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CD9 molecule
Symbols CD9; 5H9; BA2; BTCC-1; DRAP-27; GIG2; MIC3; MRP-1; P24; TSPAN29
External IDs OMIM143030 MGI88348 HomoloGene20420 GeneCards: CD9 Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE CD9 201005 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 928 12527
Ensembl ENSG00000010278 ENSMUSG00000030342
UniProt P21926 P40240
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_001769 NM_007657
RefSeq (protein) NP_001760 NP_031683
Location (UCSC) Chr 12:
6.18 - 6.22 Mb
Chr 6:
125.43 - 125.46 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

CD9 antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD9 gene.[1]

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily, also known as the tetraspanin family. Most of these members are cell-surface proteins that are characterized by the presence of four hydrophobic domains. The proteins mediate signal transduction events that play a role in the regulation of cell development, activation, growth and motility. This encoded protein is a cell surface glycoprotein that is known to complex with integrins and other transmembrane 4 superfamily proteins. It can modulate cell adhesion and migration and also trigger platelet activation and aggregation. In addition, the protein appears to promote muscle cell fusion and support myotube maintenance.[2]


See also


CD9 has been shown to interact with TSPAN4,[3] PTGFRN,[4][5] CD81,[6][7] CD117,[8] CD46,[9] CD29[6][10] and CD49c.[11][12]


  1. ^ Katz F, Povey S, Parkar M, Schneider C, Sutherland R, Stanley K, Solomon E, Greaves M (Mar 1984). "Chromosome assignment of monoclonal antibody-defined determinants on human leukemic cells". Eur J Immunol 13 (12): 1008–13. PMID 6198179.  
  2. ^ "Entrez Gene: CD9 CD9 molecule".  
  3. ^ Tachibana, I; Bodorova J, Berditchevski F, Zutter M M, Hemler M E (Nov. 1997). "NAG-2, a novel transmembrane-4 superfamily (TM4SF) protein that complexes with integrins and other TM4SF proteins". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 272 (46): 29181–9. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 9360996.  
  4. ^ Charrin, S; Le Naour F, Oualid M, Billard M, Faure G, Hanash S M, Boucheix C, Rubinstein E (Apr. 2001). "The major CD9 and CD81 molecular partner. Identification and characterization of the complexes". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 276 (17): 14329–37. doi:10.1074/jbc.M011297200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 11278880.  
  5. ^ Stipp, C S; Orlicky D, Hemler M E (Feb. 2001). "FPRP, a major, highly stoichiometric, highly specific CD81- and CD9-associated protein". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 276 (7): 4853–62. doi:10.1074/jbc.M009859200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 11087758.  
  6. ^ a b Radford, K J; Thorne R F, Hersey P (May. 1996). "CD63 associates with transmembrane 4 superfamily members, CD9 and CD81, and with beta 1 integrins in human melanoma". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (UNITED STATES) 222 (1): 13–8. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1996.0690. ISSN 0006-291X. PMID 8630057.  
  7. ^ Horváth, G; Serru V, Clay D, Billard M, Boucheix C, Rubinstein E (Nov. 1998). "CD19 is linked to the integrin-associated tetraspans CD9, CD81, and CD82". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 273 (46): 30537–43. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 9804823.  
  8. ^ Anzai, Naoyuki; Lee Younghee, Youn Byung-S, Fukuda Seiji, Kim Young-June, Mantel Charlie, Akashi Makoto, Broxmeyer Hal E (Jun. 2002). "C-kit associated with the transmembrane 4 superfamily proteins constitutes a functionally distinct subunit in human hematopoietic progenitors". Blood (United States) 99 (12): 4413–21. ISSN 0006-4971. PMID 12036870.  
  9. ^ Lozahic, S; Christiansen D, Manié S, Gerlier D, Billard M, Boucheix C, Rubinstein E (Mar. 2000). "CD46 (membrane cofactor protein) associates with multiple beta1 integrins and tetraspans". Eur. J. Immunol. (GERMANY) 30 (3): 900–7. doi:10.1002/1521-4141(200003)30:3<900::AID-IMMU900>3.0.CO;2-X. ISSN 0014-2980. PMID 10741407.  
  10. ^ Mazzocca, Antonio; Carloni Vinicio, Sciammetta Silvia, Cordella Claudia, Pantaleo Pietro, Caldini Anna, Gentilini Paolo, Pinzani Massimo (Sep. 2002). "Expression of transmembrane 4 superfamily (TM4SF) proteins and their role in hepatic stellate cell motility and wound healing migration". J. Hepatol. (England) 37 (3): 322–30. ISSN 0168-8278. PMID 12175627.  
  11. ^ Park, K R; Inoue T, Ueda M, Hirano T, Higuchi T, Maeda M, Konishi I, Fujiwara H, Fujii S (Mar. 2000). "CD9 is expressed on human endometrial epithelial cells in association with integrins alpha(6), alpha(3) and beta(1)". Mol. Hum. Reprod. (ENGLAND) 6 (3): 252–7. ISSN 1360-9947. PMID 10694273.  
  12. ^ Hirano, T; Higuchi T, Ueda M, Inoue T, Kataoka N, Maeda M, Fujiwara H, Fujii S (Feb. 1999). "CD9 is expressed in extravillous trophoblasts in association with integrin alpha3 and integrin alpha5". Mol. Hum. Reprod. (ENGLAND) 5 (2): 162–7. ISSN 1360-9947. PMID 10065872.  

Further reading

  • Horejsí V, Vlcek C (1991). "Novel structurally distinct family of leucocyte surface glycoproteins including CD9, CD37, CD53 and CD63.". FEBS Lett. 288 (1-2): 1–4. PMID 1879540.  
  • Berditchevski F (2002). "Complexes of tetraspanins with integrins: more than meets the eye.". J. Cell. Sci. 114 (Pt 23): 4143–51. PMID 11739647.  
  • Ninomiya H, Sims PJ (1992). "The human complement regulatory protein CD59 binds to the alpha-chain of C8 and to the "b"domain of C9.". J. Biol. Chem. 267 (19): 13675–80. PMID 1377690.  
  • Miyake M, Koyama M, Seno M, Ikeyama S (1992). "Identification of the motility-related protein (MRP-1), recognized by monoclonal antibody M31-15, which inhibits cell motility.". J. Exp. Med. 174 (6): 1347–54. PMID 1720807.  
  • Boucheix C, Benoit P, Frachet P, et al. (1991). "Molecular cloning of the CD9 antigen. A new family of cell surface proteins.". J. Biol. Chem. 266 (1): 117–22. PMID 1840589.  
  • Iwamoto R, Senoh H, Okada Y, et al. (1991). "An antibody that inhibits the binding of diphtheria toxin to cells revealed the association of a 27-kDa membrane protein with the diphtheria toxin receptor.". J. Biol. Chem. 266 (30): 20463–9. PMID 1939101.  
  • Benoit P, Gross MS, Frachet P, et al. (1991). "Assignment of the human CD9 gene to chromosome 12 (region P13) by use of human specific DNA probes.". Hum. Genet. 86 (3): 268–72. PMID 1997380.  
  • Lanza F, Wolf D, Fox CF, et al. (1991). "cDNA cloning and expression of platelet p24/CD9. Evidence for a new family of multiple membrane-spanning proteins.". J. Biol. Chem. 266 (16): 10638–45. PMID 2037603.  
  • Higashihara M, Takahata K, Yatomi Y, et al. (1990). "Purification and partial characterization of CD9 antigen of human platelets.". FEBS Lett. 264 (2): 270–4. PMID 2358073.  
  • Masellis-Smith A, Shaw AR (1994). "CD9-regulated adhesion. Anti-CD9 monoclonal antibody induce pre-B cell adhesion to bone marrow fibroblasts through de novo recognition of fibronectin.". J. Immunol. 152 (6): 2768–77. PMID 7511626.  
  • Chalupny NJ, Kanner SB, Schieven GL, et al. (1993). "Tyrosine phosphorylation of CD19 in pre-B and mature B cells.". EMBO J. 12 (7): 2691–6. PMID 7687539.  
  • Ikeyama S, Koyama M, Yamaoko M, et al. (1993). "Suppression of cell motility and metastasis by transfection with human motility-related protein (MRP-1/CD9) DNA.". J. Exp. Med. 177 (5): 1231–7. PMID 8478605.  
  • Rubinstein E, Benoit P, Billard M, et al. (1993). "Organization of the human CD9 gene.". Genomics 16 (1): 132–8. doi:10.1006/geno.1993.1150. PMID 8486348.  
  • Radford KJ, Thorne RF, Hersey P (1996). "CD63 associates with transmembrane 4 superfamily members, CD9 and CD81, and with beta 1 integrins in human melanoma.". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 222 (1): 13–8. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1996.0690. PMID 8630057.  
  • Schmidt C, Künemund V, Wintergerst ES, et al. (1996). "CD9 of mouse brain is implicated in neurite outgrowth and cell migration in vitro and is associated with the alpha 6/beta 1 integrin and the neural adhesion molecule L1.". J. Neurosci. Res. 43 (1): 12–31. doi:10.1002/jnr.490430103. PMID 8838570.  
  • Sincock PM, Mayrhofer G, Ashman LK (1997). "Localization of the transmembrane 4 superfamily (TM4SF) member PETA-3 (CD151) in normal human tissues: comparison with CD9, CD63, and alpha5beta1 integrin.". J. Histochem. Cytochem. 45 (4): 515–25. PMID 9111230.  
  • Rubinstein E, Poindessous-Jazat V, Le Naour F, et al. (1997). "CD9, but not other tetraspans, associates with the beta1 integrin precursor.". Eur. J. Immunol. 27 (8): 1919–27. PMID 9295027.  
  • Tachibana I, Bodorova J, Berditchevski F, et al. (1997). "NAG-2, a novel transmembrane-4 superfamily (TM4SF) protein that complexes with integrins and other TM4SF proteins.". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (46): 29181–9. PMID 9360996.  


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