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C
Book cover for "The C Programming Language", second edition, featuring text in black serif capital letters on white background and very large light blue sans-serif letter C.
The C Programming Language (aka "K&R"), the seminal book on C
Usual file extensions .h .c
Paradigm Imperative (procedural), structured
Appeared in 1972
Designed by Dennis Ritchie
Developer Dennis Ritchie & Bell Labs
Stable release C99 (March 2000)
Typing discipline Static, weak, manifest
Major implementations Clang, GCC, MSVC, Turbo C, Watcom C
Dialects Cyclone, Unified Parallel C, Split-C, Cilk, C*
Influenced by B (BCPL, CPL), ALGOL 68,[1] Assembly, PL/I, FORTRAN
Influenced AWK, csh, C++, C-- , C#, Objective-C, BitC, D, Go, Java, JavaScript, Limbo, Perl, PHP, Pike, Processing, Python
OS Cross-platform (multi-platform)
.C (pronounced "See") is a general-purpose computer programming language developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie at the Bell Telephone Laboratories for use with the Unix operating system.^ C is a general-purpose computer programming language developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie at the Bell Telephone Laboratories for use with the Unix operating system.
  • C tutorial - Building - video tutorial - C programming tutorial. - Learn: basics, IDE, game, interface, videos, learning, debugging, storageclassspecifiers, language, assembly, features, like, programmer, development, tutorials, char, learningfeaturesportabilityefficiencypowerprogrammer_oriented_design, power, output, source., programmers, world, loosing, help, break, tutorial, continue, programming, screencast, modulus, source, curly_brackets, c_programming_language, loop, practicality, begginner, efficiency, string, beginner_programming, professional, video, complete, c, program, windows, system, basic, create, programs, machine, best, builds, input, cpuprogramcc_programminglanguagelearningfeaturesportabilityefficiencypowerprogrammer_oriented_design, programmer_oriented_design, studio, build, application, cpuprogramcprogramminglanguagelearningfeaturesportabilityefficiencypowerprogrammerorienteddesign, work, editor, screencasts, computers, design, exercise, file, concepts, operator, guides, efficient, experimentation, practical, guide, unix, portability, process, literals, loops, site, computer, files, starting, code, cpu, beginner, console, sites, building, interfaces, strings 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC showmedo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ C language is actually a general-purpose language.
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It is a systems programming language, for use by experienced programmers.
  • Why C Is Not My Favourite Programming Language || kuro5hin.org 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2]
.Although C was designed for implementing system software,[3] it is also widely used for developing portable application software.^ It can also be used to implement distributed systems.
  • Programming Texts/Tutorials 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC stommel.tamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Although C was designed for implementing system software, it is also widely used for developing portable application software.
  • C tutorial - Building - video tutorial - C programming tutorial. - Learn: basics, IDE, game, interface, videos, learning, debugging, storageclassspecifiers, language, assembly, features, like, programmer, development, tutorials, char, learningfeaturesportabilityefficiencypowerprogrammer_oriented_design, power, output, source., programmers, world, loosing, help, break, tutorial, continue, programming, screencast, modulus, source, curly_brackets, c_programming_language, loop, practicality, begginner, efficiency, string, beginner_programming, professional, video, complete, c, program, windows, system, basic, create, programs, machine, best, builds, input, cpuprogramcc_programminglanguagelearningfeaturesportabilityefficiencypowerprogrammer_oriented_design, programmer_oriented_design, studio, build, application, cpuprogramcprogramminglanguagelearningfeaturesportabilityefficiencypowerprogrammerorienteddesign, work, editor, screencasts, computers, design, exercise, file, concepts, operator, guides, efficient, experimentation, practical, guide, unix, portability, process, literals, loops, site, computer, files, starting, code, cpu, beginner, console, sites, building, interfaces, strings 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC showmedo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ C is a general-purpose computer programming language developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie at the Bell Telephone Laboratories for use with the Unix operating system.
  • C tutorial - Building - video tutorial - C programming tutorial. - Learn: basics, IDE, game, interface, videos, learning, debugging, storageclassspecifiers, language, assembly, features, like, programmer, development, tutorials, char, learningfeaturesportabilityefficiencypowerprogrammer_oriented_design, power, output, source., programmers, world, loosing, help, break, tutorial, continue, programming, screencast, modulus, source, curly_brackets, c_programming_language, loop, practicality, begginner, efficiency, string, beginner_programming, professional, video, complete, c, program, windows, system, basic, create, programs, machine, best, builds, input, cpuprogramcc_programminglanguagelearningfeaturesportabilityefficiencypowerprogrammer_oriented_design, programmer_oriented_design, studio, build, application, cpuprogramcprogramminglanguagelearningfeaturesportabilityefficiencypowerprogrammerorienteddesign, work, editor, screencasts, computers, design, exercise, file, concepts, operator, guides, efficient, experimentation, practical, guide, unix, portability, process, literals, loops, site, computer, files, starting, code, cpu, beginner, console, sites, building, interfaces, strings 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC showmedo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.C is one of the most popular programming languages[4][5] and there are very few computer architectures for which a C compiler does not exist.^ C is one of the most popular programming languages.
  • C tutorial - Building - video tutorial - C programming tutorial. - Learn: basics, IDE, game, interface, videos, learning, debugging, storageclassspecifiers, language, assembly, features, like, programmer, development, tutorials, char, learningfeaturesportabilityefficiencypowerprogrammer_oriented_design, power, output, source., programmers, world, loosing, help, break, tutorial, continue, programming, screencast, modulus, source, curly_brackets, c_programming_language, loop, practicality, begginner, efficiency, string, beginner_programming, professional, video, complete, c, program, windows, system, basic, create, programs, machine, best, builds, input, cpuprogramcc_programminglanguagelearningfeaturesportabilityefficiencypowerprogrammer_oriented_design, programmer_oriented_design, studio, build, application, cpuprogramcprogramminglanguagelearningfeaturesportabilityefficiencypowerprogrammerorienteddesign, work, editor, screencasts, computers, design, exercise, file, concepts, operator, guides, efficient, experimentation, practical, guide, unix, portability, process, literals, loops, site, computer, files, starting, code, cpu, beginner, console, sites, building, interfaces, strings 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC showmedo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The C programming language is called therefore, a compiled language...
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^ One usage describes programming languages as a subset of computer languages.

C has greatly influenced many other popular programming languages, most notably C++, which originally began as an extension to C.

Contents

Design

.C is an imperative (procedural) systems implementation language.^ Paradigm: imperative (procedural) systems implementation language .
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ Icon is an imperative, procedural language with a syntax that is reminiscent of C and Pascal, but with semantics at a much higher level.
  • Icon Programming Language FAQ - Dev Archives 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC archives.devshed.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ C is a general-purpose, block structured, procedural, imperative computer programming language for use with the Unix operating system.

.It was designed to be compiled using a relatively straightforward compiler, to provide low-level access to memory, to provide language constructs that map efficiently to machine instructions, and to require minimal run-time support.^ Compilers are quite able to do arithmetics at compile time, use them.
  • C programming language coding guidelines 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lrdev.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Low-level access to computer memory via machine addresses and typed pointers .
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ Low Level Languages – These languages are computer or machine oriented.
  • C Prerquisite Knowledge : C Basic Programming Tutorial 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cprogrammingreference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.C was therefore useful for many applications that had formerly been coded in assembly language.^ C was therefore useful for many applications that had formerly been coded in assembly language.

^ Regardless of the language used, good code is good code.
  • C# developers going back to vb.net 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.msnewsgroups.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Honestly, when I was in high school, I used to naively wonder what the need was for so many languages and used to wonder how I could learn anything at all if the state-of-the-art was in so much flux!
  • Scott Hanselman's Computer Zen - The (Programming) Language Explosion 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.hanselman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Despite its low-level capabilities, the language was designed to encourage machine-independent programming.^ Low Level Languages – These languages are computer or machine oriented.
  • C Prerquisite Knowledge : C Basic Programming Tutorial 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cprogrammingreference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pattern Languages of Program Design , pages 1-5.
  • Parallel Programming Pattern Language: AnnotatedBibliography 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cise.ufl.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ C is a low level language.
  • Why C Is Not My Favourite Programming Language || kuro5hin.org 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A standards-compliant and portably written C program can be compiled for a very wide variety of computer platforms and operating systems with little or no change to its source code.^ A standards-compliant and portably written C program can be compiled for a very wide variety of computer platforms and operating systems with minimal change to its source code.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ One advantage is that no temporary buffers are required, as the program code will have pre-allocated space for the message, however care must be taken to avoid deadlocking.
  • Parallel Programming Pattern Language: AnnotatedBibliography 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cise.ufl.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Eventually it was decided to port the operating system to the office's PDP-11, but faced with the daunting task of translating a large body of custom-written assembly language code, the programmers began considering using a portable, high-level language so that the OS could be ported easily from one computer to another.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

.The language has become available on a very wide range of platforms, from embedded microcontrollers to supercomputers.^ The language has become available on a very wide range of platforms, from embedded microcontrollers to supercomputers.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ The language has become available on a very wide range of platforms, from embedded micro controllers to supercomputers.

^ Programs must balance speed, size, and simplicity on systems ranging from microcontrollers to supercomputers .

Minimalism

.C's design is tied to its intended use as a portable systems implementation language.^ This has more to do with the design of the language than with the implementations.
  • Which Programming Language? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It can also be used to implement distributed systems.
  • Programming Texts/Tutorials 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC stommel.tamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Although C was designed for implementing system software, it is also widely used for developing portable application software.
  • C tutorial - Building - video tutorial - C programming tutorial. - Learn: basics, IDE, game, interface, videos, learning, debugging, storageclassspecifiers, language, assembly, features, like, programmer, development, tutorials, char, learningfeaturesportabilityefficiencypowerprogrammer_oriented_design, power, output, source., programmers, world, loosing, help, break, tutorial, continue, programming, screencast, modulus, source, curly_brackets, c_programming_language, loop, practicality, begginner, efficiency, string, beginner_programming, professional, video, complete, c, program, windows, system, basic, create, programs, machine, best, builds, input, cpuprogramcc_programminglanguagelearningfeaturesportabilityefficiencypowerprogrammer_oriented_design, programmer_oriented_design, studio, build, application, cpuprogramcprogramminglanguagelearningfeaturesportabilityefficiencypowerprogrammerorienteddesign, work, editor, screencasts, computers, design, exercise, file, concepts, operator, guides, efficient, experimentation, practical, guide, unix, portability, process, literals, loops, site, computer, files, starting, code, cpu, beginner, console, sites, building, interfaces, strings 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC showmedo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It provides simple, direct access to any addressable object (for example, memory-mapped device control registers), and its source-code expressions can be translated in a straightforward manner to primitive machine operations in the executable code.^ C source code is then input to a C compiler, which then emits finished machine or object code.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ C Source to access the Floppy controller .

^ C has also greatly influenced many other popular languages, especially C++, which was originally designed as an extension to C. Its design goals were for it to be compiled using a relatively straightforward compiler, provide low-level access to memory, provide language constructs that map efficiently to machine instructions, and require minimal run-time support.

.Some early C compilers were comfortably implemented (as a few distinct passes communicating via intermediate files) on PDP-11 processors having only 16 address bits.^ This is the organization used by the C implementation on the PDP-11.
  • clcs.ms 20 September 2009 6:48 UTC cm.bell-labs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Compilers can have special knowledge of some of these types of objects, but this should be an implementation detail, not a language feature.
  • Herman Venter, programming language enthusiast 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC blogs.msdn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Early implementations of C on the PDP-11 supplied a nargs function that purported to return the number of actual arguments with which a procedure was called, to facilitate processing of variable-length argument lists.
  • clcs.ms 20 September 2009 6:48 UTC cm.bell-labs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.C compilers for several common 8-bit platforms have been implemented as well.^ Mono supports AOT (Ahead Of Time) compilation, and I believe Microsoft's .NET implementation does as well.
  • A, B, C, ... D! The Programming Language > Comments 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.osnews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ C99 introduced several new features, many of which had already been implemented as extensions in several compilers: .
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

Characteristics

.Like most imperative languages in the ALGOL tradition, C has facilities for structured programming and allows lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.^ A procedural programming paradigm, with facilities for structured programming .
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ When we have a structure variable, this operator allows us to access the members of the structure.

^ Lexical variable scope and recursion .
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

.In C, all executable code is contained within functions.^ All C codes must have a main function.
  • C Programming for beginners, A short tutorial 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.loirak.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Code Formatters: Code Profilers analyze code execution to provide a time-aware view of a program's execution, to easily identify sluggish function bottlenecks.

^ If the function contains the return command without being followed by expression , the function stops its execution when encounters this command and the program proceeds with execution from the first command following a closing curly bracket.
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

.Function parameters are always passed by value.^ In the above max_float function both x and y are passed by value.

^ Arguments are always passed by value in C function calls.
  • C Programming for beginners, A short tutorial 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.loirak.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To make this function work we pass two pointers to floats void swap_floats (float *x, float *y) { float temp; temp = *x; *x = *y; *y = temp; } Note that the values of x and y never change—only the variables pointed to by these variables .

.Pass-by-reference is simulated in C by explicitly passing pointer values.^ Function parameters are generally passed by value (pass-by-reference is achieved in C by explicitly passing pointer values) .
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ Without this, we'd have to check for null values explicitly, by checking for a null pointer for each pass-by-reference argument.
  • http://developer.postgresql.org/docs/postgres/xfunc-c.html 20 September 2009 6:48 UTC developer.postgresql.org [Source type: Reference]

^ To make this function work we pass two pointers to floats void swap_floats (float *x, float *y) { float temp; temp = *x; *x = *y; *y = temp; } Note that the values of x and y never change—only the variables pointed to by these variables .

.Heterogeneous aggregate data types (struct) allow related data elements to be combined and manipulated as a unit.^ Assignment for struct data types .
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ Heterogeneous aggregate data types (struct in C) which allow related data elements to be combined and manipulated as a unit .
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ OPTIONAL pointer to struct containing attribute type input metadata * * attinmeta is for use when returning tuples (i.e., composite data types) * and is not used when returning base data types.
  • http://developer.postgresql.org/docs/postgres/xfunc-c.html 20 September 2009 6:48 UTC developer.postgresql.org [Source type: Reference]

.C program source text is free-format, using the semicolon as a statement terminator (not a delimiter).^ We follow each program statement by a semicolon ; .

^ The semicolon is a statement terminator.
  • Operators and Punctuators 20 September 2009 6:48 UTC tigcc.ticalc.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Unlike languages such as FORTRAN 77, C source code is free-form which allows arbitrary use of whitespace to format code, rather than column-based or text-line-based restrictions.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

C also exhibits the following more specific characteristics:
.
  • variables may be hidden in nested blocks
  • partially weak typing; for instance, characters can be used as integers
  • low-level access to computer memory by converting machine addresses to typed pointers
  • function and data pointers supporting ad hoc run-time polymorphism
  • array indexing as a secondary notion, defined in terms of pointer arithmetic
  • a preprocessor for macro definition, source code file inclusion, and conditional compilation
  • complex functionality such as I/O, string manipulation, and mathematical functions consistently delegated to library routines
  • A relatively small set of reserved keywords
  • A lexical structure that resembles B more than ALGOL, for example:
    • { ...^ An array of pointers to integers .
      • Operators and Punctuators 20 September 2009 6:48 UTC tigcc.ticalc.org [Source type: Reference]

      ^ Access it again using pointers, and then print the string out.
      • C Programming for beginners, A short tutorial 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.loirak.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ For example, '(char*)19456' converts integer 19456 to a char pointer, which may be dereferenced further using the dereference operator .
      • Operators and Punctuators 20 September 2009 6:48 UTC tigcc.ticalc.org [Source type: Reference]

      }
      rather than either of ALGOL 60's begin ... end or ALGOL 68's ( ... )
    • .
    • = is used for assignment (copying), like Fortran, rather than ALGOL's :=
    • == is used to test for equality (rather than .EQ. in Fortran, or = in BASIC and ALGOL)
    • Logical "and" and "or" are represented with && and || in place of ALGOL's \wedge and \vee; note that the doubled-up operators will never evaluate the right operand if the result can be determined from the left alone (this is called short-circuit evaluation), and are semantically distinct from the bit-wise operators & and |
      • However Unix Version 6 & 7 versions of C indeed did use ALGOL's \wedge and \vee ASCII operators, but for determining the infimum and supremum respectively.^ Conditional operands if-else and switch are used in conditional operations.
        • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

        ^ For the bitwise operators, each bit in the result is: .
        • Operators and Punctuators 20 September 2009 6:48 UTC tigcc.ticalc.org [Source type: Reference]

        ^ Never evaluate the right operand if the result can be determined from the left alone (Minimal evaluation) .
        • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

        [1]
      • .
    • a large number of compound operators, such as +=, ++, etc.^ An alternative definition for "weakly typed" refers to languages, such as Perl and JavaScript , which permit a large number of implicit type conversions.

      ^ A class for operations with Large Integer Numbers Updated: 26 May 2003 Presenting some algorithms for operations with large integer numbers in a C++ class using the STL vector container VC6Win2K, STL, Dev .
      • C / C++ Language - CodeProject 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.codeproject.com [Source type: Reference]

      ^ Such numbers have the nice property that they do not overflow and that all arithmetic operations are complete (defined for every value).
      • Herman Venter, programming language enthusiast 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC blogs.msdn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      (Equivalent to ALGOL 68's +:= and +:=1 operators)

Absent features

.The relatively low-level nature of the language affords the programmer close control over what the computer does, while allowing special tailoring and aggressive optimization for a particular platform.^ The relatively low-level nature of the language affords the programmer close control over what the program is doing, while allowing solutions that can be specially tailored and aggressively optimized for a particular platform.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ Both from the viewpoint of natural languages and computer languages.
  • Scott Hanselman's Computer Zen - The (Programming) Language Explosion 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.hanselman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One could plausibly argue that as computing becomes ever more pervasive, it also becomes ever more diverse and that “one size fits all” programming languages will be displaced by languages specifically tailored to the needs of particular domains.
  • Herman Venter, programming language enthusiast 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC blogs.msdn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This allows the code to run efficiently on very limited hardware, such as embedded systems.^ Its code runs very fast.
  • C Programming for beginners, A short tutorial 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.loirak.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This allows the code to run efficiently on very limited hardware, such as mass-produced consumer embedded systems, which today are as capable as the general-purpose machines originally used to implement C. .
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ This line terminates the execution of the main function and causes it to return the integral value 0, which is interpreted by the run-time system as an exit code indicating successful execution.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

C does not have some features that are available in some other programming languages:
.A number of these features are available as extensions in some compilers, or are provided in some operating environments (e.g., POSIX), or are supplied by third-party libraries, or can be simulated by adopting certain coding disciplines.^ Some third party libraries or even compilation systems(!
  • C programming language coding guidelines 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lrdev.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A number of the above missing features are available through the use of third party libraries.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ Some costs accrue from its approach: certain string operations are more expensive than in other designs because application code or a library routine must occasionally search for the end of a string, because few built-in operations are available, and because the burden of storage management for strings falls more heavily on the user.

Undefined behavior

.Many operations in C that have undefined behavior are not required to be diagnosed at compile time.^ In order for a program to use a library, the header file from that library must be declared at the top of a source file, and the library must be linked to the program, which in many cases requires compiler flags (e.g., -lmath).
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ No compile-time polymorphism in the form of function or operator overloading; only rudimentary support for generic programming .
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ Garbage collection algorithms have come a long way and no longer require unbounded time to operate.
  • Advogato: a thread on the c programming language 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.advogato.org [Source type: Original source]

.In the case of C, "undefined behavior" means that the exact behavior which arises is not specified by the standard, and exactly what will happen does not have to be documented by the C implementation.^ The assumption was that C implementations define a long to be exactly 32 bits, which is however not defined by the C language standard.
  • C programming language coding guidelines 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lrdev.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The standard does not specify an allocation scheme; the famous author the allocation scheme is based on is implementation specified.
  • Infrequently Asked Questions in comp.lang.c 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.seebs.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Safety means "the program won't cause something bad to happen" while "progress means "the program does some good".
  • Parallel Programming Pattern Language: AnnotatedBibliography 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cise.ufl.edu [Source type: Academic]

.A famous, although misleading, expression in the newsgroups comp.std.c and comp.lang.c is that the program could cause "demons to fly out of your nose".[7] Sometimes in practice what happens for an instance of undefined behavior is a bug that is hard to track down and which may corrupt the contents of memory.^ In some cases, such programs may exhibit undefined behavior .

^ So C compilers may well give literally hundreds of errors stating that half of your code is wrong if you miss out a single semicolon.
  • Why C Is Not My Favourite Programming Language || kuro5hin.org 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Basic Arts of Exception Handling Updated: 7 Dec 2006 This article is about the art of how to track bugs in programs and handle them beautifuly.
  • C / C++ Language - CodeProject 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.codeproject.com [Source type: Reference]

.Sometimes a particular compiler generates reasonable and well-behaved actions that are completely different from those that would be obtained using a different C compiler.^ The reason why I'm posting this topic here is because I'm wondering how > > > many developers using c# are ex vb developers and would actually like > > > to develop in vb.net.
  • C# developers going back to vb.net 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.msnewsgroups.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Why would you use any Basic-type language, for any reason, when there are alternatives that are so much better and fufilling?
  • Other Languages - What Is The Easiest Programming Language | DreamInCode.net 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.dreamincode.net [Source type: General]

^ Simply put, the compiler can recognize special characters used to designate where comments start and terminate and completely ignores the text inbetween during compilation.
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

.The reason some behavior has been left undefined is to allow compilers for a wide variety of instruction set architectures to generate more efficient executable code for well-defined behavior, which was deemed important for C's primary role as a systems implementation language; thus C makes it the programmer's responsibility to avoid undefined behavior, possibly using tools to find parts of a program whose behavior is undefined.^ It can also be used to implement distributed systems.
  • Programming Texts/Tutorials 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC stommel.tamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A programming language, IMHO, is not a tool.
  • Scott Hanselman's Computer Zen - The (Programming) Language Explosion 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.hanselman.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tools have been created to help C programmers avoid some of the problems inherent in the language.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

Examples of undefined behavior are:
  • accessing outside the bounds of an array
  • overflowing a signed integer
  • reaching the end of a non-void function without finding a return statement, when the return value is used
  • reading the value of a variable before initializing it
.These operations are all programming errors that could occur using many programming languages; C draws criticism because its standard explicitly identifies numerous cases of undefined behavior, including some where the behavior could have been made well defined, and does not specify any run-time error handling mechanism.^ For example, the C programming language is specified by an ISO Standard.

^ Many language specifications define a core that must be made available in all implementations, and in the case of standardized languages this core library may be required.

^ C is a compiled language (we compile the program before we run it).

.Invoking fflush() on a stream opened for input is an example of a different kind of undefined behavior, not necessarily a programming error but a case for which some conforming implementations may provide well-defined, useful semantics (in this example, presumably discarding input through the next new-line) as an allowed extension.^ To flush the standard output stream, one can use fflush() (defined by ).
  • Why C Is Not My Favourite Programming Language || kuro5hin.org 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some cases, such programs may exhibit undefined behavior .

^ Some additional prefixes are reserved and may not be used: str (string functions, string.h ), E (operating system error numbers, errno.h ).
  • C programming language coding guidelines 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lrdev.com [Source type: Reference]

.Use of such nonstandard extensions generally limits software portability.^ Although C was designed for implementing system software, it is also widely used for developing portable application software.
  • C tutorial - Building - video tutorial - C programming tutorial. - Learn: basics, IDE, game, interface, videos, learning, debugging, storageclassspecifiers, language, assembly, features, like, programmer, development, tutorials, char, learningfeaturesportabilityefficiencypowerprogrammer_oriented_design, power, output, source., programmers, world, loosing, help, break, tutorial, continue, programming, screencast, modulus, source, curly_brackets, c_programming_language, loop, practicality, begginner, efficiency, string, beginner_programming, professional, video, complete, c, program, windows, system, basic, create, programs, machine, best, builds, input, cpuprogramcc_programminglanguagelearningfeaturesportabilityefficiencypowerprogrammer_oriented_design, programmer_oriented_design, studio, build, application, cpuprogramcprogramminglanguagelearningfeaturesportabilityefficiencypowerprogrammerorienteddesign, work, editor, screencasts, computers, design, exercise, file, concepts, operator, guides, efficient, experimentation, practical, guide, unix, portability, process, literals, loops, site, computer, files, starting, code, cpu, beginner, console, sites, building, interfaces, strings 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC showmedo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This allows the code to run efficiently on very limited hardware, such as mass-produced consumer embedded systems, which today are as capable as the general-purpose machines originally used to implement C. .
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ When a language is used to give commands to a software application (such as a shell ) it is called a scripting language .

History

Early developments

.The initial development of C occurred at AT&T Bell Labs between 1969 and 1973; according to Ritchie, the most creative period occurred in 1972. It was named "C" because many of its features were derived from an earlier language called "B", which according to Ken Thompson was a stripped-down version of the BCPL programming language.^ This led to the development of an early version of the C programming language.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ C was influence by a language called B which was invented by Ken Thompson.
  • C Prerquisite Knowledge : C Basic Programming Tutorial 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cprogrammingreference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ C was developed between 1969 and 1973 as a system programming language, and remains popular.

.The origin of C is closely tied to the development of the Unix operating system, originally implemented in assembly language on a PDP-7 by Ritchie and Thompson, incorporating several ideas from colleagues.^ The original version of the Unix system was developed in assembly language.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ The C programming language was devised in the early 1970s as a system implementation language for the nascent Unix operating system.

^ C is a general-purpose computer programming language developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie at the Bell Telephone Laboratories for use with the Unix operating system.
  • C tutorial - Building - video tutorial - C programming tutorial. - Learn: basics, IDE, game, interface, videos, learning, debugging, storageclassspecifiers, language, assembly, features, like, programmer, development, tutorials, char, learningfeaturesportabilityefficiencypowerprogrammer_oriented_design, power, output, source., programmers, world, loosing, help, break, tutorial, continue, programming, screencast, modulus, source, curly_brackets, c_programming_language, loop, practicality, begginner, efficiency, string, beginner_programming, professional, video, complete, c, program, windows, system, basic, create, programs, machine, best, builds, input, cpuprogramcc_programminglanguagelearningfeaturesportabilityefficiencypowerprogrammer_oriented_design, programmer_oriented_design, studio, build, application, cpuprogramcprogramminglanguagelearningfeaturesportabilityefficiencypowerprogrammerorienteddesign, work, editor, screencasts, computers, design, exercise, file, concepts, operator, guides, efficient, experimentation, practical, guide, unix, portability, process, literals, loops, site, computer, files, starting, code, cpu, beginner, console, sites, building, interfaces, strings 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC showmedo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Eventually they decided to port the operating system to a PDP-11.^ Eventually it was decided to port the operating system to the office's PDP-11, but faced with the daunting task of translating a large body of custom-written assembly language code, the programmers began considering using a portable, high-level language so that the OS could be ported easily from one computer to another.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ Once its disk appeared, we quickly migrated to it after transliterating assembly-language commands to the PDP-11 dialect, and porting those already in B. .

^ They looked at using B, but it lacked functionality to take advantage of some of the PDP-11's advanced features.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

.B's lack of functionality to take advantage of some of the PDP-11's features, notably byte addressability, led to the development of an early version of the C programming language.^ The main advantage of this programming language is its simplicity, i.e.
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

^ As for lack as what's implemented as functions as parts of the language..
  • Why C Is Not My Favourite Programming Language || kuro5hin.org 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Main articles: History of programming languages and Programming language generations Early developments .

.The original PDP-11 version of the Unix system was developed in assembly language.^ The original version of the Unix system was developed in assembly language.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ C is a general-purpose computer programming language developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie at the Bell Telephone Laboratories for use with the Unix operating system.
  • C tutorial - Building - video tutorial - C programming tutorial. - Learn: basics, IDE, game, interface, videos, learning, debugging, storageclassspecifiers, language, assembly, features, like, programmer, development, tutorials, char, learningfeaturesportabilityefficiencypowerprogrammer_oriented_design, power, output, source., programmers, world, loosing, help, break, tutorial, continue, programming, screencast, modulus, source, curly_brackets, c_programming_language, loop, practicality, begginner, efficiency, string, beginner_programming, professional, video, complete, c, program, windows, system, basic, create, programs, machine, best, builds, input, cpuprogramcc_programminglanguagelearningfeaturesportabilityefficiencypowerprogrammer_oriented_design, programmer_oriented_design, studio, build, application, cpuprogramcprogramminglanguagelearningfeaturesportabilityefficiencypowerprogrammerorienteddesign, work, editor, screencasts, computers, design, exercise, file, concepts, operator, guides, efficient, experimentation, practical, guide, unix, portability, process, literals, loops, site, computer, files, starting, code, cpu, beginner, console, sites, building, interfaces, strings 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC showmedo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eventually it was decided to port the operating system to the office's PDP-11, but faced with the daunting task of translating a large body of custom-written assembly language code, the programmers began considering using a portable, high-level language so that the OS could be ported easily from one computer to another.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

.By 1973, with the addition of struct types, the C language had become powerful enough that most of the Unix kernel was rewritten in C. This was one of the first operating system kernels implemented in a language other than assembly.^ The original version of the Unix system was developed in assembly language.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ By 1973, the C language had become powerful enough that most of the Unix kernel, originally written in PDP-11 assembly language, was rewritten in C. This was one of the first operating system kernels implemented in a language other than assembly.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ C lacks features found in some other systems implementation languages: .
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

(Earlier instances include the Multics system (written in PL/I), and MCP (Master Control Program) for the Burroughs B5000 written in ALGOL in 1961.)

K&R C

.In 1978, Brian Kernighan and Dennis Ritchie published the first edition of The C Programming Language.^ The first programming languages predate the modern computer.

^ C is a general-purpose computer programming language developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie at the Bell Telephone Laboratories for use with the Unix operating system.
  • C tutorial - Building - video tutorial - C programming tutorial. - Learn: basics, IDE, game, interface, videos, learning, debugging, storageclassspecifiers, language, assembly, features, like, programmer, development, tutorials, char, learningfeaturesportabilityefficiencypowerprogrammer_oriented_design, power, output, source., programmers, world, loosing, help, break, tutorial, continue, programming, screencast, modulus, source, curly_brackets, c_programming_language, loop, practicality, begginner, efficiency, string, beginner_programming, professional, video, complete, c, program, windows, system, basic, create, programs, machine, best, builds, input, cpuprogramcc_programminglanguagelearningfeaturesportabilityefficiencypowerprogrammer_oriented_design, programmer_oriented_design, studio, build, application, cpuprogramcprogramminglanguagelearningfeaturesportabilityefficiencypowerprogrammerorienteddesign, work, editor, screencasts, computers, design, exercise, file, concepts, operator, guides, efficient, experimentation, practical, guide, unix, portability, process, literals, loops, site, computer, files, starting, code, cpu, beginner, console, sites, building, interfaces, strings 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC showmedo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now Let us begin to analyze reason why C should be your first programming language.
  • C Prerquisite Knowledge : C Basic Programming Tutorial 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cprogrammingreference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This book, known to C programmers as "K&R", served for many years as an informal specification of the language.^ This book, known to C programmers as "K&R," served for many years as an informal specification of the language.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ The C Programming Language, Brian Kernighan and Dennis Ritchie, the original edition that served for many years as an informal specification of the language.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ Many language specifications define a core that must be made available in all implementations, and in the case of standardized languages this core library may be required.

.The version of C that it describes is commonly referred to as K&R C.^ The version of C that it describes is commonly referred to as "K&R C." The second edition of the book covers the later ANSI C standard.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

.The second edition of the book covers the later ANSI C standard.^ The version of C that it describes is commonly referred to as "K&R C." The second edition of the book covers the later ANSI C standard.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ In what follows we will stick to ANSI C. For the most part we will use the 1989 version and will avoid features that were introduced later (for example, in the 1999 ANSI C Standard).

^ There is an older standard K&R1 (Kernighan/Ritchie, 1st Edition 1978), also known as pre-ANSI-C .
  • C programming language coding guidelines 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lrdev.com [Source type: Reference]

K&R introduced several language features:
  • standard I/O library
  • long int data type
  • unsigned int data type
  • compound assignment operators of the form =op (such as =-) were changed to the form op= to remove the semantic ambiguity created by such constructs as i=-10, which had been interpreted as i =- 10 instead of the possibly intended i = -10
.Even after the publication of the 1989 C standard, for many years K&R C was still considered the "lowest common denominator" to which C programmers restricted themselves when maximum portability was desired, since many older compilers were still in use, and because carefully written K&R C code can be legal Standard C as well.^ It used to be written by the programmer.
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

^ For many years after the introduction of ANSI C, K&R C was still considered the "lowest common denominator" to which C programmers restricted themselves when maximum portability was desired, since many older compilers were still in use, and because carefully written K&R C code can be legal ANSI C as well.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ Although C99 added many Innovative features you would like to restrict your code only to C89 because even though a lot of time has passed since C99 was release the C compilers available for C have still not incorporated it into their structure.
  • C Prerquisite Knowledge : C Basic Programming Tutorial 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cprogrammingreference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In early versions of C, only functions that returned a non-integer value needed to be declared if used before the function definition; a function used without any previous declaration was assumed to return an integer, if its value was used.^ The return value of a function .

^ It is mainly used in functions which do not return anything.

^ If your function has data to return, use: .
  • http://developer.postgresql.org/docs/postgres/xfunc-c.html 20 September 2009 6:48 UTC developer.postgresql.org [Source type: Reference]

For example:
long int SomeFunction();
/* int OtherFunction(); */
 
/* int */ CallingFunction()
{
    long int test1;
    register /* int */ test2;
 
    test1 = SomeFunction();
    if (test1 > 0)
          test2 = 0;
    else
          test2 = OtherFunction();
 
    return test2;
}
All the above commented-out int declarations could be omitted in K&R C.
.Since K&R function declarations did not include any information about function arguments, function parameter type checks were not performed, although some compilers would issue a warning message if a local function was called with the wrong number of arguments, or if multiple calls to an external function used different numbers or types of arguments.^ The first is the number of the function argument (as above).
  • http://developer.postgresql.org/docs/postgres/xfunc-c.html 20 September 2009 6:48 UTC developer.postgresql.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Two different calling conventions are currently used for C functions.
  • http://developer.postgresql.org/docs/postgres/xfunc-c.html 20 September 2009 6:48 UTC developer.postgresql.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Prototype function parameters are called FORMAL PARAMETERS .
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

.Separate tools such as Unix's lint utility were developed that (among other things) could check for consistency of function use across multiple source files.^ Separate tools such as Unix's lint utility were developed that (among other things) could check for consistency of function use across multiple source files.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ To close a file use the fclose function.

^ No generators or coroutines; intra-thread control flow consists of nested function calls, except for the use of the longjmp or setcontext library functions .
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

.In the years following the publication of K&R C, several unofficial features were added to the language, supported by compilers from AT&T and some other vendors.^ An Amendment was added to C language in year 1995.
  • C Prerquisite Knowledge : C Basic Programming Tutorial 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cprogrammingreference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the years following the publication of K&R C, several unofficial features were added to the language (since there was no standard), supported by compilers from AT&T and some other vendors.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ C lacks features found in some other systems implementation languages: .
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

These included:
.The large number of extensions and lack of agreement on a standard library, together with the language popularity and the fact that not even the Unix compilers precisely implemented the K&R specification, led to the necessity of standardization.^ The large number of extensions and lack of a standard library, together with the language popularity and the fact that not even the Unix compilers precisely implemented the K&R specification, led to the necessity of standardization.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ Freeware header libraries which function in combination with a large number of compilers (on Unix and Windows).
  • Free C++ and C compilers and C++ developers tools - Freebyte's Guide to 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.freebyte.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The assumption was that C implementations define a long to be exactly 32 bits, which is however not defined by the C language standard.
  • C programming language coding guidelines 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lrdev.com [Source type: Reference]

ANSI C and ISO C

.During the late 1970s and 1980s, versions of C were implemented for a wide variety of mainframe computers, minicomputers, and microcomputers, including the IBM PC, as its popularity began to increase significantly.^ During the 1980s, it was adopted for use with the IBM PC, and its popularity began to increase significantly.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ A standards-compliant and portably written C program can be compiled for a very wide variety of computer platforms and operating systems with minimal change to its source code.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ The C Programming Language, 2nd edition, is a widely used reference on ANSI C.During the late 1970s, C began to replace BASIC as the leading microcomputer programming language.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

In 1983, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) formed a committee, X3J11, to establish a standard specification of C. In 1989, the standard was ratified as ANSI X3.159-1989 "Programming Language C". This version of the language is often referred to as ANSI C, Standard C, or sometimes C89.
.In 1990, the ANSI C standard (with formatting changes) was adopted by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) as ISO/IEC 9899:1990, which is sometimes called C90. Therefore, the terms "C89" and "C90" refer to the same programming language.^ For example, the C programming language is specified by an ISO Standard.

^ ANSI C (X3J11) programming language standard (ps 125p) .

^ The C programming language definition to consider is ISO/IEC 9899:1990 .
  • C programming language coding guidelines 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lrdev.com [Source type: Reference]

.ANSI, like other national standards bodies, no longer develops the C standard independently, but defers to the ISO C standard.^ I for one will not be dicatated to any longer by someone who has no idea about software development or why we started coding in the first place.
  • C# developers going back to vb.net 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.msnewsgroups.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ANSI stands for American National Standard Institute.
  • C Prerquisite Knowledge : C Basic Programming Tutorial 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cprogrammingreference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I for one will not be dicatated to any longer by someone who has no > idea about software development or why we started coding in the first > place.
  • C# developers going back to vb.net 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.msnewsgroups.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.National adoption of updates to the international standard typically occurs within a year of ISO publication.^ XML can do this because it's written in SGML, the international standard metalanguage for text markup systems (ISO 8879).
  • Programming Texts/Tutorials 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC stommel.tamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In the years following the publication of K&R C, several unofficial features were added to the language (since there was no standard), supported by compilers from AT&T and some other vendors.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ Within these dialects there are subdialects (for example, ANSI 1989) corresponding to updated standards, etc.

.One of the aims of the C standardization process was to produce a superset of K&R C, incorporating many of the unofficial features subsequently introduced.^ One of the aims of the C standardization process was to produce a superset of K&R C, incorporating many of the unofficial features subsequently introduced.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ In what follows we will stick to ANSI C. For the most part we will use the 1989 version and will avoid features that were introduced later (for example, in the 1999 ANSI C Standard).

^ In the years following the publication of K&R C, several unofficial features were added to the language (since there was no standard), supported by compilers from AT&T and some other vendors.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

.The standards committee also included several additional features such as function prototypes (borrowed from C++), void pointers, support for international character sets and locales, and preprocessor enhancements.^ The C source code for several functions are included.

^ However, the standards committee also included several new features, such as function prototypes (borrowed from C++), void pointers, support for international character sets and locales, and a more capable preprocessor.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ This free C++ library provides Lisp-like lists and I/O, including a higher-order function capability and incremental ("infinite") lists to enable rapid prototyping of programs.
  • Free C++ and C compilers and C++ developers tools - Freebyte's Guide to 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.freebyte.com [Source type: Academic]

.The syntax for parameter declarations was also augmented to include the style used in C++, although the K&R interface continued to be permitted, for compatibility with existing source code.^ Interfaces are the declarations used by implementation and referrers.
  • C programming language coding guidelines 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lrdev.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The syntax for parameter declarations was also augmented to include the C++ style: .
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ The main routine for this is malloc (memory allocation); it is part of the Standard C Library (so you need to include the header file "stdlib.h" in your code to use it).

.C89 is supported by current C compilers, and most C code being written nowadays is based on it.^ C89 is supported by current C compilers, and most C code being written nowadays is based on it.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ For starts, C# is quite capable of being compiled to machine code.
  • A, B, C, ... D! The Programming Language > Comments 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.osnews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The compiler’s task is to convert a program written in C language into Hex code.
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

.Any program written only in Standard C and without any hardware-dependent assumptions will run correctly on any platform with a conforming C implementation, within its resource limits.^ Any program written only in Standard C and without any hardware-dependent assumptions will run correctly on any platform with a conforming C implementation, within its resource limits.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ Without such precautions, programs may compile only on a certain platform or with a particular compiler, due, for example, to the use of non-standard libraries, such as GUI libraries, or to a reliance on compiler- or platform-specific attributes such as the exact size of data types and byte endianness.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ Ross Harvey "So I conclude that 754 is a virus, infecting individual programs, and making them unable to run on non-IEEE-754 hardware."
  • Programming Texts/Tutorials 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC stommel.tamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Without such precautions, programs may compile only on a certain platform or with a particular compiler, due, for example, to the use of non-standard libraries, such as GUI libraries, or to a reliance on compiler- or platform-specific attributes such as the exact size of data types and byte endianness.^ There are several types of data that can be used in C programming language.
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Using the math library—an example .

^ Without such precautions, programs may compile only on a certain platform or with a particular compiler, due, for example, to the use of non-standard libraries, such as GUI libraries, or to a reliance on compiler- or platform-specific attributes such as the exact size of data types and byte endianness.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

In cases where code must be compilable by either standard-conforming or K&R C-based compilers, the __STDC__ macro can be used to split the code into Standard and K&R sections to take advantage of features available only in Standard C.

C99

.After the ANSI/ISO standardization process, the C language specification remained relatively static for some time, whereas C++ continued to evolve, largely during its own standardization effort.^ Some languages are defined by a specification document.

^ After the ANSI standardization process, the C language specification remained relatively static for some time, whereas C++ continued to evolve, largely during its own standardization effort.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ In 1983, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) formed a committee, X3J11, to establish a standard specification of C. In 1989, the standard was ratified as ANSI X3.159-1989 "Programming Language C." This version of the language is often referred to as ANSI C, Standard C, or sometimes C89.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

.In 1995 Normative Amendment 1 to the 1990 C standard was published, to correct some details and to add more extensive support for international character sets.^ Normative Amendment 1 created a new standard for the C language in 1995, but only to correct some details of the C89 standard and to add more extensive support for international character sets.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ However, the standards committee also included several new features, such as function prototypes (borrowed from C++), void pointers, support for international character sets and locales, and a more capable preprocessor.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ In the years following the publication of K&R C, several unofficial features were added to the language (since there was no standard), supported by compilers from AT&T and some other vendors.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

.The C standard was further revised in the late 1990s, leading to the publication of ISO/IEC 9899:1999 in 1999, which is commonly referred to as "C99". It has since been amended three times by Technical Corrigenda.^ ISO/IEC 9899.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ This standard is commonly referred to as "C99."
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ This standard was adopted as ISO/IEC 9899:1990 and is also known as ANSI/ISO 9899-1990.
  • C programming language coding guidelines 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lrdev.com [Source type: Reference]

The international C standard is maintained by the working group ISO/IEC JTC1/SC22/WG14.
.C99 introduced several new features, including inline functions, several new data types (including long long int and a complex type to represent complex numbers), variable-length arrays, support for variadic macros (macros of variable arity) and support for one-line comments beginning with //, as in BCPL or C++.^ Support for variadic macros (macros of variable arity) .
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ The C source code for several functions are included.

^ Several new data types, including long long int, optional extended integer types, an explicit boolean data type, and a complex type to represent complex numbers .
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

.Many of these had already been implemented as extensions in several C compilers.^ C99 introduced several new features, many of which had already been implemented as extensions in several compilers: .
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ Many C compilers offer an extension ``mult'' to do just this.
  • Infrequently Asked Questions in comp.lang.c 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.seebs.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We already know about the redundancies and unnecessary functions, but across how many header files are these 1,123 functions spread out?
  • Why C Is Not My Favourite Programming Language || kuro5hin.org 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.C99 is for the most part backward compatible with C90, but is stricter in some ways; in particular, a declaration that lacks a type specifier no longer has int implicitly assumed.^ C99 is for the most part upward-compatible with C90, but is stricter in some ways; in particular, a declaration that lacks a type specifier no longer has int implicitly assumed.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ Ruby is implicitly typed, while C is explicitly typed, requiring you to associate type specifications with each variable declaration, but implicit typing does not mean that the typing is absent.
  • Ruby – best introductory programming language | CompSci.ca/blog 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC compsci.ca [Source type: General]

^ Two ideas are most characteristic of C among languages of its class: the relationship between arrays and pointers, and the way in which declaration syntax mimics expression syntax.

.A standard macro __STDC_VERSION__ is defined with value 199901L to indicate that C99 support is available.^ A standard macro __STDC_VERSION__ is defined with value 199901L to indicate that C99 support is available.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ As with the __STDC__ macro for C90, __STDC_VERSION__ can be used to write code that will compile differently for C90 and C99 compilers, as in this example that ensures that inline is available in either case.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ In the above example, a compiler which has defined the __STDC__ macro (as mandated by the C standard) only interprets the line following the ifdef command.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

GCC, Sun Studio and other C compilers now support many or all of the new features of C99.

C1X

.In 2007, work began in anticipation of another revision of the C standard, informally called "C1X". The C standards committee has adopted guidelines to limit the adoption of new features that have not been tested by existing implementations.^ You may wish to check your spouse's navel occasionally, especially if your spouse works for a standards committee.
  • Infrequently Asked Questions in comp.lang.c 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.seebs.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ GCC, despite its extensive C99 support, is still not a completely compliant implementation; several key features are missing or don't work correctly.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ C99 introduced several new features, many of which had already been implemented as extensions in several compilers: .
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

Uses

.C's primary use is for "system programming", including implementing operating systems and embedded system applications, due to a combination of desirable characteristics such as code portability and efficiency, ability to access specific hardware addresses, ability to "pun" types to match externally imposed data access requirements, and low runtime demand on system resources.^ C++ combined object-oriented and systems programming.

^ It can also be used to implement distributed systems.
  • Programming Texts/Tutorials 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC stommel.tamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ C is often used in low-level systems programming where "escapes" from the type system may be necessary.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

.C can also be used for website programming using CGI as a "gateway" for information between the Web application, the server, and the browser.^ Free Web programming languages, free server-side scripting, client-side scripting, Web scripts, Web programming tutorials and resources.
  • Free C++ and C compilers and C++ developers tools - Freebyte's Guide to 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.freebyte.com [Source type: Academic]

^ On the other hand, there are some programming languages which are more graphical in nature, using visual relationships between symbols to specify a program.

^ Google Web Service Client program Updated: 27 Apr 2002 A very simple client program that uses Google's web service C#, Windows, .NET1.0, Dev .
  • C / C++ Language - CodeProject 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.codeproject.com [Source type: Reference]

[8] .Some factors to choose C over Interpreted languages are its speed, stability and less susceptibility to changes in operating environments due to its compiled nature.^ There are, broadly, two approaches to programming language implementation: compilation and interpretation .

^ The company says that Go is experimental, and that it combines the performance and security benefits associated with using a compiled language like C++ with the speed of a dynamic language like Python.
  • Google’s Go: A New Programming Language That’s Python Meets C++ 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.techcrunch.com [Source type: General]

^ Unfortunately, C was designed as a programming language, not as a compiler target language, and is thus less than ideal for use as an intermediate language.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

[9]
One consequence of C's wide acceptance and efficiency is that compilers, libraries, and interpreters of other programming languages are often implemented in C.
.C is sometimes used as an intermediate language by implementations of other languages.^ Other languages, such as Perl , have a dominant implementation that is used as a reference.

^ On the other hand, there are some programming languages which are more graphical in nature, using visual relationships between symbols to specify a program.

^ Polymorphism in C Updated: 5 Jul 2005 The article demonstrates how to implement polymorphism using the C language.
  • C / C++ Language - CodeProject 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.codeproject.com [Source type: Reference]

.This approach may be used for portability or convenience; by using C as an intermediate language, it is not necessary to develop machine-specific code generators.^ Regardless of the language used, good code is good code.
  • C# developers going back to vb.net 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.msnewsgroups.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Object Orientation always felt like necessary complexity, which is why I typically don't really use OOP languages, unless I have to.
  • Other Languages - What Is The Easiest Programming Language | DreamInCode.net 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.dreamincode.net [Source type: General]

^ GLs are more abstract and are "portable", or at least implemented similarly on computers that do not support the same native machine code.

.Some compilers which use C this way are BitC, Gambit, the Glasgow Haskell Compiler, Squeak, and Vala.^ ISO-Latin above hexadecimal 7f) are syntactically incorrect when used for identifier names (even if some compilers may accept such identifiers).
  • C programming language coding guidelines 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lrdev.com [Source type: Reference]

^ If you need a function to perform certain task while writing a program, you just have to look for it within some of the libraries which are integrated in the compiler and use it.
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

^ They are useful ways to eliminate compiler features which are not helpful to your goals; contrast #utility, which introduces useful compiler features, and #absolutist, which introduces those compiler features believed to be right.
  • Infrequently Asked Questions in comp.lang.c 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.seebs.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Unfortunately, C was designed as a programming language, not as a compiler target language, and is thus less than ideal for use as an intermediate language.^ Pattern Languages of Program Design , pages 1-5.
  • Parallel Programming Pattern Language: AnnotatedBibliography 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cise.ufl.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ C is a compiled language (we compile the program before we run it).

^ A compiler is not required for use with the program.

.This has led to development of C-based intermediate languages such as C--.^ This has led to development of C-based intermediate languages such as C--.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ This led to the development of an early version of the C programming language.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ I've developed in VB, VB.net, C, C shell, and various other languages, but my main base is C and C-like languages (php, perl, etc).
  • C# developers going back to vb.net 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.msnewsgroups.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.C has also been widely used to implement end-user applications, but as applications became larger, much of that development shifted to other languages.^ Other languages, such as Perl , have a dominant implementation that is used as a reference.

^ In other words, a system language is something you would use to *create* Bourne shell, bash, etc.
  • Google’s Go: A New Programming Language That’s Python Meets C++ 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.techcrunch.com [Source type: General]

^ Separate tools such as Unix's lint utility were developed that (among other things) could check for consistency of function use across multiple source files.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

Syntax

.Unlike languages such as FORTRAN 77, C source code is free-form which allows arbitrary use of whitespace to format code, rather than column-based or text-line-based restrictions.^ A free source code editing component.
  • Free C++ and C compilers and C++ developers tools - Freebyte's Guide to 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.freebyte.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Command-line Processor Source Code .

^ Unlike languages such as FORTRAN 77, C source code is free-form which allows arbitrary use of whitespace to format code, rather than column-based or text-line-based restrictions.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

.Comments may appear either between the delimiters /* and */, or (in C99) following // until the end of the line.^ Comments are also ignored, a comment being anything starting from the # character to the end of the line.
  • The Unlambda Programming Language 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.madore.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A programmer may decide to create only comments on lines of their own 68 .
  • C programming language coding guidelines 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lrdev.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Similarly, B uses /**/ to enclose comments, where BCPL uses // , to ignore text up to the end of the line.

.Each source file contains declarations and function definitions.^ I had the definition char a[6] in one source file, and in another I declared extern char a[] .
  • Infrequently Asked Questions in comp.lang.c 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.seebs.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each source file contains declarations and function definitions.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ Function definitions, in turn, contain declarations and statements.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

.Function definitions, in turn, contain declarations and statements.^ Functions must be declared before any other statements that use them.

^ They consist of type definitions, function declarations (prototypes) and maybe global data declarations 24 and are located in header files.
  • C programming language coding guidelines 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lrdev.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This file contains definitions that we will need such as the printf function.

.Declarations either define new types using keywords such as struct, union, and enum, or assign types to and perhaps reserve storage for new variables, usually by writing the type followed by the variable name.^ Variable types are usually assigned at the beginning of the program.
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Declarations either define new types using keywords such as struct, union, and enum, or assign types to and perhaps reserve storage for new variables, usually by writing the type followed by the variable name.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ C variable types and declarations .
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

.Keywords such as char and int specify built-in types.^ Keywords such as char and int, as well as the pointer-to symbol *, specify built-in types.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ The type specifier int indicates that the return value, the value of evaluating the main function that is returned to its invoker (in this case the run-time environment), is an integer.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ If a new content is a data of specific type ( char , int or double ), then you should select it, enter the value in the Edit Value field and click Edit .
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

.Sections of code are enclosed in braces ({ and }, sometimes called "curly brackets") to limit the scope of declarations and to act as a single statement for control structures.^ Sections of code are enclosed in braces ({ and }) to indicate the extent to which declarations and control structures apply.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ This closing curly brace indicates the end of the code for the main function.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ For example, the semantics may define the strategy by which expressions are evaluated to values, or the manner in which control structures conditionally execute statements.

.As an imperative language, C uses statements to specify actions.^ I can specify a LOOOOOT more options...and this makes both languages even better to work with (using the .Net IDE).
  • C# developers going back to vb.net 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.msnewsgroups.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the other hand, there are some programming languages which are more graphical in nature, using visual relationships between symbols to specify a program.

^ Examples include checking that every identifier is declared before it is used (in languages that require such declarations) or that the labels on the arms of a case statement are distinct.

.The most common statement is an expression statement, consisting of an expression to be evaluated, followed by a semicolon; as a side effect of the evaluation, functions may be called and variables may be assigned new values.^ We follow each program statement by a semicolon ; .

^ Most statements are expression statements which simply evaluate an expression; as a side effect, variables may receive new values.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ A null statement is an expression statement consisting solely of the terminating semicolon.
  • Infrequently Asked Questions in comp.lang.c 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.seebs.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To modify the normal sequential execution of statements, C provides several control-flow statements identified by reserved keywords.^ Control-flow statements are also available for conditional or iterative execution, constructed with reserved keywords such as if, else, switch, do, while, and for.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ Abstractions: Programming languages usually contain abstractions for defining and manipulating data structures or controlling the flow of execution .

^ Similarly, C itself provides two durations of storage: `automatic' objects that exist while control resides in or below a procedure, and `static,' existing throughout execution of a program.

.Structured programming is supported by if(-else) conditional execution and by do-while, while, and for iterative execution (looping).^ The execution of such program sequence is similar to the while loop, except that in this case the process of setting initial value (initialization) is performed within declaration.
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A shell is a full featured programming language, with variables, conditional statements, and the ability to execute other programs.
  • Programming Texts/Tutorials 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC stommel.tamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In this case, the operation is executed at least once regardless of whether the condition is true or false as the expression check_condition is executed at the end of the loop.
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

.The for statement has separate initialization, testing, and reinitialization expressions, any or all of which can be omitted.^ All of them, except the jump and expression statments, are defined in terms of optional preceeding text, and other statements.
  • Infrequently Asked Questions in comp.lang.c 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.seebs.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.break and continue can be used to leave the innermost enclosing loop statement or skip to its reinitialization.^ Playing about with loops: break and continue .

^ If you want to break out from a series of nested for or while loops then you have to use a goto.
  • Why C Is Not My Favourite Programming Language || kuro5hin.org 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You can use it to break out from nested loops of arbitrary depth by using it with an integer, such as "break 3"; this would break out of three levels of loops.
  • Why C Is Not My Favourite Programming Language || kuro5hin.org 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There is also a non-structured goto statement which branches directly to the designated label within the function.^ Actually, they are functionally equivalent to a large set of non-null statements, namely, those with no side-effects.
  • Infrequently Asked Questions in comp.lang.c 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.seebs.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I still think 'c' above pointing to a structure is extraneous, but it will simplify certain functions in that it can assume that a non-null pointer has a structure.
  • A, B, C, ... D! The Programming Language > Comments 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.osnews.com [Source type: Original source]

.switch selects a case to be executed based on the value of an integer expression.^ In the second case, the compiler infers the types of expressions and declarations based on context.

^ In this case, the operation is executed at least once regardless of whether the condition is true or false as the expression check_condition is executed at the end of the loop.
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Operations within the loop are executed repeatedly and after each iteration the value of expression is changed.
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

.Expressions can use a variety of built-in operators (see below) and may contain function calls.^ When used as an operator, the expression .
  • Operators and Punctuators 20 September 2009 6:48 UTC tigcc.ticalc.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The comma is also used as an operator in comma expressions.
  • Operators and Punctuators 20 September 2009 6:48 UTC tigcc.ticalc.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When used as function-call operators, parentheses use the following syntax: .
  • Operators and Punctuators 20 September 2009 6:48 UTC tigcc.ticalc.org [Source type: Reference]

.The order in which arguments to functions and operands to most operators are evaluated is unspecified.^ An example of a universal representation is: representing n by a list of length n , or representing n by a function which evaluates its argument applied to i n times.
  • The Unlambda Programming Language 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.madore.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The decrement operator follows the same rules as the increment operator , except that the operand is decremented by 1 after or before the whole expression is evaluated.
  • Operators and Punctuators 20 September 2009 6:48 UTC tigcc.ticalc.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Bits Array Encapsulation Updated: 12 Dec 2004 Encapsulate all bit stream operations in a class to handle all or most of bit stream functions.
  • C / C++ Language - CodeProject 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.codeproject.com [Source type: Reference]

The evaluations may even be interleaved. .However, all side effects (including storage to variables) will occur before the next "sequence point"; sequence points include the end of each expression statement, and the entry to and return from each function call.^ The value of the function call expression, if it has a value, is determined by the return statement in the function definition.
  • Operators and Punctuators 20 September 2009 6:48 UTC tigcc.ticalc.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If the expression statement has no side effects, it will be simply ignored.
  • Operators and Punctuators 20 September 2009 6:48 UTC tigcc.ticalc.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This calls the function and indirects the pointer returned by that function.
  • Advogato: a thread on the c programming language 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.advogato.org [Source type: Original source]

.Sequence points also occur during evaluation of expressions containing certain operators(&&, ||, ?: and the comma operator).^ Thus, if p is a cell containing the index of (or address of, or pointer to) another cell, *p refers to the contents of the pointed-to cell, either as a value in an expression or as the target of an assignment.

^ The comma is also used as an operator in comma expressions.
  • Operators and Punctuators 20 September 2009 6:48 UTC tigcc.ticalc.org [Source type: Reference]

^ C came into being in the years 1969-1973, in parallel with the early development of the Unix operating system; the most creative period occurred during 1972.

.This permits a high degree of object code optimization by the compiler, but requires C programmers to take more care to obtain reliable results than is needed for other programming languages.^ Search Results: 'programming language' RSS .
  • programming language - Lulu.com 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lulu.com [Source type: General]

^ The resulting code is invalid, and will not compile.
  • Infrequently Asked Questions in comp.lang.c 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.seebs.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As others have stated, C is not a high-level language.
  • Why C Is Not My Favourite Programming Language || kuro5hin.org 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although mimicked by many languages because of its widespread familiarity, C's syntax has often been criticized.^ A language's core library is often treated as part of the language by its users, although the designers may have treated it as a separate entity.

^ Don’t worry as far as the higher programming languages, such as C, are concerned because somebody has already solved this and many other similar problems for you.
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It was named "C" because many of its features were derived from an earlier language called "B," which according to Ken Thompson was a stripped down version of the BCPL programming language.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

.For example, Kernighan and Ritchie say in the Introduction of The C Programming Language, "C, like any other language, has its blemishes.^ An introduction to computing and the C++ programming language.
  • Free C++ and C compilers and C++ developers tools - Freebyte's Guide to 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.freebyte.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As others have said programming isn’t always clean and easy but trying to show friends the basic principals of programming in any other language is like shooting myself in the foot.
  • Ruby – best introductory programming language | CompSci.ca/blog 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC compsci.ca [Source type: General]

^ On the other hand, there are some programming languages which are more graphical in nature, using visual relationships between symbols to specify a program.

.Some of the operators have the wrong precedence; some parts of the syntax could be better."^ However, exactly this fact can cause some problems during operation as C language slightly varies depending on its application (this could be compared to different dialects of one language).
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

Some specific problems worth noting are:
.
  • Not checking number and types of arguments when the function declaration has an empty parameter list.^ By declaring it with a variable number of arguments in the prototype.
    • Infrequently Asked Questions in comp.lang.c 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.seebs.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Since K&R function declarations did not include any information about function arguments, function parameter type checks were not performed, although some compilers would issue a warning message if a local function was called with the wrong number of arguments, or if multiple calls to an external function used different numbers of arguments.
    • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The sizeof function takes a type name as an argument and returns how much memory storage is required by that type.

    (This provides backward compatibility with K&R C, which lacked prototypes.)
  • .
  • Some questionable choices of operator precedence, as mentioned by Kernighan and Ritchie above, such as == binding more tightly than & and | in expressions like x & 1 == 0.
  • The use of the = operator, used in mathematics for equality, to indicate assignment, following the precedent of Fortran, PL/I, and BASIC, but unlike ALGOL and its derivatives.^ In expressions free from assignment operation, the result is obtained in the following way: .
    • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ It looks like the multiplication operator, but you use it more.
    • Infrequently Asked Questions in comp.lang.c 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.seebs.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Such criticisms fall into two broad classes: desirable operations that are too hard to achieve using unadorned C, and undesirable operations that are too easy to accidentally achieve while using C. Putting this another way, the safe, effective use of C requires more programmer skill, experience, effort, and care than is required for some other programming languages.
    • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

    .Ritchie made this syntax design decision consciously, based primarily on the argument that assignment occurs more often than comparison.
  • Similarity of the assignment and equality operators (= and ==), making it easy to accidentally substitute one for the other.^ One operator makes it true, the other tests that truth.
    • Advogato: a thread on the c programming language 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.advogato.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Such criticisms fall into two broad classes: desirable operations that are too hard to achieve using unadorned C, and undesirable operations that are too easy to accidentally achieve while using C. Putting this another way, the safe, effective use of C requires more programmer skill, experience, effort, and care than is required for some other programming languages.
    • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Well, to quote the Perl programmer's motto, "There's more than one way to do it."
    • Advogato: a thread on the c programming language 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.advogato.org [Source type: Original source]

    .C's weak type system permits each to be used in the context of the other without a compilation error (although some compilers produce warnings).^ Through the use of transaction pointers (a transaction is a structured two-way communication mechanism) and process variables, Concurrent C processes are able to communicate directly with other processes, regardless of the physical position of the processes in the system.
    • Parallel Programming Pattern Language: AnnotatedBibliography 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cise.ufl.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Casting it has no effect other than to hide possibly useful warnings.
    • Why C Is Not My Favourite Programming Language || kuro5hin.org 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In other words, a system language is something you would use to *create* Bourne shell, bash, etc.
    • Google’s Go: A New Programming Language That’s Python Meets C++ 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.techcrunch.com [Source type: General]

    .For example, the conditional expression in if (a=b) is only true if a is not zero after the assignment.^ In this case, the operation is executed at least once regardless of whether the condition is true or false as the expression check_condition is executed at the end of the loop.
    • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Logic operators return true (logic 1) if the expression evaluates to non-zero, and false (logic 0) if the expression evaluates to zero.
    • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ One drawback of nested expression was the warning "assignment in conditional expression" with if(p = malloc(size)) .
    • C programming language coding guidelines 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lrdev.com [Source type: Reference]

    [10]
  • .
  • A lack of infix operators for complex objects, particularly for string operations, making programs which rely heavily on these operations (implemented as functions instead) somewhat difficult to read.
  • A declaration syntax that some find unintuitive, particularly for function pointers.^ Which syntax makes it easier to find xyz?
    • Google’s Go: A New Programming Language That’s Python Meets C++ 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.techcrunch.com [Source type: General]

    ^ As for lack as what's implemented as functions as parts of the language..
    • Why C Is Not My Favourite Programming Language || kuro5hin.org 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The object interfaces provided by ILU hide implementation distinctions between different languages, between different address spaces, and between operating system types.
    • Programming Texts/Tutorials 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC stommel.tamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    (Ritchie's idea was to declare identifiers in contexts resembling their use: "declaration reflects use".)

Operators

.C supports a rich set of operators, which are symbols used within an expression to specify the manipulations to be performed while evaluating that expression.^ Further information: Formal semantics of programming languages Once data has been specified, the machine must be instructed to perform operations on the data.

^ On the other hand, there are some programming languages which are more graphical in nature, using visual relationships between symbols to specify a program.

^ The natural formalization involves operations that cannot be performed on sets in general.
  • New Primitive Programming Language - Is it Turing Complete? - sci.logic | Google Groups 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

C has operators for:
.
.C has a formal grammar, specified by the C standard.^ While syntax is commonly specified using a formal grammar, semantic definitions may be written in natural language (e.g., as in the C language ), or a formal semantics (e.g., as in Standard ML [ 38 ] and Scheme [ 39 ] specifications).

Integer-float conversion and rounding

.The type casting syntax can be used to convert values between an integer type and a floating-point type, or between two integer types or two float types with different sizes; e.g.^ Is there REALLY > a difference between the two?
  • C# developers going back to vb.net 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.msnewsgroups.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is there > REALLY a difference between the two?
  • C# developers going back to vb.net 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.msnewsgroups.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anyway, the point was that I like value types.
  • C# developers going back to vb.net 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.msnewsgroups.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.(long int)sqrt(1000.0), (double)(256*256), or (float)sqrt(1000.0).^ The "l" prefix specifies that the argument is a long (int, float): %ld , %lf .

^ MAX_DOUBLES 256 int main (void) { FILE *in; double x[MAX_DOUBLES]; int count=0; in = fopen("infile","r"); if (in != NULL) { fscanf(in,"%f",x+count); while ((!feof(in)) && (count < MAX_DOUBLES)) { printf("%f\n",x[count]); count++; fscanf(in,"%f",x+count); } fclose(in); } else { printf("Could not open file!\n"); } return 0; } .

^ The basic types in C are int , long , float , double , char , and void .

Conversions are implicit in several contexts, e.g. when assigning a value to a variable or to a function parameter, when using a floating-point value as index to a vector, or in arithmetic operations on operand with different types.
.Unlike some other cases of type casting (where the bit encoding of the operands are simply re-interpreted according to the target type), conversions between integers and floating-point values generally change the bit encoding so as to preserve the numerical value of the operand, to the extent possible.^ Anyway, the point was that I like value types.
  • C# developers going back to vb.net 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.msnewsgroups.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the other hand, there are some programming languages which are more graphical in nature, using visual relationships between symbols to specify a program.

^ Since the size and type of the pointed-to object is not known, void pointers cannot be dereferenced, nor is pointer arithmetic on them possible, although they can easily be (and in fact implicitly are) converted to and from any other object pointer type.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

.In particular, conversion from an integer to a floating-point type will preserve its numeric value exactly—unless the number of fraction bits in the target type is insufficient, in which case the least-significant bits are lost.^ HUGE —The maximum value of a single-precision floating-point number .

^ This applies also to floating point numbers.
  • C programming language coding guidelines 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lrdev.com [Source type: Reference]

^ For real numbers we have two types— float (floating point numbers) and double (double precision floating point numbers).

Conversion from a floating-point value to an integer type entails truncation of any fractional part (i.e. the value is rounded "towards zero"). For other kinds of rounding, the C99 standard specifies (in <math.h>) the following functions:
  • round(): round to nearest integer, halfway away from zero
  • rint(), nearbyint(): round according to current floating-point rounding direction
  • ceil(): smallest integral value not less than argument (round up)
  • floor(): largest integral value (in double representation) not greater than argument (round down)
  • trunc(): round towards zero (same as typecasting to an int)
.All these functions take a double argument and return a double result, which may then be cast to an integer if necessary.^ This function takes an argument and, like the identity function, returns it unchanged.
  • The Unlambda Programming Language 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.madore.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The i function takes an argument and returns that argument.
  • The Unlambda Programming Language 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.madore.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each function takes a function as argument and returns a function.
  • The Unlambda Programming Language 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.madore.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The conversion of a float value to the double type preserves the numerical value exactly, while the opposite conversion rounds the value to fit in the smaller number of fraction bits, usually towards zero.^ For real numbers we have two types— float (floating point numbers) and double (double precision floating point numbers).

^ It's not exactly difficult to get your head round the concept of complex numbers, so why weren't they included in the first place?
  • Why C Is Not My Favourite Programming Language || kuro5hin.org 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are built-in types for integers of various sizes, both signed and unsigned, floating-point numbers, characters, and enumerated types (enum).
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

.(Since float also has a smaller exponent range, the conversion may yield an infinite value.^ Precison and field width specifiers may be combined: %10.4f will print a float value in a field at least ten characters wide with four decimal places.

^ MAXFLOAT —The maximum value of a non-infinite single- precision floating point number .

) .Some compilers will silently convert float values to double in some contexts, e.g.^ (In fact, most compilers will set up tanf to do all the calculations in double precision, then convert the result to single precision.

function parameters declared as float may be actually passed as double.
.In machines that comply with the IEEE floating point standard, some rounding events are affected by the current rounding mode (which includes round-to-even, round-down, round-up, and round-to-zero), which may be retrieved and set using the fegetround()/fesetround() functions defined in <fenv.h>.^ Use the standard library functions where possible.
  • C programming language coding guidelines 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lrdev.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Improved support for IEEE floating point .
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ Some functions may actually use up to three of these methods.
  • Why C Is Not My Favourite Programming Language || kuro5hin.org 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Integer arithmetic in C assumes the 2's complement internal encoding. .In particular, conversion of any integer value to any integer type with n bits preserves the value modulo 2n.^ Real arithmetic is approximate—can get rounding and truncation errors floating points and integers are two distinct types, e.g., 3 denotes the integer value 3; 3.0 denotes the floating point value 3.0; .

.Thus, for example, if char is 8 bits wide, then (unsigned char)456 and (unsigned char)(-56) both yield 200; while (signed char)456 and (signed char)(-56) both yield -56. Conversion of a signed integer value to a wider signer integer type entails sign-bit replication; all other integer-to-integer conversions entail discarding bits or padding with zero bits, always at the most significant end.^ Thus, x=2; means x is assigned the integer value of 2.

^ When I push a byte on the stack, it is expanded to a word and when I store a value from the stack into a byte its 'most significant bits' are lost.
  • A, B, C, ... D! The Programming Language > Comments 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.osnews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Z misinterpreted as end-of-file, most significant bit stripped on non-ASCII characters, etc.
  • C programming language coding guidelines 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lrdev.com [Source type: Reference]

"Hello, world" example

.The "hello, world" example which appeared in the first edition of K&R has become the model for an introductory program in most programming textbooks, regardless of programming language.^ Ruby – best introductory programming language.
  • Ruby – best introductory programming language | CompSci.ca/blog 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC compsci.ca [Source type: General]

^ The following simple application appeared in the first edition of K&R, and has become the model for an introductory program in most programming textbooks, regardless of programming language.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ Ruby – best introductory programming language .
  • Ruby – best introductory programming language | CompSci.ca/blog 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC compsci.ca [Source type: General]

.The program prints "hello, world" to the standard output, which is usually a terminal or screen display.^ Print the string "hello, world" onto the standard output device (typically but not always a terminal), .
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ The program prints out "hello, world" to the standard output, which is usually a terminal or screen display.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ Only contrary to the identity function it has a side effect, namely to print the character x on the standard output (this writing takes place when .
  • The Unlambda Programming Language 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.madore.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The original version was:
main()
{
    printf("hello, world
");
}
A standard-conforming "hello, world" program is:[11]
#include <stdio.h>
 
int main(void)
{
    printf("hello, world
");
    return 0;
}
.The first line of the program contains a preprocessing directive, indicated by #include.^ This first line of the program is a preprocessing directive, #include.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ Simply add the line #include to the start of our program.

^ Just for the sake of accuracy, here's the full text of the footnote on whitespace: Thus, preprocessing directives are commonly called "lines".
  • Why C Is Not My Favourite Programming Language || kuro5hin.org 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This causes the preprocessor—the first tool to examine source code as it is compiled—to substitute the line with the entire text of the stdio.h standard header, which contains declarations for standard input and output functions such as printf.^ This file contains definitions that we will need such as the printf function.

^ Each source file contains declarations and function definitions.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ C source code is then input to a C compiler, which then emits finished machine or object code.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

.The angle brackets surrounding stdio.h indicate that stdio.h is located using a search strategy that prefers standard headers to other headers having the same name.^ The angle brackets surrounding stdio.h indicate that stdio.h can be found using an implementation-defined search strategy.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ The main routine for this is malloc (memory allocation); it is part of the Standard C Library (so you need to include the header file "stdlib.h" in your code to use it).

^ Double quotes may also be used for headers, thus allowing the implementation to supply (up to) two strategies.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

.Double quotes may also be used to include local or project-specific header files.^ Include the header file #include to use these functions.

^ It's implemented as a macro and one actually has to include a header file to be able to use it!
  • Why C Is Not My Favourite Programming Language || kuro5hin.org 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The main routine for this is malloc (memory allocation); it is part of the Standard C Library (so you need to include the header file "stdlib.h" in your code to use it).

.The next line indicates that a function named main is being defined.^ This next line indicates that a function named main is being defined.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ The type specifier int indicates that the return value, the value of evaluating the main function that is returned to its invoker (in this case the run-time environment), is an integer.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ I disagree with your 'less typing' statement in some respect as Then's, End If's and even End Sub End Function are implemented for you as you enter to the next line.
  • C# developers going back to vb.net 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.msnewsgroups.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The main function serves a special purpose in C programs: The run-time environment calls the main function to begin program execution.^ The main function serves a special purpose in C programs: When the program is executed, main is the function called by the run-time environment—otherwise it acts like any other function in the program.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ This line terminates the execution of the main function and causes it to return the integral value 0, which is interpreted by the run-time system as an exit code indicating successful execution.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ These functions are, depending on their purpose, sorted in smaller files called libraries.
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

.The type specifier int indicates that the return value, the value that is returned to the invoker (in this case the run-time environment) as a result of evaluating the main function, is an integer.^ The type specifier int indicates that the return value, the value of evaluating the main function that is returned to its invoker (in this case the run-time environment), is an integer.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ The compiler recognizes those functions by the type of their result specified to be void .
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The function returns a structure of type div_t.
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

.The keyword void as a parameter list indicates that the main function takes no arguments.^ The i function takes an argument and returns that argument.
  • The Unlambda Programming Language 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.madore.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each function takes a function as argument and returns a function.
  • The Unlambda Programming Language 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.madore.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The v function takes an argument X and returns v itself.
  • The Unlambda Programming Language 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.madore.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12]
.The opening curly brace indicates the beginning of the definition of the main function.^ It means that every program written in C language must contain one function named 'main' which does not have to be placed at the beginning of the program.
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In C, all variables must be declared at the beginning of a block (i.e., after the opening brace of the function, and before any statements).

^ If the function, after being executed, returns no result to the main program or to the function it is called by, the program proceeds with execution after encountering a closing curly bracket.
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

.The next line calls (diverts execution to) a function named printf, which was declared in stdio.h and is supplied from a system library.^ If several modules are linked together to a library, a new external header file may be created that declares all extern functions.
  • C programming language coding guidelines 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lrdev.com [Source type: Reference]

^ I disagree with your 'less typing' statement in some respect as Then's, End If's and even End Sub End Function are implemented for you as you enter to the next line.
  • C# developers going back to vb.net 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.msnewsgroups.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Almost all modern linkers can do function based linking, only linking in the functions that may be called in the execution of the application.
  • Why C Is Not My Favourite Programming Language || kuro5hin.org 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In this call, the printf function is passed (provided with) a single argument, the address of the first character in the string literal "hello, world ".^ The idea being that F will do nothing but read the first argument and return (without side effects) a function that reads the second argument and returns a function that reads the third argument and finally do whatever calculation it is F was supposed to perform.
  • The Unlambda Programming Language 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.madore.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How can I write a function that takes a format string and a variable number of arguments, like printf, and passes them to printf to do most of the work?
  • Infrequently Asked Questions in comp.lang.c 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.seebs.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The main ideas are: first, to “increase” $f , we simply call the same function again with ` $f as argument (this is the standard use of tail-recursion to avoid imperative constructions like variable change).
  • The Unlambda Programming Language 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.madore.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The string literal is an unnamed array with elements of type char, set up automatically by the compiler with a final 0-valued character to mark the end of the array (printf needs to know this).^ The compiler will be automatically set in simulation mode.
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Single characters in C have type char .

^ Strings in C are just arrays of characters—almost.

.The is an escape sequence that C translates to a newline character, which on output signifies the end of the current line.^ The \n is an escape sequence that C translates to the newline character, which on output signifies the beginning of the next line.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ Comments are also ignored, a comment being anything starting from the # character to the end of the line.
  • The Unlambda Programming Language 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.madore.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The return value of the printf function is of type int, but it is silently discarded since it is not used.^ The return value of a function .

^ A void type means that the function does not return a value.

^ It is mainly used in functions which do not return anything.

.(A more careful program might test the return value to determine whether or not the printf function succeeded.^ How can I return several values from a function?
  • Infrequently Asked Questions in comp.lang.c 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.seebs.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Type of functions which do not return a value is void .
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The C language will also not indicate an exception if you subtract a larger unsigned number from a smaller unsigned number, so you can't make your programs more robust by means of using unsigned values.
  • C programming language coding guidelines 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lrdev.com [Source type: Reference]

) .The semicolon ; terminates the statement.^ A null statement is an expression statement consisting solely of the terminating semicolon.
  • Infrequently Asked Questions in comp.lang.c 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.seebs.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The return statement terminates the execution of the main function and causes it to return the integer value 0, which is interpreted by the run-time system as an exit code indicating successful execution.^ The return value of a function .

^ The int before main tells us the function returns an integer value.

^ How can I return several values from a function?
  • Infrequently Asked Questions in comp.lang.c 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.seebs.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The closing curly brace indicates the end of the code for the main function.^ This closing curly brace indicates the end of the code for the main function.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ This opening curly brace indicates the beginning of the definition of the main function.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ The type specifier int indicates that the return value, the value of evaluating the main function that is returned to its invoker (in this case the run-time environment), is an integer.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

Data structures

.C has a static weak typing type system that shares some similarities with that of other ALGOL descendants such as Pascal.^ Typing discipline: static, weak .
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ C has a static Weak typing type system that shares some similarities with that of other ALGOL descendants such as Pascal.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ C#'s type system is similar to Java's, and uses a similar partial type inference scheme.

.There are built-in types for integers of various sizes, both signed and unsigned, floating-point numbers, characters, and enumerated types (enum).^ This applies also to floating point numbers.
  • C programming language coding guidelines 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lrdev.com [Source type: Reference]

^ For real numbers we have two types— float (floating point numbers) and double (double precision floating point numbers).

^ Write a program which reads first an integer n, and then n floating point numbers.

C99 added a boolean datatype. .There are also derived types including arrays, pointers, records (struct), and untagged unions (union).^ Functions returning struct or union types (rather than pointers) .
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ There are also derived types including arrays, pointers, records (struct), and untagged unions (union).
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ And yet it didn't occur to C's creators that maybe including hash tables as a type of array might be a good idea when writing UNIX? Perl has them.
  • Why C Is Not My Favourite Programming Language || kuro5hin.org 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.C is often used in low-level systems programming where escapes from the type system may be necessary.^ C is often used in low-level systems programming where "escapes" from the type system may be necessary.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ For a new Low level program it could be useful.
  • A, B, C, ... D! The Programming Language > Comments 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.osnews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some additional prefixes are reserved and may not be used: str (string functions, string.h ), E (operating system error numbers, errno.h ).
  • C programming language coding guidelines 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lrdev.com [Source type: Reference]

.The compiler attempts to ensure type correctness of most expressions, but the programmer can override the checks in various ways, either by using a type cast to explicitly convert a value from one type to another, or by using pointers or unions to reinterpret the underlying bits of a value in some other way.^ We cannot use variable of this type by default; it must be cast to a usuable type.

^ Some gave i the value 2, some gave 3, but one gave 4.
  • Infrequently Asked Questions in comp.lang.c 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.seebs.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In other words, the pointer ‘points to’ another variable.
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

Pointers

.C supports the use of pointers, a very simple type of reference that records, in effect, the address or location of an object or function in memory.^ Introduction The Type of a Pointer Given the address how do we use it?

^ Refer to objects bigger than the basic types within functions; .

^ Pointers Introduction The Type of a Pointer Given the address how do we use it?

.Pointers can be dereferenced to access data stored at the address pointed to, or to invoke a pointed-to function.^ Declare name and type of pointer multiplex multiplex = &display1; // Pointer multiplex is assigned the address of // variable display1 To change the value of the pointed variable, it is sufficient to write the '*' character in front of its pointer and assign it a new value.
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Application scope or file scope (as well as static data in functions) lets the functions that access the data only be useable by a single thread 37 .
  • C programming language coding guidelines 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lrdev.com [Source type: Reference]

^ How to invoke C++ member operations from inline-assembler code segments Updated: 19 Sep 2005 Calling C++ operations from assembler code using member function pointers.
  • C / C++ Language - CodeProject 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.codeproject.com [Source type: Reference]

.Pointers can be manipulated using assignment and also pointer arithmetic.^ Pointers can be manipulated using normal assignments and also pointer arithmetic.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ As I said, since you are already loading the register to use the pointer and may also do arithmetic on it, it takes no extra time to check if it's null and to treat it separately.
  • A, B, C, ... D! The Programming Language > Comments 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.osnews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The array-subscript notation x[i] can also be used when x is a pointer; the interpretation (using pointer arithmetic) is to access the (i+1)th of several adjacent data objects pointed to by x, counting the object that x points to (which is x[0]) as the first element of the array.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

.The run-time representation of a pointer value is typically a raw memory address (perhaps augmented by an offset-within-word field), but since a pointer's type includes the type of the thing pointed to, expressions including pointers can be type-checked at compile time.^ A pointer is NOT an integer—it is an address in memory.

^ Anyway, the point was that I like value types.
  • C# developers going back to vb.net 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.msnewsgroups.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The resulting expression will then be computed at run-time.

.Pointer arithmetic is automatically scaled by the size of the pointed-to data type.^ The type of a constant is automatically recognized by its size.
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Declare name and type of pointer multiplex multiplex = &display1; // Pointer multiplex is assigned the address of // variable display1 To change the value of the pointed variable, it is sufficient to write the '*' character in front of its pointer and assign it a new value.
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The C data type FILE * is used for file pointers; it is declared in the header file .

.(See Array-pointer interchangeability below.^ Then why are array and pointer declarations interchangeable as function formal parameters?
  • Infrequently Asked Questions in comp.lang.c 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.seebs.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ D" The pointer to the string data should of course be null for empty strings, but the pointer to the string should NOT. See a few paragraphs below if you're too stupid to understand the difference between 'string' and 'string data'.
  • A, B, C, ... D! The Programming Language > Comments 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.osnews.com [Source type: Original source]

) .Pointers are used for many different purposes in C. Text strings are commonly manipulated using pointers into arrays of characters.^ Many different techniques can be used.
  • Programming Texts/Tutorials 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC stommel.tamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ For heavy use of string manipulation, use Perl.
  • Why C Is Not My Favourite Programming Language || kuro5hin.org 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Method 2: Use arrays of pointers .

.Dynamic memory allocation, which is described below, is performed using pointers.^ It is typically used for dynamic memory allocation.

^ You can't use dynamically-allocated memory after you free it, can you?
  • Infrequently Asked Questions in comp.lang.c 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.seebs.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The main routine for this is malloc (memory allocation); it is part of the Standard C Library (so you need to include the header file "stdlib.h" in your code to use it).

.Many data types, such as trees, are commonly implemented as dynamically allocated struct objects linked together using pointers.^ The C data type FILE * is used for file pointers; it is declared in the header file .

^ Dynamic allocation based on the type of a variable.
  • A, B, C, ... D! The Programming Language > Comments 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.osnews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is typically used for dynamic memory allocation.

.Pointers to functions are useful for callbacks from event handlers.^ I've seen different methods used for calling through pointers to functions.
  • Infrequently Asked Questions in comp.lang.c 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.seebs.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When you want to pass and/or return a structure to and/or from a functions it's better to use pointers.

.A null pointer is a pointer value that points to no valid location (it is often represented by address zero).^ Not only have you not given any reason for why a programmer would want ""==null more often than not, but you also haven't even tried to address my objections to it.
  • A, B, C, ... D! The Programming Language > Comments 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.osnews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Declare name and type of pointer multiplex multiplex = &display1; // Pointer multiplex is assigned the address of // variable display1 To change the value of the pointed variable, it is sufficient to write the '*' character in front of its pointer and assign it a new value.
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

^ To make this function work we pass two pointers to floats void swap_floats (float *x, float *y) { float temp; temp = *x; *x = *y; *y = temp; } Note that the values of x and y never change—only the variables pointed to by these variables .

.Dereferencing a null pointer is therefore meaningless, typically resulting in a run-time error.^ The resulting expression will then be computed at run-time.

^ As I said, since you are already loading the register to use the pointer and may also do arithmetic on it, it takes no extra time to check if it's null and to treat it separately.
  • A, B, C, ... D! The Programming Language > Comments 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.osnews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Trying to use a NULL file pointer will usually result in a crash.

.Null pointers are useful for indicating special cases such as no next pointer in the final node of a linked list, or as an error indication from functions returning pointers.^ Pointers Aritmetic is a suicide, and should be used in a few special cases.
  • Why C Is Not My Favourite Programming Language || kuro5hin.org 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is mainly used in functions which do not return anything.

^ It cannot be used for argument lists and function-return values.
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

.Void pointers (void *) point to objects of unknown type, and can therefore be used as "generic" data pointers.^ The C data type FILE * is used for file pointers; it is declared in the header file .

^ The void * type means a pointer to anything .

^ In general: * ; defines a pointer to a variable of type .

.Since the size and type of the pointed-to object is not known, void pointers cannot be dereferenced, nor is pointer arithmetic on them allowed, although they can easily be (and in many contexts implicitly are) converted to and from any other object pointer type.^ A correct swap_floats function The void * type Pointer Arithmetic and Arrays 6.

^ The void * type means a pointer to anything .

^ A correct swap_floats function The void * type Pointer Arithmetic and Arrays .

.Careless use of pointers is potentially dangerous.^ Pointers are dangerous, yes, but indispensible when used for certain types of operations, such as working with graphics.
  • C# developers going back to vb.net 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.msnewsgroups.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because they are typically unchecked, a pointer variable can be made to point to any arbitrary location, which can cause undesirable effects.^ Declare name and type of pointer multiplex multiplex = &display1; // Pointer multiplex is assigned the address of // variable display1 To change the value of the pointed variable, it is sufficient to write the '*' character in front of its pointer and assign it a new value.
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

^ To make this function work we pass two pointers to floats void swap_floats (float *x, float *y) { float temp; temp = *x; *x = *y; *y = temp; } Note that the values of x and y never change—only the variables pointed to by these variables .

^ If you declare an sbit variable in a unit so as to point it to a specific bit of SFR register, it is necessary to use the keyword sfr in declaration, because you are pointing it to the variable defined as sfr variable: .
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

.Although properly-used pointers point to safe places, they can be made to point to unsafe places by using invalid pointer arithmetic; the objects they point to may be deallocated and reused (dangling pointers); they may be used without having been initialized (wild pointers); or they may be directly assigned an unsafe value using a cast, union, or through another corrupt pointer.^ Through the use of transaction pointers (a transaction is a structured two-way communication mechanism) and process variables, Concurrent C processes are able to communicate directly with other processes, regardless of the physical position of the processes in the system.
  • Parallel Programming Pattern Language: AnnotatedBibliography 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cise.ufl.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Last time I used Pascal, casting pointers was an extension, which means you couldn't even do dynamic array allocation without using extensions (i.e.
  • Why C Is Not My Favourite Programming Language || kuro5hin.org 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Declare name and type of pointer multiplex multiplex = &display1; // Pointer multiplex is assigned the address of // variable display1 To change the value of the pointed variable, it is sufficient to write the '*' character in front of its pointer and assign it a new value.
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

.In general, C is permissive in allowing manipulation of and conversion between pointer types, although compilers typically provide options for various levels of checking.^ In general: * ; defines a pointer to a variable of type .

^ Declare name and type of pointer multiplex multiplex = &display1; // Pointer multiplex is assigned the address of // variable display1 To change the value of the pointed variable, it is sufficient to write the '*' character in front of its pointer and assign it a new value.
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A pointer is a special type of variable holding the address of character variables.
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

.Some other programming languages address these problems by using more restrictive reference types.^ C# is a more type-efficient language.
  • C# developers going back to vb.net 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.msnewsgroups.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What programming language is used is not a criteria where I am concerned.
  • C# developers going back to vb.net 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.msnewsgroups.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are several types of data that can be used in C programming language.
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

Arrays

.Array types in C are traditionally of a fixed, static size specified at compile time.^ Typically (for an array, say) this is the number of entries times the size of the type.

^ What do we do if we the size of the array cannot be fixed ahead of time?

^ Syntax for definition: [ ] Here must be a constant (at compile time) integer value—one cannot use another variable to specify the length.

(The more recent C99 standard also allows a form of variable-length arrays.) .However, it is also possible to allocate a block of memory (of arbitrary size) at run-time, using the standard library's malloc function, and treat it as an array.^ The malloc function is used to allocate space for the new string.

^ To free up a block of memory allocated with malloc use the free function.

^ Use the newer standard if possible.
  • C programming language coding guidelines 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lrdev.com [Source type: Reference]

.C's unification of arrays and pointers (see below) means that true arrays and these dynamically-allocated, simulated arrays are virtually interchangeable.^ Last time I used Pascal, casting pointers was an extension, which means you couldn't even do dynamic array allocation without using extensions (i.e.
  • Why C Is Not My Favourite Programming Language || kuro5hin.org 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ C++ Memory Clean Up - Unedited Updated: 25 Mar 2009 Demonstrating one of the C++ features , the dynamic allocation and de-allocation of arrays using pointers C++, C, Windows .
  • C / C++ Language - CodeProject 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.codeproject.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Then why are array and pointer declarations interchangeable as function formal parameters?
  • Infrequently Asked Questions in comp.lang.c 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.seebs.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since arrays are always accessed (in effect) via pointers, array accesses are typically not checked against the underlying array size, although the compiler may provide bounds checking as an option.^ In addition, historical languages with no compiler, but that may have influenced design of further work are included also, provided that the author of the further language has made a verifiable reference to them.
  • List of Programming Languages in Alphabetical Order 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.scriptol.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Simple static array class Updated: 20 Mar 2002 A simple static array class that provides range checking and non-zero indexing C++, Windows, Visual-Studio, Dev .
  • C / C++ Language - CodeProject 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.codeproject.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In ANSI C file access is accomplished via file pointers .

.Array bounds violations are therefore possible and rather common in carelessly written code, and can lead to various repercussions, including illegal memory accesses, corruption of data, buffer overruns, and run-time exceptions.^ Array bounds violations are therefore possible and rather common in carelessly written code (see the "Criticism" article), and can lead to various repercussions: illegal memory accesses, corruption of data, buffer overrun, run-time exceptions, etc.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ This line terminates the execution of the main function and causes it to return the integral value 0, which is interpreted by the run-time system as an exit code indicating successful execution.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ Formatted output using fprintf is actually buffered : data are not written to the file immediately.

.C does not have a special provision for declaring multidimensional arrays, but rather relies on recursion within the type system to declare arrays of arrays, which effectively accomplishes the same thing.^ I'll note that in C# (and IIRC, java) the multidimensional arrays work the same way.
  • Why C Is Not My Favourite Programming Language || kuro5hin.org 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, I found the same kind of thing in my own code today; a Money class, rather than a Money struct.
  • C# developers going back to vb.net 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.msnewsgroups.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And while I'm on the subject, the same applies to command-line utilities, system daemons, and things of that nature.
  • Why C Is Not My Favourite Programming Language || kuro5hin.org 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The index values of the resulting "multidimensional array" can be thought of as increasing in row-major order.^ Apart from one-dimensional arrays which could be thought of as a list, there are also multidimensional arrays in C language.
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

^ We then use fancy indexing to access the elements of the array in a multidimensional fashion.

^ Dynamic Memory Allocation Introduction malloc Freeing memory Dynamically Allocating Multidimensional Arrays Method 1: Use a 1-D array with index arithmetic Method 2: Use arrays of pointers 8.

.Although C supports static arrays, it is not required that array indices be validated (bounds checking).^ Pascal has a fairly sophisticated one (amongst other things, it checks bounds on array even where the index is a variable).
  • Why C Is Not My Favourite Programming Language || kuro5hin.org 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a language that checks for out of bounds array accesses, you'll certainly stamp out bugs faster, but it means that every time you access an array there is the overhead of the check.
  • Why C Is Not My Favourite Programming Language || kuro5hin.org 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, one can try to write to the sixth element of an array with five elements, generally yielding undesirable results.^ In the following example, the first element in curly brackets is automatically assigned the value 0, the second one is assigned the value 1, the third one the value 2 etc.
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In the following example, the array named calendar is declared and each element is assigned specific number of days: .
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In the following example, the elements of the two-dimensional array Table are assigned values.
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

.This type of bug, called a buffer overflow or buffer overrun, is notorious for causing a number of security problems.^ Note that buffer overflows are security problems .
  • C programming language coding guidelines 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lrdev.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A reference to a calling functions buffer should be used instead of global or static data to avoid multithreading problems and buffer overwrite problems (e.g.
  • C programming language coding guidelines 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lrdev.com [Source type: Reference]

^ I write security-critical software for living with C and I don't think we've ever had a buffer overflow vulnerability in our code.
  • Why C Is Not My Favourite Programming Language || kuro5hin.org 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Since bounds checking elimination technology was largely nonexistent when C was defined, bounds checking came with a severe performance penalty, particularly in numerical computation. .A few years earlier, some Fortran compilers had a switch to toggle bounds checking on or off; however, this would have been much less useful for C, where array arguments are passed as simple pointers.^ Last time I used Pascal, casting pointers was an extension, which means you couldn't even do dynamic array allocation without using extensions (i.e.
  • Why C Is Not My Favourite Programming Language || kuro5hin.org 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Using ifs and strcmp()s is identical to how a higher level language would implement switch() on actual strings.
  • Why C Is Not My Favourite Programming Language || kuro5hin.org 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Part of the ANSI conspiracy to restrict people to passing pointers; this was undertaken after the first discovery that passing large arrays recursively could cause crashes.
  • Infrequently Asked Questions in comp.lang.c 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.seebs.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Multidimensional arrays are commonly used in numerical algorithms (mainly from applied linear algebra) to store matrices. The structure of the C array is well suited to this particular task. .However, since arrays are passed merely as pointers, the bounds of the array must be known fixed values or else explicitly passed to any subroutine that requires them, and dynamically sized arrays of arrays cannot be accessed using double indexing.^ Last time I used Pascal, casting pointers was an extension, which means you couldn't even do dynamic array allocation without using extensions (i.e.
  • Why C Is Not My Favourite Programming Language || kuro5hin.org 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Part of the ANSI conspiracy to restrict people to passing pointers; this was undertaken after the first discovery that passing large arrays recursively could cause crashes.
  • Infrequently Asked Questions in comp.lang.c 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.seebs.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If D indeed does treat a dynamic array as a primitive type then ""==null should be semantically incorrect since NULL is the "nothing" pointer target, and can therefore only be assigned to pointers.
  • A, B, C, ... D! The Programming Language > Comments 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.osnews.com [Source type: Original source]

.(A workaround for this is to allocate the array with an additional "row vector" of pointers to the columns.^ As seen, this array has two rows and three columns: .
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Dynamic Memory Allocation Introduction malloc Freeing memory Dynamically Allocating Multidimensional Arrays Method 1: Use a 1-D array with index arithmetic Method 2: Use arrays of pointers 8.

^ C++ Memory Clean Up - Unedited Updated: 25 Mar 2009 Demonstrating one of the C++ features , the dynamic allocation and de-allocation of arrays using pointers C++, C, Windows .
  • C / C++ Language - CodeProject 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.codeproject.com [Source type: Reference]

)
.C99 introduced "variable-length arrays" which address some, but not all, of the issues with ordinary C arrays.^ If ""==null then I'd have to add some other method or parameter to specify whether or not there is a password at all, and it would need a separate boolean variable, separate checks etc.
  • A, B, C, ... D! The Programming Language > Comments 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.osnews.com [Source type: Original source]

Array-pointer interchangeability

.A distinctive (but potentially confusing) feature of C is its treatment of arrays and pointers.^ C++ Memory Clean Up - Unedited Updated: 25 Mar 2009 Demonstrating one of the C++ features , the dynamic allocation and de-allocation of arrays using pointers C++, C, Windows .
  • C / C++ Language - CodeProject 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.codeproject.com [Source type: Reference]

.The array-subscript notation x[i] can also be used when x is a pointer; the interpretation (using pointer arithmetic) is to access the (i + 1)th object of several adjacent data objects pointed to by x, counting the object that x points to (which is x[0]) as the first element of the array.^ To access to the actual variable pointed to by a pointer we use the * operator.

^ Method 2: Use arrays of pointers .

^ Method 1: Use a 1-D array with index arithmetic .

Formally, x[i] is equivalent to *(x + i). .Since the type of the pointer involved is known to the compiler at compile time, the address that x + i points to is not the address pointed to by x incremented by i bytes, but rather incremented by i multiplied by the size of an element that x points to.^ Pointer arithmetic is automatically scaled by the size of the pointed-to data type.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ Since the type of the pointer involved is known to the compiler at compile time, the address that x + i points to is not the address pointed to by x incremented by i bytes, but rather incremented by i multiplied by the size of an element that x points to.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ The run-time representation of a pointer value is typically a raw memory address, but since a pointer's type includes the type of the thing pointed to, expressions including pointers can be type-checked at compile time.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

.The size of these elements can be determined with the operator sizeof by applying it to any dereferenced element of x, as in n = sizeof *x or n = sizeof x[0].^ These operators can be applied to any built-in data type.

.Furthermore, in most expression contexts (a notable exception is sizeof x), the name of an array is automatically converted to a pointer to the array's first element; this implies that an array is never copied as a whole when named as an argument to a function, but rather only the address of its first element is passed.^ Furthermore, in most contexts (sizeof array being a notable exception), the name of an array is automatically converted to a pointer to the array's first element; this implies that an array is never copied as a whole when named as an argument to a function, but rather only the address of its first element is passed.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ Even though the name of an array is in most contexts converted to a pointer (to its first element), this pointer does not itself occupy any storage.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ Express arrays as pointers in the function parameters.
  • C programming language coding guidelines 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lrdev.com [Source type: Reference]

.Therefore, although function calls in C use pass-by-value semantics, arrays are in effect passed by reference.^ In general, C uses the pass by value method for function arguments.

^ There are two ways to pass arguments to functions: by value and by reference.

^ In the above max_float function both x and y are passed by value.

.The number of elements in a declared array x can be determined as sizeof x / sizeof x[0].^ An array is declared by specifying its name, type and the number of elements it will comprise: .
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Variable shelf[1] is copied to // variable temp Elements can be assigned contents during array declaration.
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In this case, the contents of a variable (an element of the array) represents a number of products the shelf contains.
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

.An interesting demonstration of the interchangeability of pointers and arrays is shown below.^ C++ Memory Clean Up - Unedited Updated: 25 Mar 2009 Demonstrating one of the C++ features , the dynamic allocation and de-allocation of arrays using pointers C++, C, Windows .
  • C / C++ Language - CodeProject 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.codeproject.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Then why are array and pointer declarations interchangeable as function formal parameters?
  • Infrequently Asked Questions in comp.lang.c 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.seebs.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The four assignments are equivalent and each is valid C code.^ These four lines are equivalent and each is valid C code.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

/* x is an array and i is an integer */
x[i] = 1;     /* equivalent to *(x + i) */
*(x + i) = 1;
*(i + x) = 1;
i[x] = 1;     /* uncommon usage, but correct: i[x] is equivalent to *(i + x) */
.Note that the last line contains the uncommon, but semantically correct, expression i[x], which appears to interchange the index variable i with the array variable x.^ In this case, the contents of a variable (an element of the array) represents a number of products the shelf contains.
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Pascal has a fairly sophisticated one (amongst other things, it checks bounds on array even where the index is a variable).
  • Why C Is Not My Favourite Programming Language || kuro5hin.org 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This last line might be found in obfuscated C code, but its use is rare among C programmers.^ My company was using VB6 when I got here and I moved them up to VB.NET. We had a couple of outsiders write code in C# that I am also supporting and have found that I like the languages equally.
  • C# developers going back to vb.net 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.msnewsgroups.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Programmer’s software is installed on the PC and is used to pass on the Hex code to hardware over USB cable.
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

^ "What follows is a set of rules, guidelines, and tips that we have found to be useful in making C++ code portable across many machines and compilers.
  • Programming Texts/Tutorials 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC stommel.tamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Despite this apparent equivalence between array and pointer variables, there is still a distinction to be made between them.^ I already wrote a program where it is cruicial that there be a distinction between an empty string and no string at all.
  • A, B, C, ... D! The Programming Language > Comments 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.osnews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The point was that there is a very clear distinction between en empty string and no string at all.
  • A, B, C, ... D! The Programming Language > Comments 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.osnews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Null Pointers by J.F. on Mon 19th Apr 2004 19:26 UTC The problem is that apparently an empty char array is equal to no array at all.
  • A, B, C, ... D! The Programming Language > Comments 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.osnews.com [Source type: Original source]

.Even though the name of an array is, in most expression contexts, converted into a pointer (to its first element), this pointer does not itself occupy any storage, unlike a pointer variable.^ Last time I used Pascal, casting pointers was an extension, which means you couldn't even do dynamic array allocation without using extensions (i.e.
  • Why C Is Not My Favourite Programming Language || kuro5hin.org 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Part of the ANSI conspiracy to restrict people to passing pointers; this was undertaken after the first discovery that passing large arrays recursively could cause crashes.
  • Infrequently Asked Questions in comp.lang.c 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.seebs.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Declare name and type of pointer multiplex multiplex = &display1; // Pointer multiplex is assigned the address of // variable display1 To change the value of the pointed variable, it is sufficient to write the '*' character in front of its pointer and assign it a new value.
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

.Consequently, what an array "points to" cannot be changed, and it is impossible to assign a value to an array variable.^ When you're assigning a literal to a variable, you could say you're assigning another object, not changing the objects contents.
  • C# developers going back to vb.net 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.msnewsgroups.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To make this function work we pass two pointers to floats void swap_floats (float *x, float *y) { float temp; temp = *x; *x = *y; *y = temp; } Note that the values of x and y never change—only the variables pointed to by these variables .

^ Syntax for definition: [ ] Here must be a constant (at compile time) integer value—one cannot use another variable to specify the length.

.(Array values may be copied, however, e.g., by using the memcpy function.^ Some additional prefixes are reserved and may not be used: str (string functions, string.h ), E (operating system error numbers, errno.h ).
  • C programming language coding guidelines 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lrdev.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Think about how you would write a function which sorts an array of doubles of length n—can you use this to write a function which calculates the p th quantile?

^ However, it is also possible to allocate a block of memory (of arbitrary size) at run-time, using the standard library's malloc function, and treat it as an array.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

)

Memory management

.One of the most important functions of a programming language is to provide facilities for managing memory and the objects that are stored in memory.^ One of the most important functions of a programming language is to provide facilities for managing memory and the objects that are stored in memory.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ Users of functional programming languages may be pro-biased on this one.
  • C programming language coding guidelines 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lrdev.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Indeed, D takes a step back and fails to provide essentials like automatic memory management.
  • A, B, C, ... D! The Programming Language > Comments 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.osnews.com [Source type: Original source]

C provides three distinct ways to allocate memory for objects:
  • Static memory allocation: space for the object is provided in the binary at compile-time; these objects have an extent (or lifetime) as long as the binary which contains them is loaded into memory
  • Automatic memory allocation: temporary objects can be stored on the stack, and this space is automatically freed and reusable after the block in which they are declared is exited
  • Dynamic memory allocation: blocks of memory of arbitrary size can be requested at run-time using library functions such as malloc from a region of memory called the heap; these blocks persist until subsequently freed for reuse by calling the library function free
.These three approaches are appropriate in different situations and have various tradeoffs.^ These three approaches are appropriate in different situations and have various tradeoffs.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

.For example, static memory allocation has no allocation overhead, automatic allocation may involve a small amount of overhead, and dynamic memory allocation can potentially have a great deal of overhead for both allocation and deallocation.^ For example, static memory allocation has no allocation overhead, automatic allocation has a small amount of overhead during initialization, and dynamic memory allocation can potentially have a great deal of overhead for both allocation and deallocation.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ Static memory allocation: space for the object is provided in the binary at compile-time; these objects have an extent (or lifetime) as long as the binary which contains them is loaded into memory .
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ RAII, Dynamic Objects, and Factories in C++ Updated: 3 May 2005 RAII: automatic resource management in C++.
  • C / C++ Language - CodeProject 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.codeproject.com [Source type: Reference]

.On the other hand, stack space is typically much more limited and transient than either static memory or heap space, and dynamic memory allocation allows allocation of objects whose size is known only at run-time.^ I'm allocating structures which contain pointers to other dynamically-allocated objects.
  • Infrequently Asked Questions in comp.lang.c 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.seebs.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the other hand, stack space is typically much more limited and transient than either static memory or heap space, and dynamic memory allocation allows allocation of objects whose size is known only at run-time.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ It is typically used for dynamic memory allocation.

.Most C programs make extensive use of all three.^ Most C programs make extensive use of all three.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ It’s all about software used to program a group of similar microcontrollers of one manufacturer.
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Two of those three have been implemented completely in all four major compilers that I've used over the years.
  • Why C Is Not My Favourite Programming Language || kuro5hin.org 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Where possible, automatic or static allocation is usually preferred because the storage is managed by the compiler, freeing the programmer of the potentially error-prone chore of manually allocating and releasing storage.^ Where possible, automatic or static allocation is usually preferred because the storage is managed by the compiler, freeing the programmer of the potentially error-prone hassle of manually allocating and releasing storage.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ Included with the EMS4C library is the EMM4C library which allows C programmers to allocate and free EMS memory similiar to malloc() and free().

^ Unfortunately, many data structures can grow in size at runtime; since automatic and static allocations must have a fixed size at compile-time, there are many situations in which dynamic allocation must be used.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

.However, many data structures can grow in size at runtime, and since static allocations (and automatic allocations in C89 and C90) must have a fixed size at compile-time, there are many situations in which dynamic allocation must be used.^ Compilers are quite able to do arithmetics at compile time, use them.
  • C programming language coding guidelines 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lrdev.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It is typically used for dynamic memory allocation.

^ Unfortunately, many data structures can grow in size at runtime; since automatic and static allocations must have a fixed size at compile-time, there are many situations in which dynamic allocation must be used.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

.Prior to the C99 standard, variable-sized arrays were a common example of this (see malloc for an example of dynamically allocated arrays).^ Dynamic allocation based on the type of a variable.
  • A, B, C, ... D! The Programming Language > Comments 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.osnews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Variable-sized arrays are a common example of this (see "malloc" for an example of dynamically allocated arrays).
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ The main routine for this is malloc (memory allocation); it is part of the Standard C Library (so you need to include the header file "stdlib.h" in your code to use it).

.Automatically and dynamically allocated objects are only initialized if an initial value is explicitly specified; otherwise they initially have indeterminate values (typically, whatever bit pattern happens to be present in the storage, which might not even represent a valid value for that type).^ Dynamic allocation based on the type of a variable.
  • A, B, C, ... D! The Programming Language > Comments 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.osnews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is typically used for dynamic memory allocation.

^ Last time I used Pascal, casting pointers was an extension, which means you couldn't even do dynamic array allocation without using extensions (i.e.
  • Why C Is Not My Favourite Programming Language || kuro5hin.org 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

If the program attempts to access an uninitialized value, the results are undefined. .Many modern compilers try to detect and warn about this problem, but both false positives and false negatives occur.^ Compilers do not generate errors or warnings on semantically false explicit casts.
  • C programming language coding guidelines 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lrdev.com [Source type: Reference]

^ (In addition, some compilers might warn you about a type mismatch if you don't cast.

.Another issue is that heap memory allocation has to be manually synchronized with its actual usage in any program in order for it to be reused as much as possible.^ C style sources seem to be easier to read since going from the start of the file to the end is much more like the actual program flow compared to Pascal style.
  • C programming language coding guidelines 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lrdev.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Eg: you can have a generational GC'ed pool for general-purpose allocation, a manual heap for objects that should not be collected, a special slab allocator pool for fixed-sized objects, etc.
  • A, B, C, ... D! The Programming Language > Comments 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.osnews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On the other hand, stack space is typically much more limited and transient than either static memory or heap space, and dynamic memory allocation allows allocation of objects whose size is known only at run-time.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

.For example, if the only pointer to a heap memory allocation goes out of scope or has its value overwritten before free() has been called, then that memory cannot be recovered for later reuse and is essentially lost to the program, a phenomenon known as a memory leak. Conversely, it is possible to release memory too soon and continue to access it; however, since the allocation system can re-allocate or itself use the freed memory, unpredictable behavior is likely to occur when the multiple users corrupt each other's data.^ (It won't, however, free up any memory that you allocated during the program!

^ To free up a block of memory allocated with malloc use the free function.

^ It is typically used for dynamic memory allocation.

Typically, the symptoms will appear in a portion of the program far removed from the actual error. .Such issues are ameliorated in languages with automatic garbage collection or RAII.^ No automatic garbage collection .
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ There have been lots of kernels built with garbage-collected languages.
  • A, B, C, ... D! The Programming Language > Comments 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.osnews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Deeper Reasons Building a safe string type requires building a memory allocation system underneath, such as garbage collection or following the malloc/free discipline.
  • Why C Is Not My Favourite Programming Language || kuro5hin.org 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Libraries

.The C programming language uses libraries as its primary method of extension.^ What programming language is used is not a criteria where I am concerned.
  • C# developers going back to vb.net 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.msnewsgroups.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The C programming language uses libraries as its primary method of extension.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ One or more assembly instructions are inserted in the program written in C language using the asm command: .
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

.In C, a library is a set of functions contained within a single "archive" file.^ In C, a library is a collection of functions contained within a single file.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ Another common set of C library functions are those used by applications specifically targeted for Unix and Unix-like systems, especially functions which provide an interface to the kernel.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ If several modules are linked together to a library, a new external header file may be created that declares all extern functions.
  • C programming language coding guidelines 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lrdev.com [Source type: Reference]

.Each library typically has a header file, which contains the prototypes of the functions contained within the library that may be used by a program, and declarations of special data types and macro symbols used with these functions.^ A special type of program loop is the endless loop .
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

^ They consist of type definitions, function declarations (prototypes) and maybe global data declarations 24 and are located in header files.
  • C programming language coding guidelines 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lrdev.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The C data type FILE * is used for file pointers; it is declared in the header file .

.In order for a program to use a library, it must include the library's header file, and the library must be linked with the program, which in many cases requires compiler flags (e.g., -lm, shorthand for "math library").^ In order for a program to use a library, the header file from that library must be declared at the top of a source file, and the library must be linked to the program, which in many cases requires compiler flags (e.g., -lmath).
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ Include the header file #include to use these functions.

^ To use the library we first need to include the requisite header file, math.h .

.The most common C library is the C standard library, which is specified by the ISO and ANSI C standards and comes with every C implementation (“freestanding” [embedded] C implementations may provide only a subset of the standard library).^ The standard C implementation provides a library of useful mathematical functions.

^ The most common C library is the C standard library, which is specified by the ISO and ANSI C standard and comes standard with every modern C compiler.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ Another common set of C library functions are those used by applications specifically targeted for Unix and Unix-like systems, especially functions which provide an interface to the kernel.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

.This library supports stream input and output, memory allocation, mathematics, character strings, and time values.^ This library supports stream input and output, memory allocation, mathematics, character strings, and time values.
  • eIT 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.eit.in [Source type: Reference]

^ The main routine for this is malloc (memory allocation); it is part of the Standard C Library (so you need to include the header file "stdlib.h" in your code to use it).

^ As strings these days need to include full unicode support, I think C made the right choice: use an external library to do strings.
  • Why C Is Not My Favourite Programming Language || kuro5hin.org 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Another common set of C library functions are those used by applications specifically targeted for Unix and Unix-like systems, especially functions which provide an interface to the kernel.^ Use the standard library functions where possible.
  • C programming language coding guidelines 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lrdev.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The standard C implementation provides a library of useful mathematical functions.

^ Some additional prefixes are reserved and may not be used: str (string functions, string.h ), E (operating system error numbers, errno.h ).
  • C programming language coding guidelines 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lrdev.com [Source type: Reference]

.These functions are detailed in various standards such as POSIX and the Single UNIX Specification.^ To make this function work we pass two pointers to floats void swap_floats (float *x, float *y) { float temp; temp = *x; *x = *y; *y = temp; } Note that the values of x and y never change—only the variables pointed to by these variables .

^ The Single Unix Specification version three specifies 1,123 functions which must be available to the C programmer of the compliant system.
  • Why C Is Not My Favourite Programming Language || kuro5hin.org 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hardware specific libraries include functions intended to be used for controlling the operation of various hadware modules: .
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

.Since many programs have been written in C, there are a wide variety of other libraries available.^ There are also a few additional test programs for other data types."
  • Programming Texts/Tutorials 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC stommel.tamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ How can I find out if there are characters available for reading (and if so, how many)?
  • Infrequently Asked Questions in comp.lang.c 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.seebs.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are many useful functions in the C Standard Library.

.Libraries are often written in C because C compilers generate efficient object code; programmers then create interfaces to the library so that the routines can be used from higher-level languages like Java, Perl, and Python.^ That's like saying the Java can be compiled to native code: it can be, but it's not meant to be.
  • A, B, C, ... D! The Programming Language > Comments 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.osnews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But on higher level like Java i doesn't think it is any use at all when C# and Java is already here.
  • A, B, C, ... D! The Programming Language > Comments 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.osnews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As a result, the higher programming languages have been created.
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

Language tools

.Tools have been created to help C programmers avoid some of the problems inherent in the language, such as statements with undefined behavior or statements that are not a good practice because they are more likely to result in unintended behavior or run-time errors.^ The resulting expression will then be computed at run-time.

^ In more modern languages, the only difference is that the error happens at a different time.
  • Why C Is Not My Favourite Programming Language || kuro5hin.org 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ High level languages, and hard typed languages are not academic games, they are the result of investigation.
  • Why C Is Not My Favourite Programming Language || kuro5hin.org 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Automated source code checking and auditing are beneficial in any language, and for C many such tools exist, such as Lint.^ Such languages do exist.
  • Why C Is Not My Favourite Programming Language || kuro5hin.org 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Further, extended syntax-check programs such as lint should be used permanently.
  • C programming language coding guidelines 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lrdev.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Free tool for selection of source code control provider in Visual Studio Updated: 3 Mar 2005 Free revision-/version-control selection tool, SCCPortal.
  • C / C++ Language - CodeProject 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.codeproject.com [Source type: Reference]

.A common practice is to use Lint to detect questionable code when a program is first written.^ The compiler’s task is to convert a program written in C language into Hex code.
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Further, extended syntax-check programs such as lint should be used permanently.
  • C programming language coding guidelines 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lrdev.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This paper uses source code from the pi program just as in [Mattson95a].
  • Parallel Programming Pattern Language: AnnotatedBibliography 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cise.ufl.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Once a program passes Lint, it is then compiled using the C compiler.^ A compiler is not required for use with the program.

^ Further, extended syntax-check programs such as lint should be used permanently.
  • C programming language coding guidelines 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lrdev.com [Source type: Reference]

^ If you need a function to perform certain task while writing a program, you just have to look for it within some of the libraries which are integrated in the compiler and use it.
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

.Also, many compilers can optionally warn about syntactically valid constructs that are likely to actually be errors.^ (A compiler for a decent language should really make this an error instead of a warning.
  • A, B, C, ... D! The Programming Language > Comments 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.osnews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some compiler warnings reveal bad coding style rather than errors or incompatibilities.
  • C programming language coding guidelines 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lrdev.com [Source type: Reference]

^ When we compile this with our 'trusty' compiler gcc , we get no errors or warnings at all.
  • Why C Is Not My Favourite Programming Language || kuro5hin.org 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.MISRA C is a proprietary set of guidelines to avoid such questionable code, developed for embedded systems.^ Floating point logic may not be implemented on the operating system level on such systems (small embedded systems kernels being a sample).
  • C programming language coding guidelines 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lrdev.com [Source type: Reference]

^ "What follows is a set of rules, guidelines, and tips that we have found to be useful in making C++ code portable across many machines and compilers.
  • Programming Texts/Tutorials 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC stommel.tamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Operating System Development - Part 1 - Unedited Updated: 5 Jun 2008 Environment settings for OS development C++ (VC6, VC7, VC7.1, VC8.0), C, ASM .
  • C / C++ Language - CodeProject 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.codeproject.com [Source type: Reference]

There are also compilers, libraries and operating system level mechanisms for performing array bounds checking, buffer overflow detection, serialization and automatic garbage collection, that are not a standard part of C.
.Tools such as Purify, Valgrind, and linking with libraries containing special versions of the memory allocation functions can help uncover runtime memory errors.^ The main routine for this is malloc (memory allocation); it is part of the Standard C Library (so you need to include the header file "stdlib.h" in your code to use it).

^ If several modules are linked together to a library, a new external header file may be created that declares all extern functions.
  • C programming language coding guidelines 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lrdev.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Memory Allocation Tool Updated: 20 Feb 2003 Simple tool to test applications under various memory conditions.
  • C / C++ Language - CodeProject 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.codeproject.com [Source type: Reference]

Related languages

.C has directly or indirectly influenced many later languages such as Java, Perl, PHP, JavaScript, LPC, C# and Unix's C Shell.^ It is significantly smaller than the standard library of most modern languages (compare with .net or java, or even perl, python, or ruby).
  • Why C Is Not My Favourite Programming Language || kuro5hin.org 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Perl (Another language I used for non-BBS MUDS for external management utilities such as converting the player files to online-web files) * Java ("" "" "" "") * JavaScript (who doesn't know this one?
  • C# developers going back to vb.net 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.msnewsgroups.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Here's a small sample of the languages which have a "null" concept: Delphi CIL Perl C C++ Java JavaScript SQL COBOL Do you really want to claim that *all* of those derive from C? Even VBScript has Null!
  • C# developers going back to vb.net 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.msnewsgroups.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The most pervasive influence has been syntactical: all of the languages mentioned combine the statement and (more or less recognizably) expression syntax of C with type systems, data models and/or large-scale program structures that differ from those of C, sometimes radically.^ Yet more missing data types .
  • Why C Is Not My Favourite Programming Language || kuro5hin.org 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The kernel language is less suitable for expressing programs over irregular data structures.
  • Parallel Programming Pattern Language: AnnotatedBibliography 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cise.ufl.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ All those language derive from C. Really?
  • C# developers going back to vb.net 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.msnewsgroups.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When object-oriented languages became popular, C++ and Objective-C were two different extensions of C that provided object-oriented capabilities.^ This short paper provides an overview of object-oriented frameworks.
  • Parallel Programming Pattern Language: AnnotatedBibliography 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cise.ufl.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ But C language became very popular soon and it was difficult to keep everything under control.
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

^ (I won't go too deaply into my programming background other than to say that I still prefer assembly language - protected, unprotected, object oriented, ...
  • C# developers going back to vb.net 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.msnewsgroups.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Both languages were originally implemented as source-to-source compilers -- source code was translated into C, and then compiled with a C compiler.^ C++ implementation of the C# Property and Indexer with Accessor-Modifiers Updated: 11 Feb 2009 A C++ implementation of the C# functionality for both Property and Indexer, and controlling their compile-time accessibility using accessor-modifiers.
  • C / C++ Language - CodeProject 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.codeproject.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Permutations in C++ Updated: 10 Sep 2009 Explains the technique of finding permutations and provides source code for the recursive implementation.
  • C / C++ Language - CodeProject 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.codeproject.com [Source type: Reference]

^ These functions let you use compiled text databases for the different ISO language codes, while leaving your C sources still readable, i.e.
  • C programming language coding guidelines 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lrdev.com [Source type: Reference]

.Bjarne Stroustrup devised the C++ programming language as one approach to providing object-oriented functionality with C-like syntax.^ Functional logic programming language.
  • List of Programming Languages in Alphabetical Order 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.scriptol.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Users of functional programming languages may be pro-biased on this one.
  • C programming language coding guidelines 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lrdev.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Object oriented, functional programming language, now replaced by Aldor.
  • List of Programming Languages in Alphabetical Order 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.scriptol.com [Source type: Reference]

.C++ adds greater typing strength, scoping and other tools useful in object-oriented programming and permits generic programming via templates.^ Object-Oriented Programming in Fortran 90 - Viktor Decyk et al.
  • Programming Texts/Tutorials 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC stommel.tamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The real problem is that the environment and requirements you have when writing a kernel, is widely different, not just from GUI programming but also from writing other types of kernels.
  • A, B, C, ... D! The Programming Language > Comments 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.osnews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This is another irreplaceable tool in the event that the microcontroller you are writing program for uses graphic LCD display ( GLCD ).
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

.Nearly a superset of C, C++ now supports most of C, with a few exceptions (see Compatibility of C and C++ for an exhaustive list of differences).^ D" The pointer to the string data should of course be null for empty strings, but the pointer to the string should NOT. See a few paragraphs below if you're too stupid to understand the difference between 'string' and 'string data'.
  • A, B, C, ... D! The Programming Language > Comments 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.osnews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Most of the extra features you'd like to see - memory management, exceptions, more types, string handling - would involve extra work 'behind the scenes' to manage.
  • Why C Is Not My Favourite Programming Language || kuro5hin.org 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As it stand right now there are few differences between C# and VB. They are basically the same language overall, the real difference is the syntax.
  • C# developers going back to vb.net 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.msnewsgroups.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Unlike C++, which maintains nearly complete backwards compatibility with C, the D language makes a clean break with C while maintaining the same general syntax.^ Make a complete break!
  • A, B, C, ... D! The Programming Language > Comments 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.osnews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This rather demonstrates D's backward compatibility with C. Glancing at code and making a conclusion does not consitute a thorough assessment of a language with great potential.
  • A, B, C, ... D! The Programming Language > Comments 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.osnews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ D, but making use of D's C link-compatibility to save having to rewrite them while the language was still in development.
  • A, B, C, ... D! The Programming Language > Comments 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.osnews.com [Source type: Original source]

It abandons a number of features of C which Walter Bright (the designer of D) considered undesirable, including the C preprocessor and trigraphs. Some, but not all, of D's extensions to C overlap with those of C++.
.Objective-C was originally a very "thin" layer on top of, and remains a strict superset of, C that permits object-oriented programming using a hybrid dynamic/static typing paradigm.^ Object-Oriented Programming in Fortran 90 - Viktor Decyk et al.
  • Programming Texts/Tutorials 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC stommel.tamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Dynamic string buffer allocation using IStream Updated: 2 Dec 2001 Example source that demonstrates how to use Memory IStream objects to dynamically allocate and re-allocate string buffers VC6Win2K, Dev .
  • C / C++ Language - CodeProject 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.codeproject.com [Source type: Reference]

^ At the very least, D could have done something cool, like a CLOS-like object system, or blend functional, imperative and symbolic paradigms in a new, easy to use way.
  • A, B, C, ... D! The Programming Language > Comments 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.osnews.com [Source type: Original source]

.Objective-C derives its syntax from both C and Smalltalk: syntax that involves preprocessing, expressions, function declarations and function calls is inherited from C, while the syntax for object-oriented features was originally taken from Smalltalk.^ If it is necessary that called function returns results after being executed, the return command, which can be followed by any expression, is used: .
  • Chapter 2: Programming Microcontrollers - PIC Microcontrollers - Programming in C - Free Online Book - mikroElektronika 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mikroe.com [Source type: Reference]

^ I finally figured out the syntax for declaring pointers to functions, but now how do I initialize one?
  • Infrequently Asked Questions in comp.lang.c 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.seebs.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Taken on its surface, it looks to be little more than C with some object-oriented extensions.
  • Why C Is Not My Favourite Programming Language || kuro5hin.org 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Limbo is a language developed by the same team at Bell Labs that was responsible for C and Unix, and while retaining some of the syntax and the general style, introduced garbage collection, CSP based concurrency and other major innovations.^ My job couldn't be done without a C-based language, though, and neither could many others.
  • Why C Is Not My Favourite Programming Language || kuro5hin.org 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Kernighan already worked at Bell Labs, as a video game developer.
  • Infrequently Asked Questions in comp.lang.c 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.seebs.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The "herd mentality" also is responsible for letting ridiculous hold-overs from VB6 creep into .NET. (1-based collections?
  • C# developers going back to vb.net 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.msnewsgroups.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
Python has a different sort of C heritage. .While the syntax and semantics of Python are radically different from C, the most widely used Python implementation, CPython, is an open source C program.^ This paper uses source code from the pi program just as in [Mattson95a].
  • Parallel Programming Pattern Language: AnnotatedBibliography 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cise.ufl.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The real problem is that the environment and requirements you have when writing a kernel, is widely different, not just from GUI programming but also from writing other types of kernels.
  • A, B, C, ... D! The Programming Language > Comments 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.osnews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These functions let you use compiled text databases for the different ISO language codes, while leaving your C sources still readable, i.e.
  • C programming language coding guidelines 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lrdev.com [Source type: Reference]

.This allows C users to extend Python with C, or embed Python into C programs.^ C+Python or C+Lisp are GREAT programming environments these days (although you have to have a lot of confidence from your boss to be allowed the second).
  • Why C Is Not My Favourite Programming Language || kuro5hin.org 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By convention, a shell is a user program that is ASCII based, that allows the user to specify operations in a certain sequence.
  • Programming Texts/Tutorials 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC stommel.tamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.This close relationship is one of the key factors leading to Python's success as a general-use dynamic language.^ Any language worth using must consider the implementation at some level or it will fall behind ones that do.
  • A, B, C, ... D! The Programming Language > Comments 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.osnews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I think we could use a general model that includes both of these languages.
  • New Primitive Programming Language - Is it Turing Complete? - sci.logic | Google Groups 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ C++ Memory Clean Up - Unedited Updated: 25 Mar 2009 Demonstrating one of the C++ features , the dynamic allocation and de-allocation of arrays using pointers C++, C, Windows .
  • C / C++ Language - CodeProject 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.codeproject.com [Source type: Reference]

.Perl is another example of a popular programming language rooted in C. However, unlike Python, Perl's syntax does closely follow C syntax.^ What I meant by saying that C++ is the mother of all languages is that C#, PHP, Java, JavaScript and others that I don't know tried to follow the syntax of C/C++!
  • C# developers going back to vb.net 20 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.msnewsgroups.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One could follow Godels path in 1931 to show it includes the primitive recursive functions (by programming the 45 functions that he does.
  • New Primitive Programming Language - Is it Turing Complete? - sci.logic | Google Groups 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Consider the following particularly simple programming language called > LOOP+EQ: > 1.
  • New Primitive Programming Language - Is it Turing Complete? - sci.logic | Google Groups 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The standard Perl implementation is written in C and supports extensions written in C.

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ Dennis M. Ritchie (January 1993). "The Development of the C Language". http://cm.bell-labs.com/cm/cs/who/dmr/chist.html. Retrieved Jan 1 2008. "The scheme of type composition adopted by C owes considerable debt to Algol 68, although it did not, perhaps, emerge in a form that Algol's adherents would approve of." 
  2. ^ Stewart, Bill (January 7, 2000). "History of the C Programming Language". Living Internet. http://www.livinginternet.com/i/iw_unix_c.htm. Retrieved 2006-10-31. 
  3. ^ Patricia K. Lawlis, c.j. kemp systems, inc. (1997). "Guidelines for Choosing a Computer Language: Support for the Visionary Organization". Ada Information Clearinghouse. http://archive.adaic.com/docs/reports/lawlis/k.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-18. 
  4. ^ "Programming Language Popularity". 2009. http://www.langpop.com/. Retrieved 2009-01-16. 
  5. ^ "TIOBE Programming Community Index". 2009. http://www.tiobe.com/index.php/content/paperinfo/tpci/index.html. Retrieved 2009-05-06. 
  6. ^ C99 added a _Bool type, but it was not retrofitted into the language's existing Boolean contexts. One can simulate a Boolean datatype, e.g. with enum { false, true } bool;, but this does not provide all of the features of a separate Boolean datatype.
  7. ^ "Jargon File entry for nasal demons". http://www.catb.org/jargon/html/N/nasal-demons.html. 
  8. ^ Dr. Dobb's Sourcebook. U.S.A.: Miller Freeman, Inc.. Nov/Dec 1995 issue. 
  9. ^ "Using C for CGI Programming". linuxjournal.com. 2005-03-01. http://www.linuxjournal.com/article/6863. Retrieved 2010-01-04. 
  10. ^ "10 Common Programming Mistakes in C". Cs.ucr.edu. http://www.cs.ucr.edu/~nxiao/cs10/errors.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-26. 
  11. ^ The original example code will compile on most modern compilers that are not in strict standard compliance mode, but it does not fully conform to the requirements of either C89 or C99. In fact, C99 requires that a diagnostic message be produced.
  12. ^ The main function actually has two arguments, int argc and char *argv[], respectively, which can be used to handle command line arguments. The C standard requires that both forms of main be supported, which is special treatment not afforded any other function.

References

.
  • Brian Kernighan, Dennis Ritchie: The C Programming Language.^ Brian Kernighan, the documenter of the C programming language, wrote a rant entitled Why Pascal is Not My Favourite Programming Language .
    • Why C Is Not My Favourite Programming Language || kuro5hin.org 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.kuro5hin.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Assembly Programming Journal Assembly Language - Brian Brown (1988-1999) The History of Assembly Language Programming x86 Assembly Language FAQ - 1/3 - Raymond Moon et al.
    • Programming Texts/Tutorials 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC stommel.tamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ [BK/DR,1988] The C Programming Language, B. W. Kernighan, D. M Ritchie, Prentice Hall, 2nd Ed.
    • C programming language coding guidelines 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lrdev.com [Source type: Reference]

    .Also known as K&R – The original book on C.
    • 1st, Prentice Hall 1978; ISBN 0-13-110163-3. Pre-ANSI C.
    • 2nd, Prentice Hall 1988; ISBN 0-13-110362-8. ANSI C.
  • ISO/IEC 9899.^ BOOK: VBScript Programmer's Reference, 1st, 2nd, and 3rd editions .
    • software of c++ programming language 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC p2p.wrox.com [Source type: General]

    ^ There is an older standard K&R1 (Kernighan/Ritchie, 1st Edition 1978), also known as pre-ANSI-C .
    • C programming language coding guidelines 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lrdev.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The C programming language definition to consider is ISO/IEC 9899:1990 .
    • C programming language coding guidelines 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lrdev.com [Source type: Reference]

    Official C99 documents, including technical corrigenda and a rationale. .As of 2007 the latest version of the standard is ISO/IEC 9899:TC3PDF (3.61 MB).
  • Samuel P. Harbison, Guy L. Steele: C: A Reference Manual.^ Recommended C Style and Coding Standards (PDF format) This document is an updated version of the Indian Hill C Style and Coding Stan-dards paper, with modifications by the last three authors.

    ^ [Cann92] D.C. Cann, J.T. Feo, A.D.W. Bohoem, and R.R. Oldehoeft, "SISAL Reference Manual: language version 2.0", 1992.
    • Parallel Programming Pattern Language: AnnotatedBibliography 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cise.ufl.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .This book is excellent as a definitive reference manual, and for those working on C compilers.^ Compiler and Tools Tricks Using Shared and Static Libraries Across Platforms Introduction to Fortran: A Reference Manual - Aleksandar Donev (Jan.
    • Programming Texts/Tutorials 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC stommel.tamu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    The book contains a BNF grammar for C.
    • 5th, Prentice Hall 2002; ISBN 0-13-089592-X.
  • Derek M. Jones: The New C Standard: A Cultural and Economic Commentary, Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-201-70917-1, online material
  • Robert Sedgewick: Algorithms in C, Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-201-31452-5 (Part 1–4) and ISBN 0-201-31663-3 (Part 5)
  • William H. Press, Saul A. Teukolsky, William T. Vetterling, Brian P. Flannery: Numerical Recipes in C (The Art of Scientific Computing), ISBN 0-521-43108-5

External links

.

Simple English

The C programming language is a computer programming language that works close to the hardware. It was made in the 1970s by Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie to be used with the UNIX operating system. It is a procedural language, which means that people can write their programs as a series of step-by-step instructions. C is a compiled language.

Because the ideas behind C are kept close to the design of the computer, the compiler (program builder) can generate instructions for the computer that will run very fast. This makes C a good language for writing operating systems. Both Linux and UNIX are mostly made up of C.

C is available for many different types of computers. This is why C is called a "portable" language, because if you write a program in C, then you can build it for many different computers.

Example code

Here is an example of a program written in C. When built and run, it will show "Hello world!" on the computer screen.

  1. include

int main(void) {

 printf("Hello world!\n");
 return 0;

}

Other pages


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 12, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on C (programming language), which are similar to those in the above article.








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