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The Prague Castle Orchestra, a busking trio
Mother and son busking in Lhasa, Tibet

Busking is the practice of performing in public places for tips and gratuities. People engaging in this practice are called buskers. Buskers may also be known as street performers, street musicians, minstrels or troubadours. Busking performances can be just about anything that people find entertaining. Buskers may do acrobatics, animal tricks, balloon twisting, card tricks, clowning, comedy, contortions & escapes, dance, fire eating, fire breathing, fortune-telling, juggling, magic, mime and a mime variation where the artist performs as a living statue, musical performance, puppeteering, snake charming, storytelling or recite poetry or prose as a bard, street art (sketching and painting, etc.), street theatre, sword swallowing, and even putting on a flea circus.

Contents

Description

Busking is a British term used in many areas of the English-speaking world. The place where a busker performs is called their pitch. People busk for a variety of reasons: for money, for fun, for attention, to meet people and socialize, for the love of their art, to practice their skills, or try out new material in front of an audience. Some buskers only work part time, while others make a living performing full time on the streets. Some buskers do professional entertainment gigs in addition to working the streets. A busker's income depends on many conditions including, the type and quality of the performance, the composition of the audience, the weather, the location and the time of day. Competition from other buskers can also play a key role. Some people make only pocket change from busking while others can earn a substantial income.

Street performers exhibiting a chained bear and a monkey.

Busking can be the bottom rung of the entertainment industry. Some of the most famous groups and superstars started their careers as buskers. Joan Baez, Beck, Roni Benise, The Blue Man Group, Pierce Brosnan, Jimmy Buffett, George Burns, Cirque du Soleil, Judy Collins, Bob Dylan, Stephane Grappelli, Woody Guthrie, Bob Hope, Jewel, Steve Martin, Joni Mitchell, Jimmy Page, Penn & Teller, Gerry Rafferty, Edith Piaf, Simon and Garfunkel, Pete Seeger, Rod Stewart, Joe Strummer, Stomp, and Robin Williams. Many other buskers have also found fame and fortune.

There are three basic forms of busking. Circle shows are shows that tend to gather a crowd around them. They usually have a distinct beginning and end. Usually these are done in conjunction with street theater, puppeteering, magicians, comedians, acrobats, jugglers and sometimes musicians. Circle shows can be the most lucrative. Some time the crowds attracted can be huge. A good busker will control the crowd so the patrons don't obstruct foot traffic.

German street buskers play for pedestrians.

Walk-by acts are typically with the busker providing a musical or entertaining ambiance. There is no distinct beginning or end and the crowds do not particularly stop to watch. Sometimes an intended walk by act will spontaneously turn into a circle show.

Café busking is done mostly in restaurants, pubs, bars and cafes. Musicians can frequently be found using this venue with the performers doing a show in return for tips that are collected in a jar. Making a living on the piano bar principle (i.e. for tips) is done in a range of genres, including jazz, rock, and even "light" Classical style. Perhaps one of the most famous of these is Billy Joel, who rose to fame from working in piano bars. His hit song "Piano Man" was written about a six month stint he did in 1972 at the "Executive Room" piano bar in Los Angeles.[citation needed]

Most buskers will use their instrument cases or a special can or box to collect the tips. A bottler is a British term that describes the person with the job of collecting the money. A bottler may also be called the "hat man" or "pitch man". The term bottler came from a device old world performers used for collecting money. It was made from the top half of a glass bottle. It had a leather flap inserted in the bottle neck and a leather pouch attached. It was designed to allow coins in but not allow them to be removed easily without being noticed by the jingling of the coins against the glass. The first use of such contrivances was recorded by the famous Punch and Judy troupe of puppeteers in early Victorian times.[1] Bottling itself can be an art form, and the difference between a good and a bad bottler can be crucial to the amount of money earned on a pitch. A good bottler is able to encourage audience members to give money. A bottler usually gets a cut of the money made on the pitch. Prior to the 20th century, it was common for buskers to use a trained monkey as a bottler. That practice has diminished due to animal control laws, but as tribute to the monkey's service there is a device known as monkey stick which buskers use to get attention. A monkey stick is a long stick with bottle caps or small cymbals attached such that they make an attention getting noise when shaken.

Pitches

An organ grinder in Vienna, with barrel organ.

A good pitch can be the key to success as a busker. An act that might make money at one place and time may not work at all in another setting. Popular pitches tend to be public places with large volumes of pedestrian traffic, high visibility, low background noise and as few elements of interference as possible. Good locations may include tourist spots, popular parks, entertainment districts including lots of restaurants, cafes, bars and pubs and theaters, subways and bus stops, outside the entrances to large concerts and sporting events, almost any plaza or town square as well as zócalos in Latin America and piazzas, and in other regions. Other places include shopping malls, strip malls, and outside of supermarkets, although permission is usually required from management for these.

In her documentary movie and book, Underground Harmonies: Music and Politics in the Subways of New York (Anthropology of Contemporary Issues), Susie J. Tanenbaum examines how the old adage "Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast" plays out in regards to busking. Her sociological studies showed that in areas where buskers regularly perform, crime rates tended to go down. She also discovered that those with higher education tended to appreciate and support buskers more than those of lesser learning. Some cities are encouraging buskers because they can be a tonic to the stresses of shopping and commuting, and can be an influence which is entertaining and beneficial for all.[2] Some cities give preference to "approved" buskers in certain areas and even publish schedules of performances.[3]

In the United States there has been a rebirth of this art form as the new millennium has started. Buskers are found at many locations like Mallory Square in Key West, in New Orleans all over the place, in New York around Central Park, Washington Square, and the subway systems, in San Francisco at Fisherman's Wharf area, Market Street, Union Square and the Cable Car turnarounds and BART stations, in Washington DC around the transit centers, in Los Angeles around Venice Beach, the Santa Monica Third Street Promenade, and the Hollywood area, in Chicago on Maxwell Street, in the Delmar Loop district of St. Louis, and many other locations throughout the US. Busking is still quite common in Scotland, Ireland, and England with musicians and other street performers of varying talent levels.

History

There have been performances in public places for gratuities in every major culture in the world, dating back to antiquity. This art form was the most common means of employment for entertainers before the advent of recording and personal electronics.[4] Prior to that, a living human being had to produce any music or entertainment, save for a few mechanical devices such as the barrel organ, the music box, and the piano roll. Organ grinders were commonly found busking in the old days.

These performers have not always been called buskers. The term busking was first noted in the English language around the middle 1860s in Great Britain. Up until the 20th century buskers were commonly called minstrels and troubadours. The word busk comes from the Spanish root word buscar, meaning "to seek" – buskers are literally seeking fame and fortune.[5][6] The Spanish word buscar in turn evolved from the Latin "buskin". A buskins were ornamental Roman sandals which were worn by performers on celebration days. In obsolete French it evolved to busquer for "seek, prowl" and was generally used to describe prostitutes. In Italian it evolved to buscare which meant "procure, gain" and in Italy buskers are called buscarsi or, more simply, Buskers (see loan word).

Styles

From the Renaissance to the early 1900s busking was called minstrelsy in America, Europe and other English-speaking lands. In medieval France buskers were known by the terms troubadour and jongleurs. In northern France they were known as trouveres. In old German buskers were known as Minnesingers and Spielleute.

Mariachis are Mexican street bands that play a specific style of music by the same name.[7] Mariachis frequently wear ornate costumes with intricate embroidery and beaded designs, large brimmed sombreros and the short charro jackets. Mariachi groups busk when they perform while traveling through streets and plazas, as well as in restaurants and bars.

Around the middle 1800s Japanese Chindonya started to be seen using their skills for advertising, and these street performers are still occasionally seen in Japan.

Busking is common among the Gypsies, also known as the Romani people. Mentions of Gypsy music, dancers and fortune tellers are found in all forms of song poetry, prose and lore. The Roma brought the word busking to England by way of their travels along the Mediterranean coast to Spain and the Atlantic ocean and then up north to England and the rest of Europe.

In the US, medicine shows proliferated in the 1800s. They were traveling vendors selling elixirs and potions to improve the health. They would often employ entertainment acts as a way of making the clients feel better. The people would often associate this feeling of well-being with the products sold. After these performances they would "pass the hat".

One man bands are buskers who perform a variety of instruments simultaneously. One Man Bands proliferated in urban areas in the 1800s and early 1900s, but they continue to exist in the 2000s. A typical 2000s-era one man band set-up is a singer who plays acoustic guitar, while also playing a harmonica (attached to his neck with a rack) and tapping a tambourine with his or her foot. Many new one man bands are using karaoke recordings on CD or sequenced MIDI recordings for backup.

Classical fiddler in Arles, France

Folk music has always been an important part of the busking scene. Cafe, restaurant, bar and pub busking is a mainstay of this art form. Two of the more famous folk singers are Woody Guthrie and Joan Baez. The delta bluesmen were mostly itinerant musicians emanating from the Mississippi Delta region of the USA around the early 1920s and on.

The counterculture of the hippies of the 1960s occasionally staged "be-ins", which resembled some present-day busker festivals. Bands and performers would gather at public places and perform for free, passing the hat to make money. The San Francisco Bay Area was at the epicenter of this movement — be-ins were staged at Golden Gate Park and San Jose's Bee Stadium and other venues. Some of the bands that performed in this manner were Janis Joplin with Big Brother and the Holding Company, the Grateful Dead, Jefferson Airplane, Quicksilver Messenger Service, Country Joe and the Fish, Moby Grape, and Jimi Hendrix.

Christmas caroling can also be a form of busking, as wassailing included singing for alms, wassail or some other form of refreshment such as Figgy pudding. In Ireland the traditional Wren Boys and in England Morris Dancing can be considered part of the busking tradition.

In India and Pakistan's Gujarati region Bhavai is a form of street art where there are plays enacted in the village, the barot or the village singer also is part of the local entertainment scene.

In the 2000s, some performers have begun "Cyber Busking". Artists post work or performances on the Internet for people to download or "stream" and if people like it they make a donation using PayPal.

Pitfalls

Some people stereotype buskers as being unemployed, homeless or beggars. Most buskers are not, and when referring to a busker these terms are normally disrespectful, derogatory and defamatory. Some people will heckle buskers and stigmatize them as such irregardless of the buskers social status.

Conflicts and fights over pitch can and do happen. Career buskers may try to maintain a "right of pitch" over others. Generally it is considered first come, first served. Some buskers will send a person ahead of them to fend others off a pitch until they arrive. This practice is known as "squatting" and is greatly looked down upon by other buskers. At times, a compromise may be reached between competing buskers and a pitch will be shared on a rotational basis.

Beggars have been known to congregate around buskers trying to intercept those patrons who want to pay the busker for their services and convert the donation to themselves. The buskers refer to these types as "spongers". Beggars may also try to extort money from buskers by being obnoxious and harassing people until the busker pays them to go away.

Buskers may find themselves targeted by thieves due to the very open and public nature of their craft. Buskers may have their earnings, instruments or props stolen. One particular technique that thieves use against buskers is to pretend to make a donation while actually taking money out instead, a practice known as "dipping" or "skimming". George Burns described his days as a youthful busker this way:[8]

Sometimes the customers threw something in the hats.
Sometimes they took something out of the hats.
Sometimes they took the hats.

Law

Historic painting of a street musician, entitled O Pobre Rabequista (The Poor Rebec Player).

The first recorded instance of laws affecting buskers were in ancient Rome in 462 BC. The Law of the Twelve Tables made it a crime to sing about or make parodies of the government or its officials in public places; the penalty was death.[9][10] Louis the Pious "excluded histriones and scurrae, which included all entertainers without noble protection, from the privilege of justice".[11] In 1530 Henry VIII ordered the licensing of minstrels & players, fortune-tellers, pardoners and fencers, as well as beggars who could not work. If they did not obey they could be whipped on two consecutive days.[12]

In the United States under Constitutional Law and most European common law, the protection of artistic free speech extends to busking. In the USA and most places, the designated places for free speech behavior are the public parks, streets, sidewalks, thoroughfares and town squares or plazas. Under certain circumstances even private property may be open to buskers, particularly if it is open to the general public and busking does not interfere with its function and management allows it or other forms of free speech behaviors or has a history of doing so.[13]

While there is no universal code of conduct for buskers, there are common law practices which buskers must conform to. Most jurisdictions have corresponding statutory law. In Great Britain free speech and busking can be regulated. Some towns in the British Isles limit the licenses issued to bagpipers because of the volume and difficulty of the instrument. In Great Britain places requiring licenses for buskers may also require auditions of anyone applying for a busking license. Some venues that do not regulate busking may still ask performers to abide by voluntary rules. Some places require a special permit to use electronically amplified sound and may have limits on the volume of sound produced. It is common law that buskers or others should not impede pedestrian traffic flow, block or otherwise obstruct entrances or exits, or do things that endanger the public. It is common law that any disturbing or noisy behaviors may not be conducted after certain hours in the night. These curfew limitations vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. It is common law that "performing blue" (i.e. using material that is sexually explicit or any vulgar or obscene remarks or gestures) is generally prohibited unless performing for an adults-only environment such as in a bar or pub.

In London, busking is prohibited in the entire borough of the City of London. The London Underground provides busking permits in tube stations, and many London boroughs allow busking by permit. The only borough in London permitting busking without a permit is Camden.[14]

United States law

ThoseBloodyBuskers.ogg
Video of over 20 buskers and street performers

In the United States there have been numerous legal cases about regulations and laws that have decided the rights of buskers to perform in public. Most of these laws and regulations have been found to be unconstitutional when challenged. In the US, free speech is considered an essential and absolute civil right of every individual, guaranteed by the First and Fourteenth constitutional amendments. It matters not if people practise artistic free speech for money. In the USA about the only reasons that can be used to regulate or ban busking behavior are public safety issues and noise issues in certain areas that require silence like hospital zones, around churches, funeral homes, cemeteries and transport terminals where announcements need to be heard. Such laws must be narrowly tailored to eliminate only the perceived evils by limiting the time, place and manner that busking may be practiced. They must also leave open reasonable alternative venues. The only exceptions to these free speech rules are sedition, as defined by the Smith Act, public displays of pornography and obscenity and criminal behavior such as fraud or defamation and the common laws talked about above. In the US, laws regulating or banning busking must be applied evenly to all forms of free speech. Busking cannot be prohibited in an area where other forms of free speech are not prohibited. For example if busking is regulated or banned but people are allowed to conduct free speech behavior for pickets, protests, religious, political, educational, sports, commercial or other purposes then the law is illegal. In the USA any form of regulation on artistic free speech must not be judgmental, and permits must not be so restrictive, complex, difficult or expensive to obtain that they inhibit free speech.

If two or more persons conspire to violate a person's civil rights they are violating US Federal Law, Title 18, U.S.C., Section 241- Conspiracy Against Rights - "This statute makes it unlawful for two or more persons to conspire to injure, oppress, threaten, or intimidate any person of any state, territory or district in the free exercise or enjoyment of any right or privilege secured to him/her by the Constitution or the laws of the United States, or because of his/her having exercised the same. It further makes it unlawful for two or more persons to go in disguise on the highway or on the premises of another with the intent to prevent or hinder his/her free exercise or enjoyment of any rights so secured. Punishment varies from a fine or imprisonment of up to ten years, or both; and if death results, or if such acts include kidnapping or an attempt to kidnap, aggravated sexual abuse or an attempt to commit aggravated sexual abuse, or an attempt to kill, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned for any term of years, or for life, or may be sentenced to death."

It is also a violation of federal law if an officer of the law violates a persons civil rights under the color of the law. It is the duty of all government officials and police officers to protect and preserve the constitution and these civil rights, Title 18, U.S.C., Section 242 - Deprivation of Rights Under Color of Law - "This statute makes it a crime for any person acting under color of law, statute, ordinance, regulation, or custom to willfully deprive or cause to be deprived from any person those rights, privileges, or immunities secured or protected by the Constitution and laws of the U.S.This law further prohibits a person acting under color of law, statute, ordinance, regulation or custom to willfully subject or cause to be subjected any person to different punishments, pains, or penalties, than those prescribed for punishment of citizens on account of such person being an alien or by reason of his/her color or race. Acts under "color of any law" include acts not only done by federal, state, or local officials within the bounds or limits of their lawful authority, but also acts done without and beyond the bounds of their lawful authority; provided that, in order for unlawful acts of any official to be done under "color of any law," the unlawful acts must be done while such official is purporting or pretending to act in the performance of his/her official duties. This definition includes, in addition to law enforcement officials, individuals such as Mayors, Council persons, Judges, Nursing Home Proprietors, Security Guards, etc., persons who are bound by laws, statutes ordinances, or customs. Punishment varies from a fine or imprisonment of up to one year, or both, and if bodily injury results or if such acts include the use, attempted use, or threatened use of a dangerous weapon, explosives, or fire shall be fined or imprisoned up to ten years or both, and if death results, or if such acts include kidnapping or an attempt to kidnap, aggravated sexual abuse or an attempt to commit aggravated sexual abuse, or an attempt to kill, shall be fined under this title, or imprisoned for any term of years or for life, or both, or may be sentenced to death." [15]

Year Case Law
1970 In the late 1920s and early 1930s, busking had grown to be quite a controversial enterprise in New York. The country was in the midst of a horrible economic depression and many people had turned to busking as a source of income. Buskers were everywhere and fights over pitches were alarmingly common between the buskers themselves and the buskers, merchants, and vendors. Out of frustration over the complaining, fighting, and violence, Mayor Fiorello La Guardia banned busking in New York on the grounds of safety issues regarding the escalating conflicts. Busking went on, but on a much smaller scale. If anybody complained about a busker, at their discretion the police could order the busker to move on or could even arrest him or her. In 1970 poet Allen Ginsberg challenged the constitutionality of this ban. The ban was lifted in 1970 after being found to be unconstitutional by Mayor John V. Lindsay.[16]
1979 Goldstein v. Town of Nantucket, the Town of Nantucket tried to regulate buskers as vendors, which the court did not accept as valid. Local businesses had complained about the competition from street artists.[17]
1983 Davenport v. City of Alexandria, Virginia A judge ruled that a ban on busking and other business-related activities on the streets of the central city area was unconstitutional. Several courts found that there was no legitimacy to the city's allegations of safety issues that were alleged to be related to busking.[18]
1985 Friedrich v. Chicago 619 F. Supp., 1129. D.C. Ill, A Chicago court ruled in favor of allowing buskers in the city. In Chicago busking was restricted in certain areas. In the decision, buskers won injunctive relief from the city's enforcement of the ban in some of the contested areas. They also obtained relief from a permit scheme on the use of amplifiers because the scheme was judgmental and at the discretion of the issuers.[19]
1990 Carew-Reid et al. vs. Ny Metropolitan Transportation Authority et al. Buskers defeated a ban on the use of electronic amplifiers on the NY subways. The courts ruled that it was the volume of the sound and not the use of amplifiers that was at issue.[20]
1991 Jews For Jesus, Inc. vs. Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority A religious group defeated the banning of expressive behavior with a captive audience in paid areas. The courts ruled that subway stations and transit terminals have always been traditional public forums for expressive behavior.[21]
1996 Bery v. New York, 97 F. 3d 684, 2d Cir. Local businesses had complained about the competition from street artists, visual artists won the right to sell their art.[22]
1997 Harry Perry and Robert "Jingles" Newman v. Los Angeles Police Department,[23] Buskers won the right to perform and sell their original music CDs and tapes on the street. Local businesses had complained about the competition from street artists and tried to prohibit busking.[24].
1999 Turley v. NYC, US 2nd Cir Appeal 98-7114 (1999) The judge ruled that New York City busking permit schemes were too complex and difficult to obtain, and that the costs were unreasonably high. Turley also won relief prohibiting the seizure of instruments by police.[25]
2001 Street Performers won a lawsuit in Waikiki, Hawaii After local businesses had complained about the competition from buskers, they got the city to push through an ordinance to ban busking on a very popular area, allegedly for safety reasons. Buskers prevailed in court by proving the safety concerns were not founded.[26].
2003 District Judge Henry Lee Adams Jr. issued an injunction barring the city of St. Augustine, Florida from enforcing a recent ordinance banning street performances on St. George Street. Local businesses had complained about the competition from buskers. Judge Adams' order states, "Street performances are a form of expression protected by the First and Fourteenth Amendments of the United States Constitution." Merchants got the city to ban busking for alleged safety issues. After public outcry, and a lawsuit[27] with Judge Adams decision, St. Augustine acceded and as of March 2003 allows busking.[28].
2004 A San Francisco busker known as the World Famous Bushman was charged with four public nuisance misdemeanors. A jury cleared him of the first complaint and the district attorney subsequently dropped the remaining complaints.[29]
2005 A judge rejected Seattle Center rules on buskers. "Magic Mike" Berger, a magician and balloon-twisting busker, took the Seattle Center to court and won injunctive relief and a court ordered settlement of over US $47,000. Seattle Center had some of the most liberal rules regarding busking but even they could not pass constitutional muster. The Business Improvement District formed to manage Seattle Center claimed that they had the right to manage 62 square blocks in the center of the city like private property. They wanted to limit buskers by giving preference to approved buskers, regulating the time, places and numbers of buskers performing. The judge rejected the regulations, pointing out that... "while a street performer cannot offer a meek oral request for a donation from passers by, a beggar who does not perform can solicit Seattle Center visitors with relative impunity, subject only to general criminal prohibitions on aggressive panhandling."[13][30]

Famous people's involvement

The American inventor and statesman Benjamin Franklin was a busker of sorts. He composed songs, poetry and prose about the political situation and went out in public and performed them. He would then sell printed copies of them to the public. He was dissuaded from busking by his father who convinced him the stigmas that some people attach to busking were not worth it. It was this experience that helped form his beliefs in free speech, which he wrote about in his journals.[31]

Paul McCartney of the Beatles donned a disguise and went busking. In an interview on Britain's Radio One he revealed: "It was for a film thing (Give My Regards To Broad Street, 1984) and it was something I'd always wanted to do, so I scruffed myself up a bit, put on a false beard and shades, and went down to Leicester Square tube station. It was really cool. A couple of people came up and said, 'Is it you?' but I just said, 'Oh, no'. But I got a few shillings and I thought, 'This doesn't feel right,' so I gave it to charity."[32]

Bruce Springsteen has been known to busk. There is a famous set of videos, recorded on 23 July 1988 on a street in Copenhagen, where he plays a variety of his songs with a busker on a street.[33]

Sting has also donned a disguise and gone out busking. He reportedly made £40. "He pulled a hat down over his eyes, but one woman said: 'It's Sting.' The man behind her said: 'You silly cow. It's not him. He's a multi-millionaire.'"[34]

The classical violinist Joshua Bell played as an incognito street busker at the Metro station L'Enfant Plaza in Washington, D.C. on 12 January 2007. Among 1,097 people who passed by, only one recognized him and only a couple more were drawn to his music. For his nearly 45 minute performance, Bell collected $32.17 (not counting $20 from a passerby who recognized him). He did this using a Stradivarius violin valued at around $2,000,000.[35]

Bon Jovi has been known to take to the streets from time to time. Among the most famous Bon Jovi busks were those at London’s Covent Garden and Moscow’s Red Square.[36]

Singer-songwriter Peter Mulvey recorded an entire album down in the Boston Subway, where he was a regular busker. In most cases, songs were recorded in one or two takes.[37]

Guy Laliberté was a street performer when he founded the Cirque du Soleil theatrical company in 1984.

On 18 November 2008 singer Tom Jones went outside the London's Royal Festival Hall and busked for charity. He raised £500 for cancer research while doing a twenty minute set.[38]

See also

References

  1. ^ Who is Mr Punch
  2. ^ uwnews.org | University of Washington News and Information
  3. ^ MTA - Arts for Transit | Music Under New York
  4. ^ SAABenFranklin
  5. ^ va=busker - Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
  6. ^ Merriam-Webster Online
  7. ^ mariachi - Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
  8. ^ The Ultimate Cigar Aficionado: Ninety-eight-year-old George Burns Shares Memories of His Life, article and interview by Cigar Aficionado Online
  9. ^ Cohen and Greenwood 1981: 14
  10. ^ busking
  11. ^ Krickeberg 1983 : 24
  12. ^ ibid.: 62
  13. ^ a b http://funandmagic.com/decision.pdf
  14. ^ "The Big Busk: London Busking Explained". The London Insider. 2010-02-07. http://www.london-insider.co.uk/2010/02/busking-in-london-explained-guide/. 
  15. ^ http://www.fbi.gov/hq/cid/civilrights/statutes.htm
  16. ^ http://www.kqed.org/assets/pdf/arts/programs/spark/412.pdf
  17. ^ http://www.buskersadvocates.org/saalegalCtGoldstein.html
  18. ^ http://www.buskersadvocates.org/saalegalCtDavenport.html
  19. ^ http://www.buskersadvocates.org/saalegalCtFriedrich.html
  20. ^ http://www.buskersadvocates.org/saalegalCtCarewvMTA.html
  21. ^ http://www.buskersadvocates.org/saalegalCtJewsforJesus.html
  22. ^ http://www.openair.org/alerts/artist/ny2cir.html
  23. ^ U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, case number 96-55545.
  24. ^ PERRY V LAPD
  25. ^ http://www.buskersadvocates.org/saalegalCtTurleyappeal.html
  26. ^ American Civil Liberties Union : ACLU Wins Artistic Expression Lawsuit On Behalf of Waikiki Street Performers
  27. ^ staugustine.com: Page One: Street Performer Ban
  28. ^ http://www.ci.st-augustine.fl.us/pressreleases/3_03/ordinance_buskers.html
  29. ^ Matier, Phillip; Andrew Ross (April 7, 2004). "Bushman of Fisherman's Wharf Gets the last Ugga-Bugga". San Francisco Chronicle: pp. B1. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2004/04/07/BAG6P61GPA1.DTL&hw=bushman&sn=006&sc=347. Retrieved 2007-02-15. 
  30. ^ The Seattle Times: Local News: Judge rejects Seattle Center rules on buskers
  31. ^ http://www.buskersadvocates.org/saahistory.html
  32. ^ http://shadyoldlady.com/location.php?loc=517 Sir Paul McCartney's busking admission
  33. ^ [1]
  34. ^ BreakingNews.ie - 2005/05/01: Sting busked to improve confidence
  35. ^ Gene Weingarten, Pearls Before Breakfast The Washington Post, April 8, 2007 Page W10.
  36. ^ http://www.islandrecords.com/bonjovi/archives_atoz_b.las
  37. ^ NPR : The Subterranean World of Peter Mulvey
  38. ^ http://www.dailymail.co.uk/tvshowbiz/article-1087685/Its-usual-Tom-Jones-busking-streets-London.html

External links

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