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CD40 ligand (TNF superfamily, member 5, hyper-IgM syndrome)

PDB rendering based on 1aly.
Available structures
1aly, 1i9r
Symbols CD40LG; TRAP; CD154; CD40L; HIGM1; IGM; IMD3; T-BAM; TNFSF5; gp39; hCD40L
External IDs OMIM300386 MGI88337 HomoloGene56 GeneCards: CD40LG Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE CD40LG 207892 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 959 21947
Ensembl ENSG00000102245 ENSMUSG00000031132
UniProt P29965 Q0VEI3
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_000074 NM_011616
RefSeq (protein) NP_000065 NP_035746
Location (UCSC) Chr X:
135.56 - 135.57 Mb
Chr X:
53.56 - 53.57 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

CD154, also called CD40 ligand or CD40L, is a protein that is primarily expressed on activated T cells and is a member of the TNF superfamily of molecules. It binds to CD40 on antigen-presenting cells (APC), which leads to many effects depending on the target cell type. In general, CD40L plays the role of a costimulatory molecule and induces activation in APC in association with T cell receptor stimulation by MHC molecules on the APC. In total CD40L has three binding partners: CD40, α5β1 integrin and αIIbβ3.

CD154 is expressed on the surface of T cells. It regulates B cell function by engaging CD40 on the B cell surface. A defect in this gene results in an inability to undergo immunoglobulin class switch and is associated with hyper IgM syndrome.[1]


Expression of CD154

CD40 ligand is primarily expressed on activated CD4+ T lymphocytes but is also found in a soluble form. While CD40L was originally described on T lymphocytes, its expression has since been found on a wide variety of cells, including platelets, mast cells, macrophages, basophils, NK cells, B lymphocytes, as well as non-haematopoietic cells (smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, and epithelial cells).[2]

Specific effects on cells



In the macrophage, the primary signal for activation is IFN-γ from Th1 type CD4 T cells. The secondary signal is CD40L on the T cell, which binds CD40 on the macrophage cell surface. As a result, the macrophage expresses more CD40 and TNF receptors on its surface, which helps increase the level of activation. The activated macrophage can then destroy phagocytosed bacteria and produce more cytokines.

B cells

The B cell can present antigens to helper T cells. If the T cell recognizes the peptide presented by the B cell, the T cell synthesizes CD40L. The CD40L binds to the B cell's CD40 receptor, causing resting B cell activation. The T cell also produces IL-4, which directly binds to B cell receptors. As a result of this interaction, the B cell can undergo division, antibody isotype switching, and differentiation to plasma cells. The end-result is a B cell that is able to mass-produce specific antibodies against an antigenic target.

Endothelial cells

Activation of endothelial cells by CD40L (e.g. from activated platelets) leads to reactive oxygen species production, as well as chemokine and cytokine production, and expression of adhesion molecules such as E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. This inflammatory reaction in endothelial cells promotes recruitment of leukocytes to lesions and may potentially promote atherogenesis.[3]


CD154 has been shown to interact with RNF128.[4]


  1. ^ "Entrez Gene: CD40LG CD40 ligand (TNF superfamily, member 5, hyper-IgM syndrome)".  
  2. ^ Schönbeck U, Libby P (January 2001). "The CD40/CD154 receptor/ligand dyad". Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 58 (1): 4–43. PMID 11229815.  
  3. ^ Szmitko PE, Wang CH, Weisel RD, de Almeida JR, Anderson TJ, Verma S (October 2003). "New markers of inflammation and endothelial cell activation: Part I". Circulation 108 (16): 1917–23. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000089190.95415.9F. PMID 14568885.  
  4. ^ Lineberry, Neil B; Su Leon L, Lin Jack T, Coffey Greg P, Seroogy Christine M, Fathman C Garrison (Aug. 2008). "Cutting edge: The transmembrane E3 ligase GRAIL ubiquitinates the costimulatory molecule CD40 ligand during the induction of T cell anergy". J. Immunol. (United States) 181 (3): 1622–6. PMID 18641297.  

Further reading

  • Parham, Peter (2004). The Immune System (2nd Ed ed.). Garland Science. pp. 169–173. ISBN 0-8153-4093-1.  
  • Tong AW, Stone MJ (1997). "CD40 and the effect of anti-CD40-binding on human multiple myeloma clonogenicity.". Leuk. Lymphoma 21 (1-2): 1–8. PMID 8907262.  
  • van Kooten C, Banchereau J (2000). "CD40-CD40 ligand.". J. Leukoc. Biol. 67 (1): 2–17. PMID 10647992.  
  • Schattner EJ (2003). "CD40 ligand in CLL pathogenesis and therapy.". Leuk. Lymphoma 37 (5-6): 461–72. PMID 11042507.  
  • Bhushan A, Covey LR (2002). "CD40:CD40L interactions in X-linked and non-X-linked hyper-IgM syndromes.". Immunol. Res. 24 (3): 311–24. doi:10.1385/IR:24:3:311. PMID 11817328.  
  • Cheng G, Schoenberger SP (2002). "CD40 signaling and autoimmunity.". Curr. Dir. Autoimmun. 5: 51–61. PMID 11826760.  
  • Subauste CS (2002). "CD154 and type-1 cytokine response: from hyper IgM syndrome to human immunodeficiency virus infection.". J. Infect. Dis. 185 Suppl 1: S83–9. doi:10.1086/338003. PMID 11865444.  
  • Kornbluth RS (2003). "An expanding role for CD40L and other tumor necrosis factor superfamily ligands in HIV infection.". J. Hematother. Stem Cell Res. 11 (5): 787–801. doi:10.1089/152581602760404595. PMID 12427285.  
  • Xu Y, Song G (2005). "The role of CD40-CD154 interaction in cell immunoregulation.". J. Biomed. Sci. 11 (4): 426–38. doi:10.1159/000077892. PMID 15153777.  

External links


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