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Republic of Burundi
Republika y'u Burundi
République du Burundi
Flag Coat of arms
Motto"Ubumwe, Ibikorwa, Iterambere"  (Kirundi)
"Unité, Travail, Progrès"  (French)
"Unity, Work, Progress" 1
AnthemBurundi bwacu (Our Burundi)
Capital
(and largest city)
Bujumbura
3°30′S 30°00′E / 3.5°S 30°E / -3.5; 30
Official language(s) Kirundi, French
Vehicular languages Swahili
Demonym Burundian
Government Republic
 -  President Pierre Nkurunziza
Independence from Belgium 
 -  Date July 1, 1962 
Area
 -  Total 27,830 km2 (145th)
10,745 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 7.8%
Population
 -  July 2009 estimate 8,988,091[1] (89th)
 -  2008 census 8,038,618[2] 
 -  Density 323.0/km2 (45th)
836.5/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $3.099 billion[3] 
 -  Per capita $389[3] 
GDP (nominal) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $1.097 billion[3] 
 -  Per capita $138[3] 
Gini (1998) 42.4 (medium
HDI (2007) 0.413 (low) (167th)
Currency Burundi franc (FBu) (BIF)
Time zone CAT (UTC+2)
 -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+2)
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .bi
Calling code 257
1 Before 1966, "Ganza Sabwa".
2 Estimate is based on regression; other PPP figures are extrapolated from the latest International Comparison Program for benchmark estimates.

Burundi (pronounced [buˈɾundi]), officially the Republic of Burundi, is a small landlocked country in the Great Lakes region of Eastern Africa bordered by Rwanda to the north, Tanzania to the east and south, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west. Its size is just under 28,000 km² with an estimated population of almost 8,700,000. Its capital is Bujumbura. Although the country is landlocked, much of the southwestern border is adjacent to Lake Tanganyika.

The Twa, Tutsi, and Hutu peoples have occupied Burundi since the country's formation five centuries ago. Burundi was ruled as a kingdom by the Tutsi for over two hundred years. However, at the beginning of the twentieth century, Germany and Belgium occupied the region, and Burundi and Rwanda became a European colony known as Ruanda-Urundi.

Political unrest occurred throughout the region because of social differences between the Tutsi and Hutu, provoking civil war in Burundi throughout the middle twentieth century. Presently, Burundi is governed as a presidential representative democratic republic. Sixty-two percent of Burundians are Roman Catholic, eight to ten percent are Muslims and the rest follow indigenous beliefs and other Christian denominations.

Burundi is one of the ten poorest countries in the world. It has the lowest per capita GDP of any nation in the world.[4] Burundi has a low gross domestic product largely due to civil wars, corruption, poor access to education, and the effects of HIV/AIDS. Burundi is densely populated, with substantial emigration. Cobalt and copper are among Burundi's natural resources. Some of Burundi's main exports include coffee and sugar.

Contents

History

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European conquest

After its defeat in World War I, Germany handed control of a section of the former German East Africa to Belgium.[5] On October 20, 1924, this land, which consisted of modern-day Rwanda and Burundi, officially became a part of the Belgian colonial empire and was known as Ruanda-Urundi However, the Belgians allowed Ruanda-Urundi to continue its kingship dynasty.[1][6]

Following World War II, Ruanda-Urundi was a United Nations Trust Territory under Belgian administrative authority.[1] During the 1940s, a series of policies caused divisions throughout the country. On October 4, 1943, powers were split in the legislative division of Burundi's government between chiefdoms and lower chiefdoms. Chiefdoms were in charge of land, and lower sub-chiefdoms were established. Native authorities also had powers.[6] In 1948, Belgium allowed the region to form political parties.[5] These factions would be one of the main influences for Burundi's independence from Belgium.

Independence and civil war

On January 20, 1959, Burundi's ruler Mwami Mwambutsa IV requested from the Belgian Minister of Colonies a separation of Burundi and Rwanda and a dissolution of Ruanda-Urundi.[7] Six months later, political parties formed to bring attention to Burundi's independence from Europe and to separate Rwanda from Burundi.[7] The first of these political parties was the African National Union of Ruanda-Urundi (UNARU).

During Burundi's push for independence, instability and ethnic persecution occurred between the Hutu and Tutsi tribes. In November 1959, a dispute over land possession sparked a revolt in Rwanda between Hutu teachers and Tutsi soldiers.[7] From 1959 to 1962, Hutu refugees escaped to Rwanda to avoid persecution.[8] In turn, the Hutu in Rwanda murdered thousands of Tutsi, causing the Tutsi to flee to Burundi for freedom. While in Burundi, Tutsi fought against the Hutu, and many Tutsi soldiers killed Hutu peasants in retaliation for Hutu violence in Rwanda.[9] The Hutu managed to take power in Rwanda by winning Belgian-run elections in 1960.[8][10]

The Union for National Progress (UPRONA), a multi-ethnic unity party led by Tutsi Prince Louis Rwagasore and Christian Democratic Party (PDC) members, became popular throughout Burundi-Urundi. Following an UPRONA victory in legislative elections, Prince Rwagasore was assassinated in 1961.[5] The event caused infighting between the two groups.[11]

The country claimed independence in July 1, 1962,[5] and legally changed its name from Ruanda-Urundi to Burundi.[12] Mwami Mwambutsa IV was named king.[8] On September 18, 1962, just over a month after declaring independence from Belgium, Burundi joined the United Nations.[13]

Upon Burundi’s independence, a constitutional monarchy was established and the Hutus and Tutsis held equal representation in Parliament. However, during Burundi's move to become an independent nation, Hutu forces took control of the country, forcing the Tutsi out, many of whom fled to Rwanda to escape ethnic persecution and death. During 1962 and 1963, approximately 12,000 Tutsi were killed, while between 140,000 to 250,000 people escaped to Rwanda.[14]

In 1965, King Mwambutsa refused to appoint a Hutu prime minister, even though Hutus won a majority in parliamentary elections. An attempted coup by the Hutu dominated police was ruthlessly suppressed by the Tutsi dominated Army led by Michel Micombero[15] When the next Hutu Prime Minister was assassinated in 1965, Hutus engaged in a series of revolts that the government repressed, and, fearing the killings of Tutsis by the neighboring Rwandan Hutu regime, the police and military came under the control of the Tutsis.

Mwambutsa was deposed in 1966 by his son, Prince Ntare V, who claimed the throne. That same year, Tutsi Prime Minister Captain Michel Micombero deposed Ntare, abolished the monarchy, and created a republic, which was in effect a military regime.[16]

A Hutu attack on a military-affiliated town in 1972 resulted in a systematic retaliation by the military against the Hutus. Roughly 200,000 Hutus were killed and about 150,000 became asylum-seekers. Another Tutsi, Colonel Jean-Baptiste Bagaza, led a bloodless coup in 1976 and promoted various reforms. A new constitution was created in 1981, making Burundi a one-party state.[15] Bagaza was elected head of state. However, Bagaza suppressed political opponents and religious freedoms.

Major Pierre Buyoya, a Tutsi, overthrew Bagaza in 1987 and suspended the constitution, dissolved the political parties, and reinstated military rule under the Military Committee for National Salvation (CSMN).[15] In 1988, tensions between Hutus, Tutsis, and the military resulted in roughly 20,000 deaths. In response, Buyoya approved a new constitution in 1992 that attempted to create a non-ethnic government with a presidency and a parliament. The constitution provided for a multi-party system.[15] Buyoya also created a commission to investigate the 1988 killings.[15]

An estimated 250,000 people died between 1962 and 1993.[17]

First attempt at democracy

In June 1993, Melchior Ndadaye, leader of the Hutu-dominated Front for Democracy in Burundi (FRODEBU), won the first democratic election and became the first Hutu head of the state, leading a pro-Hutu government. However, in October 1993, Tutsi soldiers assassinated Ndadaye, which started further years of violence between Hutus and Tutsis. It is estimated that some 300,000 people, mostly civilians, were killed in the years following the assassination.[18]

In early 1994, the parliament elected Cyprien Ntaryamira, also a Hutu, to the office of president. He and the president of Rwanda were killed together when their airplane was shot down. More refugees started fleeing to Rwanda. Another Hutu, parliament speaker Sylvestre Ntibantunganya was appointed as president in October 1994. Within months, a wave of ethnic violence began, starting with the massacre of Hutu refugees in the capital, Bujumbura, and the withdrawal of the mainly Tutsi Union for National Progress from the government and parliament.

In 1996, Pierre Buyoya, a Tutsi, took power through a coup d’état. He suspended the constitution and was sworn in as president in 1998. In response to the rebel attacks, the population was forced by the government to relocate to refugee camps.[19] Under his rule, long peace talks started, mediated by South Africa. Both parties signed agreements in Arusha, Tanzania and Pretoria, South Africa, to share power in Burundi. The agreements took four years to plan, and on August 28, 2000, a transitional government for Burundi was planned as a part of the Arusha Peace and Reconciliation Agreement. The transitional government was placed on a trial basis for five years. After several aborted cease-fires, a 2001 peace plan and power sharing agreement has been relatively successful. A cease-fire was signed in 2003 between the Tutsi-controlled Burundian government and the largest Hutu rebel group, CNDD-FDD (National Council for the Defense of Democracy-Forces for the Defense of Democracy).[20]

In 2003, FRODEBU Hutu leader Domitien Ndayizeye was elected president.[21] > In early 2005, ethnic quotas were formed for determining positions in Burundi's government. Throughout the year, elections for parliamentary and president occurred.[22] To this day, conflicts between the Hutu and the Tutsi continue. As of 2008, the Burundian government is talking with the Hutu-led Palipehutu-National Liberation Forces (NLF)[23] to bring peace to the country.[24] In 2005, Pierre Nkurunziza, once a leader of a Hutu rebel group, was elected to president.

Peace agreements

Following the request of the United Nation Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali to intervene in the humanitarian crisis, African leaders began a series of peace talks between the warring factions. Talks were initiated under the aegis of former Tanzanian President Julius Nyerere in 1995; following his death, South African President Nelson Mandela took the helm. As the talks progressed, South African President Thabo Mbeki and United States President Bill Clinton would also lend their respective weight.

The peace talks took the form of Track I mediations. This method of negotiation can be defined as a form of diplomacy involving governmental or intergovernmental representatives, who may use their positive reputations, mediation or the “carrot and stick” method as a means of obtaining or forcing an outcome, frequently along the lines of “bargaining” or “win-lose”.[25]

The main objective framing the talks was a structural transformation of the Burundian government and military as a way to bridge the ethnic gap between the Tutsis and Hutus. This would be accomplished in two ways. First, a transitional power sharing government would be established, with the president holding office for three year terms. The second objective involved a restructuring of the military, where the two groups would be represented equally.

As the protracted nature of the peace talks demonstrated, there were several obstacles facing the mediators and negotiating parties. First, the Burundian officials perceived the goals as “unrealistic” and viewed the treaty as ambiguous, contradictory and confusing. Second, and perhaps most importantly, the Burundians believed the treaty would be irrelevant without an accompanying cease fire. This would require separate and direct talks with the rebel groups. The main Hutu party was skeptical of the offer of a power-sharing government; they alleged that they were deceived by the Tutsis in past agreements.[26]

In 2000, the Burundian President signed the treaty, as well as 13 of the 19 warring Hutu and Tutsi factions. However, disagreements persisted over which group would preside over the nascent government and when the ceasefire would commence. The spoilers of the peace talks were the hardliner Tutsi and Hutu groups who refused to sign the accord; as a result, violence intensified. Three years later at a summit of African leaders in Tanzania, the Burundian president and the main opposition Hutu group signed an accord to end the conflict; the signatory members were granted ministerial posts within the government. However, smaller militant Hutu groups – such as the Forces for National Liberation – remained active.

UN involvement

Between 1993 and 2003, many rounds of peace talks, overseen by regional leaders in Tanzania, South Africa, and Uganda, gradually established power-sharing agreements to satisfy the majority of the contending groups. African Union (AU) peacekeepers were deployed to help oversee the installation of a transitional government. In June 2004, the UN stepped in and took over peacekeeping responsibilities as a signal of growing international support for the already markedly advanced peace process in Burundi.[27]

The mission’s mandate, under Chapter VII of the UN Charter, has been to monitor cease-fire; carry out disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration of former combatants; support humanitarian assistance and refugee and IDP return; assist with elections; protect international staff and Burundian civilians; monitor Burundi’s troublesome borders including halting illicit arms flows; and assist in carrying out institutional reforms including those of the Constitution, judiciary, armed forces, and police. The mission has been allotted 5,650 military personnel, 120 civilian police, and about 1,000 international and local civilian personnel. The mission has been functioning well and has greatly benefited from the existence of a fairly functional transitional government, which is in the process of transitioning into a more legitimate, elected entity.[27]

The main difficulty the operation faced at first was the continued resistance to the peace process by the last Tutsi nationalist rebel group. This organization continued its violent conflict on the outskirts of the capital despite the UN’s presence. By June 2005, the group had stopped fighting and was brought back into the political process. All political parties have accepted a formula for inter-ethnic power-sharing, which means no political party can gain access to government offices unless it is ethnically integrated.[27]

The focus of the UN’s mission had been to enshrine the power-sharing arrangements in a popularly voted constitution, so that elections may be held and a new government installed. Disarmament, demobilization and reintegration were done in tandem with elections preparations. In February 2005, the Constitution was approved with over 90% of the popular vote. In May, June, and August 2005, three separate elections were also held at the local level for the Parliament and the presidency.

While there are still some difficulties with refugee returns and securing adequate food supplies for the war-weary population, the mission has overall managed to win the trust and confidence of a majority of the formerly warring leaders as well as the population at large.[27] It has also been involved with several “quick impact” projects including rehabilitating and building schools, orphanages, health clinics, and rebuilding infrastructure such as water lines.

2006 to present

Reconstruction efforts in Burundi started to practically take effect after 2006. The UN shut down its peacekeeping mission and re-focused on helping with reconstruction.[28] Toward achieving economic reconstruction, Rwanda, D.R.Congo and Burundi relaunched the regional economic bloc: The Great Lakes Countries Economic Community.[28] In addition, Burundi, along with Rwanda, joined the East African Community in 2007.

However, the terms of the September 2006 Ceasefire between the government and the last remaining armed opposition group, the FLN (Forces for National Liberation, also called NLF or FROLINA), were not totally implemented, and senior FLN members subsequently left the truce monitoring team, claiming that their security was threatened.[29] In September 2007, rival FLN factions clashed in the capital, killing 20 fighters and causing residents to begin fleeing. Rebel raids were reported in other parts of the country.[28] The rebel factions disagreed with the government over disarmament and the release of political prisoners.[30] In late 2007 and early 2008, FLN combatants attacked government-protected camps where former combatants now live, in search of peace. The homes of rural residents were also pillaged.[30]

The 2007 report[30] of Amnesty International mentions many areas where improvement is required. Civilians are victims of repeated acts of violence done by the FLN. The latter also recruits child soldiers. The rate of violence against women is high. Perpetrators regularly escape prosecution and punishment by the state. There is an urgent need for reform of the judicial system. Genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity remain unpunished. The establishment of a Truth and Reconciliation Commission and a Special Tribunal for investigation and prosecution has not yet been implemented. The freedom of expression is limited, journalists are frequently arrested for carrying out legitimate professional activities. A total of 38,087 Burundian refugees have been repatriated between January and November 2007.

In late March 2008, the FLN sought for the parliament to adopt a law guaranteeing them ‘provisional immunity’ from arrest. This would cover ordinary crimes, but not grave violations of international humanitarian law like war crimes or crimes against humanity .[30] Even though the government has granted this in the past to people, the FLN is unable to obtain the provisional immunity.

On April 17, 2008, the FLN bombarded Bujumbura. The Burundian army fought back and the FLN suffered heavy losses. A new ceasefire was signed on May 26, 2008. In August 2008, President Nkurunziza met with the FLN leader Agathon Rwasa, with the mediation of Charles Nqakula, South Africa’s Minister for Safety and Security. This was the first direct meeting since June 2007. Both agree to meet twice a week to establish a commission to resolve any disputes that might arise during the peace negotiations.[31]

Refugee camps are now closing down, and 450,000 refugees have returned. The economy of the country is shattered – Burundi has the lowest per capita gross income in the world. With the return of refugees, amongst others, property conflicts have started.

Politics

Pierre Nkurunziza, president of Burundi

Burundi's political system is presidential representative democratic republic based upon a multi-party state. The President of Burundi is the head of state and head of government. There are currently 21 registered parties in Burundi.[5] On March 13, 1992, Tutsi coup leader Pierre Buyoya established a constitution,[32] which provided for a multi-party political process[33] and reflected multi-party competition. Six years later, on June 6, 1998, the constitution was changed, broadening National Assembly's seats and making provisions for two vice presidents. Because of the Arusha Accord, Burundi enacted a transitional government in 2000.[34]

Burundi's legislative branch is a bicameral assembly, consisting of the Transitional National Assembly and the Transitional Senate. As of 2004, the Transitional National Assembly consists of 170 members, with the Front for Democracy in Burundi holding 38% of seats, and 10% of the assembly is controlled by UPRONA. Fifty-two seats are controlled by other parties. Burundi's constitution mandates representation in the Transitional National Assembly to be consistent with 60% Hutu, 40% Tutsi, and 30% female members, as well as three Batwa members.[5] Members of the National Assembly are elected by popular vote and serve for five year terms.[35]

The Transitional Senate has fifty-one members, and three seats are reserved for former presidents. Due to stipulations in Burundi's constitution, 30% of Senate members must be female. Members of the Senate are elected by electoral colleges, which consist of members from each of Burundi's provinces and communes.[5] For each of Burundi's seventeen provinces, one Hutu and one Tutsi senator are chosen. One term for the Transitional Senate is five years.[36]

Together, Burundi's legislative branch elect the President to a five-year term.[37] Burundi's president appoints officials to his Council of Ministers, which is also part of the executive branch.[34] The president can also pick fourteen members of the Transitional Senate to serve on the Council of Ministers.[5] Members of the Council of Ministers must be approved by two-thirds of Burundi's legislature. The president also chooses two vice-presidents.[37] As of 2008, the President of Burundi is Pierre Nkurunziza. The First Vice President is Dr. Yves Sahinguvu, and the Second Vice President is Gabriel Ntisezerana.[38]

The Court Supreme (Supreme Court) is Burundi's highest court. There are three Courts of Appeals directly below the Supreme Court. Tribunals of First Instance are used as judicial courts in each of Burundi's provinces as well as 123 local tribunals.[34]

Provinces, communes and collines

Map of provinces

Burundi is divided into 17 provinces,[1] 117 communes,[5] and 2,638 collines (hills).[39] Provincial governments are structured upon these boundaries. In 2000, the province encompassing Bujumbura was separated into two provinces, Bujumbura Rural and Bunjumbura Mairie.[4]

The provinces are:

Geography

Map of Burundi

One of the smallest countries in Africa, Burundi is landlocked and has an equatorial climate. Burundi is a part of the Albertine Rift, the western extension of the Great Rift Valley. The country lies on a rolling plateau in the center of Africa. The average elevation of the central plateau is 5,600 feet (1,700 m), with lower elevations at the borders. The highest peak, Mount Heha at 8,810 feet (2,690 m),[40] lies to the southeast of the capital, Bujumbura. The Nile is a major river in Burundi.[41] Lake Victoria is also an important water source, which serves as a fork to the Kagera River.[42][43] Another major lake is Lake Tanganyika, located in much of Burundi's southwestern corner.[44]

Burundi's lands are mostly agricultural or pasture. Settlement by rural populations has led to deforestation, soil erosion and habitat loss.[45] Deforestation of the entire country is almost completely due to overpopulation, with a mere 230 square miles (600 km2) remaining and an ongoing loss of about 9% per annum.[46] There are two national parks, Kibira National Park to the northwest (a small region of rain forest, adjacent to Nyungwe Forest National Park in Rwanda), Rurubu National Park to the northeast (along the Rurubu River, also known as Ruvubu or Ruvuvu). Both were established in 1982 to conserve wildlife populations.[47]

Economy

Burundi is one of the poorest countries on the planet, owing in part to its landlocked geography,[1] poor legal system, lack of access to education, and the proliferation of HIV/AIDS. Approximately 80% of Burundi's population lives in poverty.[48] Famines and food shortages have occurred throughout Burundi, most notably in the 20th century,[6] and according to the World Food Programme, 56.8% of children under age five suffer from chronic malnutrition.[49] One scientific study of 178 nations rated Burundi's population as having the lowest satisfaction with life in the world.[50] As a result of poverty, Burundi is dependent on foreign aid.[1]

Burundi's largest industry is agriculture, which accounted for 58% of the GDP in 1997. Subsistence agriculture accounts for 90% of agriculture.[51] The nation's largest source of revenue is coffee, which makes up 93% of Burundi's exports.[52] Other agriculture products include cotton, tea, maize, sorghum, sweet potatoes, bananas, manioc (tapioca); beef, milk, and hides. Some of Burundi's natural resources include uranium, nickel, cobalt, copper, and platinum.[53] Besides agriculture, other industries include: assembly of imported components; public works construction; food processing, and light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, and soap. Burundi's currency is the Burundian franc (BIF); As of July 2008, 1,184 Burundian franc were equivalent to one United States dollar.[1]

Burundi is part of the East African Community and a potential member of the planned East African Federation.

Demographics

A group of Burundian women rearing goats

As of 2008, Burundi was projected to have an estimated population of 8,691,005 people. This estimate explicitly takes into account the effects of AIDS, which has a significant effect on the demographics of the country.[1] Over 500,000 have been displaced due to the disease.[4] Many Burundians have migrated to other countries as a result of the civil war. In 2006, the United States accepted approximately 10,000 Burundian refugees.[54]

Most Burundians live in rural areas, and about six percent of the population live in urban areas.[55] The population density of around 315 people per square kilometer (753 per sq mi) is the second highest in Sub-Saharan Africa.[5] Roughly 85% of the population are of Hutu ethnic origin, 15% are Tutsi, and fewer than one percent are Twas.[56]

Religion

Religion in Burundi[57]
religion percent
Roman Catholic
  
65%
Indigenous
  
23%
Islam
  
10%
Protestant
  
5%

Sources estimate the Christian population to be 70 percent, with Roman Catholics representing the largest group at 65 percent. Protestant and Anglican practitioners comprise the remaining 5 percent. An estimated 23 percent of the population adheres to traditional indigenous religious beliefs; some of the traditional indigenous groups promoted cures for HIV/AIDS and other ailments. The Muslim population is estimated to be at 10 percent, the majority of whom live in urban areas. Sunnis make up the majority of the Muslim population, and the remainder is Shi'a.[58]

Health

There is less healthcare in Burundi than in most other countries. Life expectancy at birth is estimated at 48.5 years. (2005) [59] A large proportion of the population is undernourished.[59] There were 3 physicians per 100,000 persons in the early 2000s.[59] The HIV/AIDS prevalence has been about 4.2 % in 2007.[60]

Culture

Gitega drums

Burundi's culture is based on local tradition and the influence of neighboring countries, though cultural prominence has been hindered by civil unrest. Since farming is the main industry in Burundi, a typical Burundian meal consists of sweet potatoes, corn, and peas. Due to the expense, meat is only eaten a few times per month. When several Burundians of close acquaintance meet for a gathering they drink impeke, a beer, from a large container. Each person receives a straw to symbolize unity.[61]

Crafts are an important art form in Burundi and are attractive gifts to many tourists. Basket weaving is a popular craft for Burundian artisans.[62] Other crafts such as masks, shields, statues, pottery are made in Burundi.[63]

Drumming is an important part of Burundian cultural heritage. The world-famous Royal Drummers of Burundi, who have performed for over forty years, are noted for traditional drumming using the amashako, ibishikiso, and ikiranya drums.[64] Dance often accompanies drumming performance, which is frequently seen in celebrations and family gatherings. The abatimbo, which is performed at official ceremonies and rituals, and the fast-paced abanyagasimbo are some famous Burundian dances. Some musical instruments of note are the flute, zither, ikembe, indonongo, umuduri, inanga, and the inyagara.[65]

Football in Burundi

Kirundi, French, and Swahili are spoken throughout Burundi.[1] Burundi's literacy rate is low, due to low school attendance. Ten percent of Burundian boys are allowed a secondary education.[66] Burundi's oral tradition is strong and relays history and life lessons through storytelling, poetry, and song. Imigani, indirimbo, amazina, and ivyivugo are types of literary genres existing in Burundi.[67]

Basketball and track and field are noted sports in Burundi.[68] Football is a popular pastime throughout the country, as are mancala games. In Burundi most Christian holidays are celebrated, with Christmas being the largest.[69] Burundian Independence Day is celebrated annually on July 1.[70] In 2005, the Burundian government declared Eid al-Fitr, an Islamic holiday, to be a public holiday.[71]

Recently the government of Burundi passed changes in law, criminalising homosexuality. Persons found guilty of consensual same-sex relations risk two to three years in prison and a fine of 50,000 to 100,000 Burundian francs. Amnesty International has condemned the action, calling it a violation of Burundi’s obligations under international and regional human rights law, and against Burundi’s constitution, which guarantees the right to privacy.[72]

Education

Burundi has the University of Burundi. There are several museums in the cities, such as the Burundi Geological Museum in Bujumbura and the Burundi National Museum and the Burundi Museum of Life in Gitega. Adult literacy is at about half among men and about a quarter among women.[73]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i CIA – The World Factbook – Burundi CIA. Retrieved June 8, 2008.
  2. ^ 3rd general census (2008)
  3. ^ a b c d "Burundi". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2006&ey=2009&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=618&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=60&pr.y=3. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  4. ^ a b c Eggers, E., Historical Dictionary of Burundi, p. xlix.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Background Note: Burundi. United States Department of State. February 2008. Retrieved on June 28, 2008.
  6. ^ a b c Weinstein, W., Political Conflict and Ethnic Strategies, p. 5.
  7. ^ a b c Weinstein, W., Political Conflict and Ethnic Strategies, p. 7.
  8. ^ a b c Timeline: Burundi. BBC. April 22, 2008. Retrieved on June 8, 2008.
  9. ^ MacDonald, F., Peoples of Africa, p. 60.
  10. ^ Timeline: Rwanda. Amnesty International. Retrieved July 12, 2008.
  11. ^ Ethnicity and Burundi’s Refugees. African studies quarterly: The online journal for African Studies. Retrieved July 12, 2008.
  12. ^ Cook, C., What Happened Where, p. 281.
  13. ^ United Nations Member States. July 3, 2006. Retrieved June 22, 2008.
  14. ^ Uvin, Peter. Ethnicity and Power in Burundi and Rwanda: Different Paths to Mass Violence. Comparative Politics, Vol. 31, No. 3 (Apr., 1999). Published by: Ph.D. Program in Political Science of the City University of New York. p. 256.
  15. ^ a b c d e http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/country_profiles/1068991.stm
  16. ^ http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2821.htm
  17. ^ Hagget, Peter. Encyclopedia of World Geography. Tarrytown, New York: Marshall Cavendish, 2002. ISBN 0761473068.
  18. ^ BBC, Country profile Burundi. Available from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/country_profiles/1068873.stm (accessed on 29-10-08)(1)
  19. ^ Global Security http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/burundi.htm
  20. ^ Global Ceasefire Agreement between Burundi and the CNDD-FDD. November 20, 2003. Relief Web. United Nations Security Council. Retrieved July 24, 2008.
  21. ^ Global Security http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/news/2008/05/mil-080519-voa12.htm
  22. ^ Burundi: Basic Education Indicators. UNESCO. May 4, 2007. Retrieved June 22, 2008.
  23. ^ Haskin, Jeanne M. The Tragic State of the Congo: From Decolonization to Dictatorship. New York, NY: Algora Publishing, 2005. ISBN 0875864163 p. 151.
  24. ^ Liang, Yin. "EU welcomes positive developments in Burundi". China View. Xinhua News Agency. June 4, 2008. Retrieved on June 29, 2008.
  25. ^ Ramsbotham, O., Woodhouse, T., Miall, H. Contemporary Conflict Resolution. Second Edition. Polity: Cambridge, 2007.
  26. ^ BBC News
  27. ^ a b c d Howard, Lise Morje (2008). UN Peacekeeping in Civil Wars. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  28. ^ a b c BBC, Time line Burundi. Available from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/country_profiles/1068991.stm (accessed on 29-10-08)
  29. ^ http://report2008.amnesty.org/eng/Regions/Africa/Burundi
  30. ^ a b c d http://www.hrw.org/english/docs/2008/05/29/burund18974.htm
  31. ^ Peace Building Commission Update, A project of the Institute for Global Policy, 2008 http://www.pbcupdate.org/?p=114#more-114
  32. ^ Burundi. International Center for Transitional Justice. Retrieved on July 27, 2008.
  33. ^ Burundi – Politics. From "The Financial Times World Desk Reference". Dorling Kindersley. 2004. Prentice Hall. Retrieved on June 30, 2008.
  34. ^ a b c "Republic of Burundi: Public Administration Country Profile" (PDF). United Nations' Division for Public Administration and Development Management (DPADM): 5–7. July 2004. http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/un/unpan023253.pdf. Retrieved 2008-09-20. 
  35. ^ Puddington, A., Freedom of the World, p. 145.
  36. ^ Puddington, A., Freedom of the World, p. 145–146.
  37. ^ a b Puddington, A., Freedom of the World, p. 146.
  38. ^ Burundi – World Leaders. CIA. Retrieved on June 28, 2008.
  39. ^ Kavamahanga, D. Empowerment of people living with HIV/AIDS in Gitega Province, Burundi. International Conference on AIDS 2004. July 15, 2004. NLM Gateway. Retrieved on June 22, 2008.
  40. ^ O'Mara, Michael. Facts about the World's Nations. Bronx, New York: H.W. Wilson, 1999. p. 150. ISBN 0824209559
  41. ^ By Ash, Russell. The Top 10 of Everything. New York, New York: Sterling Publishing Company, Incorporated, 2006. ISBN 060061557X
  42. ^ Klohn, Wulf and Mihailo Andjelic. Lake Victoria: A Case in International Cooperation. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Retrieved on July 20, 2008.
  43. ^ Budge, E. A. Wallace, The Egyptian Sudan: Its History and Monuments. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: J.P. Lippincott Company, 1907. p. 352.
  44. ^ Jessup, John E., An Encyclopedic Dictionary of Conflict and Conflict Resolution, 1945–1996, p. 97.
  45. ^ Bermingham, Eldredge, Christopher W. Dick, and Craig Moritz. Tropical Rainforests: Past, Present, and Future. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press, 2005. p. 146. ISBN 0226044688
  46. ^ Worldwide Deforestation Rates Food and Agriculture Organization of the U.N.: The State of the World's Forests 2003. Published on Mongabay.com. Retrieved on June 29, 2008.
  47. ^ East, Rob. African Antelope Database 1998. Gland, Switzerland: International Union for Conservation of Nature, 1999. p. 74. ISBN 2831704774.
  48. ^ Burundi Population. Institute for Security Studies. Retrieved on June 30, 2008.
  49. ^ Where We Work – Burundi. World Food Programme. Retrieved on June 30, 2008.
  50. ^ White, A. (2007). A Global Projection of Subjective Well-being: A Challenge to Positive Psychology? Psychtalk 56, 17–20. Retrieved June 8, 2008.
  51. ^ Eggers, E., Historical Dictionary of Burundi, p. xlvii.
  52. ^ Dinham, B., Agribusiness in Africa, p. 56.
  53. ^ Eggers, E., Historical Dictionary of Burundi, p. xlviii.
  54. ^ Kaufman, Stephen. U.S. Accepting Approximately 10,000 Refugees from Burundi. October 17, 2006. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved on June 30, 2008.
  55. ^ MacDonald, F., Peoples of Africa, p. 62.
  56. ^ Eggers, E., Historical Dictionary of Burundi, ix.
  57. ^ CIA the World Fact Book
  58. ^ U.S. Department of State
  59. ^ a b c http://hdrstats.undp.org/countries/data_sheets/cty_ds_BDI.html
  60. ^ http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/108954.php
  61. ^ Eating the Burundian Way. Cultural Profiles Project. Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Retrieved June 30, 2008.
  62. ^ Levin, Adam. The Art of African Shopping. Cape Town, South Africa: Struik, 2005. p. 36. ISBN 9781770070707
  63. ^ Burundi Arts and Literature. Cultural Profiles Project. Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Retrieved June 30, 2008.
  64. ^ Center for the Arts Presents the Royal Drummers of Burundi. The Mason Gazette. September 14, 2006. George Mason University. Retrieved on July 20, 2008.
  65. ^ Arts and Literature. Cultural Profiles Project. Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Retrieved July 20, 2008.
  66. ^ Learning in Burundi. Cultural Profiles Project. Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Retrieved June 30, 2008.
  67. ^ Vansina, Jan. Oral Tradition as History. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985. p. 114. ISBN 0299102149
  68. ^ Sports and Recreation. Cultural Profiles Project. Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Retrieved July 20, 2008.
  69. ^ Burundi Holidays. Cultural Profiles Project. Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Retrieved June 30, 2008.
  70. ^ Trawicky, Bernard and Ruth Wilhelme Gregory. Anniversaries and Holidays. Chicago, Illinois: American Library Association. p. 110. ISBN 0838906958
  71. ^ Burundi celebrates Muslim holiday. BBC. November 3, 2005. Retrieved on June 30, 2008.
  72. ^ http://www.samesame.com.au/news/international/3952/Bittersweet-Change-In-Burundi.htm Bittersweet Change In Burundi, Christian Taylor, SameSame.com.au
  73. ^ http://www.tradeport.org/countries/burundi/01grw.html

References

  • Allen, J.A.; et al. (2003). Africa South of the Sahara 2004: South of the Sahara. New York, New York: Taylor and Francis Group. ISBN 1857431839. 
  • Cook, Chris; Diccon Bewes (1999). What Happened Where: A Guide to Places and Events in Twentieth-Century. London, England: Routledge. ISBN 1857285336. 
  • Dinham, Barbara; Colin Hines (1984). Agribusiness in Africa. Trenton, New Jersey: Africa World Press. ISBN 0865430039. 
  • Eggers, Ellen K. (2006). Historical Dictionary of Burundi. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press, Incorporated. ISBN 0810853027.  3rd. edition.
  • Gates, Henry Lewis; Anthony Appiah (1999). Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience. New York, New York: Basic Civitas Books. ISBN 0465000711. 
  • Jessup, John E. (1998). An Encyclopedic Dictionary of Conflict and Conflict Resolution, 1945–1996. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0313281122. 
  • Krueger, Ambassador Robert.; Kathleen Tobin Krueger (2007). From Bloodshed to Hope in Burundi: Our Embassy Years during Genocide. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0292714866. 
  • MacDonald, Fiona; et al. (2001). Peoples of Africa. Tarrytown, New York: Marshall Cavendish. ISBN 0761471588. 
  • Puddington, Arch (2007). Freedom in the World: The Annual Survey of Political Rights and Civil Liberties. Syracuse University: Lanham, Maryland. ISBN 0742558975. 
  • Weinstein, Warren; Robert Schrere (1976). Political Conflict and Ethnic Strategies: A Case Study of Burundi. Syracuse University: Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs. ISBN 0915984202. 
  • Weinstein, Warren (2006). Historical Dictionary of Burundi. Metuchen, New Jersey: Scarecrow Press, Incorporated. ISBN 0810809621.  1st. edition.

Further reading

  • Chrétien, Jean-Pierre The Great Lakes of Africa: Two Thousand Years of History
  • Krueger, Robert and Krueger, Kathleen From Bloodshed to Hope in Burundi: Our Embassy Years during Genocide
  • Lemarchand, Rene Burundi: Ethnic Conflict and Genocide
  • Nivonzima, David and Fendell, Len Unlocking Horns: Forgiveness and Reconciliation in Burundi
  • Uvin, Peter Life After Violence: A People's Story of Burundi

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

View of Bujumbura, Burundi, looking east from the cathedral spire
Location
noframe
Flag
Image:by-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital Bujumbura
Government Republic
Currency Burundi franc (BIF)
Area total: 27,830 km2
water: 2,180 km2
land: 25,650 km2
Population 8,090,068 (July 2006 est.)
Language Kirundi (official), French (official), Swahili (along Lake Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area)
Religion Christian 67% (Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 5%), indigenous beliefs 23%, Muslim 10%
Travel Warning

WARNING: Burundi is experiencing civil unrest and the possibility of the resurgence of a civil war. It may be best to avoid independent travel outside Bujumbura at this time. Tours and/or guides can help make travel outside the capital relatively safe, but your route may be subject to change if conflict arises near planned desrtinations.

Burundi [1] is a small country in Central Africa. It is surrounded by Rwanda, Tanzania and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Regions

The country is divided into 16 provinces (Bubanza, Bujumbura, Bururi, Cankuzo, Cibitokeas "communes" in rural areas and "quartiers" in the capital, there are a total of 117 of such groupings. Beneath this, there are several lower levels of administrations, including the sector, the "colline", or hillside, and the smallest grouping, the "Nyumba Kumi" or "group of 10 houses."

Map of Burundi
Map of Burundi
  • Bujumbura - the capital and largest city, situated on northeastern shore of Lake Tanganyika
  • Bururi - southern city
  • Cibitoke - northwestern city
  • Gitega - the former colonial capital, second largest city, in the centre of the country
  • Muyinga - northeastern city
  • Ngozi - northern city
  • Kibira National Park - Situated at the top of the apex Zaire-Nile, with its 40,000 ha of preserved forest land, is the largest completely untouched natural area in Burundi. Its wild life constitutes a real shelter for chimpanzees, baboons, cercophitecus (a monkey), and black colobes scattering away to the approach of human beings and defying all laws of equilibrium and gravity. The park is crisscrossed by a network of 180 km of tracks and paths mainly used by guard car patrols and motorized tourists. The guards of the park will scout you in the wood undercover where you will be able to discover the fascinating attraction of the primeval forest and the charming songs of birds. Our mountain chains hide thermal springs, and the access to the park is made through the tea plantations of Teza and Rwegura which count among the best natural sceneries.
  • Ruvubu National Park - The National Park of Ruvubu lies on both sides of the Ruvubu River and is limited by high rise mountains. It was freed from human inhabitants and returned to complete wild life. The track and length of the path network is approximately 100 km and includes many observation lookouts. You will be accommodated in a newly erected camp and you will be able to tell your friends when you are back home about tracking buffaloes along their trails where the joyful glee of the songs from all the African bird faunae you may think of it as springing at every winding.
  • Rusizi Natural Reserve - The Natural Reserve of Rusizi will be your first visit in Burundi for the simple reason that it is very near the capital city of Bujumbura. The River Delta extends over 500 ha of vegetation made of Phragmites Mauritianus. It is a natural shelter for few families of antelopes and hippopotamuses that come here in quest of grazing land. At the end of the track if you are lucky enough you may meet with a few crocodiles fast asleep on the golden sand of the river banks. The Rusizi Palmgroves (situated on the Cibitoke road 10 km away from Bujumbura) is also an exceptional landscape that will no doubt make your mind drift away from your day to day preoccupations. It offers to the visitor a rich vegetation completely adapted environment gratified by only a few sparse rains, made of euphorbia, thorny bushes and tall palm trees of the “Hyphaena bengalensis var ventricosa” specie. Right in the deepest part of the reserve you will be able to admire the natural ponds left by the Rusizi meanders. This place is a paradise for birds which come there by the hundred and feed themselves by dive-fishing. If you are patient enough you will be able to see some hippopotamuses paddling in the shallow waters feeling at home as well as on the ground.
  • Bururi Natural Reserve - The Natural reserve of Bururi is a 3300 ha expanse of altitude damp forest. The town of Bururi offers visitors this wonderful panorama. In this place there are about 117 different species of birds and 25 different species of mammals have been identified in a forestland surrounding of multifarious vegetation. On a walking circuit along the botanical lanes and trails of this forest the visitor will fully enjoy the wild coolness of our mountains densely covered with trees of many different species. This region is only 33 km distant from Roumonge. The road through it will drive you from the lakes along miles of hallucinating and breathtaking panoramas.
  • Rwihinda Lake Natural Reserve - The Rwihinda Lake Natural Reserve is a real sanctuary for migratory aquatic birds which come to the site by the thousands to reproduce. All these now protected birds can nest more and more on these green swamps and islets of the lake. Crested cranes and herons live there a peaceful live. The visitor can drift along on barges to approach many species of birds without risk of frightening them.
  • Nyakazu Break and the Karera Falls

The natural Forest Reserves of Roumonge, Kigwena and Mugara are in course of development to enable chimpanzees and cercopithecuses to find enough food to stay there and procreate. The thermal waterfalls situated in the Mugara reserve will enable you to lend yourselves to natural massage simply by taking showers under these waters raised from the earth’s bosom. The very near beaches of Tanganyika will welcome you for a well deserved swim and rest.

Understand

Burundi is not different from any other young nation and jealously keeps all the elements that constitute its very rich culture: dances, musical rhythms, handicrafts. Its aim is to ensure the transmission of the inheritance from the forefathers and ancestors evidenced by belongings and objects they liked, they dances they composed.

History

The earliest known people to live in Burundi were the Twa, a short "pygmy" people who remain as a minority group there. The people currently known as Hutu and Tutsi moved into the region several hundred years ago, and dominated it. Like much of Africa, Burundi then went through a period of European colonial rule, ending with its independence from Belgium in 1962. In the decades since then, it has been the scene of recurring brutal mutual bloodlettings between the Hutu and Tutsi populations (much like the better-known genocide in neighboring Rwanda), and a series of political assassinations. Peace and the (re)establishment of civil democracy took place in 2005 with a cease-fire and the election of former Hutu rebel Pierre Nkurunziza as president.

Get in

By plane

Bujumbura International Airport is served by the following passenger airlines: Kenya Airways (Nairobi); Rwandair Express (Kigali, Johannesburg); Ethiopian (Addis Ababa); Brussels Airlines (Brussels). Air Burundi has recently begun operating passenger services from Bujumbura to Kigali and from Kigali to Bujumbura almost Monday through Sunday.

By bus

Busses are incredibly nice. Otraco is the main agency for bustravel from Bujumbura.

By boat

You can use the ferries to travel along Lake Tanganyika.

See

Bujumbura is in the western part of the country. Moving towards the East travelers will be able to visit Gitega, it’s a large market held right in the center of the town, and its Museum of Traditions (ancient utensils, pictures, commented visit). Travelers will have to make advance bookings to be able to watch an extraordinary and fascinating show unique in the world: “The Drummers of Giheta” playing in their traditional environment. Then you will be making head away towards Rutana to see the admirable panorama of the Karea Falls and the Nykazu Break, called the “Break of the Germans”, which is an exceptional lookout that oversees the Kumoso plain. You will be ending your tour by the visit of Gihofi, a booming town with its new sugar refinery in the hart of the sugar cane plantations country.

Towards the Southeastern part of the country don’t miss by any means the visit of the Nile Sources near Rutovu. Don’t forget to take your swimming gear with you otherwise you may miss the benefit of the hot springs in charming and subtle surroundings. You will also be able to see on your way the last traditional enclosed villas (round habitations surrounded by wooden fences strip in turn surrounded by grazing meadows and ploughed fields).

Further south you will be able to cross a line of villages succeeding one after the other and wedged between the lake and abrupt mountains. Fortunately, you will be able to stop and have a rest, or go for nautical sports and have a meal in restaurants or simply stop for a drink, on nicely arranged fine sand beaches. Still further south lays the Nyanza Lake. Why not to take a boat and go to Tanzania on the other side of the lake and visit Gombe Natural Park?

Towards the north just before reaching Bugarama, there is an important market center for high quality fresh foodstuffs. You can walk across the primeval forest of Kibira the access of which is still very difficult but which is in a process of beaconing. Carry on towards Kayanza and Ngozi, two big agricultural production and trade villages. At Kirundo, near the border with Rwanda, you will discover the small lakes of the North, the peacefulness and serenity of their jagged borders. Take a boat and drift on the Rwihinda Lake to admire numerous birds’ species entirely free on the lake (crested cranes, wild ducks, fishing eagles, etc.).

On the road from Muyinga to Cankuzo, the visit of the Natural park of the Ruvuvu Rivers is a must now that is endowed with accommodation infrastructure; there you’ll be able to admire Burundi protected remnant buffaloes and dorcas (gazelles). The surrounding primeval forest will no doubt leave you with an unforgettable souvenir.

Landmarks and Monuments

In Bujumbura climb to the “Belvedere” on the top of the hill, a dominating point of the town. You’ll be able to visit the mausoleum of Prince Louis Rwagasore, founder of the Uprona party and Hero of the independence of Burundi.

Ten kilometers south of Bujumbura at Mugere is the Livingstone-Stanley Monument, a stone marking a spot where the two famous explorers David Livingstone and H. M. Stanley spent two nights on 25-27 November 1871 as guests of Chief Mukamba during their joint exploration of the northern end of Lake Tanganyika, following their first meeting at Ujiji, Tanzania 15 days previously.

114 km away from Bujumbura, on the Bujumbura-Ijenda-Matana road lays Rutovu, a town where a pyramid was erected at the southern most source of the Nile, at an altitude of 2,000 m.

It is impossible to make a list of all the places worth making a stop, as Burundi is a real Garden of Eden defying weather and exercising on people an irresistible attraction. When arriving in Bujumbura, for all your circuits, itineraries and tours go to the National Office of Tourism where a great choice can be made available to you. You will be able to see everything: the Nyakazu Break to the east, the Karera Falls, the Tanganyika Lake panoramas at Vyanda and Kabonambo, the tea plantations of Teza or Rwegura. The reservoir built at this place is surrounded by beautiful sceneries. In a nutshell, a synthesis of curiosities worth devoting part of your holidays allowance.

Museums

There are two museums in Bujumbura and Gitega.

The second largest town in the country, Gitega, has the National Museum founded in 1955 where there is an exhibition of a magnificent ethnographic collection of objects owned by the Crown and that could be seen at the Court in the first part of the 20th century, together with an archaeological collection and historical photographs.

You will enjoy the old photographs of our kings, princes and queens of the 19th century, surrounded by lot of objects owned by men and women of those days; jewelry, baskets from all regions, earthenware for many uses, calabashes to keep water or for churning, war and hunting spears, ploughing instruments, ironworking and sculpting instruments.

In Bujumbura, the Musée Vivant near the lake presents a great part of the treasures in a wider place surrounded by magnificent gardens. Old and modern crafts are presented in beautiful small cabins. However the masterpiece of this museum is the reconstruction in real dimensions of a royal habitation. The entire surrounding courtyard can be visited and the main hut topped by an interlaced dome covered by a think thatched roof.

The Musée Vivant also keeps up a bird house where few local species can be seen and a Herpetologic Center where there are displays of snakes and many species of reptiles. This living museum was regarded as one of the most renowned centers in Africa since its collection was opened to the public in 1988.

Talk

Although most travelers will find that they can get around passingly well with a working knowledge of French (and increasingly, English), some familiarity with Swahili, or the related local language, Kirundi, is helpful particularly in rural areas. The problem may be that Kirundi is extremely difficult to learn. Kirundi and Kinyarwanda (the official language in Rwanda) are quite similar.

Buy

Burundi is endowed with very flourishing craftsmanship, with unique delicate and attractive shapes.

Burundi has developed plastic arts only very recently. The visitor will be able to find Gitega and Bujumbura talented artist able to carve sceneries on wooden boards and paint landscapes with beautifully shaded bluish backgrounds.

Eat

For the international traveler, Burundi offers some culinary surprises -- fresh fish from Lake Tanganyika and produce from the nation's rich volcanic soil are particularly notable. There is a sizable South Asian community, offering curried dishes alongside the more traditional rice and beans, and french-inspired European offerings. For lighter meals, samosas and skewered meats are common, and bananas and fresh fruit are often served as a sweet snack.

Drink

As in Rwanda, big Primus bottles are available for between $1-$2 as well as Amstel witch is about $2.

Sleep

Although accommodations in rural areas can be spartan, Bujumbura hosts a number of international-grade hotels, catering to a mainly a U.N. and international clientele. The only international-brand hotel to be found is a Novotel, which will set you back about $120 a night. Other notable hotels include the Source du Nil ($120/night), the Hotel Botanika ($85/night), the Clos de Limbas ($70/night) and the new, anglophone Sun Safari.

Learn

Burundi is a very nice place to travel and it will leave a mark on you.

Work

Education is now compulsory for children between the ages of 7 and 13. Primary education lasts for six years. The languages of instruction in schools are Kisundi and French. General secondary education lasts for seven years, while vocational secondary education usually lasts for five. The percentage of eligible children attending school decreased from 28% in 1967 to 18% in 1975 before rising to 51% in 1992. As of 1999, 45% of primary-school-age children were enrolled in school, while only about 5% of eligible young people attend secondary or technical schools

Stay safe

Although some semblance of normality has returned to much of the country with the conclusion of the nation's democratic transition and a democratically chosen head of state in August, 2005, travelers should be warned that there is still significant insecurity throughout the country and exercise extreme caution. Besides the still-active rebel group, the Forces Nationales de la Liberation (FNL), who continue to attack government forces and civilians, threats posed by banditry and armed robbery, as well as petty crimes remain. Visitors should exercise caution, avoid traveling after dark, and be aware of curfew laws. Many roads close at night, and most embassies put out curfews on their staff. As any conflict or post-conflict situation, visitors should consult their embassy to be apprised of the latest local developments, and be sensitive to the changing security environment.

Stay healthy

Be careful of kiosk foods and avoid unboiled water. Also ensure you have been vaccinated.

As in many other African countries, HIV infection is widespread. One source [2] suggests 18.6% in the cities and 7.5% in the countryside as of 2002.

Respect

The respect for the Burundian Elders is very strong. The younger peoples of the many villages and kinships show respect to parents, grandparents, aunts, uncles and even to strangers. The Burundians also show respect to younger and of equal ages.

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

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Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Proper noun

Burundi

  1. A country in Eastern Africa. Official name: Republic of Burundi.

Translations

See also


Bosnian

Proper noun

Burundi

  1. Burundi

Breton

Proper noun

Burundi

  1. Burundi

Croatian

Proper noun

Burundi m.

  1. Burundi

Czech

Proper noun

Burundi n.

  1. Burundi

Danish

Proper noun

Burundi

  1. Burundi

Dutch

Proper noun

Burundi

  1. Burundi

Finnish

Wikipedia-logo.png
Finnish Wikipedia has an article on:
Burundi

Wikipedia fi

Proper noun

Burundi

  1. Burundi

Declension


French

Proper noun

Burundi

  1. Burundi

German

Wikipedia-logo.png
German Wikipedia has an article on:
Burundi

Wikipedia de

Proper noun

Burundi n.

  1. Burundi

Hungarian

Wikipedia-logo.png
Hungarian Wikipedia has an article on:
Burundi

Wikipedia hu

Proper noun

Burundi

  1. Burundi

Interlingua

Proper noun

Burundi

  1. Burundi

Italian

Wikipedia-logo.png
Italian Wikipedia has an article on:
Burundi

Wikipedia it

Proper noun

Burundi m.

  1. Burundi

Derived terms


Norwegian

Proper noun

Burundi

  1. Burundi

Related terms


Polish

Wikipedia-logo.png
Polish Wikipedia has an article on:
Burundi

Wikipedia pl

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /buˈrundi/

Proper noun

Burundi n. (undeclinable)

  1. Burundi

Derived terms

  • Burundyjczyk m., Burundyjka f.
  • adjective: burundyjski

Romanian

Proper noun

Burundi

  1. Burundi

Serbian

Proper noun

Burundi

  1. Burundi

See also


Spanish

Wikipedia-logo.png
Spanish Wikipedia has an article on:
Burundi

Wikipedia es

Proper noun

Burundi m.

  1. Burundi

Related terms


Swedish

Proper noun

Burundi

  1. Burundi

Turkish

Proper noun

Burundi

  1. Burundi

Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

Wikipedia has a page called:
Burundi is a small nation of about 8 million people in east-central Africa, bounded by Rwanda, Tanzania, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Lake Tanganyika.

It was an independent kingdom for several centuries, then became a colony of Germany in 1903 then of Belgium. In 1962 it achieved independence again.

Its capital and largest city is Bujumbura.


This page is a "stub" and could be improved by additions and other edits.


This article uses material from the "Burundi" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

Republic of Burundi
File:Flag of File:Coat of arms of
Official flag Coat of Arms
National information
National motto: Unity, Work, Progress
National anthem: Burundi bwacu (Our Burundi)
About the people
Official languages: Kirundi, English
Other languages: Swahili
Population: (# of people)
  - Total: 8,988,091 [1] (ranked 89th)
  - Density: 323.0 per km²
Geography / Places
[[Image:|250px|none|country map]] Location of Burundi in Africa
Capital city: Bujumbura
Largest city: Bujumbura
Area
  - Total: 27,834 km² (ranked 145th)
Politics / Government
Established: July 1, 1962
Leaders: President Pierre Nkurunziza
Economy / Money
Currency:
(Name of money)
Burundi Franc
International information
Time zone: +2 UCT
Telephone dialing code: +257
Internet domain: .bi

Burundi is a small country in Africa. The capital of Burundi is Bujumbura. The official languages of Burundi are Kirundi and French. There are about eight and a half million people in Burundi. Burundi is one of the poorest countries in the world.

References

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bjn:Burundi


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