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CD19 molecule
Identifiers
Symbols CD19; B4; MGC12802
External IDs OMIM107265 MGI88319 HomoloGene1341 GeneCards: CD19 Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE CD19 206398 s at tn.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 930 12478
Ensembl ENSG00000177455 ENSMUSG00000030724
UniProt P15391 Q3TA95
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_001770 NM_009844
RefSeq (protein) NP_001761 NP_033974
Location (UCSC) Chr 16:
28.85 - 28.86 Mb
Chr 7:
126.2 - 126.21 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

CD19 (Cluster of Differentiation 19), is a human protein encoded by the CD19 gene.[1]

Lymphocytes proliferate and differentiate in response to various concentrations of different antigens. The ability of the B cell to respond in a specific, yet sensitive manner to the various antigens is achieved with the use of low-affinity antigen receptors. This gene encodes a cell surface molecule which assembles with the antigen receptor of B lymphocytes in order to decrease the threshold for antigen receptor-dependent stimulation.[1]

CD19 is expressed on follicular dendritic cells and B cells. In fact, it is present on B cells from earliest recognizable B-lineage cells during development to B-cell blasts but is lost on maturation to plasma cells.

It primarily acts as a B cell co-receptor in conjunction with CD21 and CD81.

Upon activation, the cytoplasmic tail of CD19 becomes phosphorylated which leads to binding by Src-family kinases and recruitment of PI-3 kinase.

Contents

Interactions

CD19 has been shown to interact with Complement receptor 2,[2][3] VAV2,[4] CD82[3][5] and CD81.[2][3][5]

References

  1. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: CD19 CD19 molecule". http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=gene&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=930.  
  2. ^ a b Bradbury, L E; Kansas G S, Levy S, Evans R L, Tedder T F (Nov. 1992). "The CD19/CD21 signal transducing complex of human B lymphocytes includes the target of antiproliferative antibody-1 and Leu-13 molecules". J. Immunol. (UNITED STATES) 149 (9): 2841–50. ISSN 0022-1767. PMID 1383329.  
  3. ^ a b c Horváth, G; Serru V, Clay D, Billard M, Boucheix C, Rubinstein E (Nov. 1998). "CD19 is linked to the integrin-associated tetraspans CD9, CD81, and CD82". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 273 (46): 30537–43. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 9804823.  
  4. ^ Doody, G M; Billadeau D D, Clayton E, Hutchings A, Berland R, McAdam S, Leibson P J, Turner M (Nov. 2000). "Vav-2 controls NFAT-dependent transcription in B- but not T-lymphocytes". EMBO J. (ENGLAND) 19 (22): 6173–84. doi:10.1093/emboj/19.22.6173. ISSN 0261-4189. PMID 11080163.  
  5. ^ a b Imai, T; Kakizaki M, Nishimura M, Yoshie O (Aug. 1995). "Molecular analyses of the association of CD4 with two members of the transmembrane 4 superfamily, CD81 and CD82". J. Immunol. (UNITED STATES) 155 (3): 1229–39. ISSN 0022-1767. PMID 7636191.  
  • Goldsby, Richard A.; Kindt, Thomas J.; Osborne, Barbara A. (2006). Kuby Immunology. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-8590-0.  

External links

Further reading

  • Ishikawa H, Tsuyama N, Mahmoud MS, et al. (2003). "CD19 expression and growth inhibition of tumours in human multiple myeloma.". Leuk. Lymphoma 43 (3): 613–6. doi:10.1080/10428190290012146. PMID 12002767.  
  • Zhou LJ, Ord DC, Omori SA, Tedder TF (1992). "Structure of the genes encoding the CD19 antigen of human and mouse B lymphocytes.". Immunogenetics 35 (2): 102–11. doi:10.1007/BF00189519. PMID 1370948.  
  • Carter RH, Fearon DT (1992). "CD19: lowering the threshold for antigen receptor stimulation of B lymphocytes.". Science 256 (5053): 105–7. doi:10.1126/science.1373518. PMID 1373518.  
  • Kozmik Z, Wang S, Dörfler P, et al. (1992). "The promoter of the CD19 gene is a target for the B-cell-specific transcription factor BSAP.". Mol. Cell. Biol. 12 (6): 2662–72. PMID 1375324.  
  • Bradbury LE, Kansas GS, Levy S, et al. (1992). "The CD19/CD21 signal transducing complex of human B lymphocytes includes the target of antiproliferative antibody-1 and Leu-13 molecules.". J. Immunol. 149 (9): 2841–50. PMID 1383329.  
  • Matsumoto AK, Kopicky-Burd J, Carter RH, et al. (1991). "Intersection of the complement and immune systems: a signal transduction complex of the B lymphocyte-containing complement receptor type 2 and CD19.". J. Exp. Med. 173 (1): 55–64. doi:10.1084/jem.173.1.55. PMID 1702139.  
  • Zhou LJ, Ord DC, Hughes AL, Tedder TF (1991). "Structure and domain organization of the CD19 antigen of human, mouse, and guinea pig B lymphocytes. Conservation of the extensive cytoplasmic domain.". J. Immunol. 147 (4): 1424–32. PMID 1714482.  
  • Stamenkovic I, Seed B (1988). "CD19, the earliest differentiation antigen of the B cell lineage, bears three extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains and an Epstein-Barr virus-related cytoplasmic tail.". J. Exp. Med. 168 (3): 1205–10. doi:10.1084/jem.168.3.1205. PMID 2459292.  
  • Tedder TF, Isaacs CM (1989). "Isolation of cDNAs encoding the CD19 antigen of human and mouse B lymphocytes. A new member of the immunoglobulin superfamily.". J. Immunol. 143 (2): 712–7. PMID 2472450.  
  • Ord DC, Edelhoff S, Dushkin H, et al. (1994). "CD19 maps to a region of conservation between human chromosome 16 and mouse chromosome 7.". Immunogenetics 39 (5): 322–8. doi:10.1007/BF00189228. PMID 7513297.  
  • Weng WK, Jarvis L, LeBien TW (1995). "Signaling through CD19 activates Vav/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and induces formation of a CD19/Vav/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex in human B cell precursors.". J. Biol. Chem. 269 (51): 32514–21. PMID 7528218.  
  • Myers DE, Jun X, Waddick KG, et al. (1995). "Membrane-associated CD19-LYN complex is an endogenous p53-independent and Bc1-2-independent regulator of apoptosis in human B-lineage lymphoma cells.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92 (21): 9575–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.92.21.9575. PMID 7568175.  
  • Chalupny NJ, Aruffo A, Esselstyn JM, et al. (1995). "Specific binding of Fyn and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase to the B cell surface glycoprotein CD19 through their src homology 2 domains.". Eur. J. Immunol. 25 (10): 2978–84. doi:10.1002/eji.1830251040. PMID 7589101.  
  • Tuscano JM, Engel P, Tedder TF, et al. (1996). "Involvement of p72syk kinase, p53/56lyn kinase and phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase in signal transduction via the human B lymphocyte antigen CD22.". Eur. J. Immunol. 26 (6): 1246–52. doi:10.1002/eji.1830260610. PMID 8647200.  
  • Carter RH, Doody GM, Bolen JB, Fearon DT (1997). "Membrane IgM-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of CD19 requires a CD19 domain that mediates association with components of the B cell antigen receptor complex.". J. Immunol. 158 (7): 3062–9. PMID 9120258.  
  • Husson H, Mograbi B, Schmid-Antomarchi H, et al. (1997). "CSF-1 stimulation induces the formation of a multiprotein complex including CSF-1 receptor, c-Cbl, PI 3-kinase, Crk-II and Grb2.". Oncogene 14 (19): 2331–8. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1201074. PMID 9178909.  
  • Khine AA, Firtel M, Lingwood CA (1998). "CD77-dependent retrograde transport of CD19 to the nuclear membrane: functional relationship between CD77 and CD19 during germinal center B-cell apoptosis.". J. Cell. Physiol. 176 (2): 281–92. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-4652(199808)176:2<281::AID-JCP6>3.0.CO;2-K. PMID 9648915.  
  • Thunberg U, Gidlöf C, Bånghagen M, et al. (1998). "HpaII polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism in the human CD19 gene on 16p11.". Hum. Hered. 48 (4): 230–1. doi:10.1159/000022806. PMID 9694255.  
  • Horváth G, Serru V, Clay D, et al. (1998). "CD19 is linked to the integrin-associated tetraspans CD9, CD81, and CD82.". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (46): 30537–43. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.46.30537. PMID 9804823.  
  • Buhl AM, Cambier JC (1999). "Phosphorylation of CD19 Y484 and Y515, and linked activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, are required for B cell antigen receptor-mediated activation of Bruton's tyrosine kinase.". J. Immunol. 162 (8): 4438–46. PMID 10201980.  

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.

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