The Full Wiki

CD19: Wikis


Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

CD19 molecule
Symbols CD19; B4; MGC12802
External IDs OMIM107265 MGI88319 HomoloGene1341 GeneCards: CD19 Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE CD19 206398 s at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 930 12478
Ensembl ENSG00000177455 ENSMUSG00000030724
UniProt P15391 Q3TA95
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_001770 NM_009844
RefSeq (protein) NP_001761 NP_033974
Location (UCSC) Chr 16:
28.85 - 28.86 Mb
Chr 7:
126.2 - 126.21 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

CD19 (Cluster of Differentiation 19), is a human protein encoded by the CD19 gene.[1]

Lymphocytes proliferate and differentiate in response to various concentrations of different antigens. The ability of the B cell to respond in a specific, yet sensitive manner to the various antigens is achieved with the use of low-affinity antigen receptors. This gene encodes a cell surface molecule which assembles with the antigen receptor of B lymphocytes in order to decrease the threshold for antigen receptor-dependent stimulation.[1]

CD19 is expressed on follicular dendritic cells and B cells. In fact, it is present on B cells from earliest recognizable B-lineage cells during development to B-cell blasts but is lost on maturation to plasma cells.

It primarily acts as a B cell co-receptor in conjunction with CD21 and CD81.

Upon activation, the cytoplasmic tail of CD19 becomes phosphorylated which leads to binding by Src-family kinases and recruitment of PI-3 kinase.



CD19 has been shown to interact with Complement receptor 2,[2][3] VAV2,[4] CD82[3][5] and CD81.[2][3][5]


  1. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: CD19 CD19 molecule".  
  2. ^ a b Bradbury, L E; Kansas G S, Levy S, Evans R L, Tedder T F (Nov. 1992). "The CD19/CD21 signal transducing complex of human B lymphocytes includes the target of antiproliferative antibody-1 and Leu-13 molecules". J. Immunol. (UNITED STATES) 149 (9): 2841–50. ISSN 0022-1767. PMID 1383329.  
  3. ^ a b c Horváth, G; Serru V, Clay D, Billard M, Boucheix C, Rubinstein E (Nov. 1998). "CD19 is linked to the integrin-associated tetraspans CD9, CD81, and CD82". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 273 (46): 30537–43. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 9804823.  
  4. ^ Doody, G M; Billadeau D D, Clayton E, Hutchings A, Berland R, McAdam S, Leibson P J, Turner M (Nov. 2000). "Vav-2 controls NFAT-dependent transcription in B- but not T-lymphocytes". EMBO J. (ENGLAND) 19 (22): 6173–84. doi:10.1093/emboj/19.22.6173. ISSN 0261-4189. PMID 11080163.  
  5. ^ a b Imai, T; Kakizaki M, Nishimura M, Yoshie O (Aug. 1995). "Molecular analyses of the association of CD4 with two members of the transmembrane 4 superfamily, CD81 and CD82". J. Immunol. (UNITED STATES) 155 (3): 1229–39. ISSN 0022-1767. PMID 7636191.  
  • Goldsby, Richard A.; Kindt, Thomas J.; Osborne, Barbara A. (2006). Kuby Immunology. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-8590-0.  

External links

Further reading

  • Ishikawa H, Tsuyama N, Mahmoud MS, et al. (2003). "CD19 expression and growth inhibition of tumours in human multiple myeloma.". Leuk. Lymphoma 43 (3): 613–6. doi:10.1080/10428190290012146. PMID 12002767.  
  • Zhou LJ, Ord DC, Omori SA, Tedder TF (1992). "Structure of the genes encoding the CD19 antigen of human and mouse B lymphocytes.". Immunogenetics 35 (2): 102–11. doi:10.1007/BF00189519. PMID 1370948.  
  • Carter RH, Fearon DT (1992). "CD19: lowering the threshold for antigen receptor stimulation of B lymphocytes.". Science 256 (5053): 105–7. doi:10.1126/science.1373518. PMID 1373518.  
  • Kozmik Z, Wang S, Dörfler P, et al. (1992). "The promoter of the CD19 gene is a target for the B-cell-specific transcription factor BSAP.". Mol. Cell. Biol. 12 (6): 2662–72. PMID 1375324.  
  • Bradbury LE, Kansas GS, Levy S, et al. (1992). "The CD19/CD21 signal transducing complex of human B lymphocytes includes the target of antiproliferative antibody-1 and Leu-13 molecules.". J. Immunol. 149 (9): 2841–50. PMID 1383329.  
  • Matsumoto AK, Kopicky-Burd J, Carter RH, et al. (1991). "Intersection of the complement and immune systems: a signal transduction complex of the B lymphocyte-containing complement receptor type 2 and CD19.". J. Exp. Med. 173 (1): 55–64. doi:10.1084/jem.173.1.55. PMID 1702139.  
  • Zhou LJ, Ord DC, Hughes AL, Tedder TF (1991). "Structure and domain organization of the CD19 antigen of human, mouse, and guinea pig B lymphocytes. Conservation of the extensive cytoplasmic domain.". J. Immunol. 147 (4): 1424–32. PMID 1714482.  
  • Stamenkovic I, Seed B (1988). "CD19, the earliest differentiation antigen of the B cell lineage, bears three extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains and an Epstein-Barr virus-related cytoplasmic tail.". J. Exp. Med. 168 (3): 1205–10. doi:10.1084/jem.168.3.1205. PMID 2459292.  
  • Tedder TF, Isaacs CM (1989). "Isolation of cDNAs encoding the CD19 antigen of human and mouse B lymphocytes. A new member of the immunoglobulin superfamily.". J. Immunol. 143 (2): 712–7. PMID 2472450.  
  • Ord DC, Edelhoff S, Dushkin H, et al. (1994). "CD19 maps to a region of conservation between human chromosome 16 and mouse chromosome 7.". Immunogenetics 39 (5): 322–8. doi:10.1007/BF00189228. PMID 7513297.  
  • Weng WK, Jarvis L, LeBien TW (1995). "Signaling through CD19 activates Vav/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and induces formation of a CD19/Vav/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex in human B cell precursors.". J. Biol. Chem. 269 (51): 32514–21. PMID 7528218.  
  • Myers DE, Jun X, Waddick KG, et al. (1995). "Membrane-associated CD19-LYN complex is an endogenous p53-independent and Bc1-2-independent regulator of apoptosis in human B-lineage lymphoma cells.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92 (21): 9575–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.92.21.9575. PMID 7568175.  
  • Chalupny NJ, Aruffo A, Esselstyn JM, et al. (1995). "Specific binding of Fyn and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase to the B cell surface glycoprotein CD19 through their src homology 2 domains.". Eur. J. Immunol. 25 (10): 2978–84. doi:10.1002/eji.1830251040. PMID 7589101.  
  • Tuscano JM, Engel P, Tedder TF, et al. (1996). "Involvement of p72syk kinase, p53/56lyn kinase and phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase in signal transduction via the human B lymphocyte antigen CD22.". Eur. J. Immunol. 26 (6): 1246–52. doi:10.1002/eji.1830260610. PMID 8647200.  
  • Carter RH, Doody GM, Bolen JB, Fearon DT (1997). "Membrane IgM-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of CD19 requires a CD19 domain that mediates association with components of the B cell antigen receptor complex.". J. Immunol. 158 (7): 3062–9. PMID 9120258.  
  • Husson H, Mograbi B, Schmid-Antomarchi H, et al. (1997). "CSF-1 stimulation induces the formation of a multiprotein complex including CSF-1 receptor, c-Cbl, PI 3-kinase, Crk-II and Grb2.". Oncogene 14 (19): 2331–8. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1201074. PMID 9178909.  
  • Khine AA, Firtel M, Lingwood CA (1998). "CD77-dependent retrograde transport of CD19 to the nuclear membrane: functional relationship between CD77 and CD19 during germinal center B-cell apoptosis.". J. Cell. Physiol. 176 (2): 281–92. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-4652(199808)176:2<281::AID-JCP6>3.0.CO;2-K. PMID 9648915.  
  • Thunberg U, Gidlöf C, Bånghagen M, et al. (1998). "HpaII polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism in the human CD19 gene on 16p11.". Hum. Hered. 48 (4): 230–1. doi:10.1159/000022806. PMID 9694255.  
  • Horváth G, Serru V, Clay D, et al. (1998). "CD19 is linked to the integrin-associated tetraspans CD9, CD81, and CD82.". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (46): 30537–43. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.46.30537. PMID 9804823.  
  • Buhl AM, Cambier JC (1999). "Phosphorylation of CD19 Y484 and Y515, and linked activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, are required for B cell antigen receptor-mediated activation of Bruton's tyrosine kinase.". J. Immunol. 162 (8): 4438–46. PMID 10201980.  

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.



Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address