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CD274 molecule
Identifiers
Symbols CD274; B7-H; B7H1; MGC142294; MGC142296; PD-L1; PDCD1L1; PDCD1LG1; PDL1
External IDs OMIM605402 MGI1926446 HomoloGene8560 GeneCards: CD274 Gene
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 29126 60533
Ensembl ENSG00000120217 ENSMUSG00000016496
UniProt Q9NZQ7 Q3U472
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_014143 NM_021893
RefSeq (protein) NP_054862 NP_068693
Location (UCSC) Chr 9:
5.44 - 5.46 Mb
Chr 19:
29.43 - 29.45 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

CD274 (Cluster of Differentiation 274) also known as PD-L1 (Programed Death Ligand-1) or B7-H1 is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CD274 gene.[1]

Contents

Binding

Binding interactions

PD-L1 binds to its receptor, PD-1, found on activated T cells, B cells, and myeloid cells, to modulate activation or inhibition. The affinity between PD-L1 and PD-1, as defined by the dissociation constant Kd, is 770nM. Interestingly, PD-L1 also has an appreciable affinity for the costimulatory molecule CD80 (B7-1), but not CD86 (B7-2).[2] CD80's affinity for PD-L1, 1.4µM, is intermediate between its affinities for CD28 and CTLA-4 (4.0µM and 400nM, respectively). The related molecule PD-L2 has no such affinity for CD80 or CD86, but shares PD-1 as a receptor (with a stronger Kd of 140nM).

Signaling

Engagement of PD-L1 with its receptor PD-1 on T cells delivers a signal that inhibits TCR-mediated activation of IL-2 production and T cell proliferation. The mechanism involves inhibition of ZAP70 phosphorylation and its association with CD3ζ.[3] PD-1 signaling attenuates PKC-θ activation loop phosphorylation (resulting from TCR signaling), necessary for the activation of transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1, and for production of IL-2.

Regulation

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By Interferons

Upon IFN-γ stimulation, PD-L1 is expressed on T cells, NK cells, macrophages, myeloid DCs, B cells, epithelial cells, and vascular endothelial cells.[4] The PD-L1 gene promoter region has a response element to IRF-1, the interferon regulatory factor.[5] Type I interferons can also upregulate PD-L1 on murine hepatocytes, monocytes, DCs, and tumor cells.[6]

On Macrophages

PD-L1 is notably expressed on macrophages. In the mouse, it has been shown that classically activated macrophages (induced by type I helper T cells or a combination of LPS and interferon-gamma) greatly upregulate PD-L1.[7] Alternatively, macrophages activated by IL-4 (alternative macrophages), slightly upregulate PD-L1, while greatly upregulating PD-L2. It has been shown by STAT1-deficient knock-out mice that STAT1 is mostly responsible for upregulation of PD-L1 on macrophages by LPS or interferon-gamma, but is not at all responsible for its constitutive expression before activation in these mice.

Role of MicroRNAs

In humans, resting cholangiocytes express B7-H1 mRNA, but not B7-H1 protein. B7-H1 mRNA is subject to translational suppression by microRNA miR-513, which is expressed in resting cholangiocytes.[8] Upon treatment with interferon-gamma, miR-513 was down-regulated (shown by micro-array analysis), thereby lifting suppression of B7-H1 protein. In this way, interferon-gamma can induce B7-H1 protein expression by inhibiting gene-mediated suppression of mRNA translation.

Clinical significance

Cancer

It appears that upregulation of B7-H1 is a mechanism that cancers can employ to evade the host immune system. An analysis of 196 tumor specimens from patients with Renal cell carcinoma found that high tumor expression of B7-H1 was associated with increased tumor aggressiveness and a 4.5-fold increased risk of death.[9] Ovarian cancer patients with higher expression of B7-H1 had a significantly poorer prognosis than those with lower expression of B7-H1. An inverse correlation was observed between B7-H1 expression and intraepithelial CD8+ T-lymphocyte count, suggesting that B7-H1 on tumor cells may suppress antitumor CD8+ T cells. [10]

Listeria monocytogenes

In a mouse model of intracellular infection, L. monocytogenes induced B7-H1 protein expression in T cells, NK cells, and macrophages. B7-H1 blockade (using blocking antibodies) resulted in increased mortality for infected mice. Blockade reduced TNFα and nitric oxide production by macrophages, reduced granzyme B production by NK cells, and decreased proliferation of L. monocytogenes antigen-specific CD8 T cells (but not CD4 T cells).[11] This evidence suggests that B7-H1 acts as a positive costimulatory molecule in intracellular infection.

Autoimmunity

The PD-1/PD-L1 interaction is implicated in autoimmunity from several lines of evidence. NOD mice, an animal model for autoimmunity in that they exhibit a susceptibility to spontaneous development of type I diabetes and other autoimmune diseases, have been shown to have precipitated onset of diabetes from blockade of PD-1 or PD-L1 (but not PD-L2).[12]

In humans, PD-L1 was found to have altered expression in pediatric patients with Systemic lupus erythematosus. Studying isolated PBMC from healthy children, immature myeloid dendritic cells and monocytes expressed little PD-L1 at initial isolation, but spontaneously up-regulated PD-L1 by 24 hours. In contrast, both mDC and monocytes from patients with active SLE failed to upregulate PD-L1 over a 5 day time course, expressing this protein only during disease remissions.[13] This may be one mechanism whereby peripheral tolerance is lost in SLE.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Entrez Gene: CD274 CD274 molecule". http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=gene&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=29126.  
  2. ^ Butte MJ, Peña-Cruz V, Kim MJ, Freeman GJ, Sharpe AH (August 2008). "Interaction of human PD-L1 and B7-1". Mol Immunol. 45 (13): 3567–72. PMID 18585785.  
  3. ^ Sheppard KA, Fitz LJ, Lee JM, Benander C, George JA, Wooters J, Qiu Y, Jussif JM, Carter LL, Wood CR, Chaudhary D. (September 2004). "PD-1 inhibits T-cell receptor induced phosphorylation of the ZAP70/CD3zeta signalosome and downstream signaling to PKCtheta.". FEBS Lett. 574 (1-3): 37–41. PMID 15358536.  
  4. ^ Flies DB, Chen L (April 2007). "The new B7s: playing a pivotal role in tumor immunity". J Immunother. 30 (3): 251–60. PMID 17414316.  
  5. ^ Lee SJ, Jang BC, Lee SW, Yang YI, Suh SI, Park YM, Oh S, Shin JG, Yao S, Chen L, Choi IH. (February 2006). "Interferon regulatory factor-1 is prerequisite to the constitutive expression and IFN-gamma-induced upregulation of B7-H1 (CD274)". FEBS Lett. 580 (3): 755–62. PMID 16413538.  
  6. ^ Yamazaki T, Akiba H, Iwai H, Matsuda H, Aoki M, Tanno Y, Shin T, Tsuchiya H, Pardoll DM, Okumura K, Azuma M, Yagita H (November 2002). "Expression of programmed death 1 ligands by murine T cells and APC.". J Immunol. 169 (10): 5538–45. PMID 12421930.  
  7. ^ Loke P, Allison JP (April 2003). "PD-L1 and PD-L2 are differentially regulated by Th1 and Th2 cells". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100 (9): 5336–41. doi:10.1073/pnas.0931259100. PMID 12697896.  
  8. ^ Gong AY, Zhou R, Hu G, Li X, Splinter PL, O'Hara SP, LaRusso NF, Soukup GA, Dong H, Chen XM (February 2009). "MicroRNA-513 regulates B7-H1 translation and is involved in IFN-gamma-induced B7-H1 expression in cholangiocytes". J. Immunol. 182 (3): 1325–33. PMID 19155478.  
  9. ^ Thompson RH, Gillett MD, Cheville JC, Lohse CM, Dong H, Webster WS, Krejci KG, Lobo JR, Sengupta S, Chen L, Zincke H, Blute ML, Strome SE, Leibovich BC, Kwon ED (December 2004). "Costimulatory B7-H1 in renal cell carcinoma patients: Indicator of tumor aggressiveness and potential therapeutic target". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101 (49): 17174–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.0406351101. PMID 15569934.  
  10. ^ Hamanishi J, Mandai M, Iwasaki M, Okazaki T, Tanaka Y, Yamaguchi K, Higuchi T, Yagi H, Takakura K, Minato N, Honjo T, Fujii S. (February 2007). "Programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 and tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T lymphocytes are prognostic factors of human ovarian cancer". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104 (9): 3360–5. doi:10.1073/pnas.0611533104. PMID 17360651.  
  11. ^ Seo SK, Jeong HY, Park SG, Lee SW, Choi IW, Chen L, Choi I (January 2008). "Blockade of endogenous B7-H1 suppresses antibacterial protection after primary Listeria monocytogenes infection". Immunology 123 (1): 90–9. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2567.2007.02708.x. PMID 17971153.  
  12. ^ Ansari MJ, Salama AD, Chitnis T, Smith RN, Yagita H, Akiba H, Yamazaki T, Azuma M, Iwai H, Khoury SJ, Auchincloss H Jr, Sayegh MH (July 2003). "The programmed death-1 (PD-1) pathway regulates autoimmune diabetes in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice". J Exp Med. 198 (1): 63–9. doi:10.1084/jem.20022125. PMID 12847137.  
  13. ^ Mozaffarian N, Wiedeman AE, Stevens AM (July 2008). "Active systemic lupus erythematosus is associated with failure of antigen-presenting cells to express programmed death ligand-1". Rheumatology (Oxford) 47 (9): 1335–41. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/ken256. PMID 18650228.  

Further reading

  • Tamura H, Ogata K, Dong H, Chen L (2004). "Immunology of B7-H1 and its roles in human diseases.". Int. J. Hematol. 78 (4): 321–8. doi:10.1007/BF02983556. PMID 14686489.  
  • Dong H, Zhu G, Tamada K, Chen L (1999). "B7-H1, a third member of the B7 family, co-stimulates T-cell proliferation and interleukin-10 secretion.". Nat. Med. 5 (12): 1365–9. doi:10.1038/70932. PMID 10581077.  
  • Freeman GJ, Long AJ, Iwai Y, et al. (2000). "Engagement of the PD-1 immunoinhibitory receptor by a novel B7 family member leads to negative regulation of lymphocyte activation.". J. Exp. Med. 192 (7): 1027–34. doi:10.1084/jem.192.7.1027. PMID 11015443.  
  • Dong H, Strome SE, Salomao DR, et al. (2002). "Tumor-associated B7-H1 promotes T-cell apoptosis: a potential mechanism of immune evasion.". Nat. Med. 8 (8): 793–800. doi:10.1038/nm730. PMID 12091876.  
  • Mazanet MM, Hughes CC (2002). "B7-H1 is expressed by human endothelial cells and suppresses T cell cytokine synthesis.". J. Immunol. 169 (7): 3581–8. PMID 12244148.  
  • Trabattoni D, Saresella M, Biasin M, et al. (2003). "B7-H1 is up-regulated in HIV infection and is a novel surrogate marker of disease progression.". Blood 101 (7): 2514–20. doi:10.1182/blood-2002-10-3065. PMID 12468426.  
  • Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (26): 16899–903. doi:10.1073/pnas.242603899. PMID 12477932.  
  • Brown JA, Dorfman DM, Ma FR, et al. (2003). "Blockade of programmed death-1 ligands on dendritic cells enhances T cell activation and cytokine production.". J. Immunol. 170 (3): 1257–66. PMID 12538684.  
  • Petroff MG, Chen L, Phillips TA, et al. (2003). "B7 family molecules are favorably positioned at the human maternal-fetal interface.". Biol. Reprod. 68 (5): 1496–504. doi:10.1095/biolreprod.102.010058. PMID 12606489.  
  • Selenko-Gebauer N, Majdic O, Szekeres A, et al. (2003). "B7-H1 (programmed death-1 ligand) on dendritic cells is involved in the induction and maintenance of T cell anergy.". J. Immunol. 170 (7): 3637–44. PMID 12646628.  
  • Curiel TJ, Wei S, Dong H, et al. (2003). "Blockade of B7-H1 improves myeloid dendritic cell-mediated antitumor immunity.". Nat. Med. 9 (5): 562–7. doi:10.1038/nm863. PMID 12704383.  
  • Wang S, Bajorath J, Flies DB, et al. (2003). "Molecular modeling and functional mapping of B7-H1 and B7-DC uncouple costimulatory function from PD-1 interaction.". J. Exp. Med. 197 (9): 1083–91. doi:10.1084/jem.20021752. PMID 12719480.  
  • Chen XL, Cao XD, Kang AJ, et al. (2003). "In situ expression and significance of B7 costimulatory molecules within tissues of human gastric carcinoma.". World J. Gastroenterol. 9 (6): 1370–3. PMID 12800259.  
  • Youngnak P, Kozono Y, Kozono H, et al. (2003). "Differential binding properties of B7-H1 and B7-DC to programmed death-1.". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 307 (3): 672–7. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(03)01257-9. PMID 12893276.  
  • Wiendl H, Mitsdoerffer M, Schneider D, et al. (2003). "Human muscle cells express a B7-related molecule, B7-H1, with strong negative immune regulatory potential: a novel mechanism of counterbalancing the immune attack in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies.". FASEB J. 17 (13): 1892–4. doi:10.1096/fj.03-0039fje. PMID 12923066.  
  • Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, et al. (2004). "Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.". Nat. Genet. 36 (1): 40–5. doi:10.1038/ng1285. PMID 14702039.  
  • Nakazawa A, Dotan I, Brimnes J, et al. (2004). "The expression and function of costimulatory molecules B7H and B7-H1 on colonic epithelial cells.". Gastroenterology 126 (5): 1347–57. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2004.02.004. PMID 15131796.  
  • Humphray SJ, Oliver K, Hunt AR, et al. (2004). "DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 9.". Nature 429 (6990): 369–74. doi:10.1038/nature02465. PMID 15164053.  
  • Konishi J, Yamazaki K, Azuma M, et al. (2005). "B7-H1 expression on non-small cell lung cancer cells and its relationship with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and their PD-1 expression.". Clin. Cancer Res. 10 (15): 5094–100. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-04-0428. PMID 15297412.  

External links


edit
CD274 molecule
Identifiers
Symbols CD274; B7-H; B7H1; MGC142294; MGC142296; PD-L1; PDCD1L1; PDCD1LG1; PDL1
External IDs OMIM: 605402 MGI1926446 HomoloGene8560
Orthologs
Human Mouse
Entrez 29126 60533
Ensembl ENSG00000120217 ENSMUSG00000016496
Uniprot Q9NZQ7 Q3U472
Refseq NM_014143 (mRNA)
NP_054862 (protein)
NM_021893 (mRNA)
NP_068693 (protein)
Location Chr 9: 5.44 - 5.46 Mb Chr 19: 29.43 - 29.45 Mb
Pubmed search [1] [2]

CD274 (Cluster of Differentiation 274) is a human protein encoded by the CD274 gene.[1]

Contents

See also

References

Further reading

  • Tamura H, Ogata K, Dong H, Chen L (2004). "Immunology of B7-H1 and its roles in human diseases.". Int. J. Hematol. 78 (4): 321–8. doi:10.1007/BF02983556. PMID 14686489. 
  • Dong H, Zhu G, Tamada K, Chen L (1999). "B7-H1, a third member of the B7 family, co-stimulates T-cell proliferation and interleukin-10 secretion.". Nat. Med. 5 (12): 1365–9. doi:10.1038/70932. PMID 10581077. 
  • Freeman GJ, Long AJ, Iwai Y, et al. (2000). "Engagement of the PD-1 immunoinhibitory receptor by a novel B7 family member leads to negative regulation of lymphocyte activation.". J. Exp. Med. 192 (7): 1027–34. doi:10.1084/jem.192.7.1027. PMID 11015443. 
  • Dong H, Strome SE, Salomao DR, et al. (2002). "Tumor-associated B7-H1 promotes T-cell apoptosis: a potential mechanism of immune evasion.". Nat. Med. 8 (8): 793–800. doi:10.1038/nm730. PMID 12091876. 
  • Mazanet MM, Hughes CC (2002). "B7-H1 is expressed by human endothelial cells and suppresses T cell cytokine synthesis.". J. Immunol. 169 (7): 3581–8. PMID 12244148. 
  • Trabattoni D, Saresella M, Biasin M, et al. (2003). "B7-H1 is up-regulated in HIV infection and is a novel surrogate marker of disease progression.". Blood 101 (7): 2514–20. doi:10.1182/blood-2002-10-3065. PMID 12468426. 
  • Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (26): 16899–903. doi:10.1073/pnas.242603899. PMID 12477932. 
  • Brown JA, Dorfman DM, Ma FR, et al. (2003). "Blockade of programmed death-1 ligands on dendritic cells enhances T cell activation and cytokine production.". J. Immunol. 170 (3): 1257–66. PMID 12538684. 
  • Petroff MG, Chen L, Phillips TA, et al. (2003). "B7 family molecules are favorably positioned at the human maternal-fetal interface.". Biol. Reprod. 68 (5): 1496–504. doi:10.1095/biolreprod.102.010058. PMID 12606489. 
  • Selenko-Gebauer N, Majdic O, Szekeres A, et al. (2003). "B7-H1 (programmed death-1 ligand) on dendritic cells is involved in the induction and maintenance of T cell anergy.". J. Immunol. 170 (7): 3637–44. PMID 12646628. 
  • Curiel TJ, Wei S, Dong H, et al. (2003). "Blockade of B7-H1 improves myeloid dendritic cell-mediated antitumor immunity.". Nat. Med. 9 (5): 562–7. doi:10.1038/nm863. PMID 12704383. 
  • Wang S, Bajorath J, Flies DB, et al. (2003). "Molecular modeling and functional mapping of B7-H1 and B7-DC uncouple costimulatory function from PD-1 interaction.". J. Exp. Med. 197 (9): 1083–91. doi:10.1084/jem.20021752. PMID 12719480. 
  • Chen XL, Cao XD, Kang AJ, et al. (2003). "In situ expression and significance of B7 costimulatory molecules within tissues of human gastric carcinoma.". World J. Gastroenterol. 9 (6): 1370–3. PMID 12800259. 
  • Youngnak P, Kozono Y, Kozono H, et al. (2003). "Differential binding properties of B7-H1 and B7-DC to programmed death-1.". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 307 (3): 672–7. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(03)01257-9. PMID 12893276. 
  • Wiendl H, Mitsdoerffer M, Schneider D, et al. (2003). "Human muscle cells express a B7-related molecule, B7-H1, with strong negative immune regulatory potential: a novel mechanism of counterbalancing the immune attack in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies.". FASEB J. 17 (13): 1892–4. doi:10.1096/fj.03-0039fje. PMID 12923066. 
  • Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, et al. (2004). "Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.". Nat. Genet. 36 (1): 40–5. doi:10.1038/ng1285. PMID 14702039. 
  • Nakazawa A, Dotan I, Brimnes J, et al. (2004). "The expression and function of costimulatory molecules B7H and B7-H1 on colonic epithelial cells.". Gastroenterology 126 (5): 1347–57. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2004.02.004. PMID 15131796. 
  • Humphray SJ, Oliver K, Hunt AR, et al. (2004). "DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 9.". Nature 429 (6990): 369–74. doi:10.1038/nature02465. PMID 15164053. 
  • Konishi J, Yamazaki K, Azuma M, et al. (2005). "B7-H1 expression on non-small cell lung cancer cells and its relationship with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and their PD-1 expression.". Clin. Cancer Res. 10 (15): 5094–100. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-04-0428. PMID 15297412. 

External links

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