and are characterized by an abundant molluscan fauna. .The Pliocene, on the other hand, is of freshwater origin, and contains silicified wood and numerous remains of Mammalia.^ The Pliocene, on the other hand, is of freshwater origin, and contains silicified wood and numerous remains of Mammalia .

.Flint chips, which appear to have been fashioned by hand, are said to have been found in the Miocene beds, but to prove the existence of man at so early a period would require stronger evidence than has yet been brought forward.^ Flint chips, which appear to have been fashioned by hand, are said to have been found in the Miocene beds, but to prove the existence of man at so early a period would require stronger evidence than has yet been brought forward.

^ Around it are found many rubies which are brought in for sale to the Ava market, and are much finer than those of that place.
  • Ruby & Sapphire from Burma (Myanmar) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

.The older rocks of eastern Burma are very imperfectly known.^ The older rocks of eastern Burma are very imperfectly known.

.Gneiss and granite occur; Ordovician fossils have been found in the Upper Shan States, and Carboniferous fossils in Tenasserim and near Moulmein.^ Gneiss and granite occur; Ordovician fossils have been found in the Upper Shan States, and Carboniferous fossils in Tenasserim and near Moulmein.

^ Occasional fighting between government forces and various rebel groups has occurred in Chin State and Sagaing Division near India and along the Thai-Burma border area in Burma's Shan, Mon, Kayah (Karenni), and Karen states.
  • Burma (Myanmar) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tourmaline or rubellite is found on the borders of the Ruby Mines district and in the Shan State of Mong Long.

.Volcanic rocks are not common in any part of Burma, but about 50 m.^ To me, this is the most staggering thing about Burma: that the oppression of an entire nation of some 50 million people can be completely hidden from view.
  • Burma Larkin Orwell Finding 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.orwelltoday.com [Source type: Original source]

north-north-east of Yenangyaung the extinct volcano of Popa rises to a height of 3000 ft. above the surrounding Pliocene plain. Intrusions of a serpentine-like rock break through the Miocene strata north of Bhamo, and similar intrusions occur in the western ranges. .Whether the mud " volcanoes" of the Irrawaddy valley have any connexion with volcanic activity may be doubted.^ Whether the mud " volcanoes" of the Irrawaddy valley have any connexion with volcanic activity may be doubted.

.The petroleum of Burma occurs in the Miocene beds, one of the best-known fields being that of Yenangyaung.^ The petroleum of Burma occurs in the Miocene beds, one of the best-known fields being that of Yenangyaung.

^ Frederique Lengaigne and Klaus Reisinger take their cameras to one of Earth?s last frontiers: the Mergui archipelago of Myanmar, the country once known as Burma.
  • Myanmar Visa Online Service - Visa On Arrival and eVisa Travel Information on Burma 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC myanmarvisa.com [Source type: General]

^ One of those thirty comrades was a man named Shu Maung, better known as Bo Ne Win, later Burma’s dictator for 30 years.
  • Burma: A potential paradise haunted by poverty and war 9 October 2009 6:10 UTC www.socialistworld.net [Source type: Original source]

.Coal is found in the Tertiary deposits in the valley of the Irrawaddy and in Tenasserim.^ Coal is found in the Tertiary deposits in the valley of the Irrawaddy and in Tenasserim.

^ The richest soils are found in a narrow alluvial strip along the Bay of Bengal, where mountain streams irrigate the land; in the wide river valleys; and in the alluvial deposits of the Irrawaddy delta.
  • MYANMAR, 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Coal, copper, natural gas, and iron deposits have also been found in Myanmar.
  • Myanmar Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Tin is abundant in Tenasserim, and lead and silver have been worked extensively in the Shan States.^ Tin is abundant in Tenasserim, and lead and silver have been worked extensively in the Shan States.

^ East central; vicinity of Taunggyi, Shan state southward to Tavoy, Taninthayi (Tenasserim) Division.
  • Ethnologue report for Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ Southwestern Shan state and east of the Gulf of Martaban in Taninthayi (Tenasserim) Division.
  • Ethnologue report for Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

.The famous ruby mines of Upper Burma are in metamorphic rock, while the jadeite of the Bhamo neighbourhood is associated with the Tertiary intrusions of serpentine-like rock already noticed.'^ The Streeter syndicate joins with the Rothschilds to form the Burma Ruby Mines Ltd, which is floated on Feb.
  • Ruby & Sapphire from Burma (Myanmar) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Famous last words "If he won't Dim his I won't Dim mine" Burma-Shave .
  • Burma Shave Slogans 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sff.net [Source type: General]

^ Streeter and his associates later sold the lease to the Burma Ruby Mines, Limited for £55,000 (Brown, 1927).
  • Ruby & Sapphire from Burma (Myanmar) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

Population. - .The total population of Burma in 1901 was 10,490,624 as against 7,722,053 in 1891; but a considerable portion of this large increase was due to the inclusion of the Shan States and the Chin hills in the census area.^ Falam area, Chin Hills.
  • Ethnologue report for Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ In Kyawkme area in the northern Shan state.
  • Ethnologue report for Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ Chin Hills state, Upper Chindwin, Tiddim area.
  • Ethnologue report for Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

.Even in Burma proper, however, there was an increase during the decade of 1,530,822, or 19.8%.^ Even in Burma proper, however, there was an increase during the decade of 1,530,822, or 19.8%.

^ In the past two decades, China has been Burma's most important source of military hardware, during a period in which the West has effectively banned sale of armaments to the junta.
  • Burma Larkin Orwell Finding 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.orwelltoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lately there has been an increase in tourism to Burma, but most travelers will only see so much.
  • Burma Larkin Orwell Finding 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.orwelltoday.com [Source type: Original source]

.The density of population per square mile is 44 as compared with 167 for the whole of India and S52 for the Bengal Delta.^ The density of population per square mile is 44 as compared with 167 for the whole of India and S52 for the Bengal Delta.

^ Myanmar has a population density of 75 persons per km², one of the lowest in Southeast Asia.
  • Myanmar Liveaboard Cruises Info about Myanmar / Burma 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.highclass-adventure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By 1931, about 7 per cent of the population of Myanmar was Indian, predominantly from Bengal and Madras.
  • History of South East Asia 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.aseanfocus.com [Source type: Original source]

.England and Wales have a population more than twelve times as dense as that of Burma, so there is still room for expansion.^ News organisations, such as the BBC, Wall Street Journal, and The Financial Times, still use the name "Burma".
  • Myanmar Liveaboard Cruises Info about Myanmar / Burma 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.highclass-adventure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Planned 2010 Elections Not Credible if Opposition Remains in Prison (Washington, DC) - Burma's military government has more than doubled the number o...
  • Burma : Pictures, Videos, Breaking News 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

^ Bangladesh, a neighbor that has tension with Burma over a territorial dispute in the Bay of Bengal, is estimated to have more than 200 military aircraft, including MiG-29 SEs.
  • Aiya Burma Fund 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC aiyafund.com [Source type: Original source]

.The chief races of Burma are Burmese (6,508,682), Arakanese (405,143), Karens (717,859), Shans (787,087), Chins (179,292), Kachins (64,405) and Talaings (321,898); but these totals do not include the Shan States and Chin hills.^ Low intensity conflict continued in the Karen State of Eastern Burma, where a further 25 000 villagers were displaced, contributing to totals of 500 000 in the region, and 1-2 million nationwide.
  • Armed Conflicts Report - Burma 17 September 2009 1:36 UTC www.ploughshares.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The largest of the ethnic minorities are the Shans, the Karens and the Arakanese.
  • History of South East Asia 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.aseanfocus.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These territories were not exactly integral to the Burmese state; but the Second Burmese War led to the annexation of Lower Burma, with Rangoon and Pengu, in 1853.
  • Korea, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Burma, Tibet, & Mongolia 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Burmese in person have the Mongoloid characteristics common to the Indo-Chinese races, the Tibetans and tribes of the Eastern Himalaya.^ Burmese, the mother tongue of the Bamar and official language of Myanmar, is linguistically related to Tibetan and to the Chinese languages.
  • Myanmar Liveaboard Cruises Info about Myanmar / Burma 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.highclass-adventure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Burmese speak a Sino-Tibean language, more closely related to Tibetan and Karen than to Chinese itself.
  • Korea, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Burma, Tibet, & Mongolia 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.They may be generally described as of a stout, active, well-proportioned form; of a brown but never of an intensely dark complexion, with black, coarse, lank and abundant hair, and a little more beard than is possessed by the Siamese.^ The Arakan (Rakhine) Yoma range, with peaks reaching more than 2740 m (more than 9000 ft), forms a barrier between Myanmar and the subcontinent of India.
  • MYANMAR, 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More than 90 parties contested the general election of May 1990, in which the opposition National League for Democracy (NLD) won about 60% of the vote.
  • MYANMAR, 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now, they say, those women may be worse off than before.
  • Human Trafficking & Modern-day Slavery in Myanmar (Burma) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.gvnet.com [Source type: News]

.Owing to their gay and lively disposition the Burmese have been called " the Irish of the East," and like the Irish they are somewhat inclined to laziness.^ Owing to their gay and lively disposition the Burmese have been called " the Irish of the East," and like the Irish they are somewhat inclined to laziness.

^ Revival implants Christ's Spirit in believers and forthwith they, like their master, make bringing salvation to the world a chief purpose of their lives.
  • Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.pctii.org [Source type: Original source]

.Since the advent of the British power, the immigration of Hindus with a lower standard of comfort and of Chinamen with a keener business instinct has threatened the economic independence of the Burmese in their own country.^ Since the advent of the British power, the immigration of Hindus with a lower standard of comfort and of Chinamen with a keener business instinct has threatened the economic independence of the Burmese in their own country.

^ In 1948, Burma was granted independence from Britain, but the autonomy promised to many of the country’s ethnic minorities by the British was never realized.
  • Armed Conflicts Report - Burma 17 September 2009 1:36 UTC www.ploughshares.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Burmese women have a keener business instinct than the men, and serve in some degree to redress the balance.

.As compared with the Hindu, the Burmese wear silk instead of cotton, and eat rice instead of the cheaper grains; they are of an altogether freer and less servile, but also of a less practical character.^ As compared with the Hindu, the Burmese wear silk instead of cotton , and eat rice instead of the cheaper grains; they are of an altogether freer and less servile, but also of a less practical character.

^ The Burmese don't benefit from the gas exported to Thailand, instead they have suffered from forced labour and the military camps around the pipeline.

.The Burmese women have a keener business instinct than the men, and serve in some degree to redress the balance.^ The Burmese women have a keener business instinct than the men, and serve in some degree to redress the balance.

^ Since the advent of the British power, the immigration of Hindus with a lower standard of comfort and of Chinamen with a keener business instinct has threatened the economic independence of the Burmese in their own country.

^ As in Darfur, Burmese women are being systematically raped ; hundreds of thousands of women, children and men are subjected to forced labor ; and the country reportedly has more child soldiers -- some as young as seven -- than any other country in the world.
  • Burma Larkin Orwell Finding 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.orwelltoday.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Burmese children are adored by their parents, and are said to be the happiest and merriest children in the world.^ The Burmese children are adored by their parents, and are said to be the happiest and merriest children in the world.

Language and Literature

The Burmese are supposed by modern philologists to have come, as joint members of a vast Indo-Chinese immigration swarm, from western China to the head waters of the Irrawaddy and then separated, some to people Tibet and Assam, the others to press southwards into the 1 See also, for geology, W. Theobald, " On the Geology of Pegu." Mem. Geol. Surv. India, vol. x. pt. ii. .(1874); F. Noetling, " The Development and Subdivision of the Tertiary System in Burma," Rec.^ F. Noetling, " The Development and Subdivision of the Tertiary System in Burma," Rec.

Geol. Surv. India,
vol. xxviii. (1895), pp. 5986, pl. ii.; .F. Noetling, " The Occurrence of Petroleum in Burma, and its Technical Exploitation," Mem.^ F. Noetling, " The Occurrence of Petroleum in Burma, and its Technical Exploitation," Mem.

Geol. Surv. India,
vol. xxvii. pt. ii. (1898).
plains of Burma. .The indigenous tongues of Burma are divided into the following groups: - (a) The Burmese group.^ The indigenous tongues of Burma are divided into the following groups: - (a) The Burmese group.

^ It is divided into Upper and Lower Burma, the former being the territory annexed on 1st January 1886.

^ By the end of 1941, they had returned and put together an ‘army’ of a few thousand in Siam, and followed the invading Japanese into Burma.
  • Karen Human Rights Group | Background On Burma 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.khrg.org [Source type: Original source]

(b) The Kachin group.
.(c) The Kuki-Chin group.^ The Kuki-Chin group.

(d) The Tai group.
(e) - The Karen group.
.(f) The Upper Middle Mekong or Wa Palaung group.^ The Upper Middle Mekong or Wa Palaung group.

.(g) The North Cambodian group.^ The North Cambodian group.

.B. Malay family (h) The Selung language.^ B. Malay family ( h ) The Selung language.

.Burmese, which was spoken by 7,006,495 people in the province in 1901, is a monosyllabic language, with, according to some authorities, three different tones; so that any given syllable may have three entirely different meanings only distinguishable by the intonation when spoken, or by accents or diacritical marks when written.^ Burmese, the official language, is spoken by a large majority of the people.
  • MYANMAR, 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Adaptation of Expression Law also introduced English language names for other towns, some of which were not ethnically Burmese.
  • BGAN Burma Global Action Network - About Burma 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.burma-network.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although Burmese is the most widely spoken language (approx.
  • Burma (07/09) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are, however, very many weighty authorities who deny the existence of tones in the language.^ There are, however, very many weighty authorities who deny the existence of tones in the language.

^ There are naturally very many trees in these forests besides the teak.

^ There were however many Japanese advisors who prevented the BDA from taking actions contrary to the interests of Japan.
  • Political and Economic History of Myanmar (Burma) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The Burmese alphabet is borrowed from the Aryan Sanskrit through the Pali of Upper India.^ The Burmese alphabet is borrowed from the Aryan Sanskrit through the Pali of Upper India.

^ The Burmese alphabet is based on Sanskrit and a form of the alphabet of Pali, which is the sacred tongue of Buddhism.
  • MYANMAR, 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The language is written from left to right in what appears to be an unbroken line.^ The language is written from left to right in what appears to be an unbroken line.

^ Vowel signs appear above, below, or to the left or right of the base consonant.
  • Myanmar character notes 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC rishida.net [Source type: Reference]

^ There are also vowel sign combinations that appear both top and bottom, and left and right.
  • Myanmar character notes 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC rishida.net [Source type: Reference]

.Thus Burma possesses two kinds of literature, Pali and Burmese.^ Thus Burma possesses two kinds of literature, Pali and Burmese.

^ It is probable that Burma is the Chryse Regio of Ptolemy , a name parallel in meaning to Sonaparanta, the classic Pali title assigned to the country round the capital in Burmese documents.

^ Two Burmese speakers spoke about Burma and their experiences.

.The Pali is by far the more ancient, including as it does the Buddhist scriptures that originally found their way to Burma from Ceylon and southern India.^ The Pali is by far the more ancient, including as it does the Buddhist scriptures that originally found their way to Burma from Ceylon and southern India.

^ In years past this was the reason for diving Burma but now that alot more of the area has been explored we have found that alot of the better sites are closer to shore.
  • Burma diving - Burma liveaboard diving information. 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC divinginburma.com [Source type: General]

^ As China’s influence in Burma continues to grow, analysts have seen India’s recent military gifts to Burma as a way to balance out the power of influence in the region.
  • Armed Conflicts Report - Burma 17 September 2009 1:36 UTC www.ploughshares.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Burmese literature is for the most part metrical, and consists of religious romances, chronological histories and songs.^ The Burmese literature is for the most part metrical, and consists of religious romances, chronological histories and songs.

^ The most important features of early Burmese history is the migration that took place as a result of many wars of conquest and the migration from densely populated areas in India and China.
  • Burma: A potential paradise haunted by poverty and war 9 October 2009 6:10 UTC www.socialistworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The folk songs are the truest and most interesting national literature.

.The Maha Yazawin or " Royal Chronicle," forms the great historical work of Burma.^ The Maha Yazawin or " Royal Chronicle," forms the great historical work of Burma.

^ Based on Aung Sans promises of democracy, equality and self rule, the ethnic nationalities agreed to work together with Aung Sans interim government to form the Union of Burma: .
  • Statements of Ethnic Nationalites Council (Union of Burma) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.encburma.org [Source type: Original source]

.This is an authorized history, in which everything unflattering to the Burmese monarchs was rigidly suppressed.^ This is an authorized history, in which everything unflattering to the Burmese monarchs was rigidly suppressed.

.After the Second Burmese War no record was ever made in the Yazawin that Pegu had been torn away from Burma by the British.^ After the Second Burmese War no record was ever made in the Yazawin that Pegu had been torn away from Burma by the British.

^ During the reign of King Bagyidaw, in 1824, Burmese general Mahabandoola captured Assam, adjacent to British territory in India, leading to the First Anglo-Burmese War.
  • Myanmar Liveaboard Cruises Info about Myanmar / Burma 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.highclass-adventure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It became British colony after three Anglo-Burmese Wars in 1825, 1852, 1885 AD. During the Second World War, it was occupied by the Japanese from 1942 till the return of allied forces in 1945.
  • Myanmar Travel - Myanmar History Culture Information 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.myanmarmtetours.com [Source type: General]

.The folk songs are the truest and most interesting national literature.^ The folk songs are the truest and most interesting national literature.

^ The Burmese literature is for the most part metrical, and consists of religious romances, chronological histories and songs.

.The Burmese are fond of stage-plays in which great licence of language is permitted, and great liberty to " gag " is left to the wit or intelligence of the actors.^ The Burmese are fond of stage-plays in which great licence of language is permitted, and great liberty to " gag " is left to the wit or intelligence of the actors.

Government

.The province as a division of the Indian empire is administered by a lieutenant-governor, first appointed 1st May 1897, with a legislative council of nine members, five of whom are officials.^ The province as a division of the Indian empire is administered by a lieutenant-governor, first appointed 1st May 1897, with a legislative council of nine members, five of whom are officials.

^ The Council rules by decree, appoints every member of the Supreme Court, and approves each lower court judicial appointment made by the Supreme Court.
  • Internet Filtering in Burma in 2005: A Country Study | OpenNet Initiative 18 September 2009 10:25 UTC opennet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finally the British set up an Executive Council which ostensibly was for giving advice to the British appointed governor for Burma.
  • Political and Economic History of Myanmar (Burma) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.There are, besides, a chief secretary, revenue secretary, secretary and two under-secretaries, a public works department secretary with two assistants.^ There are, besides, a chief secretary, revenue secretary, secretary and two under-secretaries, a public works department secretary with two assistants.

^ The chief harvest is of mother of pearl , which suffices to pay the working expenses; and there is over and above the chance of finding a pearl of price.

^ Suu Kyi works as assistant secretary to a United Nations (UN) committee in New York.
  • Aung San Suu Kyi hero file 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.moreorless.au.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The revenue administration of the province is superintended by a financial commissioner, assisted by two secretaries, and a director of land records and agriculture, with a land records departmental staff.^ The revenue administration of the province is superintended by a financial commissioner, assisted by two secretaries, and a director of land records and agriculture , with a land records departmental staff.

^ There are, besides, a chief secretary, revenue secretary, secretary and two under-secretaries, a public works department secretary with two assistants.

^ The land revenue of the province was Rs.34,45,230.

.There is a chief court for the province with a chief justice and three justices, established in May 1900. Other purely judicial officers are the judicial commissioner for Upper Burma, and the civil judges of Mandalay and Moulmein.^ Other purely judicial officers are the judicial commissioner for Upper Burma, and the civil judges of Mandalay and Moulmein.

^ The chief mines and minerals are in Upper Burma.

^ There are three circles - Eastern, Central and Upper Burma.

.There are four commissioners of revenue and circuit, and nineteen deputy commissioners in Lower Burma, and four commissioners and seventeen deputy commissioners in Upper Burma.^ There are four commissioners of revenue and circuit , and nineteen deputy commissioners in Lower Burma, and four commissioners and seventeen deputy commissioners in Upper Burma.

^ The geographical area Burma encompasses today can be traced to the Panglong Agreement, which combined Burma Proper, which consisted of Lower Burma and Upper Burma, and the Frontier Areas, which had been administered separately by the British.
  • BGAN Burma Global Action Network - About Burma 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.burma-network.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The geographical area Myanmar encompasses today can be traced to the Panglong Agreement, which combined Burma Proper, which consisted of Lower Burma and Upper Burma, and the Frontier Areas, which had been administered separately by the British.
  • Myanmar Liveaboard Cruises Info about Myanmar / Burma 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.highclass-adventure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are two superintendents of the Shan States, one for the northern and one for the southern Shan States, and an assistant superintendent in the latter; a superintendent of the Arakan hill tracts and of the Chin hills, and a Chinese political adviser taken from the Chinese consular service.^ There are two superintendents of the Shan States, one for the northern and one for the southern Shan States, and an assistant superintendent in the latter; a superintendent of the Arakan hill tracts and of the Chin hills, and a Chinese political adviser taken from the Chinese consular service.

^ The climate of the Chin and Kachin hills and also of the Shan States is temperate.

^ Southern Shan state.
  • Ethnologue report for Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

.The police are under the control of an inspector-general, with deputy inspector-general for civil and military police, and for supply and clothing.^ The police are under the control of an inspector-general, with deputy inspector-general for civil and military police, and for supply and clothing.

^ Despite repeated violent crackdowns by the military and police, the demonstrations increased in size and many in the general public joined the students.
  • Burma (07/09) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ China obliged with massive arms supplies to the military junta, and one month later, in September 1988, the generals unleashed a reign of terror.
  • Aiya Burma Fund 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC aiyafund.com [Source type: Original source]

.The education department is under a director of public instruction, and there are three circles - eastern, western and Upper Burma, each under an inspector of schools.^ It was not till 1890 that the education department took action in Upper Burma.

^ There are three circles - Eastern, Central and Upper Burma.

^ The education department is under a director of public instruction, and there are three circles - eastern, western and Upper Burma, each under an inspector of schools.

.The Burma forests are divided into three circles each under a conservator, with twenty-one deputy conservators.^ It includes projects on wildlife, forest conservation and also on creating capacity within local communities in some of the poorest areas of Burma.
  • Burma: 24 Jun 2003: House of Lords debates (TheyWorkForYou.com) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.theyworkforyou.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One of our preachers was telling me how a Baptist family in Burma was led into a deeper experience with the Lord through a case of healing in the family.
  • Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.pctii.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Tourists may bring one laptop computer per person into Burma and must declare it upon arrival.
  • Burma (Myanmar) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are also a deputy postmaster-general, chief superintendent and four superintendents of telegraphs, a chief collector of customs, three collectors and four port officers, and an inspector-general of jails.^ There are also a deputy postmaster-general, chief superintendent and four superintendents of telegraphs, a chief collector of customs, three collectors and four port officers, and an inspector-general of jails.

^ The deputy commissioners perform the functions of district magistrates, district judges, collectors and registrars, besides the miscellaneous duties which fall to the principal district officer as representative of government.

^ There were exactly four other tourists inside "Jumping Cat Monastery" besides us and perhaps three or four cats wandering around, waiting for their big moment.

.At the principal towns benches of honorary magistrates, exercising powers of various degrees, have been constituted.^ At the principal towns benches of honorary magistrates, exercising powers of various degrees, have been constituted.

.There are forty-one municipal towns, fourteen of which are in Upper Burma.^ There are forty-one municipal towns, fourteen of which are in Upper Burma.

^ In Upper Burma all educational grants are paid from imperial funds; there is no cess as in Lower Burma.

^ Finally, there are the village headmen, assisted in Upper Burma by elders, variously designated according to old custom.

.The commissioners of division are ex officio sessions judges in their several divisions, and also have civil powers, and powers as revenue officers.^ The commissioners of division are ex officio sessions judges in their several divisions, and also have civil powers, and powers as revenue officers.

^ Subordinate to the deputy commissioners are assistant commissioners, extra-assistant commissioners and myooks, who are invested with various magisterial, civil and revenue powers, and hold charge of the townships, as the units of regular civil and revenue jurisdiction are called, and the sub-divisions of districts, into which most of these townships are grouped.

^ Other purely judicial officers are the judicial commissioner for Upper Burma, and the civil judges of Mandalay and Moulmein.

.They are responsible to the lieutenant-governor, each in his own division, for the working of every department of the public service, except the military department, and the branches of the administration directly under the control of the supreme government.^ They are responsible to the lieutenant-governor, each in his own division, for the working of every department of the public service, except the military department, and the branches of the administration directly under the control of the supreme government.

^ The images and stories that have emerged show above all a government afraid of its own people, without control over their minds and under too many watching eyes to curb the dissent in the manner it had grown accustomed to.

^ The military control of the country was called the “caretaker” government which was to be for six months but it lasted two years.
  • Aiya Burma Fund 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC aiyafund.com [Source type: Original source]

.The deputy commissioners perform the functions of district magistrates, district judges, collectors and registrars, besides the miscellaneous duties which fall to the principal district officer as representative of government.^ The deputy commissioners perform the functions of district magistrates, district judges, collectors and registrars, besides the miscellaneous duties which fall to the principal district officer as representative of government.

^ Among the salaried staff of officials, the townships officers are the ultimate representatives of government who come into most direct contact with the people.

.Subordinate to the deputy commissioners are assistant commissioners, extra-assistant commissioners and myooks, who are invested with various magisterial, civil and revenue powers, and hold charge of the townships, as the units of regular civil and revenue jurisdiction are called, and the sub-divisions of districts, into which most of these townships are grouped.^ Major cities are divided into districts called townships.
  • Myanmar Liveaboard Cruises Info about Myanmar / Burma 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.highclass-adventure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Subordinate to the deputy commissioners are assistant commissioners, extra-assistant commissioners and myooks, who are invested with various magisterial, civil and revenue powers, and hold charge of the townships, as the units of regular civil and revenue jurisdiction are called, and the sub-divisions of districts, into which most of these townships are grouped.

^ For the special supervision and encouragement of indigenous primary education in monastic and in lay schools, each circle of inspection is divided into sub-circles corresponding with one or more of the civil districts, and each sub-circle is placed under a deputyinspector or a sub-inspector of schools.

.Among the salaried staff of officials, the townships officers are the ultimate representatives of government who come into most direct contact with the people.^ Among the salaried staff of officials, the townships officers are the ultimate representatives of government who come into most direct contact with the people.

^ A veteran who is now surviving by begging in Insein Township said military officials told him not to beg while wearing any military clothing and not to say he was a veteran.
  • Aiya Burma Fund 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC aiyafund.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To most people who are familiar with the Karens, Karens are known for their colorful traditional clothes and for their energetic and jubilant festival dances.
  • BGAN Burma Global Action Network - About Burma 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.burma-network.com [Source type: Original source]

.Finally, there are the village headmen, assisted in Upper Burma by elders, variously designated according to old custom.^ It's a good Old Spanish custom Take your mug And brush And bust 'em Burma-Shave .
  • Burma Shave Slogans 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sff.net [Source type: General]

^ But the area which encompasses what later was designated Burma was more of a cockpit in which various ethnic groups vied for control.
  • Political and Economic History of Myanmar (Burma) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Fourteen villagers have been directly killed by sporadic clashes in Eastern Burma, while 25 000 more Burmese have become displaced there due to the Karen conflict.
  • Armed Conflicts Report - Burma 17 September 2009 1:36 UTC www.ploughshares.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Similarly in the towns, there are headmen of wards and elders of blocks.^ Similarly in the towns, there are headmen of wards and elders of blocks.

^ The system under which in towns headmen of wards and elders of blocks are appointed is of comparatively recent origin, and is modelled on the village system.

^ Finally, there are the village headmen, assisted in Upper Burma by elders, variously designated according to old custom.

.In Upper Burma these headmen have always been revenue collectors.^ In Upper Burma these headmen have always been revenue collectors.

^ There are four commissioners of revenue and circuit , and nineteen deputy commissioners in Lower Burma, and four commissioners and seventeen deputy commissioners in Upper Burma.

^ In Upper Burma the chief source of revenue is the thathameda, a tithe or income tax which was instituted by King Mindon, and was adopted by the British very much as they found it.

.The system under which in towns headmen of wards and elders of blocks are appointed is of comparatively recent origin, and is modelled on the village system.^ The system under which in towns headmen of wards and elders of blocks are appointed is of comparatively recent origin, and is modelled on the village system.

^ Similarly in the towns, there are headmen of wards and elders of blocks.

^ Finally, there are the village headmen, assisted in Upper Burma by elders, variously designated according to old custom.

.The Shan States were declared to be a part of British India by notification in 1886. The Shan States Act of 1888 vests the civil, criminal and revenue administration in the chief of the The Shan state, subject to the restrictions specified in the sanad States. or patent granted to him.^ The Shan States were declared to be a part of British India by notification in 1886.

^ The Shan States Act of 1888 vests the civil, criminal and revenue administration in the chief of the The Shan state, subject to the restrictions specified in the sanad States.

^ Criminal jurisdiction in cases in which either the complainant or the defendant is a European, or American, or a government servant , or a British subject not a native of a Shan State, is withdrawn from the chiefs and vested in the superintendents and assistant superintendents.

.The law to be administered in each state is the customary law of the state, so far as it is in accordance with the justice, equity and good conscience, and not opposed to the spirit of the law in the rest of British India.^ The law to be administered in each state is the customary law of the state, so far as it is in accordance with the justice, equity and good conscience , and not opposed to the spirit of the law in the rest of British India.

^ Taking the sexes apart, though women fall far behind men in the matter of education, still women are better educated in Burma than in the rest of India.

^ Upper Burma and Lower Burma were reunited, and Burma was administered as a single province within British India despite Burma’s independent history and traditions.
  • BGAN Burma Global Action Network - About Burma 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.burma-network.com [Source type: Original source]

.The superintendents exercise general control over the administration of criminal justice, and have power to call for cases, and to exercise wide revisionary powers.^ The superintendents exercise general control over the administration of criminal justice, and have power to call for cases, and to exercise wide revisionary powers.

^ This is particular the case with Myanmar under the control of the military dictatorship called .
  • Political and Economic History of Myanmar (Burma) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Administrative control is exercised from the central government through a system of subordinate executive bodies and regional military commanders.
  • Burma (07/09) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Criminal jurisdiction in cases in which either the complainant or the defendant is a European, or American, or a government servant, or a British subject not a native of a Shan State, is withdrawn from the chiefs and vested in the superintendents and assistant superintendents.^ Criminal jurisdiction in cases in which either the complainant or the defendant is a European, or American, or a government servant , or a British subject not a native of a Shan State, is withdrawn from the chiefs and vested in the superintendents and assistant superintendents.

^ There are two superintendents of the Shan States, one for the northern and one for the southern Shan States, and an assistant superintendent in the latter; a superintendent of the Arakan hill tracts and of the Chin hills, and a Chinese political adviser taken from the Chinese consular service.

^ The Burmans were in control at the time of the British conquest but there were times in history when other groups such as the Mons or the Tai people of the Shan State were dominant.
  • Political and Economic History of Myanmar (Burma) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Neither the superintendents nor the assistant superintendents have power to try civil suits, whether the parties are Shans or not.^ Neither the superintendents nor the assistant superintendents have power to try civil suits, whether the parties are Shans or not.

.In the Myelat division of the southern Shan States, however, the criminal law is practically the same as the law in force in Upper Burma, and the ngwegunhmus, or petty chiefs, have been appointed magistrates of the second class.^ The chief mines and minerals are in Upper Burma.

^ Burma consists of 14 states and divisions.
  • Burma (07/09) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the Myelat division of the southern Shan States, however, the criminal law is practically the same as the law in force in Upper Burma, and the ngwegunhmus, or petty chiefs, have been appointed magistrates of the second class.

.The chiefs of the Shan States are of three classes: - (1) sawbwas; (2) myosas; (3) ngwegunhmus.^ There are missionary schools amongst the Chins, Kachins and Shans, and a school for the sons of Shan chiefs at Taung-gyi in the southern Shan States.

^ The Shan States Act of 1888 vests the civil, criminal and revenue administration in the chief of the The Shan state, subject to the restrictions specified in the sanad States.

^ The chiefs of the Shan States are of three classes: - (1) sawbwas; (2) myosas; (3) ngwegunhmus.

.The last are found only in the Myelat, or border country between the southern Shan States and Burma.^ The last are found only in the Myelat, or border country between the southern Shan States and Burma.

^ Southern Shan state.
  • Ethnologue report for Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ Between the towns of Mobyè and Phekon in southern Shan state.
  • Ethnologue report for Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

.There are fifteen sawbwas, sixteen myosas and thirteen ngwegunhmus in the Shan States proper.^ There are fifteen sawbwas, sixteen myosas and thirteen ngwegunhmus in the Shan States proper.

^ The nation comprises Myanmar proper and the seven states of Chin, Kachin, Karen, Kayah, Mon, Rakhine, and Shan.
  • MYANMAR, 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Burmans were in control at the time of the British conquest but there were times in history when other groups such as the Mons or the Tai people of the Shan State were dominant.
  • Political and Economic History of Myanmar (Burma) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Two sawbwas are under the supervision of the commissioner of the Mandalay division, and two under the commissioner of the Sagaing division.^ Two sawbwas are under the supervision of the commissioner of the Mandalay division, and two under the commissioner of the Sagaing division.

^ Sagaing Division just west of Mandalay, Banmauk, Pinlebu and Indaw townships (Kadu, with Gaanan farther west); Rakhine state (Thet).
  • Ethnologue report for Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ Burma is garrisoned by a division of the Indian army, consisting of two brigades, under a lieutenant-general.

.The states vary enormously in size, from the 12,000 sq.^ The states vary enormously in size, from the 12,000 sq.

^ On the west, between the Pegu and the Arakan Yomas, stretches the Irrawaddy delta , a vast expanse of level plain 12,000 sq.

m. of the .Trans-Salween State of Keng Tung, to the 3.95 sq.^ Trans-Salween State of Keng Tung, to the 3.95 sq.

m. of .Nam Hkem in the Myelat.^ Nam Hkem in the Myelat.

The latter contained only 41 houses with 210 inhabitants in 1897 and has since been merged in the adjoining state. .There are five states, all sawbwaships, under the supervision of the superintendent of the northern Shan States, besides an indeterminate number of Wa States and communities of other races beyond the Salween river.^ In Kyawkme area in the northern Shan state.
  • Ethnologue report for Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ In addition, opinion has been voiced in Shan State and in neighbouring Thailand, and to some extent in farther-reaching exile communities, in favour of the goal of "total independence for Shan State."
  • BGAN Burma Global Action Network - About Burma 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.burma-network.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The United Nations, ASEAN, and others in the international community, including the United States, provided international relief assistance to meet both immediate and long-term needs.
  • Burma (Myanmar) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The superintendent of the southern Shan States supervises thirty-nine, of which ten are sawbwaships.^ Southern Shan state.
  • Ethnologue report for Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ The superintendent of the southern Shan States supervises thirty-nine, of which ten are sawbwaships.

^ There are missionary schools amongst the Chins, Kachins and Shans, and a school for the sons of Shan chiefs at Taung-gyi in the southern Shan States.

.The headquarters of the northern Shan States are at Lashio, of the southern Shan States at Taung-gyi.^ In Kyawkme area in the northern Shan state.
  • Ethnologue report for Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ The headquarters of the northern Shan States are at Lashio , of the southern Shan States at Taung-gyi .

^ Southern Shan state.
  • Ethnologue report for Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

.The states included in eastern and western Karen-ni are not part of British India, and are not subject to any of the laws in force in the Shan States, but they are under the supervision of the superintendent of the southern Shan States.^ Shan Plateau of eastern Shan state.
  • Ethnologue report for Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ The Shan States were declared to be a part of British India by notification in 1886.

^ The states included in eastern and western Karen-ni are not part of British India, and are not subject to any of the laws in force in the Shan States, but they are under the supervision of the superintendent of the southern Shan States.

.The northern portion of the Karen hills is at present dealt with on the principle of political as distinguished from administrative control.^ The northern portion of the Karen hills is at present dealt with on the principle of political as distinguished from administrative control.

^ The whole is comprised in the districts of Toungoo and Thaton , part of the Karen-ni hills, with the Salween hill tract and the northern parts of Amherst , which form the northern portion of the Tenasserim administrative division.

^ Northward from this lies the major portion of the Southern Shan States and Karen-ni and a narrowing strip along the Salween of the Northern Shan States.

.The tribes are not interfered with as long as they keep the peace.^ The tribes are not interfered with as long as they keep the peace.

.What is specifically known as the Kachin hills, the country taken under administration in the Bhamo and Myitkyina districts, is divided into forty tracts.^ What is specifically known as the Kachin hills, the country taken under administration in the Bhamo and Myitkyina districts, is divided into forty tracts.

^ For the special supervision and encouragement of indigenous primary education in monastic and in lay schools, each circle of inspection is divided into sub-circles corresponding with one or more of the civil districts, and each sub-circle is placed under a deputyinspector or a sub-inspector of schools.

^ Comment: The military dictators of Burma have turned a country that was once known as the "rice bowl of Asia", and which is endowed with many natural riches, into a basket case.
  • Aung San Suu Kyi hero file 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.moreorless.au.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Beyond these tracts there are many Kachins in Katha, Mong-Mit, and the northern Shan States, but though they are often the preponderating, they are not the exclusive population.^ In Kyawkme area in the northern Shan state.
  • Ethnologue report for Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ Beyond these tracts there are many Kachins in Katha, Mong-Mit, and the northern Shan States, but though they are often the preponderating, they are not the exclusive population.

^ They were there due to the large amount of traffic attending Royal Ascot that passes this station, with many a stretch-limousine filling up.

.The country within the forty tracts may be considered the Kachin hills proper, and it lies between 23° 30' and 26° 30' N. lat.^ The country within the forty tracts may be considered the Kachin hills proper, and it lies between 23° 30' and 26° 30' N. lat.

^ But the greater part of this country is a mass of rugged hills cut deep with narrow gorges, within which even the biggest rivers are confined.

^ It is a narrow strip of country lying between the Bay of Bengal and the high range of hills which form the eastern boundary of the province towards Siam.

and 96° and 98° E. long. .Within this area the petty chiefs have appointment orders, the people are disarmed, and the rate of tribute per household is fixed in each case.^ Within this area the petty chiefs have appointment orders, the people are disarmed, and the rate of tribute per household is fixed in each case.

.Government is regulated by the A. Indo-Chinese (1) Tibet-Burman family sub-family (2) Siamese-Chinese sub-family (3) Mon-Annam sub-family Railways Divisional Headquarters O District Headquarters .....^ Ethnic Burmans (68%) constitute the largest ethnic group, but a variety of minority groups exist, including the Shan (9%), Karen (7%), Rakhine (4%), Chinese (3%), Indian (2%), and Mon (2%).
  • Internet Filtering in Burma in 2005: A Country Study | OpenNet Initiative 18 September 2009 10:25 UTC opennet.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Government is regulated by the A. Indo-Chinese (1) Tibet-Burman family sub-family (2) Siamese-Chinese sub-family (3) Mon- Annam sub-family Railways Divisional Headquarters O District Headquarters .....

^ Burman 68%, Shan 9%, Karen 7%, Rakhine 4%, Chinese 3%, Indian 2%, Mon 2%, other 5% .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Burma 9 October 2009 6:10 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Burma 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

..0 .N.B. Where the name of a District is omitted, it is the same as that of Headquarters.^ N.B. Where the name of a District is omitted, it is the same as that of Headquarters.

.Where the name of the chief town in a Shan State is the same as that of State, it is shown underlined.
- Jessore 3 °vt of 9 2° 94a West °C.Price North Andaman Mya ?^ Where the name of the chief town in a Shan State is the same as that of State, it is shown underlined.

^ Kokang Shan is in Kokang area, north Wa area, Shan state; Tai Mao is on Burma-Yunnan border, centered at Mu’ang Mao Long or Namkham, Myanmar.
  • Ethnologue report for Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ Chin state, Falam Township, north of Falam town.
  • Ethnologue report for Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

Negrais  ??%f? _ 'P pnt` °" %s. a? a til ‘? of .Middle Andaman Ca p l +rr North 'r h ?^ Middle Andaman Ca p l +rr North 'r h ?

.' o P
B Sentinel Q A Rutland /, 5 a ssage Paialankw e ?^ P B Sentinel Q A Rutland /, 5 a ssage Paialankw e ?

t `s4 Little Andaman Soot/, Prepares
.
Channel  Heinze Bay North!'^ Channel Heinze Bay North!'

Moscos;. Middle Moscos'; Ten South') a0 Degree Channel Car Nicobar Batti Naive t. .K ?Te sim p g ?Q Hph instone l a .?^ K ?Te sim p g ?Q Hph instone l a .?

.?. ?. ? ?n° ,'Ben ksll - ._ Dotmme { l ., Salsl ° ° ClarattlliuF/ I? Chaura Ng yajlTillangshong Teressak5Bompoka Camorta$Trtnka Katchall ' Sombrero Channel Lit.^ 'Ben ksll - _ Dotmme { l ., Salsl ° ° ClarattlliuF/ I? Chaura Ng yajlTillangshong Teressak5Bompoka Camorta$Trtnka Katchall ' Sombrero Channel Lit.

.Nicobar Mon char!^ Nicobar Mon char !

l Gt. Nicobar & °' Nicobar Is. Sam scale.
A E 9 94 D Long. .E. 9 6 of Greenwich Kt Interview I. Pt Kachin hills regulation.^ E. 9 6 of Greenwich Kt Interview I. Pt Kachin hills regulation.

.Since 1894 the country has been practically undisturbed, and large numbers of Kachins are enlisted, and ready to enlist in the military police, and seem likely to form as good troops as the Gurkhas of Nepal.^ Since 1894 the country has been practically undisturbed, and large numbers of Kachins are enlisted, and ready to enlist in the military police, and seem likely to form as good troops as the Gurkhas of Nepal .

^ The military regime has a contentious relationship with Burma's ethnic groups, many of which have fought for greater autonomy or secession for their regions since the country's independence.
  • Burma (07/09) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Q&A: Protests in Burma The BBC looks at what triggered the biggest protests in Burma since a popular uprising in 1988, and what it might mean for the future of the military-run country.
  • BGAN Burma Global Action Network - About Burma 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.burma-network.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Chin hills were not declared an integral part of Burma until 1895, but they now form a scheduled district.^ The Chin hills were not declared an integral part of Burma until 1895, but they now form a scheduled district.

^ The group pledged to continue their protests until they had "wiped the military dictatorship from the land of Burma", and called on people across Burma to join them.
  • BGAN Burma Global Action Network - About Burma 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.burma-network.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The cannoneers With hairy ears On wiry whiskers Used tin shears Until they found Burma-Shave .
  • Burma Shave Slogans 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sff.net [Source type: General]

.The chiefs, however, are allowed to administer their own affairs, as far as may be, in accordance with their own customs, subject to the supervision of the superintendent of the Chin hills.^ The chiefs, however, are allowed to administer their own affairs, as far as may be, in accordance with their own customs, subject to the supervision of the superintendent of the Chin hills.

^ The states included in eastern and western Karen-ni are not part of British India, and are not subject to any of the laws in force in the Shan States, but they are under the supervision of the superintendent of the southern Shan States.

^ There are also a deputy postmaster-general, chief superintendent and four superintendents of telegraphs, a chief collector of customs, three collectors and four port officers, and an inspector-general of jails.

Religion

.Buddhists make up more than 88.6°/x; Mussulmans 3.28; spirit-worshippers 3.85; Hindus 2.76, and Christians 1.42 of the total population of the province.^ Buddhists make up more than 88.6°/x; Mussulmans 3.28; spirit-worshippers 3.85; Hindus 2.76, and Christians 1.42 of the total population of the province.

^ However, the issues can be more complicatory when US legal measures can make foreign corporations, for instance Total in Yadana case, liable to human rights claims.
  • Trade and Environmental Database Prof 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ England and Wales have a population more than twelve times as dense as that of Burma, so there is still room for expansion.

.The large nominal proportion of Buddhists is deceptive.^ The large nominal proportion of Buddhists is deceptive.

.The Burmese are really as devoted to demonolatry as the hill-tribes who are labelled plain spiritworshippers.^ The Burmese are really as devoted to demonolatry as the hill-tribes who are labelled plain spiritworshippers.

.The actual figures of the various religions, according to the census of 1901, are as follows: Buddhists..^ The actual figures of the various religions, according to the census of 1901, are as follows: Buddhists..

^ The total number of persons engaged in the production of textile fabrics in Burma according to the census of 1901 was 419,007.

9,184,121 Spirit-worshippers. 399,390 Hindus. ... 285,484 Mussulmans. .. 339,446 Christians. .. .147,525 The chief religious principle of the Burmese is to acquire merit for their next incarnation by good works done in this life.^ The chief religious principle of the Burmese is to acquire merit for their next incarnation by good works done in this life.

.The bestowal of alms, offerings of rice to priests, the founding of a monastery, erection of pagodas, with which the country is crowded, the building of a bridge or rest-house for the convenience of travellers are all works of religious merit, prompted, not by love of one's fellowcreatures, but simply and solely for one's own future advantage.^ Dominating the city skyline is the resplendent Shwedagon Pagoda, one of the most important religious sites in the country.
  • Myanmar Travel - Tours, Hotels and Day Trips in Myanmar by Exotissimo 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC myanmar.exotissimo.com [Source type: General]

^ Her own personal example and her courage and bravery in raising this issue again and again in your Lordships' House is an inspiration to us all.
  • Burma: 24 Jun 2003: House of Lords debates (TheyWorkForYou.com) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.theyworkforyou.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Abrahams says all ethnic minorities, including the Karen, and some opposition politicians hope for a future Burma that is a federalized country in which minorities have their own, autonomous homelands.

.An analysis shows that not quite two in every thousand Burmese profess Christianity, and there are about the same number of Mahommedans among them.^ An analysis shows that not quite two in every thousand Burmese profess Christianity , and there are about the same number of Mahommedans among them.

^ In order to avoid visual confusion, there are two forms of the long -aa vowel sign in Burmese.
  • Myanmar character notes 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC rishida.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Two Burmese speakers spoke about Burma and their experiences.

.It is admitted by the missionaries themselves that Christianity has progressed very slowly among the Burmese in comparison with the rapid progress made amongst the Karens.^ These Christians returned themselves as Burmese.

^ It is admitted by the missionaries themselves that Christianity has progressed very slowly among the Burmese in comparison with the rapid progress made amongst the Karens.

^ It is amongst the Sgaw Karens that the greatest progress in Christianity has been made, and the number of spirit-worshippers among them is very much smaller.

.It is amongst the Sgaw Karens that the greatest progress in Christianity has been made, and the number of spirit-worshippers among them is very much smaller.^ It is amongst the Sgaw Karens that the greatest progress in Christianity has been made, and the number of spirit-worshippers among them is very much smaller.

^ It is admitted by the missionaries themselves that Christianity has progressed very slowly among the Burmese in comparison with the rapid progress made amongst the Karens.

^ Of recent years many conversions to Christianity have been made by the American Baptist missionaries amongst the Lahu or Muhso hill tribesmen.

.The number of Burmese Christians is considerably increased by the inclusion among them of the Christian descendants of the Portuguese settlers of Syriam deported to the old Burmese Tabayin, a village now included in the Ye-u subdivision of Shwebo.^ The number of Burmese Christians is considerably increased by the inclusion among them of the Christian descendants of the Portuguese settlers of Syriam deported to the old Burmese Tabayin, a village now included in the Ye-u subdivision of Shwebo.

^ An analysis shows that not quite two in every thousand Burmese profess Christianity , and there are about the same number of Mahommedans among them.

^ Only 9.4% of the people were classed as urban in the census of 1901, and a considerable proportion of this number were natives of India and not Burmese.

.These Christians returned themselves as Burmese.^ These Christians returned themselves as Burmese.

^ These were attacked on the 23rd of September 1823 by the Burmese, and driven from their post with the loss of several lives; and to the repeated demands of the British for redress no answer was returned.

^ It is admitted by the missionaries themselves that Christianity has progressed very slowly among the Burmese in comparison with the rapid progress made amongst the Karens.

.The forms of Christianity which make most converts in Burma are the Baptist and Roman Catholic faiths.^ The forms of Christianity which make most converts in Burma are the Baptist and Roman Catholic faiths.

^ Other religions--Christian 4% (Baptist 3%, Roman Catholic 1%), Muslim 4%, and animist 1%--are less prevalent, although Christian and Muslim groups claim the regime significantly underestimates their number of adherents.
  • Burma (07/09) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ U.S. State Department and express concern for the well being of the Christians in Burma asking them to make an inquiry into their status.
  • Persecuted Countries: Myanmar - Persecution.org - International Christian Concern 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.persecution.org [Source type: Original source]

.Of recent years many conversions to Christianity have been made by the American Baptist missionaries amongst the Lahu or Muhso hill tribesmen.^ Of recent years many conversions to Christianity have been made by the American Baptist missionaries amongst the Lahu or Muhso hill tribesmen.

^ In recent months the military regime has made an even greater mockery of its planned 2010 elections by giving many life sentences to political prisoners.

^ It is admitted by the missionaries themselves that Christianity has progressed very slowly among the Burmese in comparison with the rapid progress made amongst the Karens.

Education

.Compared with other Indian provinces, and even with some of the countries of Europe, Burma takes a very high place in the returns of those able to both read and write.^ Compared with other Indian provinces, and even with some of the countries of Europe , Burma takes a very high place in the returns of those able to both read and write.

^ The absence of all prejudice in favour of the seclusion of women also is one of the main reasons why in this province the proportion who can read and write is higher than in any other part of India, Cochin alone excepted.

^ Frederique Lengaigne and Klaus Reisinger take their cameras to one of Earth?s last frontiers: the Mergui archipelago of Myanmar, the country once known as Burma.
  • Myanmar Visa Online Service - Visa On Arrival and eVisa Travel Information on Burma 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC myanmarvisa.com [Source type: General]

.Taking the sexes apart, though women fall far behind men in the matter of education, still women are better educated in Burma than in the rest of India.^ Taking the sexes apart, though women fall far behind men in the matter of education, still women are better educated in Burma than in the rest of India.

^ England takes by far the greatest share of Burma's rice, though large quantities are also consumed in Germany , while France , Italy , Belgium and Holland also consume a considerable amount.

^ Tested In peace Proven in war Better now Than ever before Burma-Shave .
  • Burma Shave Slogans 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sff.net [Source type: General]

.The average number of each sex in Burma per thousand is :- literates, male 378; female, 45; illiterates, male, 622; female, 955. The number of literates per thousand in Bengal is: male, 104; female, 5. The proportion was greatly reduced in the 1901 census by the inclusion of the Shan States and the Chin hills, which mostly consist of illiterates.^ Occasional fighting between government forces and various rebel groups has occurred in Chin State and Sagaing Division near India and along the Thai-Burma border area in Burma's Shan, Mon, Kayah (Karenni), and Karen states.
  • Burma (Myanmar) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Taunggyi is the capital of Southern Shan State, another former British hill station and very prosperous.

^ It is illegal to publish a Chin language Bible—although the Chin are 90 per cent Christian—and even Burmese language Bibles cannot be freely circulated in Chin state.
  • Burma: 24 Jun 2003: House of Lords debates (TheyWorkForYou.com) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.theyworkforyou.com [Source type: Original source]

.The fact that in Upper Burma the proportion of literates is nearly as high as, and the proportion of those under instruction even higher than, that of the corresponding classes in Lower Burma, is a clear proof that in primary education, at least, the credit for the superiority of the Burman over the native of India is due to indigenous schools.^ The fact that in Upper Burma the proportion of literates is nearly as high as, and the proportion of those under instruction even higher than, that of the corresponding classes in Lower Burma, is a clear proof that in primary education, at least, the credit for the superiority of the Burman over the native of India is due to indigenous schools.

^ There are nine standards of instruction,and the classes in schools correspond with these standards.

^ For the special supervision and encouragement of indigenous primary education in monastic and in lay schools, each circle of inspection is divided into sub-circles corresponding with one or more of the civil districts, and each sub-circle is placed under a deputyinspector or a sub-inspector of schools.

.In almost every village in the province there is a monastery, where the most regular occupation of one or more of the resident pongyis, or Buddhist monks, is the instruction free of charge of the children of the village.^ Almost every village had a Monastery, a necessary fixture for the people.

^ In almost every village in the province there is a monastery, where the most regular occupation of one or more of the resident pongyis, or Buddhist monks , is the instruction free of charge of the children of the village.

^ Governance # The Irrawaddy reports that there is only one doctor available for every 7,314 prisoners in Myanmar.
  • Global Voices Online » Myanmar (Burma) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC globalvoicesonline.org [Source type: General]

.The standard of instruction, however, is very low, consisting only of reading and writing, though this is gradually being improved in very many monasteries.^ In reality, however, Pentecostals have emphasized Christian education from the very beginning and have educated many workers for the service of the Kingdom.
  • Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.pctii.org [Source type: Original source]

.The absence of all prejudice in favour of the seclusion of women also is one of the main reasons why in this province the proportion who can read and write is higher than in any other part of India, Cochin alone excepted.^ The Senate vote on the sanctions legislation was 97 to one in favour—a greater cross-party consensus than on any other foreign policy issue.
  • Burma: 24 Jun 2003: House of Lords debates (TheyWorkForYou.com) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.theyworkforyou.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These Theravada states are thus all colored more orange than red, to indicate their cultural status in relation to India rather than China.
  • Korea, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Burma, Tibet, & Mongolia 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The king learned of the deception when he proudly showed his half to the dealer who had bought the other part (Keely, 1982).
  • Ruby & Sapphire from Burma (Myanmar) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

.It was not till 1890 that the education department took action in Upper Burma.^ It was not till 1890 that the education department took action in Upper Burma.

^ In Upper Burma all educational grants are paid from imperial funds; there is no cess as in Lower Burma.

^ Much of Upper Burma, however, remained disturbed until 1890.

.It was then ascertained that there were 684 public schools with 14,133 pupils, and 1664 private schools with 8685 pupils.^ It was then ascertained that there were 684 public schools with 14,133 pupils, and 1664 private schools with 8685 pupils.

^ It is worthy of remark that of these schools 29 were Mahommedan, and that there were 176 schools for girls in which upwards of 2000 pupils were taught.

^ The education department is under a director of public instruction, and there are three circles - eastern, western and Upper Burma, each under an inspector of schools.

.It is worthy of remark that of these schools 29 were Mahommedan, and that there were 176 schools for girls in which upwards of 2000 pupils were taught.^ It is worthy of remark that of these schools 29 were Mahommedan, and that there were 176 schools for girls in which upwards of 2000 pupils were taught.

^ It was then ascertained that there were 684 public schools with 14,133 pupils, and 1664 private schools with 8685 pupils.

^ There are nine standards of instruction,and the classes in schools correspond with these standards.

.There are three circles - Eastern, Central and Upper Burma.^ There are three circles - Eastern, Central and Upper Burma.

^ In Upper Burma all educational grants are paid from imperial funds; there is no cess as in Lower Burma.

^ Finally, there are the village headmen, assisted in Upper Burma by elders, variously designated according to old custom.

.For the special supervision and encouragement of indigenous primary education in monastic and in lay schools, each circle of inspection is divided into sub-circles corresponding with one or more of the civil districts, and each sub-circle is placed under a deputyinspector or a sub-inspector of schools.^ Burma, which was occasionally invaded from China, and sometimes under Chinese suzerainty, was also a sub-Indian civilization.
  • Korea, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Burma, Tibet, & Mongolia 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) : .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Burma 9 October 2009 6:10 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The mineral district is divided into 50 or 60 parts, which, beside the general name of "mine," have each a different appellation.
  • Ruby & Sapphire from Burma (Myanmar) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

.There are nine standards of instruction,and the classes in schools correspond with these standards.^ There are nine standards of instruction,and the classes in schools correspond with these standards.

^ It is worthy of remark that of these schools 29 were Mahommedan, and that there were 176 schools for girls in which upwards of 2000 pupils were taught.

^ The school had 268 primary and 201 middle-class students and our visit there was definitely a highlight for us as well as them.

.In Upper Burma all educational grants are paid from imperial funds; there is no cess as in Lower Burma.^ In Upper Burma all educational grants are paid from imperial funds; there is no cess as in Lower Burma.

^ The geographical area Burma encompasses today can be traced to the Panglong Agreement, which combined Burma Proper, which consisted of Lower Burma and Upper Burma, and the Frontier Areas, which had been administered separately by the British.
  • BGAN Burma Global Action Network - About Burma 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.burma-network.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The gross revenue of Lower Burma from all sources in 1871-1872 was Rs.1,36,34,520, of which Rs.1,21,70,5 o was from imperial taxation , Rs.3,73,200 from provincial services, and Rs.10,90,790 from local funds.

Grants-in-aid are given according to results. .There is only one college, at Rangoon, which is affiliated to the Calcutta University.^ There is only one college, at Rangoon, which is affiliated to the Calcutta University.

^ Governance # The Irrawaddy reports that there is only one doctor available for every 7,314 prisoners in Myanmar.
  • Global Voices Online » Myanmar (Burma) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC globalvoicesonline.org [Source type: General]

^ There are normally different forms for specific tones, and normally only one or two vowel+tone combinations have these forms.
  • Myanmar character notes 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC rishida.net [Source type: Reference]

.There are missionary schools amongst the Chins, Kachins and Shans, and a school for the sons of Shan chiefs at Taung-gyi in the southern Shan States.^ The climate of the Chin and Kachin hills and also of the Shan States is temperate.

^ There are missionary schools amongst the Chins, Kachins and Shans, and a school for the sons of Shan chiefs at Taung-gyi in the southern Shan States.

^ The headquarters of the northern Shan States are at Lashio , of the southern Shan States at Taung-gyi .

.A Patamabyan examination for marks in the Pali language was first instituted in 1896 and is held annually.^ A Patamabyan examination for marks in the Pali language was first instituted in 1896 and is held annually.

Finance

.The gross revenue of Lower Burma from all sources in 1871-1872 was Rs.1,36,34,520, of which Rs.1,21,70,5 o was from imperial taxation, Rs.3,73,200 from provincial services, and Rs.10,90,790 from local funds.^ The expenditure on the administration of Lower Burma in 1870-1871 was Rs.49,70,020.

^ The gross revenue of Lower Burma from all sources in 1871-1872 was Rs.1,36,34,520, of which Rs.1,21,70,5 o was from imperial taxation , Rs.3,73,200 from provincial services, and Rs.10,90,790 from local funds.

^ The amount then collected was Rs.87,47,020 The total revenue of Burma in the year ending March 31, 1900 was Rs.7,04,36,240 and in 1905, Rs.9,65,62,298.

.The land revenue of the province was Rs.34,45,230. In Burma the cultivators themselves continue to hold the land from government, and the extent of their holdings averages about five acres.^ The land revenue of the province was Rs.34,45,230.

^ In Burma the cultivators themselves continue to hold the land from government, and the extent of their holdings averages about five acres.

^ The gross revenue of Lower Burma from all sources in 1871-1872 was Rs.1,36,34,520, of which Rs.1,21,70,5 o was from imperial taxation , Rs.3,73,200 from provincial services, and Rs.10,90,790 from local funds.

.The land tax is supplemented by a poll tax on the male population from 18 to 60 years of age, with the exception of immigrants during the first five years of their residence, religious teachers, schoolmasters, government servants and those unable to obtain their own livelihood.^ Suffrage: Universal suffrage at 18 years of age.
  • Burma (07/09) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During a massacre in the Dooplaya district of the Karen state, 12 other people were killed, including children aged 12, seven, five and two.
  • Burma: 24 Jun 2003: House of Lords debates (TheyWorkForYou.com) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.theyworkforyou.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Aged 45, the mother of five children and pregnant with her sixth, she was murdered in June last year by the Burmese militia.
  • Burma: 24 Jun 2003: House of Lords debates (TheyWorkForYou.com) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.theyworkforyou.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1890-1891 the revenue of Lower Burma has risen to Rs.2,08,38,872 from imperial taxation, Rs.1,55,51,897 for provincial services, and Rs.12,14,596 from incorporated local funds.^ In 1890-1891 the revenue of Lower Burma has risen to Rs.2,08,38,872 from imperial taxation, Rs.1,55,51,897 for provincial services, and Rs.12,14,596 from incorporated local funds.

^ The gross revenue of Lower Burma from all sources in 1871-1872 was Rs.1,36,34,520, of which Rs.1,21,70,5 o was from imperial taxation , Rs.3,73,200 from provincial services, and Rs.10,90,790 from local funds.

^ (HN, 12/19/98) 1943 Jan 26, The first OSS (Office of Strategic Services) agent parachuted behind Japanese lines in Burma.
  • Timeline Myanmar (Burma) 11 September 2009 16:16 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.The expenditure on the administration of Lower Burma in 1870-1871 was Rs.49,70,020. In 1890-1891 it was Rs.I,58,48,041. In Upper Burma the chief source of revenue is the thathameda, a tithe or income tax which was instituted by King Mindon, and was adopted by the British very much as they found it.^ The expenditure on the administration of Lower Burma in 1870-1871 was Rs.49,70,020.

^ The chief mines and minerals are in Upper Burma.

^ Much of Upper Burma, however, remained disturbed until 1890.

.For the purpose of the assessment every district and town is classified according to its general wealth and prosperity.^ For the purpose of the assessment every district and town is classified according to its general wealth and prosperity.

.As a rule the basis of calculation was 100 rupees from every ten houses, with a To % deduction for those exempted by custom.^ As a rule the basis of calculation was 100 rupees from every ten houses, with a To % deduction for those exempted by custom.

^ Even though the Burmese are not allowed to let tourists stay in their houses, you can usually find lodging in the local Monastery, exempt from the rules.

.When the total amount payable by the village was thus determined, the village itself settled the amount to be paid by each individual householder.^ When the total amount payable by the village was thus determined, the village itself settled the amount to be paid by each individual householder.

.This was done by thamadis, assessors, usually appointed by the villagers themselves.^ This was done by thamadis, assessors, usually appointed by the villagers themselves.

.Other important sources of revenue are the rents from state lands, forests, and miscellaneous items such as fishery, revenue and irrigation taxes.^ Other important sources of revenue are the rents from state lands, forests, and miscellaneous items such as fishery, revenue and irrigation taxes.

^ Taxes and land revenue are light; markets for the disposal of produce are constant and prices good; while fresh land is still available in most districts.

^ In Upper Burma the chief source of revenue is the thathameda, a tithe or income tax which was instituted by King Mindon, and was adopted by the British very much as they found it.

.In 1886-1887, the year after the annexation, the amount collected in Upper Burma from all sources was twentytwo lakhs of rupees.^ In 1886-1887, the year after the annexation , the amount collected in Upper Burma from all sources was twentytwo lakhs of rupees.

^ The amount then collected was Rs.87,47,020 The total revenue of Burma in the year ending March 31, 1900 was Rs.7,04,36,240 and in 1905, Rs.9,65,62,298.

^ Britain conquered Burma over a period of 62 years (1824-1886) and incorporated it into its Indian Empire.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Burma 9 October 2009 6:10 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the following year it had risen to fifty lakhs.^ In the following year it had risen to fifty lakhs.

.Much of Upper Burma, however, remained disturbed until 1890. The figures for 1890-1891, therefore, show the first really regular collection.^ Much of Upper Burma, however, remained disturbed until 1890.

^ The figures for 1890-1891, therefore, show the first really regular collection.

^ In 1886-1887, the year after the annexation , the amount collected in Upper Burma from all sources was twentytwo lakhs of rupees.

.The amount then collected was Rs.87,47,020 The total revenue of Burma in the year ending March 31, 1900 was Rs.7,04,36,240 and in 1905, Rs.9,65,62,298. The total expenditure in the same years respectively was Rs.4,30,81,000 and Rs.5,66,60,047. The principal items of revenue in the budget are the land revenue, railways, customs, forests and excise.^ The total expenditure in the same years respectively was Rs.4,30,81,000 and Rs.5,66,60,047.

^ The amount then collected was Rs.87,47,020 The total revenue of Burma in the year ending March 31, 1900 was Rs.7,04,36,240 and in 1905, Rs.9,65,62,298.

^ The principal items of revenue in the budget are the land revenue, railways, customs, forests and excise .

Defence

.Burma is garrisoned by a division of the Indian army, consisting of two brigades, under a lieutenant-general.^ Burma consists of 14 states and divisions.
  • Burma (07/09) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Geologically, British Burma consists of two divisions, an eastern and a western.

^ Burma is garrisoned by a division of the Indian army, consisting of two brigades, under a lieutenant-general.

.Of the native regiments seven battalions are Burma regiments specially raised for permanent service in Burma by transformation from military police.^ Of the native regiments seven battalions are Burma regiments specially raised for permanent service in Burma by transformation from military police.

^ The military police are in reality a regular military force with only two European officers in command of each battalion ; and they are recruited entirely from among the warlike races of northern India.

.These regiments, consisting of Gurkhas, Sikhs and Pathans, are distributed throughout the Shan States and the northern part of Burma.^ These regiments, consisting of Gurkhas, Sikhs and Pathans, are distributed throughout the Shan States and the northern part of Burma.

^ In Kyawkme area in the northern Shan state.
  • Ethnologue report for Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ Burma consists of 14 states and divisions.
  • Burma (07/09) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition to these there are about 13,500 civil police and 15,000 military police.^ In addition to these there are about 13,500 civil police and 15,000 military police.

^ "There is [are] less than 4,000 Karen soldiers against - the Burmese army is now 500,000.

^ (AP, 4/10/04) 1988 Aug 8-1988 Aug 13, Police in Burma (Myanmar) killed nearly 3,000 protesters in the streets of Rangoon.
  • Timeline Myanmar (Burma) 11 September 2009 16:16 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.The military police are in reality a regular military force with only two European officers in command of each battalion; and they are recruited entirely from among the warlike races of northern India.^ The military police are in reality a regular military force with only two European officers in command of each battalion ; and they are recruited entirely from among the warlike races of northern India.

^ The bearded devil Is forced To dwell In the only place Where they don't sell Burma-Shave .
  • Burma Shave Slogans 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.sff.net [Source type: General]

^ Slim, not yet in overall command, warned them, not only that they could and should be doing so, but that the Japanese were likely to counterattack in just such a way.
  • Korea, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Burma, Tibet, & Mongolia 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.A small battalion of Karens enlisted as sappers and miners proved a failure and had to be disbanded.^ A small battalion of Karens enlisted as sappers and miners proved a failure and had to be disbanded.

Experiments have also been made with the Kachin hillmen and with the Shans; but the Burmese character is so averse to discipline and control in petty matters that it is impossible to get really suitable men to enlist even in the civil police. .The volunteer forces consist of the Rangoon Port Defence Volunteers, comprising artillery, naval, and engineer corps, the Moulmein artillery, the Moulmein, Rangoon, Railway and Upper Burma rifles.^ The volunteer forces consist of the Rangoon Port Defence Volunteers , comprising artillery , naval, and engineer corps, the Moulmein artillery, the Moulmein, Rangoon, Railway and Upper Burma rifles.

^ Other purely judicial officers are the judicial commissioner for Upper Burma, and the civil judges of Mandalay and Moulmein.

^ That in Upper Burma consists of deconstruction, the dismantling of entire mountains, step by step, bit by bit, stone by stone, one pebble at a time.
  • Burmese Jade, Pt. 1: Mines 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.palagems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Minerals and Mining

.In its three chief mineral products, earthoil, coal and gold, Burma offers a fair field for enterprise and nothing more.^ The chief mines and minerals are in Upper Burma.

^ In its three chief mineral products, earthoil, coal and gold , Burma offers a fair field for enterprise and nothing more.

.Without yielding fortunes for speculators, like South Africa or Australia, it returns a fair percentage upon genuine hard work.^ Without yielding fortunes for speculators, like South Africa or Australia , it returns a fair percentage upon genuine hard work.

.Coal is found in the Thayetmyo, Upper Chindwin and Shwebo districts, and in the Shan States; it also occurs in Mergui, but the deposits which have been so far discovered have been either of inferior quality or too far from their market to be worked to advantage.^ Kengtung District of Shan state.
  • Ethnologue report for Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ Shan state, Kentung District.
  • Ethnologue report for Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ Shan state, east Kengtung District.
  • Ethnologue report for Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

.The tin mines in Lower Burma are worked by natives, but a company at one time worked mines in the Maliwun township of Mergui by European methods.^ The tin mines in Lower Burma are worked by natives, but a company at one time worked mines in the Maliwun township of Mergui by European methods.

^ The right to mine for rubies by European methods and to levy royalties from persons working by native methods was leased to the Burma Ruby Mines Company, Limited, in 1889, and the lease was renewed in 1896 for 14 years at a rent of Rs.3,15,000 a year plus a share of the profits.

^ Of course Total was aware, many western companies had already pulled out of Burma for ethical reasons, but at the time in Burma Total would do anything for money.

.The chief mines and minerals are in Upper Burma.^ The chief mines and minerals are in Upper Burma.

^ The famous ruby mines of Upper Burma are in metamorphic rock, while the jadeite of the Bhamo neighbourhood is associated with the Tertiary intrusions of serpentine-like rock already noticed.'

^ Abstract: The jadeite mines of Upper Burma (now Myanmar) occupy a privileged place in the world of gems, as they are the principal source of top-grade material.
  • Burmese Jade, Pt. 1: Mines 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.palagems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The jade mines of Upper Burma are now practically the only source of supply of that mineral, which is in great demand over all China.^ The chief mines and minerals are in Upper Burma.

^ Burma’s jade mines are on the brink of discovery.
  • Burmese Jade, Pt. 1: Mines 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.palagems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The jade mines of Upper Burma are now practically the only source of supply of that mineral, which is in great demand over all China.

.The mines are situated beyond Kamaing, north of Mogaung in the Myitkyina district.^ Kachin state, Putao District, north of Myitkyina.
  • Ethnologue report for Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ Hpakan is the center of the jadeite mining district (or central Jade Tract) in north-central Burma.
  • Burmese Jade, Pt. 1: Mines 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.palagems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two major dirt roads lead into the mining district, one from Mogaung and the other (the more mountainous route) from Hopin (again, see figure 2).
  • Burmese Jade, Pt. 1: Mines 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.palagems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The miners are all Kachins, and the right to collect the jade duty of 331 is farmed out by government to a lessee, who has hitherto always been a Chinaman.^ Her supporters, as well as all those who promote democracy and improved human rights, are routinely harassed or jailed.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Burma 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Burma's Human Rights Day is in memory of Ko Phone Maw and all those who sacrificed their lives in the struggle for Burma's freedom.

^ Since the 1994 peace agreement between the Kachin rebel groups and the government, thousands of people from across Burma have flocked to the Hpakan area to look for jade.
  • Burmese Jade, Pt. 1: Mines 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.palagems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The amount obtained has varied considerably. .In 1887-1888 the rent was Rs.50,000. This dwindled to Rs.36,000 in 1892-1893, but the system was then adopted of letting for a term of three years and a higher rent was obtained.^ The lease was signed on February 22, 1889, giving the company seven years, with a renewal option, at an annual rent of Rs400,000, plus one sixth of net profits (E.W. Streeter, 1892; P. Streeter, 1993).
  • Ruby & Sapphire from Burma (Myanmar) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

The value varies enormously according to colour, which should be a particular shade of dark green. Semitransparency, brilliancy and hardness are, however, also essentials. The old river mines produced the best quality. .The quarry mines on the top of the hill near Tawmaw produce enormous quantities, but the quality is not so good.^ The quarry mines on the top of the hill near Tawmaw produce enormous quantities, but the quality is not so good.

^ The westernmost mine near Lai Sai (west of Tawmaw) is situated outside the central Jade Tract.
  • Burmese Jade, Pt. 1: Mines 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.palagems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The old river mines produced the best quality.

.The most important ruby-bearing area is the Mogok stone tract, in the hills aboul 60 m.^ The most important ruby -bearing area is the Mogok stone tract, in the hills aboul 60 m.

^ Tunnelling into the limestone in search of rubies at the Linyaungchi mine in the Mogok area.
  • Ruby & Sapphire from Burma (Myanmar) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ruby is probably discovered in the Mogok region by stone-age humans inhabiting the area.
  • Ruby & Sapphire from Burma (Myanmar) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

east of the Irrawaddy and 90 m. north-northwest of Maladalay. .The right to mine for rubies by European methods and to levy royalties from persons working by native methods was leased to the Burma Ruby Mines Company, Limited, in 1889, and the lease was renewed in 1896 for 14 years at a rent of Rs.3,15,000 a year plus a share of the profits.^ The right to mine for rubies by European methods and to levy royalties from persons working by native methods was leased to the Burma Ruby Mines Company, Limited, in 1889, and the lease was renewed in 1896 for 14 years at a rent of Rs.3,15,000 a year plus a share of the profits.

^ The tin mines in Lower Burma are worked by natives, but a company at one time worked mines in the Maliwun township of Mergui by European methods.

^ The famous ruby mines of Upper Burma are in metamorphic rock, while the jadeite of the Bhamo neighbourhood is associated with the Tertiary intrusions of serpentine-like rock already noticed.'

.The rent was Sikhs 6,596 Jews 685 Parsees 245 Others 28 reduced permanently in 1898 to Rs.2,00,000 a year, but the share of the profits taken by government was increased from 20 to 30%.^ The rent was Sikhs 6,596 Jews 685 Parsees 245 Others 28 reduced permanently in 1898 to Rs.2,00,000 a year, but the share of the profits taken by government was increased from 20 to 30%.

^ The right to mine for rubies by European methods and to levy royalties from persons working by native methods was leased to the Burma Ruby Mines Company, Limited, in 1889, and the lease was renewed in 1896 for 14 years at a rent of Rs.3,15,000 a year plus a share of the profits.

^ In 1887-1888 the rent was Rs.50,000.

.There are other ruby mines at Nanyaseik in the Myitkyina district and at Sagyin in the Mandalay district, where the mining is by native methods under licence-fees of Rs.5 and Rs.10 a month.^ Mining is performed largely by native methods.
  • Ruby & Sapphire from Burma (Myanmar) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are other ruby mines at Nanyaseik in the Myitkyina district and at Sagyin in the Mandalay district, where the mining is by native methods under licence-fees of Rs.5 and Rs.10 a month.

^ There is a gold mine at Kyaukpazat in the Mawnaing circle of the Kathra district, where the quartz is crushed by machinery and treated by chemical processes.

.They are, however, only moderately successful.^ They are, however, only moderately successful.

.Gold is found in most of the rivers in Upper Burma, but the gold-washing industry is for the most part spasmodic in the intervals of agriculture.^ Gold is found in most of the rivers in Upper Burma, but the gold-washing industry is for the most part spasmodic in the intervals of agriculture.

^ Of the rivers of Burma the Irrawaddy is the most important.

^ The staple industry of Burma is agriculture, but many cultivators are also artisans in the byseason.

.There is a gold mine at Kyaukpazat in the Mawnaing circle of the Kathra district, where the quartz is crushed by machinery and treated by chemical processes.^ There is a gold mine at Kyaukpazat in the Mawnaing circle of the Kathra district, where the quartz is crushed by machinery and treated by chemical processes.

^ There are several peaks in the Ruby Mines district which rise beyond 7000 ft.

^ There are other ruby mines at Nanyaseik in the Myitkyina district and at Sagyin in the Mandalay district, where the mining is by native methods under licence-fees of Rs.5 and Rs.10 a month.

.Work was begun in 1895, and the yield of gold in that year was 274 oz., which increased to 893 oz.^ Work was begun in 1895, and the yield of gold in that year was 274 oz., which increased to 893 oz.

in 1896-1897. This, however, proved to be merely a pocket, and the mine is now shut down. .Dredging for gold, however, seems likely to prove very profitable and gold dust is found in practically every river in the hills.^ Dredging for gold, however, seems likely to prove very profitable and gold dust is found in practically every river in the hills.

^ Gold is found in most of the rivers in Upper Burma, but the gold-washing industry is for the most part spasmodic in the intervals of agriculture.

^ The rainfall in the hills varies very considerably, but seems to range from about 60 in.

.The principal seats of the petroleum industry are Yenangyaung in the Magwe, and Yenangyat in the Pakokku districts.^ The principal seats of the petroleum industry are Yenangyaung in the Magwe, and Yenangyat in the Pakokku districts.

^ The chief seat of the industry is in the Thongwa and Bassein districts, where the income from the leased fisheries on individual streams sometimes amounts to between £6000 and £7000 a year.

.The wells have been worked for a little over a century by the natives of the country.^ The wells have been worked for a little over a century by the natives of the country.

^ This works pretty well for the countries listed, as does the Chinese five element theory.
  • Korea, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Burma, Tibet, & Mongolia 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Burma Oil Company since 1889 has worked by drilled wells on the American or cable system, and the amount produced is yearly becoming more and more important.^ The Burma Oil Company since 1889 has worked by drilled wells on the American or cable system, and the amount produced is yearly becoming more and more important.

^ Burma remains the world's second-largest producer of illicit opium-- amounting to 14% of the world's total, according to a 2008 UNODC report .
  • Burma (07/09) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cyclone Nargis severely damaged approximately 20% of Burma's rice producing lands, although many of these fields have since recovered.
  • Burma (07/09) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Amber is extracted by Kachins in the Hukawng valley beyond the administrative border, but the quality of the fossil resin is not very good.^ Amber is extracted by Kachins in the Hukawng valley beyond the administrative border, but the quality of the fossil resin is not very good.

.The amount exported varies considerably.^ The amount exported varies considerably.

^ The amount obtained has varied considerably.

.Tourmaline or rubellite is found on the borders of the Ruby Mines district and in the Shan State of Mong Long.^ Tourmaline or rubellite is found on the borders of the Ruby Mines district and in the Shan State of Mong Long.

^ Rubies are found at Möng Hsu (Shan State).
  • Ruby & Sapphire from Burma (Myanmar) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are several peaks in the Ruby Mines district which rise beyond 7000 ft.

.Steatite is extracted from the Arakan hill quarries.^ Steatite is extracted from the Arakan hill quarries.

.Salt is manufactured at various places in Upper Burma, notably in the lower Chindwin, Sagaing, Shwebo, Myingyan and Yamethin districts, as well as at Mawhkio in the Shan State of Thibaw.^ Kengtung District of Shan state.
  • Ethnologue report for Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ Shan state, Kentung District.
  • Ethnologue report for Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ Shan state, east Kengtung District.
  • Ethnologue report for Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

Iron is found in many parts of the hills, and is worked by inhabitants of the country. .A good deal is extracted and manufactured into native implements at Pang Long in the Legya (Laihka) Shan State.^ A good deal is extracted and manufactured into native implements at Pang Long in the Legya (Laihka) Shan State.

^ Kokang Shan is in Kokang area, north Wa area, Shan state; Tai Mao is on Burma-Yunnan border, centered at Mu’ang Mao Long or Namkham, Myanmar.
  • Ethnologue report for Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ Tourmaline or rubellite is found on the borders of the Ruby Mines district and in the Shan State of Mong Long.

.Lead is extracted by a Chinese lessee from the mines at Bawzaing (Maw-son) in the Myelat, southern Shan States.^ Lead is extracted by a Chinese lessee from the mines at Bawzaing (Maw-son) in the Myelat, southern Shan States.

^ Southern Shan state.
  • Ethnologue report for Myanmar 28 January 2010 1:31 UTC www.ethnologue.com [Source type: General]

^ There are missionary schools amongst the Chins, Kachins and Shans, and a school for the sons of Shan chiefs at Taung-gyi in the southern Shan States.

.The ore is rich in silver as well as in lead.^ The ore is rich in silver as well as in lead.

Agriculture

.The cultivation of the land is by far the most important industry in Burma.^ The cultivation of the land is by far the most important industry in Burma.

^ Of the rivers of Burma the Irrawaddy is the most important.

^ China quickly is becoming Burma's most important partner, offering debt relief, economic development grants, and soft loans used for the construction of infrastructure and light industry.
  • Burma (07/09) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Only 9.4% of the people were classed as urban in the census of 1901, and a considerable proportion of this number were natives of India and not Burmese.^ Only 9.4% of the people were classed as urban in the census of 1901, and a considerable proportion of this number were natives of India and not Burmese.

^ The total number of persons engaged in the production of textile fabrics in Burma according to the census of 1901 was 419,007.

^ The proportion was greatly reduced in the 1901 census by the inclusion of the Shan States and the Chin hills, which mostly consist of illiterates.

.Nearly two-thirds of the total population are directly or indirectly engaged in agriculture and kindred occupations.^ Nearly two-thirds of the total population are directly or indirectly engaged in agriculture and kindred occupations.

^ This forced nearly a third of the population to leave their homes in search of money and food.
  • Timeline Myanmar (Burma) 11 September 2009 16:16 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.Throughout most of the villages in the rural tracts men, women and children all take part in the agricultural operations, although in riverine villages whole families often support themselves from the sale of petty commodities and eatables.^ Throughout most of the villages in the rural tracts men, women and children all take part in the agricultural operations, although in riverine villages whole families often support themselves from the sale of petty commodities and eatables.

^ Throughout the whole of the moister parts of the province the agricultural season is the wet period of the south-west monsoon , lasting from the middle of May until November.

^ Taking the sexes apart, though women fall far behind men in the matter of education, still women are better educated in Burma than in the rest of India.

.The food of the people consists as a rule of boiled rice with salted fresh or dried fish, salt, sessamum-oil, chillies, onions, turmeric, boiled vegetables, and occasionally meat of some sort from elephant flesh down to smaller animals, fowls and almost everything except snakes, by way of condiment.^ The food of the people consists as a rule of boiled rice with salted fresh or dried fish, salt, sessamum-oil, chillies, onions, turmeric , boiled vegetables, and occasionally meat of some sort from elephant flesh down to smaller animals, fowls and almost everything except snakes , by way of condiment.

^ Salted fish forms, along with boiled rice, one of the chief articles of food among the Burmese; and as the price of salted fish is gradually rising along with the prosperity and purchasing power of the population, this industry is on a very sound basis.

.The staple crop of the province in both Upper and Lower Burma is rice.^ The staple crop of the province in both Upper and Lower Burma is rice.

^ It is divided into Upper and Lower Burma, the former being the territory annexed on 1st January 1886.

^ In Upper Burma all educational grants are paid from imperial funds; there is no cess as in Lower Burma.

.In Lower Burma it is overwhelmingly the largest crop; in Upper Burma it is grown wherever practicable.^ In Lower Burma it is overwhelmingly the largest crop; in Upper Burma it is grown wherever practicable.

^ The staple crop of the province in both Upper and Lower Burma is rice.

^ It is divided into Upper and Lower Burma, the former being the territory annexed on 1st January 1886.

.Throughout the whole of the moister parts of the province the agricultural season is the wet period of the south-west monsoon, lasting from the middle of May until November.^ Throughout the whole of the moister parts of the province the agricultural season is the wet period of the south-west monsoon , lasting from the middle of May until November.

^ Throughout most of the villages in the rural tracts men, women and children all take part in the agricultural operations, although in riverine villages whole families often support themselves from the sale of petty commodities and eatables.

^ The northern part of this tract is barren hilly country, but in the west and south are rich alluvial plains containing some of the most fertile lands of the province.

.In some parts of Lower Burma and in the dry districts of Upper Burma a hot season crop is also grown with the assistance of irrigation during the spring months.^ In some parts of Lower Burma and in the dry districts of Upper Burma a hot season crop is also grown with the assistance of irrigation during the spring months.

^ The staple crop of the province in both Upper and Lower Burma is rice.

^ In Lower Burma it is overwhelmingly the largest crop; in Upper Burma it is grown wherever practicable.

.Oxen are used for ploughing the higher lands with light soil, and the heavier and stronger buffaloes for ploughing wet tracts and marshy lands.^ Oxen are used for ploughing the higher lands with light soil, and the heavier and stronger buffaloes for ploughing wet tracts and marshy lands.

As rice has to be transplanted as well as sown and irrigated, it needs a considerable amount of labour expended on it; and the Burman has the reputation of being a somewhat indolent cultivator. .The Karens and Shans who settle in the plains expend much more care in ploughing and weeding their crops.^ The Karens and Shans who settle in the plains expend much more care in ploughing and weeding their crops.

.Other crops which are grown in the province, especially in Upper Burma, comprise maize, tilseed, sugar-cane, cotton, tobacco, wheat, millet, other food grains including pulse, condiments and spices, tea, barley, sago, linseed and other oil-seeds, various fibres, indigo and other dye crops, besides orchards and garden produce.^ Other crops which are grown in the province, especially in Upper Burma, comprise maize , tilseed, sugar - cane , cotton, tobacco , wheat , millet , other food grains including pulse , condiments and spices, tea , barley , sago , linseed and other oil-seeds, various fibres , indigo and other dye crops, besides orchards and garden produce.

^ The staple crop of the province in both Upper and Lower Burma is rice.

^ By far the largest of the imports are cotton, silk and woollen piece-goods, while subordinate imports include hardware, gunny bags, sugar, tobacco and liquors.

.At the time of the British annexation of Burma there were some old irrigation systems in the Kyaukse and Minbu districts, which had been allowed to fall into disrepair, and these have now been renewed and extended.^ At the time of the British annexation of Burma there were some old irrigation systems in the Kyaukse and Minbu districts, which had been allowed to fall into disrepair, and these have now been renewed and extended.

^ British-era legal system are in place, but there is no guarantee of a fair public trial; the judiciary is not independent of the executive .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Burma 9 October 2009 6:10 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Burma 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These territories were not exactly integral to the Burmese state; but the Second Burmese War led to the annexation of Lower Burma, with Rangoon and Pengu, in 1853.
  • Korea, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Burma, Tibet, & Mongolia 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.In addition to this the Mandalay Canal, 40 m.^ In addition to this the Mandalay Canal, 40 m.

in length, with fourteen distributaries was opened in .1902; the Shwebo canal, 27 m.^ Shwebo canal, 27 m.

long, was opened in 1906, and a beginning had been made of two branches 29 and 20 m. in length, and of the .Mon canal, begun in 1904, 53 m.^ Mon canal, begun in 1904, 53 m.

in length. .In all upwards of 300,000 acres are subject to irrigation under these schemes.^ In all upwards of 300,000 acres are subject to irrigation under these schemes.

.On the whole the people of Burma are prosperous and contented.^ On the whole the people of Burma are prosperous and contented.

^ The ENC believes that together with the people of Burma of all nationalities and of all religions, we can achieve our goals for a peaceful, just and prosperous future.
  • Statements of Ethnic Nationalites Council (Union of Burma) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.encburma.org [Source type: Original source]

.Taxes and land revenue are light; markets for the disposal of produce are constant and prices good; while fresh land is still available in most districts.^ Taxes and land revenue are light; markets for the disposal of produce are constant and prices good; while fresh land is still available in most districts.

^ Other important sources of revenue are the rents from state lands, forests, and miscellaneous items such as fishery, revenue and irrigation taxes.

.Compared with the congested districts in the other provinces of India, with the exception of Assam, the lot of the Burman is decidedly enviable.^ Compared with the congested districts in the other provinces of India, with the exception of Assam, the lot of the Burman is decidedly enviable.

^ Compared with other Indian provinces, and even with some of the countries of Europe , Burma takes a very high place in the returns of those able to both read and write.

Forests

.The forests of Burma are the finest in British India and one of the chief assets of the wealth of the country; it is from Burma that the world draws its main supply of teak for shipbuilding, and indeed it was the demand for teak that largely led to the annexation of Burma.^ The forests of Burma are the finest in British India and one of the chief assets of the wealth of the country; it is from Burma that the world draws its main supply of teak for shipbuilding , and indeed it was the demand for teak that largely led to the annexation of Burma.

^ Like China, Burma also was torn by political turmoil following World War II. In 1962, the Ne Win-led military junta seized power, plunging the country into isolation.
  • Burmese Jade, Pt. 1: Mines 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.palagems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These territories were not exactly integral to the Burmese state; but the Second Burmese War led to the annexation of Lower Burma, with Rangoon and Pengu, in 1853.
  • Korea, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Burma, Tibet, & Mongolia 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.At the close of the First Burmese War in 1826 Tenasserim was annexed because it was supposed to contain large supplies of this valuable timber; and it was trouble with a British forest company that directly led to the Third Burmese War of 1885. Since the introduction of iron ships teak has supplanted oak, because it contains an essential oil which preserves iron and steel, instead of corroding them like the tannic acid contained in oak.^ Third Burmese War, 1885, Upper Burma annexed by Britain, 1886 .
  • Korea, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Burma, Tibet, & Mongolia 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At the close of the First Burmese War in 1826 Tenasserim was annexed because it was supposed to contain large supplies of this valuable timber ; and it was trouble with a British forest company that directly led to the Third Burmese War of 1885.

^ Disputes on the border with British India led to the first Anglo-Burmese war in 1824–6.
  • Ruby & Sapphire from Burma (Myanmar) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ruby-sapphire.com [Source type: Original source]

.The forests of Burma, therefore, are now strictly preserved by the government, and there is a regular forest department for the conservation and cutting of timber, the planting of young trees for future generations, the prevention of forest fires, and for generally supervising their treatment by the natives.^ The forests of Burma, therefore, are now strictly preserved by the government, and there is a regular forest department for the conservation and cutting of timber, the planting of young trees for future generations, the prevention of forest fires, and for generally supervising their treatment by the natives.

^ The work of the forest department did not begin in Upper Burma till 1891.

^ The Burma forests are divided into three circles each under a conservator , with twenty-one deputy conservators.

.In the reserves the trees of commercial value can only be cut under a licence returning a revenue to the state, while unreserved trees can be cut by the natives for home consumption.^ In the reserves the trees of commercial value can only be cut under a licence returning a revenue to the state, while unreserved trees can be cut by the natives for home consumption .

^ There are other ruby mines at Nanyaseik in the Myitkyina district and at Sagyin in the Mandalay district, where the mining is by native methods under licence-fees of Rs.5 and Rs.10 a month.

.There are naturally very many trees in these forests besides the teak.^ Since there never were very many Tibetans in their poor, Alpine country, this kind of treatment plus Chinese colonization began to produce a genocidal effect.
  • Korea, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Burma, Tibet, & Mongolia 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.In Lower Burma alone the enumeration of the trees made by Sulpiz Kurz in his Forest Flora of British Burma (1877) includes some 1500 species, and the unknown species of Upper Burma and the Shan States would probably increase this total very considerably.^ In Lower Burma alone the enumeration of the trees made by Sulpiz Kurz in his Forest Flora of British Burma (1877) includes some 1500 species, and the unknown species of Upper Burma and the Shan States would probably increase this total very considerably.

^ It is divided into Upper and Lower Burma, the former being the territory annexed on 1st January 1886.

^ These territories were not exactly integral to the Burmese state; but the Second Burmese War led to the annexation of Lower Burma, with Rangoon and Pengu, in 1853.
  • Korea, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Burma, Tibet, & Mongolia 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.In addition to teak, which provides the bulk of the revenue, the most valuable woods are sha or cutch, india rubber, pyingado, or ironwood for railway sleepers, and padauk. Outside these reserves enormous tracts of forest and jungle still remain for clearance and cultivation, reservation being mostly confined to forest land unsuitable for crops.^ Outside these reserves enormous tracts of forest and jungle still remain for clearance and cultivation, reservation being mostly confined to forest land unsuitable for crops.

^ In addition to teak, which provides the bulk of the revenue, the most valuable woods are sha or cutch , india rubber , pyingado, or ironwood for railway sleepers, and padauk.

^ In the reserves the trees of commercial value can only be cut under a licence returning a revenue to the state, while unreserved trees can be cut by the natives for home consumption .

.In 1870-1871 the state reserved forests covered only 133 sq.^ In 1870-1871 the state reserved forests covered only 133 sq.

^ In the reserves the trees of commercial value can only be cut under a licence returning a revenue to the state, while unreserved trees can be cut by the natives for home consumption .

^ At the close of 1899 the area of the reserved forests in the whole province amounted to 15,669 sq.

m., in all the Rangoon division. .The total rcceipts from the forests then amounted to Rs.7,72,400. In 1889-1890 the total area of reserved forests in Lower Burma was 5574 sq.^ On 30th June 1896 the reserved area amounted to 5438 sq.

^ In 1889-1890 the total area of reserved forests in Lower Burma was 5574 sq.

^ At the end of 1892 the reserved forests in Upper Burma amounted to 1059 sq.

m., and the gross revenue was Rs. .31,34,720, and the expenditure was Rs.^ The value of teak exported in 1895 was Rs.1,34,64,303, and in 1905, Rs.1,31,03,401.

.13,31,930. The work of the forest department did not begin in Upper Burma till 1891. At the end of 1892 the reserved forests in Upper Burma amounted to 1059 sq.^ The work of the forest department did not begin in Upper Burma till 1891.

^ It was not till 1890 that the education department took action in Upper Burma.

^ At the end of 1892 the reserved forests in Upper Burma amounted to 1059 sq.

m. .On 30th June 1896 the reserved area amounted to 5438 sq.^ On 30th June 1896 the reserved area amounted to 5438 sq.

^ At the close of 1899 the area of the reserved forests in the whole province amounted to 15,669 sq.

^ In 1889-1890 the total area of reserved forests in Lower Burma was 5574 sq.

m. .At the close of 1899 the area of the reserved forests in the whole province amounted to 15,669 sq.^ On 30th June 1896 the reserved area amounted to 5438 sq.

^ At the close of 1899 the area of the reserved forests in the whole province amounted to 15,669 sq.

^ In 1870-1871 the state reserved forests covered only 133 sq.

m., and in 1903-1904 to 20,038 sq. m. with a revenue of Rs. .85,19,404 and expenditure amounting to Rs.35,00,311. In 1905-1906 there were 20,545 sq.^ In 1905-1906 there were 20,545 sq.

^ Rs.35,00,311.

m. of reserved forest, and it is probable that when the work of reservation is complete there will be 25,000 sq. m. of preserves or 12% of the total area.

Fisheries

.Fisheries and fish-curing exist both along the sea-coast of Burma and in inland tracts, and afforded employment to 126,651 persons in 1907. The chief seat of the industry is in the Thongwa and Bassein districts, where the income from the leased fisheries on individual streams sometimes amounts to between £6000 and £7000 a year.^ Fisheries and fish-curing exist both along the sea-coast of Burma and in inland tracts, and afforded employment to 126,651 persons in 1907.

^ The chief seat of the industry is in the Thongwa and Bassein districts, where the income from the leased fisheries on individual streams sometimes amounts to between £6000 and £7000 a year.

^ Net fisheries, worked by licence-holders in the principal rivers and along the sea-shore, are not nearly so profitable as the closed fisheries - called In - which are from time to time sold by auction for fixed periods of years.

.Net fisheries, worked by licence-holders in the principal rivers and along the sea-shore, are not nearly so profitable as the closed fisheries - called In - which are from time to time sold by auction for fixed periods of years.^ Net fisheries, worked by licence-holders in the principal rivers and along the sea-shore, are not nearly so profitable as the closed fisheries - called In - which are from time to time sold by auction for fixed periods of years.

^ Fisheries and fish-curing exist both along the sea-coast of Burma and in inland tracts, and afforded employment to 126,651 persons in 1907.

^ The Waterloo in that respect was the 1968 Têt ( Chinese New Year , at the time confusingly called the "lunar new year," which would apply to Rosh Hashanah just as well) Offensive.
  • Korea, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Burma, Tibet, & Mongolia 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Salted fish forms, along with boiled rice, one of the chief articles of food among the Burmese; and as the price of salted fish is gradually rising along with the prosperity and purchasing power of the population, this industry is on a very sound basis.^ Salted fish forms, along with boiled rice, one of the chief articles of food among the Burmese; and as the price of salted fish is gradually rising along with the prosperity and purchasing power of the population, this industry is on a very sound basis.

^ The food of the people consists as a rule of boiled rice with salted fresh or dried fish, salt, sessamum-oil, chillies, onions, turmeric , boiled vegetables, and occasionally meat of some sort from elephant flesh down to smaller animals, fowls and almost everything except snakes , by way of condiment.

^ The chief articles of export from Burma are rice and timber.

.There are in addition some pearling grounds in the Mergui Archipelago, which have a very recent history; they were practically unknown before 1890; in the early 'nineties they were worked by Australian adventurers, most of whom have since departed; and now they are leased in blocks to a syndicate of Chinamen, who grant sub-leases to individual adventurers at the rate of £25 a pump for the pearling year.^ There are in addition some pearling grounds in the Mergui Archipelago , which have a very recent history; they were practically unknown before 1890; in the early 'nineties they were worked by Australian adventurers, most of whom have since departed; and now th