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Cabrera National park
Native name: Cabrera (parque nacional maritimo terrestre del archipielago de cabrera)
Europe location Balearic Islands.png
Geography
Localització de Cabrera.png
Location Mediterranean Sea
Coordinates 39°09′N 2°57′E / 39.15°N 2.95°E / 39.15; 2.95
Archipelago Balearic Islands
Total islands 11
Major islands — Estells de Fora
— S'Imperial
— Cabrera
— Ses bledes
— Na Redona
— Conillera
— S'Esponja
— Na Plana
— Illot Pla
— Na Pobra
— Na Foradada
Area 1.569 hectares (3.9 acres)
Highest point Na Picamosques (172 metres (564 ft))
Country
Spain
Autonomous Community Balearic Islands
Province Balearic Islands
Demographics
Density 0 /km2 (0 /sq mi)

Cabrera (Latin: Capraia) is one of the minor Balearic Islands belonging to Spain, just south of Mallorca, in the Mediterranean Sea, at approximately 39° 9' N, 3° E.

It is the largest of a small archipelago of islands and islets, including (from south to north) the Estells de Fora, L'Imperial, Cabrera itself, Illa de ses Bledes, Na Redona, Conillera, L'Esponja, Na Plana, Illot Pla, Na Pobra, and Na Foradada.

History

Cabrera was used as a reclusion camp for French prisoners during the Napoleonic Wars. Of the 9,000 prisoners sent to Cabrera, only 3,600 survived.

Late in 1916 a malfunctioning Austro-Hungarian Navy submarine remained at Cabrera for several hours, and the Spanish government subsequently decided to expropriate the island for defence reasons. It is also alleged that the Mallorcan businessman Juan March Ordinas, avoiding the blockade, had been selling supplies, including fuel, for the submarine personnel, from the area of Cala Ganduf and S'Olla. There was strong international protest, particularly from by the British Admirality headed by Winston Churchill, as Spain was officially neutral during the First World War.

Cabrera remained a military zone until the 1980s, although from the 1920s some Mallorcan civilians rented their Cabrera land for agriculture production.

In 1936, during the Spanish Civil War, a Republican Dornier Wal D-1 airplane fell near the island. The crew were captured by military nationalist forces, but two Republican submarines (a B2 and B3) sent by order of Pedro Marqués Barber (an old officer and former military Minorca governor) came immediately and the small force of Cabrera surrendered. Facundo Flores Horrach (the chief military officer on Cabrera), Mariano Ferrer Bravo (a retired member of the Spanish military) and three civilian prisoners (3 males of the Suñer Mas family) were taken to Minorca and executed. After the failure of Captain Alberto Bayo Column landing in Mallorca, from 15 August to 4 September, the Republicans left Cabrera. Bayo's plan where that the CNT column, stationed in Cabrera, appears to Dragonera Island just SW of Mallorca and simulate a false landing. But anarchist CNT command refused this tactics and later went to Mallorca. A blood battle crash them in Porto Cristo, at first days.

In 1944, during World War II, a German airplane on a northern Africa operation, crashed into the sea, close to the Cabrera. One of the crew, Johanes Blocher, died and was buried in the small cemetery on the island until later his body was taken to the German Memorial of Yuste (Extremadura), to be laid alongside other German companions who had fallen on Spanish ground.

Cabrera is administratively grouped with Mallorca, and belongs to the municipality of Palma de Mallorca a former Santa Catalina district.

Tourism and ecology

The whole archipelago is a Spanish national park (Parque Nacional del Archipiélago de Cabrera). Cabrera is a cruising destination, and boats may anchor in the island's natural harbour. Boats may not anchor anywhere else due to the fragile marine life around the island. Many species survive on Cabrera that are rarely found around the Balearics, such as dolphins and sea snails. Diving is strictly forbidden and a licence must be sought, in advance, from the government, for a one day pass only. Thus, excursions to the island are a rare event and are treasured by the diving community. Hiking is available, and there is a tourist information office, a museum, and a 14th-century castle as well as a gift shop and café. The park covers 100 km² (13 km² land) but attracts few visitors due to its remoteness. The permanent population is below 100.

See List of Spanish national parks.

External links

Coordinates: 39°09′N 2°57′E / 39.15°N 2.95°E / 39.15; 2.95

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