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Simulation video games

Business simulation games[1][2], or economic simulation games,[3][4] are games that focus on the management of economic processes,[5] usually in the form of a business. "Pure" business simulations have been described as construction and management simulations without a construction element,[2] and can thus be called management simulations.[2] Indeed, micromanagement is often emphasized in these kinds of games. They are essentially numeric, but try to hold the player's attention by using creative graphics.[2] The interest in these games lies in accurate simulation of real-world events using algorithms[6], as well as the close tying of players' actions to expected or plausible consequences and outcomes.[6][7] An important facet of economic simulations is the emergence of artificial systems, gameplay and structures.[8]

There are many games in this genre which have been designed around numerous different enterprises. Theme Park World can be called a business simulation because the goal of the game is to attract customers and make profits, but the game also involves a building aspect that makes it a construction and management simulation.[2] This genre also includes many of the "Tycoon" games such as Railroad Tycoon[1] and Big Biz Tycoon.[4] Other notable business simulation games include Air Bucks[3] and The Movies.[9]

Trevor Chan is a notable developer of business simulation games,[10] having developed the 1995 game Capitalism which has been described as the "best business simulation game".[1] Besides Capitalism, another notable pure business simulation is Hollywood Mogul.[2]

Contents

Real-world applications

Because economic simulations simulate real-world systems, they can often be used for economics education.[11] Some benefits of simulations are that they permit students to experience and test themselves in situations before encountering them in real life[12], that they permit students to experiment and test hypotheses[12][13], and that subjects seem more "real" to them than when taught passively from the blackboard.[12] They are also used extensively in the professional world to train workers in the financial industries[14][15] and management[15], and to study economic models[16] (an association of professionals, ABSEL, exists for the sole purpose of promoting their use[14]), with some simulations having in excess of 10,000 variables.[16] Economic simulations have even been used in experiments, such as those done by Donald Broadbent on learning and cognition that revealed how people often have an aptitude for mastering systems without necessarily comprehending the underlying principles.[17] Other games are used to study the behavior of consumers.[18]

History

An early economic sim by Dan (Danielle) Bunten, M.U.L.E., released in 1983, foreshadowed events that would transpire later in video gaming history, especially in the MMOG market, with regard to player cooperation and simulated economies.[19] The game was Electronic Arts' most highly awarded game, despite selling only 30,000 copies.[20] That same year, Epyx released the business sim Oil Barons.[21]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Review - IGN: Trevor Chan's Capitalism II
  2. ^ a b c d e f Rollings, Andrew; Ernest Adams (2003). Andrew Rollings and Ernest Adams on Game Design. New Riders Publishing. pp. 417–441. ISBN 1592730019. http://safari.adobepress.com/1592730019/ch14.  
  3. ^ a b IGN: Air Bucks,
  4. ^ a b News - IGN: Big Biz Tycoon Ships
  5. ^ Rollings, Andrew; Ernest Adams (2006). Fundamentals of Game Design. Prentice Hall. http://wps.prenhall.com/bp_gamedev_1/54/14053/3597646.cw/index.html.  
  6. ^ a b Laramee, Francois Dominic (2002). Game Design Perspectives: Advances in Computer Graphics and Game Development. Charles River Media. p. 117. ISBN 1584500905. http://books.google.com/books?id=T9kS82J5LG0C&printsec=frontcover&dq=game+design+perspectives&lr=&ei=VXtZSIeQCoHKigHA_aiVDA&sig=jHiQ0WZ-Pk_gDEdsmQVTQrMBCA4.  
  7. ^ Slator, Brian M.; Richard T. Beckwith, Harold Chaput (2006). Electric Worlds in the Classroom: Teaching and Learning with Role-Based Computer Classes. Teachers College Press. p. 61. ISBN 0807746754. http://books.google.com/books?id=CoBW2rJO7mkC&pg=PA61&dq=%22economic+simulation%22+game&lr=&ei=CKNZSKOHCpOkiwHB0ICLDA&sig=bnE0PWFap_LMcABZeqI0DD9XORE.  
  8. ^ Natkin, Stéphane (2006). Video Games and Interactive Media: A Glimpse at New Digital Entertainment. A K Peters, Ltd.. p. 97. ISBN 1568812973. http://books.google.com/books?id=Huph6EeDVggC&pg=PA97&dq=%22economic+simulation%22+game&lr=&ei=AIBZSN6yJKaojgGtrNCPDA&sig=kRhfhxWcDJdOxIDcq48GI-_5LCg.  
  9. ^ Review - IGN: The Movies
  10. ^ IGN: Joan of Arc Interview
  11. ^ Farkas, Meredith (2007). Social Software in Libraries: Building Collaboration, Communication, and Community Online. Information Today, Inc.. p. 216. ISBN 157387275X. http://books.google.com/books?id=AlARogbZHqcC&pg=PA216&dq=%22economic+simulation%22+game&lr=&ei=oHtZSJXiC5yMjAH2gZWWBw&sig=68a7reFAYB1fWay4ewLgFcbj_Lg. Retrieved 2008-06-18.  
  12. ^ a b c Schurr, Sandra (1994). Dynamite in the Classroom: A How-to Handbook for Teachers. National Middle School Association. p. 73. ISBN 1560900415. http://books.google.com/books?id=HK_uqW_oS7EC&pg=PA73&dq=economic+simulation+game&lr=&ei=OW5ZSKW9F4LAigHlsuSKDA&sig=-61XB7m2BigDvbyZ98Oo97ejuAE.  
  13. ^ Thole, Heinz-Jürgen; Claus Möbus, Olaf Schröder (1997). "Domain Knowledge Structure, Knowledge Representation and Hypotheses Testing". Artificial Intelligence in Education: Knowledge and Media in Learning (IOS Press): 410. http://books.google.com/books?id=9L4reNbo7MQC&pg=PA410&dq=%22economic+simulation%22+game&lr=&ei=-rZZSPH2AoXUjgGB_fiHCQ&sig=obfNU0IbPxbfZEJL8uVCp8d36BM.  
  14. ^ a b Rutter, Jason; Jo Bryce (2006). Understanding Digital Games. Sage Publications, Inc.. p. 227. ISBN 1412900336. http://books.google.com/books?id=Ji3baoCZL8gC&pg=PA227&dq=%22economic+simulation%22+game&lr=&ei=oHtZSJXiC5yMjAH2gZWWBw&sig=pLhofafv2K_p5uESQeDQhu6kog8.  
  15. ^ a b Fallows, Stephen J.; Kemal Ahmet (1999). Inspiring Students: Case Studies in Motivating the Learner. Routledge. p. 63. ISBN 0749428724. http://books.google.com/books?id=nk49AAAAIAAJ&pg=PA63&dq=%22business+simulation%22+game&lr=&ei=HcFZSL-HO4m2iwGCuNnNAg&sig=_-4CJ-6_5cper-wqzzUctW8LXec.  
  16. ^ a b Gatti, Domenico Delli (2000). Interaction and Market Structure: Essays on Heterogeneity in Economics. Springer. p. 37. ISBN 3540669795. http://books.google.com/books?id=5D4V5DwKeKgC&pg=PA37&dq=%22economic+simulation%22+game&lr=&ei=I5NZSJvECYSKjAHF5PySDA&sig=k5Wckvisyhk-TLXbGVOKbiKoXoc.  
  17. ^ Hogarth, Robin M. (2001). Educating Intuition. University of Chicago Press. p. 184. ISBN 0226348601. http://books.google.com/books?id=fsffJGkpwVIC&pg=PA184&dq=%22economic+simulation%22+game&lr=&ei=AIBZSN6yJKaojgGtrNCPDA&sig=KdWDyKzJXpEKMavnf7h4RCvKq5c.  
  18. ^ Jain, L. C.; R. J. Howlett, N. S. Ichalkaranje, G. Tonfoni (2002). virtual environments for teaching & learning. World Scientific. p. 20. ISBN 9812381678. http://books.google.com/books?id=gDPbGslq1LoC&pg=PA20&dq=%22economic+simulation%22+game&lr=&ei=CKNZSKOHCpOkiwHB0ICLDA&sig=7LYXaE0LN1ZWc8bTGfzPoBFXCx4.  
  19. ^ Sharkey, Scott (January 22, 2004 - January 12, 2005). "The Essential 50 Archives". 1UP.com. http://www.1up.com/do/feature?cId=3133886. Retrieved 2008-06-18.  
  20. ^ DeMaria, Rusel; Johnny L. Wilson (2004). High Score!: The Illustrated History of Electronic Games. McGraw-Hill Professional. pp. 174–175. ISBN 0072231726. http://books.google.com/books?id=HJNvZLvpCEQC&pg=PA174&dq=%22economic+simulation%22+game&lr=&ei=oHtZSJXiC5yMjAH2gZWWBw&sig=ckIr-sIppfa2qHwaS_TZKDUFf8Q.  
  21. ^ http://www.mobygames.com/game/oil-barons MobyGames. "Oil Barons," (retrieved on January 25th, 2009).







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