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CD80 molecule
Available structures
1dr9, 1i8l
Identifiers
Symbols CD80; CD28LG; CD28LG1; LAB7
External IDs OMIM112203 MGI101775 HomoloGene3804 GeneCards: CD80 Gene
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 941 12519
Ensembl ENSG00000121594 ENSMUSG00000075122
UniProt P33681 Q3U4B5
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_005191 NM_009855
RefSeq (protein) NP_005182 NP_033985
Location (UCSC) Chr 3:
120.73 - 120.76 Mb
Chr 16:
38.38 - 38.41 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

The protein CD80 (Cluster of Differentiation 80) is a molecule found on activated B cells and monocytes which provides a costimulatory signal necessary for T cell activation and survival. It is also known as B7.1.

Its principal mode of action is by binding to CD28. Along with CD86, these molecules provide the necessary stimuli to prime T cells against antigens presented by antigen-presenting cells. CD80 and CD86 also bind to CTLA-4, a cell surface molecule expressed on activated T cells. Interactions between CD80 or CD86 with CTLA-4 decrease the response of T cells.

Mouse research by scientists at Emory University showed that estrogen-related bone loss is linked to recently discovered pathways involving various proteins, such as CD80 and other functions. In a nutshell, reactive oxygen stimulates dendritic cells, which activate other immune cells to up-regulate production of CD80, the molecule co-responsible for T cell activation. "When this pathway is activated, it leads to increased T cell TNF production and ultimately to bone loss."[1]

In turn, T cells produce a protein, Tumor Necrosis Factor, which increases the formation of osteoclasts in rodents and humans. Osteoclasts cause minerals to be released from the bone, so that calcium is taken into the bloodstream to be used for other functions of the body. Osteoclast differentiation is inhibited by osteoprotegerin; Estrogen stimulates osteoprotegerin production.

Contents

Interactions

CD80 has been shown to interact with CTLA-4.[2][3]

See also

References

  1. ^ Grassi F, Tell G, Robbie-Ryan M, et al. (September 2007). "Oxidative stress causes bone loss in estrogen-deficient mice through enhanced bone marrow dendritic cell activation". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104 (38): 15087–92. doi:10.1073/pnas.0703610104. PMID 17848519. Lay summary – ScienceDaily (2007-09-12).  
  2. ^ Peach, R J; Bajorath J, Naemura J, Leytze G, Greene J, Aruffo A, Linsley P S (Sep. 1995). "Both extracellular immunoglobin-like domains of CD80 contain residues critical for binding T cell surface receptors CTLA-4 and CD28". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 270 (36): 21181–7. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 7545666.  
  3. ^ Stamper, C C; Zhang Y, Tobin J F, Erbe D V, Ikemizu S, Davis S J, Stahl M L, Seehra J, Somers W S, Mosyak L (Mar. 2001). "Crystal structure of the B7-1/CTLA-4 complex that inhibits human immune responses". Nature (England) 410 (6828): 608–11. doi:10.1038/35069118. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 11279502.  

Further reading

  • Weitzmann MN, Pacifici R (2006). "Estrogen regulation of immune cell bone interactions". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1068: 256–74. doi:10.1196/annals.1346.030. PMID 16831927.  
  • Knolle PA, Gerken G (2000). "Local control of the immune response in the liver.". Immunol. Rev. 174: 21–34. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0528.2002.017408.x. PMID 10807504.  
  • Henz BM, Maurer M, Lippert U, et al. (2001). "Mast cells as initiators of immunity and host defense.". Exp. Dermatol. 10 (1): 1–10. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0625.2001.100101.x. PMID 11168574.  
  • Chang TT, Kuchroo VK, Sharpe AH (2002). "Role of the B7-CD28/CTLA-4 pathway in autoimmune disease.". Curr. Dir. Autoimmun. 5: 113–30. doi:10.1159/000060550. PMID 11826754.  
  • Stove V, Verhasselt B (2006). "Modelling thymic HIV-1 Nef effects.". Curr. HIV Res. 4 (1): 57–64. doi:10.2174/157016206775197583. PMID 16454711.  
  • Quaranta MG, Mattioli B, Giordani L, Viora M (2006). "The immunoregulatory effects of HIV-1 Nef on dendritic cells and the pathogenesis of AIDS.". Faseb J. 20 (13): 2198–208. doi:10.1096/fj.06-6260rev. PMID 17077296.  
  • Freeman GJ, Disteche CM, Gribben JG, et al. (1992). "The gene for B7, a costimulatory signal for T-cell activation, maps to chromosomal region 3q13.3-3q21.". Blood 79 (2): 489–94. PMID 1370389.  
  • Selvakumar A, Mohanraj BK, Eddy RL, et al. (1992). "Genomic organization and chromosomal location of the human gene encoding the B-lymphocyte activation antigen B7.". Immunogenetics 36 (3): 175–81. doi:10.1007/BF00661094. PMID 1377173.  
  • Freeman GJ, Gray GS, Gimmi CD, et al. (1991). "Structure, expression, and T cell costimulatory activity of the murine homologue of the human B lymphocyte activation antigen B7.". J. Exp. Med. 174 (3): 625–31. doi:10.1084/jem.174.3.625. PMID 1714935.  
  • Freeman GJ, Freedman AS, Segil JM, et al. (1989). "B7, a new member of the Ig superfamily with unique expression on activated and neoplastic B cells.". J. Immunol. 143 (8): 2714–22. PMID 2794510.  
  • Weiskirchen R, Pino JD, Macalma T, et al. (1996). "The cysteine-rich protein family of highly related LIM domain proteins.". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (48): 28946–54. doi:10.1074/jbc.270.48.28946. PMID 7499425.  
  • Lanier LL, O'Fallon S, Somoza C, et al. (1995). "CD80 (B7) and CD86 (B70) provide similar costimulatory signals for T cell proliferation, cytokine production, and generation of CTL.". J. Immunol. 154 (1): 97–105. PMID 7527824.  
  • Chirmule N, McCloskey TW, Hu R, et al. (1995). "HIV gp120 inhibits T cell activation by interfering with expression of costimulatory molecules CD40 ligand and CD80 (B71).". J. Immunol. 155 (2): 917–24. PMID 7541827.  
  • Peach RJ, Bajorath J, Naemura J, et al. (1995). "Both extracellular immunoglobin-like domains of CD80 contain residues critical for binding T cell surface receptors CTLA-4 and CD28.". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (36): 21181–7. doi:10.1074/jbc.270.36.21181. PMID 7545666.  
  • Tuosto L, Piazza C, Moretti S, et al. (1995). "Ligation of either CD2 or CD28 rescues CD4+ T cells from HIV-gp120-induced apoptosis.". Eur. J. Immunol. 25 (10): 2917–22. doi:10.1002/eji.1830251031. PMID 7589092.  
  • Chirmule N, Oyaizu N, Saxinger C, Pahwa S (1994). "Nef protein of HIV-1 has B-cell stimulatory activity.". AIDS 8 (6): 733–4. doi:10.1097/00002030-199406000-00002. PMID 8086129.  
  • Weiskirchen R, Bister K (1993). "Suppression in transformed avian fibroblasts of a gene (crp) encoding a cysteine-rich protein containing LIM domains.". Oncogene 8 (9): 2317–24. PMID 8361751.  
  • Dono M, Zupo S, Augliera A, et al. (1996). "Subepithelial B cells in the human palatine tonsil. II. Functional characterization.". Eur. J. Immunol. 26 (9): 2043–9. doi:10.1002/eji.1830260912. PMID 8814244.  
  • Reeves RH, Patch D, Sharpe AH, et al. (1997). "The costimulatory genes Cd80 and Cd86 are linked on mouse chromosome 16 and human chromosome 3.". Mamm. Genome 8 (8): 581–2. doi:10.1007/s003359900508. PMID 9250865.  
  • Olivares EG, Montes MJ, Oliver C, et al. (1997). "Cultured human decidual stromal cells express B7-1 (CD80) and B7-2 (CD86) and stimulate allogeneic T cells.". Biol. Reprod. 57 (3): 609–15. doi:10.1095/biolreprod57.3.609. PMID 9282998.  
  • Weiskirchen R, Erdel M, Utermann G, Bister K (1997). "Cloning, structural analysis, and chromosomal localization of the human CSRP2 gene encoding the LIM domain protein CRP2.". Genomics 44 (1): 83–93. doi:10.1006/geno.1997.4855. PMID 9286703.  
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