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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The term contiguous United States refers to the 48 U.S. states located on the North American continent south of the U.S. border with Canada, plus the District of Columbia.[1] The term excludes the states of Alaska and Hawaii, and all off-shore U.S. territories and possessions, such as Puerto Rico.[2][3][4][5]

Together, the 48 contiguous states and D.C. have an area of 3,119,884.69 square miles (8,080,464.25 km²). Of this, 2,959,064.44 sq mi (7,663,941.71 km²) is land, comprising 83.65% of U.S. land area. Officially, 160,820.25 sq mi (416,522.38 km²) is water area, comprising 62.66% of the nation's water area. Its 2000 census population was 279,583,437, comprising 99.35% of the nation's population. Its population density was 94.484 inhabitants/sq mi (36.480/km²), compared to 79.555/sq mi (30.716/km²) for the nation as a whole.[6]

The map below shows the contiguous United States and, in an inset box in the lower left, the two states that are not contiguous.

Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Delaware Maryland New Hampshire New Jersey Massachusetts Connecticut West Virginia Vermont Rhode Island Map of USA with state names 2.svg
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Other terms

While coterminous U.S. and conterminous U.S. have the same precise meaning as contiguous U.S., other terms commonly used to describe the 48 contiguous states have some degree of ambiguity.

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Continental United States

Because Alaska is also on the North American continent, the term continental United States, if interpreted literally, should also include that state,[7] so the term is sometimes qualified with the explicit inclusion or exclusion of Alaska to resolve any ambiguity.[8][9][3][10][11] The term was in use prior to the admission of Alaska and Hawaii as states of the United States, and at that time usually excluded outlying territories of the U.S.[12][13] However, even before Alaska became a state, it was sometimes included within the "Continental US".[14]

The lower 48

The term lower 48 may or may not include the District of Columbia (which is not part of any of the 48 states), and may or may not exclude Hawaii (which is the southern-most U.S. state). The National Geographic style guide recommends the use of contiguous or conterminous United States instead of "lower 48" when the 48 states are meant, unless used in the context of Alaska.[15]

CONUS/OCONUS

CONUS is a technical term used by the US Department of Defense which is specifically defined as the 48 contiguous states but is silent on the District of Columbia.[5] OCONUS is the same term with addition of O for outside, thus Outside of Contiguous United States (OCONUS).

Terms used in the non-contiguous states

Both Alaska and Hawaii, because of their own location relative to the contiguous United States, have their own unique labels for it.

Alaska

Alaska became the 49th state of the United States on January 3, 1959. Alaska is on the northwest end of the North American continent, but separated from the rest of the United States by Canada. In Alaska, given the ambiguity surrounding the usage of continental, the term "continental United States" is almost unheard of when referring to the contiguous 48 states. Several other terms have been used over the years. Most Americans are familiar with the term "Lower 48", which for many years was the most common Alaskan equivalent for "contiguous United States". However, since the 1980s Alaskans have increasingly adopted the term Outside to refer to the rest of the United States. Alaskans will speak of going Outside to vacation or will refer to being born Outside.[16][17][18]

Hawaii

Hawaii became the 50th state of the United States on August 21, 1959. The Hawaiian Islands are located in Oceania and are about 2,200 miles (3,500 km) from the North American mainland. In Hawaii and overseas American territories, for instance, the terms "the Mainland" or "U.S. Mainland" are used to refer to the continental United States.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "United Airlines website". http://www.unitedcargo.com/help/glossary.jsp?pageIndex=C. Retrieved 2008-11-25. "Contiguous United States: The 48 adjoining states and the District of Columbia." 
  2. ^ continental, adj., "being the part of the United States on the North American continent; also : being the part of the United States comprising the lower 48 states"
    Merriam-Webster, Inc. (2003). Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 11th ed.. Springfield, Mass.: Merriam-Webster, Inc.. ISBN 0877798095. 
  3. ^ a b Random House (1991). Random House Webster's College Dictionary. New York: Random House. ISBN 0679401105. 
  4. ^ These maps show the contiguous 48 states and D.C., but not Alaska and Hawaii.
  5. ^ a b "CONUS" seems to be used primarily by the American military and the Federal government and those doing business with them.
  6. ^ "Population and land area from Census of 2000". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/DTTable?_bm=y&-context=dt&-ds_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U&-CONTEXT=dt&-mt_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U_P001&-tree_id=4001&-transpose=N&-redoLog=false&-all_geo_types=N&-geo_id=01000US&-geo_id=04000US02&-geo_id=04000US15&-search_results=04000US15&-_showChild=Y&-format=&-_lang=en&-show_geoid=Y. Retrieved 2008-11-25. 
  7. ^
  8. ^ *"National Geographic Style Manual". http://stylemanual.ngs.org/intranet/styleman.nsf/fe865d1098fe36e58525665100675485/5e9222e01432afcb852566980056c49e. Retrieved 2008-11-25. "The continental United States comprises the 48 plus Alaska." 
  9. ^ "U.S. Navy Style Guide". http://www.navy.mil/tools/view_styleguide_all.asp. Retrieved 2008-11-25. "CONUS - "Continental United States" CONUS refers to the 48 contiguous states." 
  10. ^
  11. ^ "Alaska Airlines website". http://www.alaskaair.com/as/mileageplan/AwardsUSACanada.asp. 
  12. ^ "Abstract of the 1900 Census (1904), p.xiii" (PDF). http://www2.census.gov/prod2/decennial/documents/00319143.pdf. "The area … is continental United States, by which is meant that part of the United States lying on the continent of North America south of the Canadian boundary. It thus excludes Alaska and the recent insular accessions of Hawaii, Porto Rico (sic), the Philippine Islands, Guam, Samoa..." 
  13. ^ "… merchandise to foreign countries from continental United states, Puerto Rico, and the territories of Alaska and Hawaii." United States Foreign Trade (1950-1953)
  14. ^ "In the absence of any such statement, Alaska probably would be regarded as a part of the continental United States." Inland Marine and Transportation Insurance (1949)
  15. ^ "National Geographic Style Manual". http://stylemanual.ngs.org/intranet/styleman.nsf/fe865d1098fe36e58525665100675485/5e9222e01432afcb852566980056c49e. Retrieved 2008-11-25. "Use contiguous or conterminous for the 48 states. The continental United States comprises the 48 plus Alaska. In Alaskan context, lower forty-eight may be used." 
  16. ^ [http://alaskaanswers.com/alaska/?p=98 Alaska Answers weblog
  17. ^ Speak Alaskan
  18. ^ About Alaska

External links


Cone snails
Fossil range: Eocene–Recent
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
Order: Sorbeoconcha
Superfamily: Conoidea
Family: Conidae
Genus: Conus
Linnaeus, 1758
Type species
Conus marmoreus
Linnaeus, 1758


Conus is a genus of medium-sized to large, sophisticated predatory sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs, with the common names of cone snails, cone shells or cones. The genus is known from the Eocene to the recent periods.[1] There are more than 500 extant species.

Species

The following list of species is incomplete.

  • Conus abbotti Clench, 1942
  • Conus achatinus Gmelin, 1791
  • Conus acutangulus Lamarck, 1810
  • Conus africanus L.C. Kiener, 1849
  • Conus alabaster Reeve, 1849
  • Conus albicans Sowerby II, 1857
  • Conus aldrovadi
  • Conus amadis Gmelin, 1791
  • Conus ammiralis Linnaeus, 1758
  • Conus amphiurgus Dall, 1889
  • Conus anabathrum Crosse, 1865
  • Conus anemone Lamarck, 1810
  • Conus aphrodite Petuch, 1979
  • Conus araneosus Lightfoot, 1786
  • Conus archon Broderip, 1833
  • Conus arcuatus Broderip et Sowerby, 1829
  • Conus arenatus Hwass in Bruguiére, 1792
  • Conus aristophanes Sowerby II, 1857
  • Conus armadillo Shikama, 1971
  • Conus armiger Crosse, 1858
  • Conus articulatus Sowerby III, 1873
  • Conus artroptus Sowerby I in Sowerby II, 1833
  • Conus asiaticus da Motta, 1985
  • Conus attenuatus Reeve, 1844
  • Conus aulicus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Conus auratinus da Motta, 1982
  • Conus auratus Hwass in Bruguiére, 1792
  • Conus aureonimbosus Petuch, 1987
  • Conus aureus Hwass in Bruguiére, 1792
  • Conus auricomus Hwass in Bruguiére, 1792
  • Conus aurisiacus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Conus austini Rehder & Abbott, 1951
  • Conus australis Holten, 1802
  • Conus baileyi Röckel & da Motta, 1979
  • Conus bajanensis Usticke, 1968
  • Conus balteatus Sowerby I in Sowerby II, 1833
  • Conus bandanus Hwass in Bruguiére, 1792
  • Conus bartschi Hanna et Strong, 1949
  • Conus batheon Sturany, 1904
  • Conus bengalensis
  • Conus berdulinus Veillard, 1972
  • Conus bermudensis Clench, 1942
  • Conus bernardi Kiener, 1845
  • Conus betulinus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Conus binghamae Petuch, 1987
  • Conus bocki Sowerby III, 1881
  • Conus boeticus Reeve, 1844
  • Conus boholensis Petuch, 1979
  • Conus broderipii Reeve, 1844
  • Conus bruuni Powell, 1958
  • Conus brunneus Wood, 1828
  • Conus bullatus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Conus californicus Hinds, 1844
  • Conus cancellatus Hwass, 1792
  • Conus canonicus Hwass in Bruguiére, 1792
  • Conus capitaneus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Conus caracteristicus G. Fischer, 1807
  • Conus cardinalis Hwass, 1792
  • Conus caribbaeus Clench, 1942
  • Conus carinatus Swainson, 1822
  • Conus catus Hwass in Bruguiére, 1792
  • Conus cebuganus da Motta & Martin, 1982
  • Conus cepasi Trovao, 1975
  • Conus cernohorskyi da Motta, 1983
  • Conus cervus Lam., 1822
  • Conus chaldaeus (Röding, 1798)
  • Conus chiangi (Azuma, 1972)
  • Conus chrysocestus S. S. Berry, 1968
  • Conus cinereus Hwass in Bruguiére, 1792
  • Conus circumactus Iredale, 1929
  • Conus circumcisus Born, 1778
  • Conus citrinus Gmelin, 1791
  • Conus clarki Rehder et Abbott, 1951
  • Conus coccineus Gmelin, 1791
  • Conus coelinae Crosse, 1858
  • Conus collisus Reeve, 1849
  • Conus colorovariegatus Kosuge, 1981
  • Conus comatosa Pilsbry, 1904
  • Conus connectens A. Adams, 1855
  • Conus consors Sowerby I in Sowerby II, 1833
  • Conus conspersus
  • Conus corallinus Kiener, 1845
  • Conus coronatus Gmelin, 1791
  • Conus crocatus Lam., 1810
  • Conus cylindraceus Broderip & Sowerby I, 1830
  • Conus dalli Stearns, 1873
  • Conus daphne
  • Conus daucus Hwass, 1792
  • Conus daullei Cross, 1858
  • Conus dayriti Röckel & da Motta, 1983
  • Conus delessertii Recluz, 1843
  • Conus delicatus Schepman, 1913
  • Conus diadema Sowerby, 1834
  • Conus dispar Sowerby, 1833
  • Conus distans Hwass in Bruguiére, 1792
  • Conus dondani Kosuge, 1981
  • Conus duplicatus Sowerby I, 1823
  • Conus dusaveli (Adams, H., 1872)
  • Conus ebraeus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Conus eburneus Hwass in Bruguiére, 1792
  • Conus elisae
  • Conus emaciatus Reeve, 1849
  • Conus episcopatus da Motta, 1982
  • Conus ermineus Born, 1778
  • Conus eugrammatus Bartsch & Rehder, 1943
  • Conus excelsus Sowerby III, 1908
  • Conus exiguus Lamarck, 1810
  • Conus eximius Reeve, 1849
  • Conus fergusoni Sowerby, 1873
  • Conus figulinus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Conus fischoederi Röckel & da Motta, 1983
  • Conus flamingo Petuch, 1980
  • Conus flavescens G. B. II Sowerby, 1834
  • Conus flavidus Lam., 1810
  • Conus floccatus G.B. I Sowerby et G.B. II Sowerby, 1841
  • Conus floccatus Sowerby I in Sowerby II, 1839
  • Conus floridanus Gabb, 1868
  • Conus floridensis G. B. II Sowerby, 1870
  • Conus floridulus A. Adams & Reeve, 1848
  • Conus frigidus Reeve, 1848
  • Conus fulgetrum Sowerby I in Sowerby II, 1834
  • Conus fulvobullatus da Motta, 1982
  • Conus furvus Reeve, 1843
  • Conus generalis Linnaeus, 1767
  • Conus geographus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Conus gladiator Broderip, 1833
  • Conus glans Hwass in Bruguiére, 1792
  • Conus glaucus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Conus glicksteini Petuch, 1987
  • Conus gloriakiiensis
  • Conus gloriamaris Chemnitz, 1777
  • Conus gradatus Wood, 1828
  • Conus grangeri
  • Conus granifer
  • Conus granulatus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Conus gubba Kiener, 1845
  • Conus guinaicus
  • Conus harasewychi Petuch, 1987
  • Conus hirasei (Kira, 1956)
  • Conus howelli Bartsch & Rehder, 1943
  • Conus hypochlorus Tomlin, 1937
  • Conus ichinoseana (Kuroda, 1956)
  • Conus imperialis Linnaeus, 1758
  • Conus insculptus Kiener, 1845
  • Conus ione Fulton, 1938
  • Conus jaspideus Gmelin, 1791
  • Conus juliae Clench, 1942
  • Conus kermadecensis Iredale, 1912
  • Conus kimioi (Habe, 1965)
  • Conus kinoshitai (Kuroda, 1956)
  • Conus kintoki Habe & Kosuge, 1970
  • Conus kohni McLean & Nybakken, 1979
  • Conus kuroharai (Habe, 1965)
  • Conus lani Crandall, 1979
  • Conus lapulapui da Motta & Martin, 1982
  • Conus laterculatus Sowerby III, 1870
  • Conus legatus Lam., 1810

  • Conus lenavati da Motta & Röckel, 1982
  • Conus leobrerai da Motta & Martin, 1982
  • Conus leopardus (Röding, 1798)
  • Conus leonardi Bernardi et Crosse, 1861
  • Conus lignarius
  • Conus lischkeanus Weinkauff, 1875
  • Conus litoglyphus Röding, 1798
  • Conus litteratus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Conus lividus Hwass in Bruguiére, 1792
  • Conus lucidus Wood, 1828
  • Conus luteus Sowerby I in Sowerby II, 1833
  • Conus lynceus Sowerby II, 1857
  • Conus macarae Bernardi, 1857
  • Conus macgintyi Pilsbry, 1955
  • Conus magdalenae Kiener, 1845
  • Conus magnificus Reeve, 1843
  • Conus magus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Conus marmoreus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Conus mazei Deshayes, 1874
  • Conus mcgintyi Pilsbry, 1955
  • Conus mediterraneus Hwass in Bruguière, 1792
  • Conus melvilli Sowerby, 1878
  • Conus memiae (Habe & Kosuge, 1970)
  • Conus mercatii Brocchi, 1814
  • Conus miles Linnaeus, 1758
  • Conus miliaris Hwass in Bruguiére, 1792
  • Conus mindanus Hwass, 1792
  • Conus mitratus Hwass in Bruguiére, 1792
  • Conus moluccensis Küster, 1838
  • Conus monachus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Conus montillai Röckel, 1985
  • Conus moreleti Crosse, 1858
  • Conus mucronatus Reeve, 1843
  • Conus muriculatus Sowerby I in Sowerby II, 1833
  • Conus mus Hwass, 1792
  • Conus musicus Hwass in Bruguiére, 1792
  • Conus mustelinus Hwass in Bruguiére, 1792
  • Conus neptunus Reeve, 1843
  • Conus nereis Petuch, 1979
  • Conus nicobaricus Hwass in Bruguiére, 1792
  • Conus nielsenae Marsh, 1963
  • Conus nigropunctatus
  • Conus nobilis Linnaeus, 1758
  • Conus nobrei Trovao, 1975
  • Conus nocturnus
  • Conus nussatella Linnaeus, 1758
  • Conus obscurus Sowerby I in Sowerby II, 1833
  • Conus ochroleucus Gmelin, 1791
  • Conus omaria Hwass in Bruguiére, 1792
  • Conus orbignyi Audouin, 1831
  • Conus otohimeae Kuroda & Ito, 1961
  • Conus pagodus Kiener, 1845
  • Conus papillosus Kiener, 1845
  • Conus parius Reeve, 1844
  • Conus parvulus Link, 1807
  • Conus patae Abbott, 1971
  • Conus patricius Hinds, 1843
  • Conus pealii Green, 1830
  • Conus pergrandis (Iredale, 1937)
  • Conus perplexus Sowerby, 1857
  • Conus perryae Clench, 1942
  • Conus pertusus Hwass in Bruguiére, 1792
  • Conus pilkeyi Petuch, 1974
  • Conus planorbis Born, 1778
  • Conus plinthis Richard & Moolenbeek, 1988
  • Conus polongimarumai Kosuge, 1980
  • Conus polyglotta Weinkauff, 1874
  • Conus poormani S. S. Berry, 1968
  • Conus praecellens A. Adams, 1854
  • Conus princeps Linnaeus, 1758
  • Conus proximus Sowerby II, 1859
  • Conus pseudorbignyi Röckel & Lan, 1982
  • Conus pseudosulcatus
  • Conus pulchellus auct., Swainson, 1822 (non Röding, 1798)
  • Conus pulchellus Röding, 1798
  • Conus pulcher Lightfoot, 1786
  • Conus pulicarius Hwass in Bruguiére, 1792
  • Conus puncturatus
  • Conus purpurascens Sowerby, 1833
  • Conus quercinus Lightfoot, 1786
  • Conus radiatus Gmelin, 1791
  • Conus rainesae McGinty, 1953
  • Conus ranunculus Hwass in Bruguiére, 1792
  • Conus raphanus Hwass in Bruguiére, 1792
  • Conus raoulensis Powell, 1958
  • Conus rattus Hwass in Bruguiére, 1792
  • Conus recluzianus Bernardi, 1853
  • Conus recurvus Broderip, 1833
  • Conus regius Gmelin, 1791
  • Conus regularis Sowerby, 1833
  • Conus retifer Menke, 1829
  • Conus rogmartini da Motta, 1982
  • Conus saecularis Melvill, 1898
  • Conus samiae da Motta, 1982
  • Conus sanguinolentus Quoy & Gaimard, 1834
  • Conus sazanka Shikama, 1970
  • Conus scabriusculus Dillwyn, 1817
  • Conus scalaris Valenciennes, 1832
  • Conus scalptus Reeve, 1843
  • Conus selenae Van Mol, Tursch et Kempf, 1967
  • Conus sennottorum Rehder et Abbott, 1951
  • Conus smirna Bartsch & Rehder, 1943
  • Conus sowerbei Nyst, 1836
  • Conus sowerbii Reeve, 1849
  • Conus sowerbyi Bronn, 1848
  • Conus sowerbyi Sowerby III, 1870
  • Conus spectrum Linnaeus, 1758
  • Conus sphacelatus
  • Conus spiculum Reeve, 1849
  • Conus sponsalis Hwass in Bruguiére, 1792
  • Conus spurius Gmelin, 1791
  • Conus stearnsii Conrad, 1869
  • Conus stercusmuscarum Linnaeus, 1758
  • Conus stimpsoni Dall, 1902
  • Conus stramineus Lam., 1810
  • Conus striatellus Link, 1807
  • Conus striatus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Conus subaequalis Sowerby III, 1870
  • Conus sugillatus Reeve, 1844
  • Conus sugimotonis Kuroda, 1928
  • Conus sulcatus Hwass in Bruguiére, 1792
  • Conus sulcocastaneus Kosuge, 1981
  • Conus suratensis Hwass in Bruguiére, 1792
  • Conus taeniatus Hwass, 1792
  • Conus telatus Reeve, 1848
  • Conus tenuistriatus Sowerby II, 1858
  • Conus teramachii (Kuroda, 1956)
  • Conus terebra Born, 1778
  • Conus tessulatus Born, 1778
  • Conus textile Linnaeus, 1758
  • Conus thalassiarchus Sowerby I in Sowerby II, 1834
  • Conus thomae Gmelin, 1791
  • Conus tigrinus
  • Conus tornatus Sowerby, 1933
  • Conus tribblei Walls, 1977
  • Conus tulipa Linnaeus, 1758
  • Conus undulatus auct., Sowerby II, 1857-1858 (non Solander, 1786)
  • Conus ustickei Miller In Usticke, 1959
  • Conus varius Linnaeus, 1758
  • Conus ventricosus (Gmelin, 1791)
  • Conus vexillum Gmelin, 1789
  • Conus vicdani Lan, 1978
  • Conus victoriae Reeve, 1843
  • Conus vidua Reeve, 1843
  • Conus villepinii P. Fischer et Bernardi, 1857
  • Conus vimineus Reeve, 1849
  • Conus vinctus
  • Conus viola Cernohorsky, 1977
  • Conus virgatus Reeve, 1849
  • Conus virgo Linnaeus, 1758
  • Conus vittatus Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792
  • Conus vitulinus Hwass in Bruguiére, 1792
  • Conus voluminalis Reeve, 1843
  • Conus vulpinus Hwass in Bruguiére, 1792
  • Conus wakayamaensis (Kuroda, 1956)
  • Conus ximenes Gray, 1839
  • Conus zebroides Kiener, 1845
  • Conus ziczac Megerle von Muhlfeld, 1816

References

  1. (in Czech) Pek I., Vašíček Z., Roček Z., Hajn. V. & Mikuláš R. Základy zoopaleontologie. Olomouc, 1996. 264 pp., ISBN 80-7067-599-3.

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also conus

Contents

English

Acronym

CONUS

  1. (chiefly military) The Contiguous United States; the 48 states excluding Alaska and Hawaii.

Usage notes

  • This is sometimes mistakenly defined as continental United States, possibly because the concept of "continent" is more familiar that contiguity; but continental would include Alaska.

Antonyms


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