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Platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule (CD31 antigen)
Identifiers
Symbols PECAM1; CD31; PECAM-1
External IDs OMIM173445 MGI97537 HomoloGene47925 GeneCards: PECAM1 Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE PECAM1 208982 at tn.png
PBB GE PECAM1 208981 at tn.png
PBB GE PECAM1 208983 s at tn.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 5175 18613
Ensembl ENSG00000198802 ENSMUSG00000020717
UniProt P16284 Q8CAW4
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_000442 NM_001032378
RefSeq (protein) NP_000433 NP_001027550
Location (UCSC) Chr 17:
59.75 - 59.79 Mb
Chr 11:
106.47 - 106.57 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

CD31 is a cluster of differentiation molecule. It is also called PECAM-1 for platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule. It plays a key role in removing aged neutrophils from the body. Macrophages palpate any passing neutrophil and have to decide whether the cell is healthy or has to be ingested.

In humans, the gene encoding CD-31 is found on chromosome 17.

Contents

Function

If a neutrophil is dying, it will have phosphatidyl serine in its plasma membrane. Both the neutrophil and the macrophage express CD-31 on their membranes, and, during the testing process, these CD-31 molecules bind the two cells together. If the neutrophil is healthy, it will now fire a signal to the macrophage, and the CD-31 molecules will detach. The neutrophil is now free.

In some researches, CD31 is served as an endothelial marker.

If the neutrophil is not healthy, it will not be able to signal back to the macrophage to prevent its peril. This happens a long time before the neutrophil degrades and releases its dangerous payload to the medium. Macrophages normally release cytokines, when phagocytizing material. When eating a neutrophil, they do not release the cytokines. Neutrophils come of age 6 days after their creation. This signifies a strong turnover rate, one that is even stronger during and after inflammatory processes. It would make no sense to further stimulate the inflammation because of this event. Macrophages ingesting dying neutrophils will, however, release more TGF-Beta, further stimulating tissue repair.

CD-31 and macrophages play a key role in tissue regeneration and safely removing neutrophils.

Location

CD-31 is normally found on endothelial cells, platelets, macrophages and Kupffer cells, granulocytes, T / NK cells, lymphocytes, megakaryocytes, osteoclasts, neutrophils.

CD-31 is also expressed in certain tumors, including epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, epithelioid sarcoma-like hemangioendothelioma, other vascular tumors, histiocytic malignancies, and plasmacytomas. It is rarely found in some sarcomas and carcinomas.

Further reading

  • Ian R. Tizard, Veterinary Immunology, ISBN 0-7216-0136-7
  • Jackson DE (2003). "The unfolding tale of PECAM-1.". FEBS Lett. 540 (1-3): 7–14. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(03)00224-2. PMID 12681475.  
  • Newman PJ, Newman DK (2004). "Signal transduction pathways mediated by PECAM-1: new roles for an old molecule in platelet and vascular cell biology.". Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 23 (6): 953–64. doi:10.1161/01.ATV.0000071347.69358.D9. PMID 12689916.  
  • Ilan N, Madri JA (2004). "PECAM-1: old friend, new partners.". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 15 (5): 515–24. doi:10.1016/S0955-0674(03)00100-5. PMID 14519385.  
  • Wong MX, Jackson DE (2004). "Regulation of B cell activation by PECAM-1: implications for the development of autoimmune disorders.". Curr. Pharm. Des. 10 (2): 155–61. doi:10.2174/1381612043453504. PMID 14754395.  
  • Kalinowska A, Losy J (2007). "PECAM-1, a key player in neuroinflammation.". Eur. J. Neurol. 13 (12): 1284–90. doi:10.1111/j.1468-1331.2006.01640.x. PMID 17116209.  
  • Newman PJ, Berndt MC, Gorski J, et al. (1990). "PECAM-1 (CD31) cloning and relation to adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily.". Science 247 (4947): 1219–22. doi:10.1126/science.1690453. PMID 1690453.  
  • Stockinger H, Gadd SJ, Eher R, et al. (1991). "Molecular characterization and functional analysis of the leukocyte surface protein CD31.". J. Immunol. 145 (11): 3889–97. PMID 1700999.  
  • Albelda SM, Muller WA, Buck CA, Newman PJ (1991). "Molecular and cellular properties of PECAM-1 (endoCAM/CD31): a novel vascular cell-cell adhesion molecule.". J. Cell Biol. 114 (5): 1059–68. doi:10.1083/jcb.114.5.1059. PMID 1874786.  
  • Simmons DL, Walker C, Power C, Pigott R (1990). "Molecular cloning of CD31, a putative intercellular adhesion molecule closely related to carcinoembryonic antigen.". J. Exp. Med. 171 (6): 2147–52. doi:10.1084/jem.171.6.2147. PMID 2351935.  
  • Kirschbaum NE, Gumina RJ, Newman PJ (1995). "Organization of the gene for human platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 shows alternatively spliced isoforms and a functionally complex cytoplasmic domain.". Blood 84 (12): 4028–37. PMID 7994021.  
  • Tang DG, Chen YQ, Newman PJ, et al. (1993). "Identification of PECAM-1 in solid tumor cells and its potential involvement in tumor cell adhesion to endothelium.". J. Biol. Chem. 268 (30): 22883–94. PMID 8226797.  
  • Behar E, Chao NJ, Hiraki DD, et al. (1996). "Polymorphism of adhesion molecule CD31 and its role in acute graft-versus-host disease.". N. Engl. J. Med. 334 (5): 286–91. doi:10.1056/NEJM199602013340502. PMID 8532023.  
  • Gumina RJ, Kirschbaum NE, Rao PN, et al. (1997). "The human PECAM1 gene maps to 17q23.". Genomics 34 (2): 229–32. doi:10.1006/geno.1996.0272. PMID 8661055.  
  • Lu TT, Yan LG, Madri JA (1996). "Integrin engagement mediates tyrosine dephosphorylation on platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93 (21): 11808–13. doi:10.1073/pnas.93.21.11808. PMID 8876219.  
  • Almendro N, Bellón T, Rius C, et al. (1997). "Cloning of the human platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 promoter and its tissue-specific expression. Structural and functional characterization.". J. Immunol. 157 (12): 5411–21. PMID 8955189.  
  • Jackson DE, Ward CM, Wang R, Newman PJ (1997). "The protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 binds platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) and forms a distinct signaling complex during platelet aggregation. Evidence for a mechanistic link between PECAM-1- and integrin-mediated cellular signaling.". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (11): 6986–93. PMID 9054388.  
  • Famiglietti J, Sun J, DeLisser HM, Albelda SM (1997). "Tyrosine residue in exon 14 of the cytoplasmic domain of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1/CD31) regulates ligand binding specificity.". J. Cell Biol. 138 (6): 1425–35. doi:10.1083/jcb.138.6.1425. PMID 9298995.  
  • Deaglio S, Morra M, Mallone R, et al. (1998). "Human CD38 (ADP-ribosyl cyclase) is a counter-receptor of CD31, an Ig superfamily member.". J. Immunol. 160 (1): 395–402. PMID 9551996.  
  • Coukos G, Makrigiannakis A, Amin K, et al. (1999). "Platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 is expressed by a subpopulation of human trophoblasts: a possible mechanism for trophoblast-endothelial interaction during haemochorial placentation.". Mol. Hum. Reprod. 4 (4): 357–67. doi:10.1093/molehr/4.4.357. PMID 9620836.  
  • Cao MY, Huber M, Beauchemin N, et al. (1998). "Regulation of mouse PECAM-1 tyrosine phosphorylation by the Src and Csk families of protein-tyrosine kinases.". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (25): 15765–72. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.25.15765. PMID 9624175.  

External links

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edit
Platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule (CD31 antigen)
Identifiers
SymbolsPECAM1; CD31; PECAM-1
External IDsOMIM173445 MGI97537 HomoloGene47925 GeneCards: PECAM1 Gene
RNA expression pattern
More reference expression data
Orthologs
SpeciesHumanMouse
Entrez517518613
EnsemblENSG00000198802ENSMUSG00000020717
UniProtP16284Q8CAW4
RefSeq (mRNA)NM_000442NM_001032378
RefSeq (protein)NP_000433NP_001027550
Location (UCSC)Chr 17:
59.75 - 59.79 Mb
Chr 11:
106.47 - 106.57 Mb
PubMed search[1][2]

CD31 is a cluster of differentiation molecule. It is also called PECAM-1 for Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule. It plays a key role in removing aged neutrophils from the body. Macrophages palpate any passing neutrophil and have to decide whether the cell is healthy or has to be ingested.

In humans, the gene encoding CD-31 is found on chromosome 17.

Contents

Function

If a neutrophil is dying, it will have phosphatidyl serine in its plasma membrane. Both the neutrophil and the macrophage express CD-31 on their membranes, and, during the testing process, these CD-31 molecules bind the two cells together. If the neutrophil is healthy, it will now fire a signal to the macrophage, and the CD-31 molecules will detach. The neutrophil is now free.

In some research, CD31 serves as an endothelial marker.

If the neutrophil is not healthy, it will not be able to signal back to the macrophage to prevent its peril. This happens a long time before the neutrophil degrades and releases its dangerous payload to the medium. Macrophages normally release cytokines, when phagocytizing material. When eating a neutrophil, they do not release the cytokines. Neutrophils come of age 6 days after their creation. This signifies a strong turnover rate, one that is even stronger during and after inflammatory processes. It would make no sense to further stimulate the inflammation because of this event. Macrophages ingesting dying neutrophils will, however, release more TGF-Beta, further stimulating tissue repair.

CD-31 and macrophages play a key role in tissue regeneration and safely removing neutrophils.

Location

CD-31 is normally found on endothelial cells, platelets, macrophages and Kupffer cells, granulocytes, T / NK cells, lymphocytes, megakaryocytes, osteoclasts, neutrophils.

CD-31 is also expressed in certain tumors, including epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, epithelioid sarcoma-like hemangioendothelioma, other vascular tumors, histiocytic malignancies, and plasmacytomas. It is rarely found in some sarcomas and carcinomas.

Further reading

  • Ian R. Tizard, Veterinary Immunology, ISBN 0-7216-0136-7
  • Jackson DE (2003). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "The unfolding tale of PECAM-1."]. FEBS Lett. 540 (1-3): 7–14. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(03)00224-2. PMID 12681475. 
  • Newman PJ, Newman DK (2004). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Signal transduction pathways mediated by PECAM-1: new roles for an old molecule in platelet and vascular cell biology."]. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 23 (6): 953–64. doi:10.1161/01.ATV.0000071347.69358.D9. PMID 12689916. 
  • Ilan N, Madri JA (2004). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "PECAM-1: old friend, new partners."]. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 15 (5): 515–24. doi:10.1016/S0955-0674(03)00100-5. PMID 14519385. 
  • Wong MX, Jackson DE (2004). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Regulation of B cell activation by PECAM-1: implications for the development of autoimmune disorders."]. Curr. Pharm. Des. 10 (2): 155–61. doi:10.2174/1381612043453504. PMID 14754395. 
  • Kalinowska A, Losy J (2007). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "PECAM-1, a key player in neuroinflammation."]. Eur. J. Neurol. 13 (12): 1284–90. doi:10.1111/j.1468-1331.2006.01640.x. PMID 17116209. 
  • Newman PJ, Berndt MC, Gorski J, et al. (1990). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "PECAM-1 (CD31) cloning and relation to adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily."]. Science 247 (4947): 1219–22. doi:10.1126/science.1690453. PMID 1690453. 
  • Stockinger H, Gadd SJ, Eher R, et al. (1991). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Molecular characterization and functional analysis of the leukocyte surface protein CD31."]. J. Immunol. 145 (11): 3889–97. PMID 1700999. 
  • Albelda SM, Muller WA, Buck CA, Newman PJ (1991). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Molecular and cellular properties of PECAM-1 (endoCAM/CD31): a novel vascular cell-cell adhesion molecule."]. J. Cell Biol. 114 (5): 1059–68. doi:10.1083/jcb.114.5.1059. PMID 1874786. 
  • Simmons DL, Walker C, Power C, Pigott R (1990). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Molecular cloning of CD31, a putative intercellular adhesion molecule closely related to carcinoembryonic antigen."]. J. Exp. Med. 171 (6): 2147–52. doi:10.1084/jem.171.6.2147. PMID 2351935. 
  • Kirschbaum NE, Gumina RJ, Newman PJ (1995). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Organization of the gene for human platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 shows alternatively spliced isoforms and a functionally complex cytoplasmic domain."]. Blood 84 (12): 4028–37. PMID 7994021. 
  • Tang DG, Chen YQ, Newman PJ, et al. (1993). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Identification of PECAM-1 in solid tumor cells and its potential involvement in tumor cell adhesion to endothelium."]. J. Biol. Chem. 268 (30): 22883–94. PMID 8226797. 
  • Behar E, Chao NJ, Hiraki DD, et al. (1996). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Polymorphism of adhesion molecule CD31 and its role in acute graft-versus-host disease."]. N. Engl. J. Med. 334 (5): 286–91. doi:10.1056/NEJM199602013340502. PMID 8532023. 
  • Gumina RJ, Kirschbaum NE, Rao PN, et al. (1997). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "The human PECAM1 gene maps to 17q23."]. Genomics 34 (2): 229–32. doi:10.1006/geno.1996.0272. PMID 8661055. 
  • Lu TT, Yan LG, Madri JA (1996). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Integrin engagement mediates tyrosine dephosphorylation on platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1."]. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93 (21): 11808–13. doi:10.1073/pnas.93.21.11808. PMID 8876219. 
  • Almendro N, Bellón T, Rius C, et al. (1997). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Cloning of the human platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 promoter and its tissue-specific expression. Structural and functional characterization."]. J. Immunol. 157 (12): 5411–21. PMID 8955189. 
  • Jackson DE, Ward CM, Wang R, Newman PJ (1997). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "The protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 binds platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) and forms a distinct signaling complex during platelet aggregation. Evidence for a mechanistic link between PECAM-1- and integrin-mediated cellular signaling."]. J. Biol. Chem. 272 (11): 6986–93. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.11.6986. PMID 9054388. 
  • Famiglietti J, Sun J, DeLisser HM, Albelda SM (1997). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Tyrosine residue in exon 14 of the cytoplasmic domain of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1/CD31) regulates ligand binding specificity."]. J. Cell Biol. 138 (6): 1425–35. doi:10.1083/jcb.138.6.1425. PMID 9298995. 
  • Deaglio S, Morra M, Mallone R, et al. (1998). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Human CD38 (ADP-ribosyl cyclase) is a counter-receptor of CD31, an Ig superfamily member."]. J. Immunol. 160 (1): 395–402. PMID 9551996. 
  • Coukos G, Makrigiannakis A, Amin K, et al. (1999). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 is expressed by a subpopulation of human trophoblasts: a possible mechanism for trophoblast-endothelial interaction during haemochorial placentation."]. Mol. Hum. Reprod. 4 (4): 357–67. doi:10.1093/molehr/4.4.357. PMID 9620836. 
  • Cao MY, Huber M, Beauchemin N, et al. (1998). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Regulation of mouse PECAM-1 tyrosine phosphorylation by the Src and Csk families of protein-tyrosine kinases."]. J. Biol. Chem. 273 (25): 15765–72. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.25.15765. PMID 9624175. 

External links


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