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Cluster of differentiation 14
Symbols CD14;
External IDs OMIM158120 MGI88318 HomoloGene493 GeneCards: CD14 Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE CD14 201743 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 929 12475
Ensembl ENSG00000170458 ENSMUSG00000051439
UniProt P08571 Q3TE16
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_000591 NM_009841
RefSeq (protein) NP_000582 NP_033971
Location (UCSC) Chr 5:
139.99 - 139.99 Mb
Chr 18:
36.85 - 36.85 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Cluster of differentiation 14 also known as CD14 is a human gene.[1][2]

The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the innate immune system. CD14 exists in two forms. It is either anchored into the membrane by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol tail (mCD14) or it appears in a soluble form (sCD14). Soluble CD14 appears either after shedding of mCD14 (48 KDa) or is directly secreted from intracellular vesicles (56 KDa).[3]

CD14 takes its name from its inclusion in the cluster of differentiation group of cell surface marker proteins.

CD14 was the first described pattern recognition receptor.



CD14 acts as a co-receptor (along with the Toll-like receptor TLR 4 and MD-2) for the detection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS).[4][5] CD14 can only bind LPS in the presence of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP). Although LPS is considered its main ligand CD14 also recognizes other pathogen associated molecular patterns.

Signaling pathway of toll-like receptors. Dashed grey lines represent unknown associations

Tissue distribution

CD14 is expressed mainly by macrophages and (at 10 times lesser extent) by neutrophil granulocytes. It is also expressed by dendritic cells. A soluble form sCD14 is secreted by the liver and monocytes and is sufficient in low concentrations to confer LPS-responsiveness to cells which otherwise do not express CD14. sCD14 is also present in human milk where it is believed to regulate microbial growth in the infant gut.


CD14+ cells are monocytes that can differentiate into a host of different cells. (A '+' sign refers to the presence of the CD14 protein on a cell. )

One type of cell is the dendritic cell, where differentiation is encouraged by cytokines. Examples of cytokines that will cause dendritic cell differentiation includes GM-CSF and IL-4.


CD14 has been shown to interact with Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein.[6][7]


  1. ^ Setoguchi M, Nasu N, Yoshida S, Higuchi Y, Akizuki S, Yamamoto S (July 1989). "Mouse and human CD14 (myeloid cell-specific leucine-rich glycoprotein) primary structure deduced from cDNA clones". Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1008 (2): 213–22. doi:10.1016/0167-4781(80)90012-3. PMID 2472171.  
  2. ^ Simmons DL, Tan S, Tenen DG, Nicholson-Weller A, Seed B (1 January 1989). "Monocyte antigen CD14 is a phospholipid anchored membrane protein". Blood 73 (1): 284–9. PMID 2462937.  
  3. ^ Kirkland TN, Viriyakosol S (1998). "Structure-function analysis of soluble and membrane-bound CD14". Prog. Clin. Biol. Res. 397: 79–87. PMID 9575549.  
  4. ^ Kitchens RL (2000). "Role of CD14 in cellular recognition of bacterial lipopolysaccharides". Chem. Immunol. 74: 61–82. doi:10.1159/000058750. PMID 10608082.  
  5. ^ Tapping RI, Tobias PS (2000). "Soluble CD14-mediated cellular responses to lipopolysaccharide". Chem. Immunol. 74: 108–21. doi:10.1159/000058751. PMID 10608084.  
  6. ^ Thomas, Celestine J; Kapoor Mili, Sharma Shilpi, Bausinger Huguette, Zyilan Umit, Lipsker Dan, Hanau Daniel, Surolia Avadhesha (Nov. 2002). "Evidence of a trimolecular complex involving LPS, LPS binding protein and soluble CD14 as an effector of LPS response". FEBS Lett. (Netherlands) 531 (2): 184–8. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(02)03499-3. ISSN 0014-5793. PMID 12417309.  
  7. ^ Yu, B; Wright S D (1995). "LPS-dependent interaction of Mac-2-binding protein with immobilized CD14". J. Inflamm. (UNITED STATES) 45 (2): 115–25. ISSN 1078-7852. PMID 7583357.  

External links

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