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CAMP responsive element modulator

PDB rendering based on 1dh3.
Available structures
Symbols CREM; ICER; MGC111110; MGC17881; MGC41893; hCREM-2
External IDs OMIM123812 HomoloGene84591 GeneCards: CREM Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE CREM 207630 s at tn.png
PBB GE CREM 209967 s at tn.png
PBB GE CREM 210171 s at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 1390 n/a
Ensembl ENSG00000095794 n/a
UniProt Q03060 n/a
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_001881 n/a
RefSeq (protein) NP_001872 n/a
Location (UCSC) Chr 10:
35.46 - 35.54 Mb
PubMed search [1] n/a

cAMP-responsive element modulator is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CREM gene.[1][2][3]

This gene encodes a bZIP transcription factor that binds to the cAMP responsive element found in many viral and cellular promoters. It is an important component of cAMP-mediated signal transduction during the spermatogenetic cycle, as well as other complex processes. Alternative promoter and translation initiation site usage allows this gene to exert spatial and temporal specificity to cAMP responsiveness. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding several different isoforms have been found for this gene, with some of them functioning as activators and some as repressors of transcription.[3]



CAMP responsive element modulator has been shown to interact with FHL5.[4][5]


  1. ^ Meyer TE, Habener JF (Jan 1993). "Cyclic AMP response element binding protein CREB and modulator protein CREM are products of distinct genes". Nucleic Acids Res 20 (22): 6106. PMID 1461747.  
  2. ^ Masquilier D, Foulkes NS, Mattei MG, Sassone-Corsi P (Mar 1994). "Human CREM gene: evolutionary conservation, chromosomal localization, and inducibility of the transcript". Cell Growth Differ 4 (11): 931–7. PMID 7916662.  
  3. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: CREM cAMP responsive element modulator".  
  4. ^ Fimia, G M; De Cesare D, Sassone-Corsi P (Nov. 2000). "A family of LIM-only transcriptional coactivators: tissue-specific expression and selective activation of CREB and CREM". Mol. Cell. Biol. (UNITED STATES) 20 (22): 8613–22. ISSN 0270-7306. PMID 11046156.  
  5. ^ Fimia, G M; De Cesare D, Sassone-Corsi P (Mar. 1999). "CBP-independent activation of CREM and CREB by the LIM-only protein ACT". Nature (ENGLAND) 398 (6723): 165–9. doi:10.1038/18237. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 10086359.  

Further reading

  • Don J, Stelzer G (2003). "The expanding family of CREB/CREM transcription factors that are involved with spermatogenesis.". Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 187 (1-2): 115–24. doi:10.1016/S0303-7207(01)00696-7. PMID 11988318.  
  • Yan C, Miller CL, Abe J (2007). "Regulation of phosphodiesterase 3 and inducible cAMP early repressor in the heart.". Circ. Res. 100 (4): 489–501. doi:10.1161/01.RES.0000258451.44949.d7. PMID 17332439.  
  • Pongubala JM, Atchison ML (1995). "Activating transcription factor 1 and cyclic AMP response element modulator can modulate the activity of the immunoglobulin kappa 3' enhancer.". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (17): 10304–13. doi:10.1074/jbc.270.17.10304. PMID 7730336.  
  • Walker WH, Sanborn BM, Habener JF (1995). "An isoform of transcription factor CREM expressed during spermatogenesis lacks the phosphorylation domain and represses cAMP-induced transcription.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 91 (26): 12423–7. doi:10.1073/pnas.91.26.12423. PMID 7809053.  
  • Fujimoto T, Fujisawa J, Yoshida M (1994). "Novel isoforms of human cyclic AMP-responsive element modulator (hCREM) mRNA.". J. Biochem. 115 (2): 298–303. PMID 8206879.  
  • de Groot RP, den Hertog J, Vandenheede JR, et al. (1993). "Multiple and cooperative phosphorylation events regulate the CREM activator function.". Embo J. 12 (10): 3903–11. PMID 8404858.  
  • Bodor J, Walker W, Flemington E, et al. (1996). "Modulation of Tax and PKA-mediated expression of HTLV-I promoter via cAMP response element binding and modulator proteins CREB and CREM.". FEBS Lett. 377 (3): 413–8. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(95)01299-0. PMID 8549766.  
  • Nantel F, Monaco L, Foulkes NS, et al. (1996). "Spermiogenesis deficiency and germ-cell apoptosis in CREM-mutant mice.". Nature 380 (6570): 159–62. doi:10.1038/380159a0. PMID 8600390.  
  • Blendy JA, Kaestner KH, Weinbauer GF, et al. (1996). "Severe impairment of spermatogenesis in mice lacking the CREM gene.". Nature 380 (6570): 162–5. doi:10.1038/380162a0. PMID 8600391.  
  • Bodor J, Spetz AL, Strominger JL, Habener JF (1996). "cAMP inducibility of transcriptional repressor ICER in developing and mature human T lymphocytes.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93 (8): 3536–41. doi:10.1073/pnas.93.8.3536. PMID 8622971.  
  • Gellersen B, Kempf R, Telgmann R (1997). "Human endometrial stromal cells express novel isoforms of the transcriptional modulator CREM and up-regulate ICER in the course of decidualization.". Mol. Endocrinol. 11 (1): 97–113. doi:10.1210/me.11.1.97. PMID 8994192.  
  • Laurance ME, Kwok RP, Huang MS, et al. (1997). "Differential activation of viral and cellular promoters by human T-cell lymphotropic virus-1 tax and cAMP-responsive element modulator isoforms.". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (5): 2646–51. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.5.2646. PMID 9006899.  
  • Bonny C, Cooker LA, Goldberg E (1998). "Deoxyribonucleic acid-protein interactions and expression of the human testis-specific lactate dehydrogenase promoter: transcription factor Sp1 plays a major role.". Biol. Reprod. 58 (3): 754–9. doi:10.1095/biolreprod58.3.754. PMID 9510963.  
  • Müller FU, Bokník P, Knapp J, et al. (1998). "Identification and expression of a novel isoform of cAMP response element modulator in the human heart.". Faseb J. 12 (12): 1191–9. PMID 9737722.  
  • Fimia GM, De Cesare D, Sassone-Corsi P (1999). "CBP-independent activation of CREM and CREB by the LIM-only protein ACT.". Nature 398 (6723): 165–9. doi:10.1038/18237. PMID 10086359.  
  • Pati D, Meistrich ML, Plon SE (1999). "Human Cdc34 and Rad6B ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes target repressors of cyclic AMP-induced transcription for proteolysis.". Mol. Cell. Biol. 19 (7): 5001–13. PMID 10373550.  
  • Inada A, Someya Y, Yamada Y, et al. (1999). "The cyclic AMP response element modulator family regulates the insulin gene transcription by interacting with transcription factor IID.". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (30): 21095–103. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.30.21095. PMID 10409662.  
  • Zauli G, Secchiero P, Rodella L, et al. (2000). "HIV-1 Tat-mediated inhibition of the tyrosine hydroxylase gene expression in dopaminergic neuronal cells.". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (6): 4159–65. doi:10.1074/jbc.275.6.4159. PMID 10660577.  

External links

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.



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