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Clock homolog (mouse)
Identifiers
Symbols CLOCK; KIAA0334
External IDs OMIM601851 MGI99698 HomoloGene3603 GeneCards: CLOCK Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE CLOCK 204980 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 9575 12753
Ensembl ENSG00000134852 ENSMUSG00000029238
UniProt O15516 Q8BRU1
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_004898 NM_007715
RefSeq (protein) NP_004889 NP_031741
Location (UCSC) Chr 4:
55.99 - 56.11 Mb
Chr 5:
77.29 - 77.38 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput, or Clock is a gene which encodes proteins regulating circadian rhythm. The CLOCK protein seems to affect both the persistence and length of the circadian cycle. CLOCK forms part of a basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factor. BMAL-1 dimerizes with CLOCK in vivo and transactivates gene expression of Period and Timeless in drosophila by binding to E-box elements in their promoters.[1] BMAL1-CLOCK also regulates Cryptochrome genes (e.g. Cry1, Cry2) and Period genes (e.g. Per1, Per2, Per3) in mammals.[2] The BMAL-CLOCK complex itself is regulated by the expression of Per and Cry genes.

A polymorphism in CLOCK, rs6832769, may be related to the personality trait agreeableness.[3]

CLOCK was identified by Joseph Takahashi's group in 1997.[4][5][6]

Contents

Interactions

CLOCK has been shown to interact with Retinoic acid receptor alpha,[7] ARNTL[8][7][9] and Retinoid X receptor alpha.[7]

See also

References

  1. ^ Ishida N, Kaneko M, Allada R. "Biological clocks". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Aug 3;96(16):8819-20. PMID 10430850
  2. ^ Edery I. "Circadian rhythms in a nutshell". Physiol Genomics. 2000 Aug 9;3(2):59-74. PMID 11015601
  3. ^ A. Terracciano, S Sanna, M. Uda, B. Deiana, G. Usala, F. Busonero, A. Maschio, M. Scally, N. Patriciu, W.-M. Chen, M. A. Distel, E. P. Slagboom, D. I. Boomsma, S. Villafuerte, E. S. liwerska, M. Burmeister, N. Amin, A. C. J. W. Janssens, C. M. van Duijn, D. Schlessinger, G. R. Abecasis and P. T. Costa Jr (October 2008). "Genome-wide association scan for five major dimensions of personality". Molecular Psychiatry. doi:10.1038/mp.2008.113. PMID 18957941.  
  4. ^ "Gene Discovered in Mice that Regulates Biological Clock". Chicago Tribune. April 29, 1994.  
  5. ^ Vitaterna, M.H.; King, D.P.; Chang, A.M.; Kornhauser, J.M.; Lowrey, P.L.; McDonald, J.D.; Dove, W.F.; Pinto, L.H. et al. (1994). "Mutagenesis and mapping of a mouse gene, Clock, essential for circadian behavior.". Science (264): 719–725.  
  6. ^ King, Ddavid; Zhao, Yaliang; Sangoram, Ashvin; Wilsbacher, Lisa; Tanaka, Monuru; Antoch, Marina; Steeves, Thomas; Lowrey, Phillip et al. (1997). "Positional Cloning of the Mouse Circadian Clock Gene". Cell 89 (4): 641–653. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80245-7. PMID 9160755.  
  7. ^ a b c McNamara, P; Seo S B, Rudic R D, Sehgal A, Chakravarti D, FitzGerald G A (Jun. 2001). "Regulation of CLOCK and MOP4 by nuclear hormone receptors in the vasculature: a humoral mechanism to reset a peripheral clock". Cell (United States) 105 (7): 877–89. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(01)00401-9. ISSN 0092-8674. PMID 11439184.  
  8. ^ Ooe, Norihisa; Saito Koichi, Mikami Nobuyoshi, Nakatuka Iwao, Kaneko Hideo (Jan. 2004). "Identification of a novel basic helix-loop-helix-PAS factor, NXF, reveals a Sim2 competitive, positive regulatory role in dendritic-cytoskeleton modulator drebrin gene expression". Mol. Cell. Biol. (United States) 24 (2): 608–16. doi:10.1128/MCB.24.2.608-616.2004. ISSN 0270-7306. PMID 14701734.  
  9. ^ Hogenesch, J B; Gu Y Z, Jain S, Bradfield C A (May. 1998). "The basic-helix-loop-helix-PAS orphan MOP3 forms transcriptionally active complexes with circadian and hypoxia factors". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (UNITED STATES) 95 (10): 5474–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.10.5474. ISSN 0027-8424. PMID 9576906.  

Further reading

  • Wager-Smith K, Kay SA (2000). "Circadian rhythm genetics: from flies to mice to humans.". Nat. Genet. 26 (1): 23–7. doi:10.1038/79134. PMID 10973243.  

External links


Simple English

File:Wall
Analog clock

A clock is a device that tells the time. Some clocks can give the date as well as the time. There are different types of clocks. A watch is a type of clock that is small and can be carried. Watches are usually worn on a person's wrist. At one time, watches were commonly kept in the person's pocket.

Contents

Telling time

Clocks use different ways to tell time. Clocks need some sort of steady beat or motion. to track the change in time. Ancient water clocks worked by the steady movement of water from a container with a hole in the bottom to another container without a hole. Other clocks use springs and gears to track the change in time correctly.

Digital clocks work by measuring the vibrations of quartz crystals when charged with electricity. The amount of vibrations from a quartz crystal per second does not change.

Atomic clocks use the electromagnetic waves absorbed and emitted by atoms such as caesium to measure time. They are the most precise clocks in the world.

Clock displays

There are many types of clocks and watches. The two most common types of displays on clocks are "analog" and "digital" .

Analog clocks

Analog clocks use angles to tell time. They have hands that rotate around the clock's face. The position of the hands shows the time. The face of the clock is a flat disk. It will often have the numbers one through twelve on the face to make it easier to read. Analog clocks commonly have two or three hands. If it has two, there is a large hand or minute hand and a smaller hand, the hour hand. Clocks with three hands also have a second hand. This hand is usually about as long as the minute hand, but much thinner. Each hand shows the time is is named for and moves around the face of the clock one complete rotation for each movement to the next larger hand. For example, the second hand moves around the face of the clock in 60 seconds. It moves once each second. When it moves all the way around the clock, the minute hand moves forward one space. When the minute hand moves all the way around the face of the clock (which takes 60 minutes), the hour hand moves forward one section. The second and minute hands take 60 movements to move all around the face of the clock, the hour hand only needs 12 movements to do the same.

Digital clocks

[[File:|thumb|A radio controlled digital clock]] Digital clocks use numbers to show the time. LCDs and LEDs are common for digital clocks. Unlike analog clocks which are based on 12 hours, digital clocks can use either a 12-hour clock (often with am for morning and pm for afternoon/night) or a 24-hour clock. Digital clocks are usually smaller and easier to both use and read than analog clocks but they can also be made much larger. New digital clocks can even correct themselves using the internet or radio signals.

Sound based clocks

A small number of clocks will use sound to show the time. The sound could be as simple as a bell or so complex that it sounds the same as a person. These clocks are often used by people who are blind or cannot see well enough to read an analog or digital clock. They can also be used by people with mental problems that cause them to be unable to read other clocks.

Water clocks

Water clocks were used by the ancient English.

Types of clocks

There are many different types of clocks and watches. They are different in what they are used for, what they can do or how they are made. Examples include:

  • A wristwatch is worn on the wrist. It is held in place by two straps connected to the watch and then wrapped around the wrist and connected to each other.
  • A pocket watch is kept in a pocket. It is usually connected to a small chain which is connected to the person's clothing. This help stop the watch from being lost.
  • A Sundial is an old form of a clock which uses the Sun to tell time.
  • An alarm clock is a clock that makes a sound (often a buzzing or a bell-like sound) or plays music at a certain time. It is used by people to wake up from sleep at a time they choose.
  • A grandfather clock is a tall clock that stands on a floor. It uses a pendulum to tell time.
  • A Cuckoo clock is a pendulum based clock which makes a sound each hour on the hour. They often also have a small door. When the clock makes the sound, the door opens and a small toy bird or other item usually come out of the door.








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