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.
A team of obstetricians perform a Caesarean section in a modern hospital.
^ Why are caesarean sections performed?

^ A team of obstetricians perform a Caesarean section in a modern hospital.
  • Caesarean_Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mahalo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Shark performs caesarean section .
  • Caesarean Section — Blogs, Pictures, and more on WordPress 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC en.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

The image shows the very first moment the mother glimpses her new-born child.
.A Caesarian section (or Cesarean section in American English), also known as C-section or Caesar, is a surgical procedure in which incisions are made through a mother's abdomen (laparotomy) and uterus (hysterotomy) to deliver one or more babies.^ A caesarean section (c-section) is a surgical procedure where an infant is delivered through an incision made in the mother's abdominal wall, and then through the wall of the uterus.
  • PREVENTING DISEASES IN INFANTS DELIVERED VIA CAESAREAN SECTION - Patent application 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ What is a cesarean section?A cesarean section, or C - section, is the surgical delivery of an infant through an incision in the mother's abdomen and uterus.
  • Caesarean Section - at CWAnswers 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cwanswers.com [Source type: General]

^ Surgical operation to deliver a baby by way of an incision in the mother's abdominal and uterine walls.
  • Caesarean Section - at CWAnswers 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cwanswers.com [Source type: General]

.It is usually performed when a vaginal delivery would put the baby's or mother's life or health at risk, although in recent times it has been also performed upon request for childbirths that could otherwise have been natural.^ If I could do it all over again, I would still try to have a vaginal delivery.
  • Healthy Pregnancy: C-Section By Choice? 17 September 2009 3:15 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A torn uterus can put the life of both the mother and baby in danger.
  • BBC NEWS | Health | Caesarean 'raises womb-tear risk' 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC news.bbc.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ It is usually performed when a vaginal delivery would put the baby's or mother's life or health at risk, although in recent times it has also been performed upon request for births that would otherwise have been normal.
  • Oculus Innovative Sciences, Inc. - Oculus Innovative Sciences Announces Publication of Microcyn® Technology Post-Caesarean Section Wound Study in Indian Medical Gazette 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC ir.oculusis.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Oculus Innovative Sciences Announces Publication of Microcyn® Technology Post-Caesarean Section Wound Study in Indian Medical Gazette | Business Wire | Find Articles at BNET 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC findarticles.com [Source type: News]

[1][2][3] .The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that the rate of Caesarean sections should not exceed 15% in any country.^ Geneva, World Health Organization, 2006.
  • WHO | Births by Caesarean section (percentage) 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.who.int [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to the World Health Organization, Caesarean rates above 15 percent represent a danger to women and babies.
  • Report: More Parents Choosing Caesarean Sections - Health News Story - WDIV Detroit 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.clickondetroit.com [Source type: News]

^ Background Caesarean section rates are increasing.
  • Caesarean section among relatives -- Tollånes et al. 37 (6): 1341 -- International Journal of Epidemiology 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC ije.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

However, in recent years the rate has risen to a record level of 46% in China and to levels of 25% and above in many Asian countries, Latin America and the USA.[4]

Contents

Etymology

There are three theories about the origin of the name:
.
  1. The name for the procedure is said to derive from a Roman legal code called "Lex Caesarea", which allegedly contained a law prescribing that the baby be cut out of its mother's womb in the case that she dies before giving birth.^ This was called the lex caesarea.
    • Cesarean Section - Anesthesia for Pregnancy and Cesarean Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC cesarean-section.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This was called the lex caesarea .
    • Caesarean section Obstetrics 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lumrix.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The baby is lifted out of the womb.
    • Nine Months : Caesarean Birth 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mothersbliss.com [Source type: General]

    [5] .(The Merriam-Webster dictionary is unable to trace any such law; but "Lex Caesarea" might mean simply "imperial law" rather than a specific statute of Julius Caesar.^ This law continued throughout the reign of the Roman Emperors, and was known as Lex Caesarea - caesus being the Latin for 'cut' or 'incision'; a more likely root for the term.
    • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A974333 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It may have been so named because of a law, enacted under Julius Caesar’s rule, which required this form of birth when a mother was sick or dying.

    ^ It is also thought that cesarean section may derive from lex Caesaria, the name, under the Caesars, for the law that ordered the operation be performed on womendying in late pregnancy or in childbirth.
    • Cesarean section Definition | Definition of Cesarean section at Dictionary.com 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

    )
  2. .
  3. The derivation of the name is also often attributed to an ancient story, told in the first century A.D. by Pliny the Elder, which claims that an ancestor of Caesar was delivered in this manner.^ The derivation of the name is also often attributed to an ancient story, told in the first century A.D. by Pliny the Elder , which claims that Caesar's ancestor was delivered thus.
    • What is Caesarean Section? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The real etymology of the name Caesar (a much older family name) is completely unrelated, but a very early folk etymology invented the story of Julius Caesar's birth by section in order to suggest that his name is derived from this verb.
    • Cesarean Section - Anesthesia for Pregnancy and Cesarean Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC cesarean-section.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It is also thought that cesarean section may derive from lex Caesaria, the name, under the Caesars, for the law that ordered the operation be performed on womendying in late pregnancy or in childbirth.
    • Cesarean section Definition | Definition of Cesarean section at Dictionary.com 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

    [6]
  4. .
  5. An alternative etymology suggests that the procedure's name derives from the Latin verb caedere (supine stem caesum), "to cut," in which case the term "Caesarean section" is redundant.^ There are several elements which contribute to a linguistic explanation of the word caesarean.The term may be simply derived from the Latin verb caedere (supine stem caesum), 'to cut'.
    • Cesarean Section - Anesthesia for Pregnancy and Cesarean Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC cesarean-section.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Latin verb 'to cut' is caedere, with its past participle caesus; .

    ^ There are several terms for the procedure - Caesarean, C section and Caesar.
    • Caesarean Section - Information for New Zealand Parents 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.kiwifamilies.co.nz [Source type: General]

    .Proponents of this view consider the traditional derivation to be a false etymology, though the supposed link with Julius Caesar has clearly influenced the spelling.^ Proponents of this view consider the traditional derivation to be a false etymology, though the supposed link with Julius Caesar has clearly influenced the spelling.
    • What is Caesarean Section? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The real etymology of the name Caesar (a much older family name) is completely unrelated, but a very early folk etymology invented the story of Julius Caesar's birth by section in order to suggest that his name is derived from this verb.
    • Cesarean Section - Anesthesia for Pregnancy and Cesarean Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC cesarean-section.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The real etymology of the name Caesar (a much older family name) is completely unrelated, but a very early folk etymologyinvented the story of Julius Caesar's birth by section in order to suggest that his name is derived from this verb.
    • Caesarean section Obstetrics 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lumrix.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .(A corollary suggesting that Julius Caesar himself derived his name from the operation is refuted by the fact that the cognomen "Caesar" had been used in the Julii family for centuries before his birth,[7] and the Historia Augusta cites three possible sources for the name Caesar, none of which have to do with Caesarean sections or the root word caedere.^ I am not condemning Caesarean section births.
    • Wendy Stacey - Astrology London, UK 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.wendystacey.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Contrary to popular myth, caesarean section has nothing to do with the birth of Julius Caesar.
    • Caesarean Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC obgyncanada.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Where a natural, vaginal birth is not possible, a surgical procedure known as Caesarean Section is used.

    )
.The link with the Roman dictator Julius Caesar, or with Roman Emperors generally, exists in other languages as well.^ On the other hand, it is argued that the general's family, the Julii, acquired the cognomen Caesar (from Latin caedere , to cut) because the operation wasonce performed on a forebear.
  • Cesarean section Definition | Definition of Cesarean section at Dictionary.com 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The caesarean is possibly named after Roman military and political leader Julius Caesar who allegedly was so delivered.
  • Cesarean Section - Anesthesia for Pregnancy and Cesarean Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC cesarean-section.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Legend has it that the name - Caesarean, was derived from the Roman dictator, Julius Caesar , as he was thought to have been born in this fashion.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A974333 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.For example, the modern German, Danish, Dutch and Hungarian terms are respectively Kaiserschnitt, kejsersnit, keizersnede and császármetszés (literally: "Emperor's cut").^ The form of the modern English word caesarean may come either from the law or from the name Caesar, but the modern German Kaiserschnitt (literally: 'Emperor's section') obviously comes directly from the legend of Julius Caesar's birth.
  • Caesarean section Obstetrics 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lumrix.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cesarean Section - Anesthesia for Pregnancy and Cesarean Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC cesarean-section.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This law continued throughout the reign of the Roman Emperors, and was known as Lex Caesarea - caesus being the Latin for 'cut' or 'incision'; a more likely root for the term.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A974333 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, modern technology allows us, in many respects, to disregard the divisions of night and day or the seasons of the year.
  • Caesarean section or vaginal birth - What difference does it make? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.caesarean.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8] The German term has also been imported into Japanese (帝王切開) and Korean (제왕 절개), both literally meaning "emperor incision." The South Slavic term is carski rez, which literally means tzar cut, whereas the Western Slavic (Polish) has an analogous term: cesarskie cięcie. .The Russian term kesarevo secheniye (кесарево сечение) literally means Caesar's section.^ You may have found this page by searching for "caesar, c-section, cut in abdomen, surgical delivery, emergency, cesarean" or similar terms.

^ There are several terms for the procedure - Caesarean, C section and Caesar.
  • Caesarean Section - Information for New Zealand Parents 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.kiwifamilies.co.nz [Source type: General]

^ The German term has also been imported into Japanese (帝王切開) and Korean (제왕절개), both literally meaning "emperor incision."
  • What is Caesarean Section? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Arabic term (القيصرية) also means pertaining to Caesar or literally Caesarean.^ There are several terms for the procedure - Caesarean, C section and Caesar.
  • Caesarean Section - Information for New Zealand Parents 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.kiwifamilies.co.nz [Source type: General]

^ The German term has also been imported into Japanese (帝王切開) and Korean (제왕절개), both literally meaning "emperor incision."
  • What is Caesarean Section? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Log in to Reply bandguy54 says: 43 January 2, 2009 at 2:57 pm Over on YouTube someone said that the German term is “Kaiserschnitt” and that means “emperor cut” Since the word “Kaiser” is from the root word “Caesar” it really means “Caesar Cut” or Caesarean!
  • Caesarean (Cesarean) Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.hotforwords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In Romania and Portugal it is usually called cesariana, meaning from (or related to) Caesar. .The expression in Portuguese usually does not include other words to designate the section.^ I had stayed in pain for such a length of time that when my doctor uttered the words C-section, I saw no other alternative.

^ Other useful exercises to try after a caesarean section include deep breathing, with the focus on the exhale: support your incision with your hands and instead of coughing, try to " huff ".
  • Fitness Articles ::: Fertility & Pregnancy : Recovering after Caesarean birth 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.womenfitness.net [Source type: General]

^ The other part of the decision is that I am not going a day past my due date, and will actually schedule a c-section on the due date in case labor does not start naturally before then.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Vaginal Birth after a Cesarean (VBAC) 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Usual uses of the term are I'm going to have a cesariana next week or I was delivered by cesariana.^ I go to the doctor at the start of next week.
  • Healthy Pregnancy: C-Section By Choice? 17 September 2009 3:15 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Patients will usually go home the day of surgery and can expect a one- to two-week recovery period at home, and then a return to normal activities.
  • Incisional Hernia Repair - Definition, Purpose, Demographics, Description, Diagnosis/Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results, Morbidity and mortality rates, Alternatives 15 September 2009 5:45 UTC www.surgeryencyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have had it aspirated 2 X and am going back next week for a 3rd time.
  • Incisional Hernia Repair - Definition, Purpose, Demographics, Description, Diagnosis/Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results, Morbidity and mortality rates, Alternatives 15 September 2009 5:45 UTC www.surgeryencyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Orthography

.
  • The e/ae/æ variation reflects American and British English spelling differences.
  • The cap-versus-lowercase variation reflects a style of lowercasing some eponymous terms (e.g., cesarean, eustachian, fallopian, mendelian, parkinsonian, parkinsonism).^ Caesarean section - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia A Caesarean section (or Cesarean section in American English), also known as C-section or Caesar, is a surgical procedure in which incisions are made through a mother's abdomen and ...
    • c-section - Search Results - MSN Encarta 17 September 2009 3:15 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Your healthcare providers may have some suggestions about short-term help for you and your baby following the cesarean section.

    ^ LONG TERM EFFECTS & CONCERNS OF CESAREANS ON MOTHERS There are some concerns about ongoing effects of cesareans on mothers.
    • MoonDragon's ObGyn Information: Procedures - Cesarean Section 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.moondragon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [9] Cap and lowercase stylings coexist in prevalent usage. Intradocument style consistency is usually advocated.

History

.
Successful Caesarean section performed by indigenous healers in Kahura, Uganda.
^ She is believed to be the only woman to have performed a successful caesarean section on herself.
  • What is Caesarean Section? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Caesarean section Obstetrics 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lumrix.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cesarean Section - Anesthesia for Pregnancy and Cesarean Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC cesarean-section.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Successful caesarean section performed by indigenous healers in Kahura, Uganda .
  • What is Caesarean Section? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Shark performs caesarean section .
  • Caesarean Section — Blogs, Pictures, and more on WordPress 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC en.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

As observed by R. W. Felkin in 1879.
.Pliny the Elder theorized that Julius Caesar's name came from an ancestor who was born by Caesarean section, but the truth of this is debated (see the article on the Etymology of the name of Julius Caesar).^ Main article: Elective caesarean section .
  • What is Caesarean Section? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Baby Isabella: born by Caesarean section .
  • Childbirth: elective Caesarean - myDr.com.au 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mydr.com.au [Source type: General]

^ No I was not born by Caesarean section.
  • Caesarean (Cesarean) Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.hotforwords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Ancient Roman Caesarean section was first performed to remove a baby from the womb of a mother who died during childbirth.^ He didn't perform a C-section as the mother would have died from that type of surgery.
  • SurfWax: News, Reviews and Articles On C-Section 17 September 2009 3:15 UTC health.surfwax.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the indication for the first caesarean section was not recurrent (i.e.
  • CAESAREAN SECTION 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.planababy.com [Source type: General]

^ Most mothers and babies do well after C-section.
  • Cesarean Section: Planned and Unplanned, Risks, and Recovery of a C-Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: General]
  • Caesarean Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.healthlinkbc.ca [Source type: General]
  • Cesarean Section - AOL Health 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.aolhealth.com [Source type: General]
  • Cesarean Section - Yahoo! Health 17 September 2009 3:15 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

.Caesar's mother, Aurelia, lived through childbirth and successfully gave birth to her son, ruling out the possibility that the Roman Dictator and General was born by Caesarean section.^ Caesar's mother, Aurelia, lived through childbirth and successfully gave birth to her son, therefore ruling out the possibility that the dictator was a C-section baby.
  • Caesarean section Obstetrics 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lumrix.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cesarean Section - Anesthesia for Pregnancy and Cesarean Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC cesarean-section.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Caesarean Section, or a c-section, is the surgical method of childbirth.
  • Giving Birth: Find Out More About C-Sections 17 September 2009 3:15 UTC www.womens-health.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Baby Isabella: born by Caesarean section .
  • Childbirth: elective Caesarean - myDr.com.au 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mydr.com.au [Source type: General]

.The Catalan saint, Raymond Nonnatus (1204-1240), received his surname — from the Latin non natus ("not born") — because he was born by Caesarean section.^ Baby Isabella: born by Caesarean section .
  • Childbirth: elective Caesarean - myDr.com.au 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mydr.com.au [Source type: General]

^ No I was not born by Caesarean section.
  • Caesarean (Cesarean) Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.hotforwords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It's difficult to determine the risks and benefits of elective caesareans because current studies are based on non-elective C-sections involving women with medical or obstetric problems.
  • CBC News Indepth: Caesarean births 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cbc.ca [Source type: News]

.His mother died while giving birth to him.^ His mother died while giving birth to him.
  • What is Caesarean Section? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The UK National Health Service gives the risk of death for the mother as three times that of a vaginal birth.
  • What is Caesarean Section? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cesarean Section - Anesthesia for Pregnancy and Cesarean Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC cesarean-section.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The reason given at our unit is that the birth partner is there to do just that give support and if the woman has a GA then she is asleep and there is no need for him/her to be in theatre.
  • Planning a Good Caesarean Section: UK Midwifery Archives 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.radmid.demon.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

[10]
.In 1316 the future Robert II of Scotland was delivered by Caesarean section — his mother, Marjorie Bruce, died.^ The mother has had a previous caesarean section.
  • Caesarean section information from NHS Choices on TheFamilyGP.com 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC health.virginmedia.com [Source type: General]

^ Methods of delivering the placenta at caesarean section .
  • Systematic Reviews of Caesarean Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.healthinsite.gov.au [Source type: Reference]

^ In 1316 the future Robert II of Scotland was delivered by caesarean section — his mother, Marjorie Bruce , died.
  • What is Caesarean Section? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This may have been the inspiration for Macduff in Shakespeare's play Macbeth". (see below).
.Caesarean section usually resulted in the death of the mother; the first recorded incidence of a woman surviving a Caesarean section was in 1500, in Siegershausen, Switzerland: Jakob Nufer, a pig gelder, is supposed to have performed the operation on his wife after a prolonged labour.^ She is believed to be the only woman to have performed a successful caesarean section on herself.
  • What is Caesarean Section? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Caesarean section Obstetrics 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lumrix.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cesarean Section - Anesthesia for Pregnancy and Cesarean Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC cesarean-section.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A Caesarean section usually takes 30-45 minutes to perform.
  • Patient information leaflet - Caesarean section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cks.nhs.uk [Source type: General]

^ The first few days after caesarean section .
  • AboutKidsHealth: Pregnancy and Babies: Recovery After Caesarean Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.aboutkidshealth.ca [Source type: General]

.For most of the time since the sixteenth century, the procedure had a high mortality.^ For most of the time since the sixteenth century, the procedure had a high mortality .
  • What is Caesarean Section? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For most of the time, the procedure had a high mortality .
  • Caesarean section Obstetrics 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lumrix.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For most of the time, the procedure had a high mortality.
  • Cesarean Section - Anesthesia for Pregnancy and Cesarean Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC cesarean-section.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, it was long considered an extreme measure, performed only when the mother was already dead or considered to be beyond help.^ Part II: Facts And Figures Caesarean sections go back thousands of years, but originally, they were only used on dead or dying mothers.
  • Caesarean Sections: The Easy Way Out? - cbs2chicago.com 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC cbs2chicago.com [Source type: General]

^ However this must be balanced against the potential risks to both the mother and the fetus, of performing such a delivery outside normal working hours.
  • Time to train all doctors to look after seriously ill patients 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.smj.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ However, as long as patients know the risks, he doesnt have a problem with performing an elective Caesarean section.
  • Telegram.com - A product of the Worcester Telegram & Gazette 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.telegram.com [Source type: News]

.In Great Britain and Ireland the mortality rate in 1865 was 85%.^ In Great Britain and Ireland the mortality in 1865was 85%.
  • Caesarean section Obstetrics 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lumrix.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Great Britain and Ireland the mortality rate in 1865 was 85%.
  • What is Caesarean Section? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The nation's infant mortality rate was used as an international yardstick of the quality of health care, and great emphasis was placed on improving infant survival.
  • The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Consensus Development Program: Cesarean Childbirth 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC consensus.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Key steps in reducing mortality were:
.European travelers in the Great Lakes region of Africa during the 19th century observed Caesarean sections being performed on a regular basis.^ What are some risks during a caesarean section?

^ European travelers in the Great Lakes regionof Africaduring the 19th centuryobserved caeserean sections being performed on a regular basis.
  • Caesarean section Obstetrics 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lumrix.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Shark performs caesarean section .
  • Caesarean Section — Blogs, Pictures, and more on WordPress 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC en.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

[11] .The expectant mother was normally anesthetized with alcohol, and herbal mixtures were used to encourage healing.^ The expectant mother was normally anesthetized with alcohol and herbal mixtures were used to encourage healing.
  • Caesarean section Obstetrics 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lumrix.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cesarean Section - Anesthesia for Pregnancy and Cesarean Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC cesarean-section.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A cesarean is usually used when an expectant mother has diabetes mellitus.
  • Cesarean Birth and Reaons for Having a Cesarean 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.the-health-pages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is not my normal practice to encourage the use of a clock but it was easier and less stressful for Carlie to be sure she offered him breast milk every 2 hours.
  • >> STORY BOOK - Natural Birth After Caesarean Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.melbmidwifery.com.au [Source type: General]

.From the well-developed nature of the procedures employed, European observers concluded that they had been employed for some time.^ From the well-developed nature of the procedures employed, European observers concluded that they had been employed for some time.
  • What is Caesarean Section? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Caesarean section Obstetrics 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lumrix.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cesarean Section - Anesthesia for Pregnancy and Cesarean Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC cesarean-section.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Whilst all recognised that the assumption of the parental jurisdiction in relation to an unborn child would require radical extension, some argued that it would be a logical and natural development.

^ Some mothers, especially first time ones, can be so out of it, they don't want the pups anywhere near them.

[11]
The first successful Caesarean section to be performed in America took place in what was formerly Mason County Virginia (now Mason County West Virginia) in 1794. The procedure was performed by Dr. Jesse Bennett on his wife Elizabeth.[12]
.On March 5, 2000, Inés Ramírez performed a caesarean section on herself and survived, as did her son, Orlando Ruiz Ramírez.^ She is believed to be the only woman to have performed a successful caesarean section on herself.
  • What is Caesarean Section? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Caesarean section Obstetrics 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lumrix.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cesarean Section - Anesthesia for Pregnancy and Cesarean Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC cesarean-section.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Shark performs caesarean section .
  • Caesarean Section — Blogs, Pictures, and more on WordPress 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC en.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

^ On March 5, 2000, Ines Ramirez performed a caesarean section on herself and survived, as did her son, Orlando Ruiz Ramirez.
  • Cesarean Section - Anesthesia for Pregnancy and Cesarean Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC cesarean-section.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.She is believed to be the only woman to have performed a successful Caesarean section on herself.^ I firmly believe it is a woman's choice to have a C-section.
  • Healthy Pregnancy: C-Section By Choice? 17 September 2009 3:15 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And Ines Ramirez is recognised internationally as a modern miracle: She is believed to be the only woman known to have performed a successful Caesarean-section on herself.
  • Woman Did Own Caesarean Section to Give Birth – Neatorama 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.neatorama.com [Source type: General]

^ She is believed to be the only woman to have performed a successful caesarean section on herself.
  • What is Caesarean Section? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Caesarean section Obstetrics 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lumrix.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cesarean Section - Anesthesia for Pregnancy and Cesarean Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC cesarean-section.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An early account of Caesarean section in Iran is mentioned in the book of Shahnameh, written around 1000 AD, and relates to the birth of Rostam, the national legendary hero of Iran [13][14].^ I am not condemning Caesarean section births.
  • Wendy Stacey - Astrology London, UK 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.wendystacey.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The rate of caesarean section births is on the rise.
  • External cephalic version vs caesarean section birth. - Huggies 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.huggies.com.au [Source type: General]

^ Next birth after Caesarean Section .
  • Pregnancy - Pregnancy Topics - Having your baby by Caesarean section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cyh.com [Source type: General]
  • Pregnancy - Pregnancy Topics - Next birth after Caesarean Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cyh.com [Source type: General]

Types

Pulling out the baby.
A Caesarean section in progress.
Suturing of the uterus after extraction.
Closed Incision for low transverse abdominal incision after stapling has been completed.
.There are several types of Caesarean section (CS).^ There are several types of caesarean sections (CS): .
  • Caesarean section Obstetrics 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lumrix.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are several types of caesarean sections (CS).
  • What is Caesarean Section? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are several types of infections after cesarean sections.

.An important distinction lies in the type of incision (longitudinal or latitudinal) made on the uterus, apart from the incision on the skin.^ Another incision will be made in the wall of the uterus.
  • Cesarean Births - Center for Women's Health in Fort Walton Beach, Destin, Niceville Florida 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.white-wilson.com [Source type: General]

^ Another incision is made in the uterus.
  • MoonDragon's ObGyn Information: Procedures - Cesarean Section 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.moondragon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Type of skin incision and type of uterine incision .
  • Cesarean Delivery in Family Medicine (Position Paper) -- Policy & Advocacy -- American Academy of Family Physicians 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

.
  • The classical Caesarean section involves a midline longitudinal incision which allows a larger space to deliver the baby.^ Methods of delivering the placenta at caesarean section .
    • Systematic Reviews of Caesarean Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.healthinsite.gov.au [Source type: Reference]

    ^ There is no fetal stress involved in delivering a baby by C-section.
    • Healthy Pregnancy: C-Section By Choice? 17 September 2009 3:15 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Having your baby by Caesarean section .
    • Pregnancy - Pregnancy Topics - Having your baby by Caesarean section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cyh.com [Source type: General]
    • Pregnancy - Pregnancy Topics - Next birth after Caesarean Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cyh.com [Source type: General]

    .However, it is rarely performed today as it is more prone to complications.
  • The lower uterine segment section is the procedure most commonly used today; it involves a transverse cut just above the edge of the bladder and results in less blood loss and is easier to repair.
  • An emergency Caesarean section is a Caesarean performed once labour has commenced.
  • A crash Caesarean section is a Caesarean performed in an obstetric emergency, where complications of pregnancy onset suddenly during the process of labour, and swift action is required to prevent the deaths of mother, child(ren) or both.
  • A Caesarean hysterectomy consists of a Caesarean section followed by the removal of the uterus.^ Blood loss during a caesarean section is twice as much as the blood lost during a vaginal birth.

    ^ Cut only the centre of her lower segment.
    • http://www.meb.uni-bonn.de/dtc/primsurg/docbook/html/x5840.html 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.meb.uni-bonn.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ My first child was an emergency c-section.
    • Giving birth by cesarean section | BabyCenter 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.babycenter.com [Source type: General]

    .This may be done in cases of intractable bleeding or when the placenta cannot be separated from the uterus.
  • Traditionally other forms of Caesarean section have been used, such as extraperitoneal Caesarean section or Porro Caesarean section.
  • a repeat Caesarean section is done when a patient had a previous Caesarean section.^ During caesarean section, awareness may occur in up to 2% of patients.
    • PREOP - Anaesthetic Information For Caesarean Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.preop.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This may be done in cases of intractable bleeding or when the placenta cannot be separated from the uterus.
    • What is Caesarean Section? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Caesarean section Obstetrics 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lumrix.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Cesarean Section - Anesthesia for Pregnancy and Cesarean Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC cesarean-section.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Traditionally other forms of CS had been used, i.e.
    • Caesarean section Obstetrics 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lumrix.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Cesarean Section - Anesthesia for Pregnancy and Cesarean Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC cesarean-section.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Typically it is performed through the old scar.
.In many hospitals, especially in Argentina, the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Norway, Sweden, Australia, and New Zealand the mother's birth partner is encouraged to attend the surgery to support the mother and share the experience.^ In many hospitals, especially in the United States , United Kingdom , Canada , Australia , and New Zealand the mother's birth partner is encouraged to attend the surgery to support the mother and share the experience.
  • What is Caesarean Section? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You will meet mothers who have had many different birthing experiences.
  • LLLI | Breastfeed after a cesarean birth 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.llli.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In many hospitals, especially in the USA and Australia , the father is encouraged to attend the caesarian section to support and share the experience with his partner.
  • Caesarean section Obstetrics 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lumrix.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The anaesthetist will usually lower the drape temporarily as the child is delivered so the parents can see their newborn.^ The anaesthetist will usually lower the drape temporarily as the child is delivered so the parents can see their newborn.
  • What is Caesarean Section? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cesarean Section - Anesthesia for Pregnancy and Cesarean Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC cesarean-section.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The anaesthetistwill usually lower the drape temporarily as the child is delivered so the parents can see their newborn.
  • Caesarean section Obstetrics 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lumrix.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you do require a Caesarean to deliver your baby, the surgery can usually be done under an epidural anaesthetic, which allows you to stay awake and see the baby as soon as he or she is born.

Indications

A 7 week old Caesarean section scar and linea nigra visible on a 31 year old female.
.Caesarean section is recommended when vaginal delivery might pose a risk to the mother or baby.^ A c-section allows safe and quick delivery of a baby when a vaginal delivery is not possible.
  • Cesarean Section – FREE Cesarean Section information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Cesarean Section research 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What are some risks concerning caesarean sections?

^ Why might I need a caesarean section?
  • UNSW Embryology- Normal Development- Birth - Caesarean Delivery 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC embryology.med.unsw.edu.au [Source type: Academic]
  • Caesarean section advice – Cow & Gate 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cowandgate.co.uk [Source type: General]

.Not all of the listed conditions represent a mandatory indication, and in many cases the obstetrician must use discretion to decide whether a caesarean is necessary.^ We've drawn up a birth plan to help you decide what to do if you have a caesarean section - whether you are expecting to give birth that way or not.

^ Introduction M's case was selected for this article because the treatment procedures are representative of those commonly used, and her outcomes are also typical.
  • Treating Cesarean Birth Trauma During Infancy and Childhood 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.eheart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many previous reports have dealt with the pathogenic effects of genital mycoplasmas in the case of Caesarean section.
  • Severe endometritis caused by genital mycoplasmas after Caesarean section -- Patai et al. 54 (12): 1249 -- Journal of Medical Microbiology 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC jmm.sgmjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

Some indications for caesarean delivery are:
Complications of labor and factors impeding vaginal delivery such as
.
  • prolonged labor or a failure to progress (dystocia)
  • fetal distress
  • cord prolapse
  • uterine rupture
  • placental problems (placenta praevia, placental abruption or placenta accreta)
  • abnormal presentation (breech or transverse positions)
  • failed labor induction
  • failed instrumental delivery (by forceps or ventouse.^ Placental or cord problem .
    • CAESAREAN SECTION 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.planababy.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Breech position and delivery .
    • Pregnancy - Pregnancy Topics - Having your baby by Caesarean section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cyh.com [Source type: General]
    • Pregnancy - Pregnancy Topics - Next birth after Caesarean Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cyh.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Reasons for caesarean delivery include prolonged labour or a failure to progress ( dystocia ) apparent fetal distress apparent maternal distress complications ( pre-eclampsia , active herpes ) catastrophes such as cord prolapse or uterine rupture multiple births abnormal presentation ( breech or transverse positions) failed induction of labour failed instrumental delivery (by forceps or ventouse .
    • What is Caesarean Section? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Sometimes a 'trial of forceps/ventouse' is tried out - This means a forceps/ventouse delivery is attempted, and if the forceps/ventouse delivery is unsuccessful, it will be switched to a caesarean section.
  • overly large baby (macrosomia)
  • umbilical cord abnormalities (vasa previa, multi-lobate including bi-lobate and succenturiate-lobed placentas, velamentous insertion)
  • contracted pelvis
Other complications of pregnancy, preexisting conditions and concomitant disease such as
  • pre-eclampsia
  • hypertension [15]
  • multiple births
  • precious (High Risk) Fetus
  • HIV infection of the mother
  • Sexually transmitted infections such as genital herpes (which can be passed on to the baby if the baby is born vaginally, but can usually be treated in with medication and do not require a Caesarean section)
  • previous Caesarean section (though this is controversial – see discussion below)
  • prior problems with the healing of the perineum (from previous childbirth or Crohn's Disease)
Other
.
  • Lack of Obstetric Skill (Obstetricians not being skilled in performing breech births, multiple births, etc.^ Critics worry that caesareans are performed because they are profitable for the hospital, or because a quick caesarian is more convenient for an obstetrician than a lengthy vaginal birth.
    • Caesarean section Obstetrics 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.lumrix.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Cesarean Section - Anesthesia for Pregnancy and Cesarean Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC cesarean-section.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Critics worry that caesareans are performed because they are profitable for the hospital, or because a quick caesarean is more convenient for an obstetrician than a lengthy vaginal birth, or because it is easier to perform surgery at 7 a.m.
    • What is Caesarean Section? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Now, with the advent of the obstetrician or 'man-midwife', the process of birth was being wrested from being a normal process to that of the clinical presenting problem.
    • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A974333 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

    [In most situations women can birth under these circumstances naturally. However, obstetricians are not always trained in proper procedures])[16]
  • Improper Use of Technology (Electric Fetal Monitoring [EFM])[16][17]

Risks

.
One of the most common risks: 2 weeks after the Caesarean section, fluid retention in the wound.
^ What are some risks concerning caesarean sections?

^ Some of the most common conditions for which a Caesarean section may be advised are: .
  • Midlands Ultrasound and Medical Services - Caesarean Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mums.me.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What are some risks during a caesarean section?

Incision had to be opened to use a Negative pressure wound therapy unit to drain the body fluids to prevent infection.

Risks for the mother

.The mortality rate for both Caesarian sections and vaginal birth, in the Western world, continues to drop steadily.^ C-Section OR vaginal birth, it was up to me.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Vaginal Birth after a Cesarean (VBAC) 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ However the mortality rate for both continues to drop steadily.
  • What is Caesarean Section? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What a difference between c-section and vaginal birth!
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Vaginal Birth after a Cesarean (VBAC) 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In 2000, the mortality rate for Caesareans in the United States were 20 per 1,000,000.[18] The UK National Health Service gives the risk of death for the mother as three times that of a vaginal birth.^ Risks of vaginal birth .
  • Caesarean Section for Maternal Choice? - Association of Radical Midwives 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.radmid.demon.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Losing the ability to give birth vaginally .
  • Caesarean Section for Maternal Choice? - Association of Radical Midwives 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.radmid.demon.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ The UK National Health Service gives the risk of death for the mother as three times that of a vaginal birth.
  • What is Caesarean Section? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Caesarean babies more likely to develop diabetes 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC foodconsumer.org [Source type: Academic]

[19] .However, it is misleading to directly compare the mortality rates of vaginal and caesarean deliveries.^ However, it is misleading to directly compare the mortality rates of vaginal and caesarean deliveries.
  • Caesarean babies more likely to develop diabetes 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC foodconsumer.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Vaginal delivery of a fetus in breech presentation is becoming a rare obstetric art, and half of pregnant women who have already had a caesarean section choose to have another.
  • Yes, as long as the woman is fully informed | British Medical Journal | Find Articles at BNET 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC findarticles.com [Source type: News]

^ The maternal death rate associated with (but not necessarily attributable to) caesarean section is 4 times greater than in relation to all types of vaginal birth.
  • VBAC (Vaginal Birth after Caesarean) Information 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.childbirthsolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Women with severe medical conditions, or higher-risk pregnancies, often require a Caesarean section which can distort the mortality figures.^ What are some risks concerning caesarean sections?

^ Women with severe medical disease often require a caesarean section which can distort the mortality figures.
  • What is Caesarean Section? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Caesarean babies more likely to develop diabetes 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC foodconsumer.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The presence of several conditions during pregnancy or labor may necessitate a Caesarean section.
  • Midlands Ultrasound and Medical Services - Caesarean Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mums.me.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A study published in the 13 February 2007 issue of the Canadian Medical Association Journal found that the absolute differences in severe maternal morbidity and mortality was small, but that the additional risk over vaginal delivery should be considered by women contemplating an elective caesarean delivery and by their physicians.^ A recent study in Canada showed that the risk of severe morbidity or mortality in VBAC women and their babies was about 1-2%.
  • The VBAC Wars | Caesarean Awareness Network Australia 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.canaustralia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Liu, Shiliange, Maternal mortality and severe morbidity associated with low-risk planned caesarean delivery versus planned vaginal delivery at term Canadian Medical Association Journal, 13 February 2007 ; 176 (4).
  • Caesarean babies more likely to develop diabetes 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC foodconsumer.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In studying the issue, the consensus panel found that the risk of maternal death in a repeat cesarean is two times that of a vaginal delivery.
  • Cesarean Birth and Reaons for Having a Cesarean 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.the-health-pages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20]
.As with all types of abdominal surgery, a Caesarean section is associated with risks of post-operative adhesions, incisional hernias (which may require surgical correction) and wound infections.^ What is the post-operative care required?
  • Nine Months : Caesarean Birth 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mothersbliss.com [Source type: General]

^ What are some risks concerning caesarean sections?

^ Some unlucky caesarean mothers suffer post-operative infections.
  • Caesarean section or vaginal birth - What difference does it make? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.caesarean.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18] .If a Caesarean is performed under emergency situations, the risk of the surgery may be increased due to a number of factors.^ Caesareans are performed for a number of reasons.
  • VBAC (Vaginal Birth after Caesarean) Information 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.childbirthsolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The risk increases with the number of pregnancies.
  • Cesarean Birth for Medical Reasons - March of Dimes 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.marchofdimes.com [Source type: General]

^ RISK INCREASES WITH Risk Factors that may increase the risk of a cesarean delivery: Prior cesarean section.
  • MoonDragon's ObGyn Information: Procedures - Cesarean Section 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.moondragon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The patient's stomach may not be empty, increasing the anaesthesia risk.^ This may increase the risk of developing incontinence.
  • Pregnancy - Pregnancy Topics - Next birth after Caesarean Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cyh.com [Source type: General]

^ The patient's stomach may not be empty, increasing the anesthesia risk.
  • What is Caesarean Section? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Caesarean babies more likely to develop diabetes 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC foodconsumer.org [Source type: Academic]

^ If a caesarean is performed under emergency situations, the risk of the surgery may be increased due to a number of factors.
  • Caesarean babies more likely to develop diabetes 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC foodconsumer.org [Source type: Academic]

[21] .Other risks include severe blood loss (which may require a blood transfusion) and post spinal headaches.^ Increased risk of bleeding that requires a blood transfusion.
  • Pregnancy - Pregnancy Topics - Next birth after Caesarean Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cyh.com [Source type: General]

^ Post spinal headache .
  • PREOP - Anaesthetic Information For Caesarean Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.preop.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hermanstorfer had not experienced excessive blood loss or other major trauma, also common reasons for cardiac problems during childbirth .
  • Mother and baby survive near-death experiences - CNN.com 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC edition.cnn.com [Source type: News]

[18]
.A study published in the June 2006 issue of the journal Obstetrics and Gynecology found that women who had multiple Caesarean sections were more likely to have problems with later pregnancies, and recommended that women who want larger families should not seek Caesarean section as an elective.^ Main article: Elective caesarean section .
  • What is Caesarean Section? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What will my belly be like after a caesarean section?

^ Oxygen and elective Caesarean section .
  • Editorial II: Oxygen and elective Caesarean section -- Backe and Lyons 88 (1): 4 -- British Journal of Anaesthesia 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC bja.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.The risk of placenta accreta, a potentially life-threatening condition, is only 0.13% after two Caesarean sections but increases to 2.13% after four and then to 6.74% after six or more surgeries.^ What are some risks concerning caesarean sections?

^ Methods of delivering the placenta at caesarean section.

^ Caesarean mothers are also at increased risk of ectopic pregnancy, placenta previa and placenta accreta in subsequent pregnancies.
  • Caesarean section or vaginal birth - What difference does it make? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.caesarean.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Along with this is a similar rise in the risk of emergency hysterectomies at delivery.^ Along with this is a similar rise in the risk of emergency hysterectomies at delivery.
  • What is Caesarean Section? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Caesarean babies more likely to develop diabetes 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC foodconsumer.org [Source type: Academic]

^ You may have found this page by searching for "caesarean, c-section, cut in abdomen, surgical delivery, emergency, cesarean, recovering" or similar terms.
  • Recovery after a caesarean birth 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.babycenter.com.au [Source type: General]

^ To lower your risk of serious complications, arrange to deliver in a hospital that has the staff and facilities to handle an emergency cesarean delivery.
  • Vaginal Birth After Cesarean (VBAC) - Yahoo! Health 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The findings were based on outcomes from 30,132 caesarean deliveries.^ The findings were based on outcomes from 30,132 caesarean deliveries.
  • What is Caesarean Section? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Caesarean babies more likely to develop diabetes 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC foodconsumer.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Can we do all this and then refuse a woman a safe mode of delivery (caesarean section) that removes the gambles associated with labour and which she personally finds unacceptable?
  • Yes, as long as the woman is fully informed | British Medical Journal | Find Articles at BNET 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC findarticles.com [Source type: News]

^ Carvalho JC, Balki M, Kingdom J, Windrim R: Oxytocin requirements at elective caesarean delivery: Dose-finding study.
  • BioMed Central | Full text | Study Protocol. ECSSIT - Elective Caesarean Section Syntocinon Infusion Trial. A multi-centre randomised controlled trial of oxytocin (Syntocinon) 5 IU bolus and placebo infusion versus oxytocin 5 IU bolus and 40 IU infusion for the control of blood loss at elective caesarean section. 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

[22]
.It is difficult to study the effects of caesarean sections because it can be difficult to separate out issues caused by the procedure itself versus issues caused by the conditions that require it.^ Caesarean section , the results of a new study ...
  • Caesarean Section News - Healthcare Industry Today 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC health.einnews.com [Source type: News]

^ Previous caesarean section if, the cause of the previous section is permanent e.g.
  • Caesarean Section - D. El-Mowafi 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.gfmer.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although one study showed that Caesarean section can reduce the transmission of hepatitis C from mother to child, these results are preliminary.
  • Caesarean Section - Caesarean Section Description - Caesarean Section Symptoms - Caesarean Section Prevention - Caesarean Section Treatment 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC symptomchecker.about.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, a study published in the February 2007 issue of the journal Obstetrics and Gynecology found that women who had just one previous caesarean section were more likely to have problems with their second birth.^ Previous 2 or more caesareans.
  • 1to9 months.com- India's first exclusive vortal on pregnancy 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.1to9months.com [Source type: General]

^ A study published in the June 2006 issue of the journal Obstetrics and Gynecology found that women who had multiple caesarean sections were more likely to have problems with later pregnancies, and recommended that women who want larger families should not seek caesarean section as an elective.
  • Caesarean babies more likely to develop diabetes 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC foodconsumer.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Studies have shown that women who have a vaginal birth are more likely to feel positive about their birth experience.
  • Pregnancy - Pregnancy Topics - Next birth after Caesarean Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cyh.com [Source type: General]

.Women who delivered their first child by Caesarean delivery had increased risks for malpresentation, placenta previa, antepartum hemorrhage, placenta accreta, prolonged labor, uterine rupture, preterm birth, low birth weight, and stillbirth in their second delivery.^ Caesarean delivery for the second twin .
  • Systematic Reviews of Caesarean Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.healthinsite.gov.au [Source type: Reference]

^ Methods of delivering the placenta at caesarean section.

^ Number of deliveries (live births and stillbirths) .

.However, the authors conclude that some risks may be due to confounding factors related to the indication for the first caesarean, rather than due to the procedure itself.^ What are some risks concerning caesarean sections?

^ If the indication for the first caesarean section was not recurrent (i.e.
  • CAESAREAN SECTION 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.planababy.com [Source type: General]

^ What are some risks during a caesarean section?

[23]

Risks for the child

.This list covers the most commonly discussed risks to the child.^ Risk for the mother after caesarean In most of the cases, the mother and child do well but there are risks involved from the surgery and anesthesia.

^ Most of the pertinent risk factors are listed in Table 3.
  • Cesarean Delivery in Family Medicine (Position Paper) -- Policy & Advocacy -- American Academy of Family Physicians 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

.Some risks are rare, and as with most medical procedures the likelihood of any risk is highly dependant on individual factors such as whether other pregnancy complications exist, whether the operation is planned or done as an emergency measure, and how and where it is performed.^ How often do you perform this procedure?
  • Incisional Hernia Repair - Definition, Purpose, Demographics, Description, Diagnosis/Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results, Morbidity and mortality rates, Alternatives 15 September 2009 5:45 UTC www.surgeryencyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Risk of uterine rupture: rare complication.
  • Caesarean Section | Doctor | Patient UK 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This could be due to the anaesthesia, other medications, or pre-existing factors.
  • CAESAREAN SECTION 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.planababy.com [Source type: General]

.
  • Neonatal depression: babies may have an adverse reaction to the anesthesia given to the mother, causing a period of inactivity or sluggishness after delivery.^ But they may cause the baby to be inactive or sluggish.
    • Cesarean Birth for Medical Reasons - March of Dimes 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.marchofdimes.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The health of the mother or baby may be in danger, or vaginal delivery may be impossible.
    • Health 24 - Woman, Common conditions 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.health24.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • What is a caesarean section?: Parent: Baby: birth 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.parent24.com [Source type: General]

    ^ In the operating room , the mother is given anesthesia, usually a regional anesthetic (epidural or spinal), making her numb from below her breasts to her toes.
    • Cesarean Section - Definition, Purpose, Demographics, Description, Diagnosis/Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results, Morbidity and mortality rates, Alternatives 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.surgeryencyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [18]
  • .
  • Fetal injury: injury may occur to the baby during uterine incision and extraction.^ Fetal injury during the delivery.
    • Vaginal Birth After Cesarean (VBAC) - Yahoo! Health 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The mother may develop infection of the incision, the urinary tract, or the tissue lining the uterus (endometritis); infections occur in approximately 7% of women after having a c-section.
    • Cesarean Section - Definition, Purpose, Demographics, Description, Diagnosis/Preparation, Aftercare, Risks, Normal results, Morbidity and mortality rates, Alternatives 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.surgeryencyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Figure P-20 Enlarging the uterine incision DELIVERY OF THE BABY AND PLACENTA To deliver the baby, place one hand inside the uterine cavity between the uterus and the baby’s head.
    • MCPC - Caesarean section - Health Education To Villages 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC hetv.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [18]
  • .
  • Breathing problems: babies born by Caesarean section, even at full term, are more likely to have breathing problems than are babies who are delivered vaginally.^ Babies born vaginally have a lower risk of respiratory problems.
    • Caesarean section or vaginal birth - What difference does it make? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.caesarean.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Methods of delivering the placenta at caesarean section.
    • Caesarean section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.babycenter.ca [Source type: General]

    ^ Some twin pregnancies can be born vaginally, but Caesarean section usually is done when three or more babies are expected.
    • Caesarean Section - Caesarean Section Description - Caesarean Section Symptoms - Caesarean Section Prevention - Caesarean Section Treatment 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC symptomchecker.about.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .[24]
  • Breastfeeding problems: babies born by Caesarean section are less likely to successfully breastfeed than those delivered vaginally.^ Babies born vaginally have a lower risk of respiratory problems.
    • Caesarean section or vaginal birth - What difference does it make? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.caesarean.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Methods of delivering the placenta at caesarean section.

    ^ Babies born by caesarean section can have respiratory problems.
    • Whoa, Momma! | Tampa Bay Moms | Caesarean section changes birth plan 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC blogs.tampabay.com [Source type: General]

    .[25]
  • Potential for early delivery and complications: One study found an increased risk of complications if a repeat elective Caesarean section is performed even a few days before the recommended 39 weeks.^ What are some risks concerning caesarean sections?

    ^ The rate of caesarean section has increased over the past few decades.

    ^ Main article: Elective caesarean section .
    • What is Caesarean Section? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [26]
  • .
  • Type 1 Diabetes: a 2008 study found that children born by Caesarean section have a 20% higher likelihood of developing type 1 Diabetes in their lifetimes than babies born vaginally.^ Having your baby by Caesarean section .
    • Pregnancy - Pregnancy Topics - Next birth after Caesarean Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cyh.com [Source type: General]

    ^ No I was not born by Caesarean section.
    • Caesarean (Cesarean) Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.hotforwords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Maternal mortality is higher with caesarean than with vaginal birth.

    [27]

Risks for both mother and child

.Due to extended hospital stays, both the mother and child are at risk for developing a hospital-borne infection.^ Mother-to-child transmission of maternal infections .
  • Caesarean Section | Doctor | Patient UK 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The risk of developing an infection is still present.
  • Healthy Pregnancy: C-Section By Choice? 17 September 2009 3:15 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However this must be balanced against the potential risks to both the mother and the fetus, of performing such a delivery outside normal working hours.
  • Time to train all doctors to look after seriously ill patients 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.smj.org.uk [Source type: Academic]

[18]
.Studies have shown that mothers who have their babies by caesarean take longer to first interact with their child when compared with mothers who had their babies vaginally.^ My first child was a vaginal delivery.
  • Healthy Pregnancy: C-Section By Choice? 17 September 2009 3:15 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although one study showed that Caesarean section can reduce the transmission of hepatitis C from mother to child, these results are preliminary.
  • Caesarean Section - Caesarean Section Description - Caesarean Section Symptoms - Caesarean Section Prevention - Caesarean Section Treatment 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC symptomchecker.about.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Studies have shown that continuity of care with a known carer may significantly decrease the rate of caesarean delivery [17] but that there is also research that appears to show that there is no significant difference in caesarean rates when comparing midwife continuity care to conventional fragmented care.
  • What is Caesarean Section? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18]

Incidence

.The World Health Organization estimates the rate of Caesarean sections at between 10% and 15% of all births in developed countries.^ Factors affecting Caesarean section rate 1 .
  • Caesarean Section | Doctor | Patient UK 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Caesarean sections are done in 10% of births in the Netherlands and 15% to 20% in England, Wales and Canada.
  • Caesarean Section - Caesarean Section Description - Caesarean Section Symptoms - Caesarean Section Prevention - Caesarean Section Treatment 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC symptomchecker.about.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to the World Health Organization, Caesarean rates above 15 percent represent a danger to women and babies.
  • Report: More Parents Choosing Caesarean Sections - Health News Story - WDIV Detroit 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.clickondetroit.com [Source type: News]

In 2004, the Caesarean rate was about 20% in the United Kingdom, while the Canadian rate was 22.5% in 2001-2002.[28]
.In Italy the incidence of Caesarean sections is particularly high, albeit it varies from Region to Region.^ When labor is prolonged for various reasons, including insufficient contractions of the uterus, a Caesarean section may be necessary to speed the birth process.
  • Midlands Ultrasound and Medical Services - Caesarean Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mums.me.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the UK in 1997, a survey of obstetric units found that of 60 455 caesarean sections, 78% were performed under regional anaesthesia.

^ Mini topic review: Prevention of hypotension during regional anaesthesia for caesarean section - Effective use of vasopressors .
  • NHS Evidence - Surgery, anaesthesia, perioperative and critical care - Mini topic review: Prevention of hypotension during regional anaesthesia for caesarean section - Effective use of vasopressors 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.library.nhs.uk [Source type: Academic]

[29] .In Campania reportedly 60% of 2008 birth occurred via Caesarean sections.^ Currently over 25% of births are by caesarean section.
  • PREOP - Anaesthetic Information For Caesarean Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.preop.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Caesarean section changes birth plan .
  • Whoa, Momma! | Tampa Bay Moms | Caesarean section changes birth plan 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC blogs.tampabay.com [Source type: General]

^ Next birth after Caesarean Section .
  • Pregnancy - Pregnancy Topics - Next birth after Caesarean Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cyh.com [Source type: General]

[30] In the Rome region, the mean incidence is around 44%, but can reach as high as 85% in some private clinics. [2][31]
.In the United States the Caesarean rate has risen 48% since 1996,[32] reaching a level of 31.8% in 2007.[32] A 2008 report found that fully one-third of babies born in Massachusetts in 2006 were delivered by Caesarean section.^ Methods of delivering the placenta at caesarean section.

^ Caesarean sections; and we found this rate in 50% of our patients.
  • Ectopic pregnancies in Caesarean section scars: the 8 year experience of one medical centre -- Maymon et al. 19 (2): 278 -- Human Reproduction 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC humrep.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Babies born by caesarean section can have respiratory problems.
  • Whoa, Momma! | Tampa Bay Moms | Caesarean section changes birth plan 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC blogs.tampabay.com [Source type: General]

In response, the state's Secretary of Health and Human Services, Dr. Judy Ann Bigby, announced the formation of a panel to investigate the reasons for the increase and the implications for public policy.[33]
.Among developing countries, Brazil has one of the highest rates of caesarean sections in the world.^ The overall caesarean section rate is approximately 25% in developed countries.

^ The average caesarean section rates vary from country to country, and within a country, from center to center.
  • CAESAREAN SECTION 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.planababy.com [Source type: General]

^ And one of those interventions is a caesarean section.
  • Caesarean sections - part one of a two part feature - Health Report - 2 November 2009 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

.In the public health network, the rate reaches 35%, while in private hospitals the rate approaches 80%.^ Up to 30 per cent of births in major public hospitals in Sydney are now carried out by C-section, and nearer to 40 per cent in some private hospitals.
  • Caesarean and Infant Mortality 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.femail.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 2006 41% of mothers giving birth in private hospitals had a caesarean compared with only 27% in public hospitals.
  • Caesarean sections - part one of a two part feature - Health Report - 2 November 2009 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

^ According to the United States Public Health Service, 35 percent of all c-sections are performed because the woman has had a previous c-section.
  • Cesarean Section – FREE Cesarean Section information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Cesarean Section research 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
.Studies have shown that continuity of care with a known carer may significantly decrease the rate of Caesarean delivery[34] but that there is also research that appears to show that there is no significant difference in caesarean rates when comparing midwife continuity care to conventional fragmented care.^ In a series of audits done in a large obstetric unit in the UK, it was found that delivery within thirty minutes is achievable in only two of three cases but that the delay in delivery made no difference to the rate of admission to special care for babies over 36 weeks.

^ He said the risk of a baby dying due to a vaginal breech delivery at full term was 8.3 per 1000 births and could be significantly reduced by having a caesarean.
  • Caesarean and Infant Mortality 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.femail.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All the indicators suggested that there was substantial inequality between districts in the degree to which the need for obstetric care was met, with one of the districts (Barito Kuala) showing a constant deficit compared to the other districts.
  • 15. How Can We Monitor Progress Towards Improved Maternal Health? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.jsieurope.org [Source type: Academic]

[35]
.Research into reasons for emergency cesareans found that 66% occur between the 25% of day shift hours of 8 AM and 3 PM, and the least between 5 AM and 6 AM leading the authors to conclude that physician convenience is a leading cause of "emergency cesareans."^ The only published study documenting the training volumes of family physicians who perform cesareans found the average number completed in training to be 46 with a range between about 25 and 100.7 These physicians produced outcomes comparable to or exceeding national standards.
  • Cesarean Delivery in Family Medicine (Position Paper) -- Policy & Advocacy -- American Academy of Family Physicians 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For these reasons, this page concludes with tips for having a safer and more satisfying cesarean birth.
  • MoonDragon's ObGyn Information: Procedures - Cesarean Section 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.moondragon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Further, there is no valid reason why family physicians trained and skilled in cesarean delivery cannot perform the procedure in environments that are not rural or underserved.
  • Cesarean Delivery in Family Medicine (Position Paper) -- Policy & Advocacy -- American Academy of Family Physicians 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

(Goldstick O, Weissman A, Drugan A.The circadian rhythm of "urgent" operative deliveries.Isr Med Assoc J. 2003 Aug;5(8):564-6.)
.Dr S. Bewley has written extensively about the issues surrounding these procedures, which are often given the misnomer: 'cesarean by choice'.(Bewley S, Cockburn J. The unfacts of 'request' caesarean section.^ Information about Caesarean Section .
  • What is Caesarean Section? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A caesarean section (c-section) is a surgical procedure where an infant is delivered through an incision made in the mother's abdominal wall, and then through the wall of the uterus.
  • PREVENTING DISEASES IN INFANTS DELIVERED VIA CAESAREAN SECTION - Patent application 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ It takes about 40 minutes to an hour for a Caesarean section.
  • Childbirth: elective Caesarean - myDr.com.au 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mydr.com.au [Source type: General]

.BJOG. 2002 Jun;109(6):597-605.) A caesarean is a life threatening medical procedure that is obviously ultimately decided upon by a doctor or several doctors.^ You might have an existing medical condition, such as pre-eclampsia or diabetes, that may prompt the doctor to recommend a Caesarean.
  • Childbirth: elective Caesarean - myDr.com.au 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mydr.com.au [Source type: General]

^ Another friend went through almost 20 hours of labor with no progression, so she and her doctor decided on a C. If it is medically neccessary for me to have one, I will.
  • Healthy Pregnancy: C-Section By Choice? 17 September 2009 3:15 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These range from less common but potentially life-threatening problems including: Hemorrhage (severe bleeding).
  • MoonDragon's ObGyn Information: Procedures - Cesarean Section 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.moondragon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Analyzing the rise in caesarean section rates

The US National Institutes of Health says that rises in rates of caesarean sections are not, in isolation, a cause for concern, but may reflect changing reproductive patterns:
.Some authors have proposed an “ideal rate” of all cesarean deliveries (such as 15 percent) for a population.^ According to the report: • More than one fourth of all children born in 2002 were delivered by cesarean; the total cesarean delivery rate of 26.1 percent was the highest level ever reported in the United States.
  • Cesarean Section 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.onyx-ii.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A national reduction in the cesarean rate from 25 percent to 15 percent would save one billion dollars, assuming a savings of the excess cost of surgical delivery over vaginal delivery of $3,000 dollars per case.
  • Cesarean Delivery in Family Medicine (Position Paper) -- Policy & Advocacy -- American Academy of Family Physicians 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ According to the World Health Organization, Caesarean rates above 15 percent represent a danger to women and babies.
  • Report: More Parents Choosing Caesarean Sections - Health News Story - WDIV Detroit 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.clickondetroit.com [Source type: News]

.There is no consistency in this ideal rate, and artificial declarations of an ideal rate should be discouraged.^ C-sections should be elective if there is a pre-existing injury which no article I have seen mentions yet.
  • Healthy Pregnancy: C-Section By Choice? 17 September 2009 3:15 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So I don't know what the ideal caesarean section rate should be.
  • Caesarean sections - part one of a two part feature - Health Report - 2 November 2009 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

^ When Caesarean section is contemplated because of an abnormal fetal heart rate pattern, in cases of suspected fetal acidosis, fetal blood sampling should be offered if it is technically possible and there are no contra-indications.
  • Caesarean Section | Doctor | Patient UK 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Goals for achieving an optimal cesarean delivery rate should be based on maximizing the best possible maternal and neonatal outcomes, taking into account available medical and health resources and maternal preferences.^ Indicators to monitor maternal health goals.
  • 15. How Can We Monitor Progress Towards Improved Maternal Health? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.jsieurope.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A lower segment uterine scar, whether transverse or longitudinal (the latter incision is not often performed in the United Kingdom), does not influence maternal or neonatal outcome.
  • The current management of vaginal birth after previous caesarean delivery -- Ball and Hinshaw 9 (2): 77 -- The Obstetrician & Gynaecologist 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC onlinetog.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Maternal and perinatal outcomes associated with a trial of labor after prior cesarean delivery found that "Among 17,898 trials of labor and 124 ruptures, we found two neonatal deaths, for an overall rate of rupture-related perinatal death of 0.11 per 1000 trials of labor."
  • San Francisco News - No Hail Caesarean - 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.sfweekly.com [Source type: General]
  • San Francisco News - No Hail Caesarean - page 1 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.sfweekly.com [Source type: General]

.Thus, optimal cesarean delivery rates will vary over time and across different populations according to individual and societal circumstances.^ Variations in operative delivery rates.
  • 15. How Can We Monitor Progress Towards Improved Maternal Health? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.jsieurope.org [Source type: Academic]

^ According to the report: • More than one fourth of all children born in 2002 were delivered by cesarean; the total cesarean delivery rate of 26.1 percent was the highest level ever reported in the United States.
  • Cesarean Section 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.onyx-ii.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Moreover, the difference in mortality rates between cesarean section and vaginal birth is almost certainly larger than it appears.
  • Cesarean Section 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.onyx-ii.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[36]
Nonetheless, some commentators are concerned by the rise and have tried to generate theories to explain it. .Louise Silverton, deputy general-secretary of the Royal College of Midwives, says that not only has society’s tolerance for pain and illness been “significantly reduced”, but also that women are scared of pain and think that if they have a caesarean there will be less, if any, pain.^ I think they are waging war on women.
  • Think Progress » Health Insurers Consider A Caesarean-Section Pregnancy A Pre-Existing Condition 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ In the UK, the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland, the Royal College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and the Royal College of Midwives, recommend that when a decision is made to deliver a baby by caesarean section because of foetal distress, the baby should be delivered within thirty minutes.

^ And so they talked about being really scared and frightened and so they came to it thinking that a caesarean section was safer.
  • Caesarean sections - part one of a two part feature - Health Report - 2 November 2009 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

.It is the opinion of Silverton and the Royal College of Midwives that “women have lost their confidence in their ability to give birth."^ That is ridiculous that any of you women would knock another woman because of the method she chose when giving birth.
  • Healthy Pregnancy: C-Section By Choice? 17 September 2009 3:15 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Having women give birth while lying on their backs.
  • MoonDragon's ObGyn Information: Procedures - Cesarean Section 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.moondragon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Women with a pelvis to small to give birth vaginally are truly few and far between.
  • Vaginal Birth After Cesarean FAQ - Childbirth.org 17 September 2009 3:15 UTC www.childbirth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[37]
Silverton's analysis is controversial. .Dr Maggie Blott, a consultant obstetrician at University College Hospital, London and then a Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) spokeswoman on caesareans (and Vice President of the RCOG), responded: 'There isn't any evidence to support Louise Silverton's view that increasingly pain-averse women are pushing up the caesarean rate.^ Caesarean birth: consent advice 7 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
  • Recovery after a caesarean birth 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.babycenter.com.au [Source type: General]

^ Critics worry that caesareans are performed because they are profitable for the hospital, or because a quick caesarean is more convenient for an obstetrician than a lengthy vaginal birth, or because it is easier to perform surgery at 7 a.m.
  • What is Caesarean Section? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) Guideline on caesarean section recommends a slow intravenous bolus dose of 5 IU of oxytocin following delivery of the infant.
  • BioMed Central | Full text | Study Protocol. ECSSIT - Elective Caesarean Section Syntocinon Infusion Trial. A multi-centre randomised controlled trial of oxytocin (Syntocinon) 5 IU bolus and placebo infusion versus oxytocin 5 IU bolus and 40 IU infusion for the control of blood loss at elective caesarean section. 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

.There's an undercurrent that caesarean sections are a bad thing, but they can be life-saving.'^ Are there any alternatives to a Caesarean section?

^ There are many ways of performing a caesarean section, and the techniques used depend on a number factors, including the clinical situation and the preference of the operator.
  • Systematic Reviews of Caesarean Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.healthinsite.gov.au [Source type: Reference]

^ And so they talked about being really scared and frightened and so they came to it thinking that a caesarean section was safer.
  • Caesarean sections - part one of a two part feature - Health Report - 2 November 2009 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

[37]
.A previously unexplored reason for the increasing section rate is the evolution of birth weight and maternal pelvis size.^ According to the latest figures, and despite previous attempts to reduce them, caesarean sections are still on the increase - up from 24.3% to 24.6% in 2007-2008.
  • Joanna Moorhead on how hospitals are trying to reverse the trend of caesarean births | Life and style | The Guardian 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ But over the past decade, the rate of C-section births has jumped more than 50 percent.
  • SurfWax: News, Reviews and Articles On C-Section 17 September 2009 3:15 UTC health.surfwax.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Repeated stress increased D2-like receptor binding in the NAcc shell in all birth groups, although the stress-induced increase in D2-like receptor binding was most prominent in the C-section group ( Figure 3 ).
  • Caesarean Section Birth Produces Long Term Changes in Dopamine D1 Receptors and in Stress-induced Regulation of D3 and D4 Receptors in the Rat Brain 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

.Since the advent of successful Caesarean birth over the last 150 years, mothers with a small pelvis and babies with a large birth weight have survived and contributed to these traits increasing in the population.^ The rate of caesarean section has been steadily increasing over the past 20 years and this has been associated with improved outcomes for mother and baby.
  • PREOP - Anaesthetic Information For Caesarean Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.preop.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These problems, excluding the breech birth, which is discussed as a separate category, are not a major reason for the increase in cesarean birth rates in the dystocia category.
  • The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Consensus Development Program: Cesarean Childbirth 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC consensus.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ They may encourage her to focus on the healthy baby, and forget about the issues she has with the caesarean birth of her child.
  • Caesareans: What to Expect After A Caesarean Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC bellybelly.com.au [Source type: General]

.Even without fears of malpractice, without maternal obesity and diabetes, and without other widely quoted factors, the C-section rate will continue to rise simply due to slow changes in population genetics.^ "There are other obstetricians who believe that doing a C-section without any medical indication is tantamount to malpractice, based on the risks associated with major surgery," Collier said.
  • Report: More Parents Choosing Caesarean Sections - Health News Story - WDIV Detroit 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.clickondetroit.com [Source type: News]

^ To address the continuing rise in the number of caesarean sections in the United Kingdom (currently at 21.5% of births), both the primary and repeat (accounting for 14% of the total number) caesarean section rates need to be reduced.
  • The current management of vaginal birth after previous caesarean delivery -- Ball and Hinshaw 9 (2): 77 -- The Obstetrician & Gynaecologist 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC onlinetog.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Nicky Phillips: Rising rates of caesarean section isn't just a story about choice versus medicine, it's not just about what mothers want or what doctors want.
  • Caesarean sections - part one of a two part feature - Health Report - 2 November 2009 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

[38]

Elective caesarean sections

.Caesarean sections are in some cases performed for reasons other than medical necessity.^ What are some risks concerning caesarean sections?

^ Caesarean section for non-medical reasons at term .
  • Systematic Reviews of Caesarean Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.healthinsite.gov.au [Source type: Reference]

^ What are some risks during a caesarean section?

.Reasons for elective caesareans vary, with a key distinction being between hospital or doctor-centric reasons and mother-centric reasons.^ When labor is prolonged for various reasons, including insufficient contractions of the uterus, a Caesarean section may be necessary to speed the birth process.
  • Midlands Ultrasound and Medical Services - Caesarean Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mums.me.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nicky Phillips: Rising rates of caesarean section isn't just a story about choice versus medicine, it's not just about what mothers want or what doctors want.
  • Caesarean sections - part one of a two part feature - Health Report - 2 November 2009 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The most common medical reasons for elective caesareans (although natural birth is often possible in many of these situations) are: .
  • Caesarean Sections - What Actually Happens? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.bellybelly.com.au [Source type: General]

.Critics of doctor-ordered Caesareans worry that Caesareans are in some cases performed because they are profitable for the hospital, because a quick caesarean is more convenient for an obstetrician than a lengthy vaginal birth, or because it is easier to perform surgery at a scheduled time than to respond to nature's schedule and deliver a baby at an hour that is not predetermined.^ A C-section is major surgery and is more painful than natural labor.
  • Healthy Pregnancy: C-Section By Choice? 17 September 2009 3:15 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Vaginal discharge persists more than one month after surgery.
  • MoonDragon's ObGyn Information: Procedures - Cesarean Section 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.moondragon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The baby is too big to be delivered vaginally.
  • Cesarean Section - Yahoo! Health 17 September 2009 3:15 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

[39].
.In this context, it is worth remembering that many studies have shown that operations performed out-of-hours tend to have more complications (both surgical and anaesthetic) [40].^ If memory serves, didn’t an independent study conducted several years ago conclude that many of the C-sections performed in this country are unnecessary?
  • Think Progress » Health Insurers Consider A Caesarean-Section Pregnancy A Pre-Existing Condition 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ My doctor began talking about a c-section, but we decided to wait it out a couple more hours and see what happened.
  • Healthy Pregnancy: C-Section By Choice? 17 September 2009 3:15 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That is, anaesthetic and other drug risks to both mother and child, the risk of excessive blood loss, surgical damage to adjacent organs, etc.
  • Caesarean Sections - What Actually Happens? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.bellybelly.com.au [Source type: General]

.For this reason if a caesarean is anticipated to be likely to be needed for a woman, it may be preferable to perform this electively (or pre-emptively) during daylight operating hours, rather than wait for it to become an emergency with the increased risk of surgical and anaesthetic complications that can follow from emergency surgery.^ If a CS is performed under emergency situations, the risk of the surgery may be increased due to a number of factors.
  • What is Caesarean Section? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Procedure Caesarean section may be an emergency procedure or an elective and hence planned procedure.
  • CAESAREAN SECTION 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.planababy.com [Source type: General]

^ The entire surgical procedure may be performed in less than one hour.
  • Cesarean Section – FREE Cesarean Section information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Cesarean Section research 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Another contributing factor for doctor-ordered procedures may be fear of medical malpractice lawsuits.^ Another contributing factor may be fear of medical malpractice lawsuits.
  • What is Caesarean Section? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You might have an existing medical condition, such as pre-eclampsia or diabetes, that may prompt the doctor to recommend a Caesarean.
  • Childbirth: elective Caesarean - myDr.com.au 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.mydr.com.au [Source type: General]

^ Please note that medical information found on this website is designed to support, not to replace the relationship between patient and physician/doctor and the medical advice they may provide.
  • Local anaesthetic reduces need for painkillers post-Caesarean section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.news-medical.net [Source type: News]

.Italian gynaecologyst Enrico Zupi, whose clinic in Rome Mater Dai was under media attention for carrying a record of caesarian sections (90% over total birth), explained: “We shouldn't be blamed.^ Common concerns Dr Elizabeth van Wyk, gynaecologist, answers typical questions about natural births and caesarian sections.
  • Health 24 - Birth - Caesarean section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.health24.com [Source type: News]

^ Meikle stressed that both vaginal and C-section births carry risk and that complications are still rare.
  • Rise in US Caesarean procedures may be linked to childbirth complications | World news | guardian.co.uk 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ I have had a vaginal birth (the first child) and an elective c-section (2nd child) and I would recommend a c-section any day!
  • Healthy Pregnancy: C-Section By Choice? 17 September 2009 3:15 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

Our approach must be understood. .We doctors are often sued for events and complications that cannot be classified as malpractice.^ I would advise checking with doctors as well as hospitals; since the hospital has to be involved in the event of a complication of labor in a patient who has had a prior C-section.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Vaginal Birth after a Cesarean (VBAC) 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: Original source]

So we turn to defensive medicine. We will keep acting this way as long as medical mistakes are not depenalized. We are not martyrs. So if a pregnant woman is facing an even minimum risk, we suggest her to [get a c-section]” [29]
.Studies of United States women have indicated that married white women giving birth in private hospitals are more likely to have a Caesarean section than poorer women even though they are less likely to have complications that may lead to a Caesarean section being required.^ I had a C-Section with her and it went fine more or less.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Vaginal Birth after a Cesarean (VBAC) 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ If the indication for the first caesarean section was not recurrent (i.e.
  • CAESAREAN SECTION 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.planababy.com [Source type: General]

^ She is also more likely to rate her birth experience poorer than a woman who has had a vaginal birth.
  • MoonDragon's ObGyn Information: Procedures - Cesarean Section 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.moondragon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The women in these studies have indicated that their preference for Caesarean section is more likely to be partly due to considerations of pain and vaginal tone.^ What will my belly be like after a caesarean section?

^ If the indication for the first caesarean section was not recurrent (i.e.
  • CAESAREAN SECTION 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.planababy.com [Source type: General]

^ Common indications for emergency caesarean sections are .
  • 1to9 months.com- India's first exclusive vortal on pregnancy 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.1to9months.com [Source type: General]

[41] .In contrast to this, a recent study in the British Medical Journal retrospectively analysed a large number of caesarean sections in England and stratified them by social class.^ A recent study in the British Medical Journal retrospectively analysed a large number of caesarean sections and stratified them by social class.
  • What is Caesarean Section? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Caesarean section scar (large arrow).
  • Ectopic pregnancies in Caesarean section scars: the 8 year experience of one medical centre -- Maymon et al. 19 (2): 278 -- Human Reproduction 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC humrep.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ England are delivered by caesarean section.
  • http://www.dur.ac.uk/anthropology.journal/vol14/iss1/klingaman-ball.html 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.dur.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

.Their finding was that Caesarean sections are not more likely in women of higher social class than in women in other classes.^ Their finding was that caesarean sections are not more likely in women of higher social class than in women in other classes.
  • What is Caesarean Section? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What will my belly be like after a caesarean section?

^ In other words, women are screwed in more ways than one.
  • Think Progress » Health Insurers Consider A Caesarean-Section Pregnancy A Pre-Existing Condition 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

[42] .While such mother-elected Caesareans do occur, the prevalence of them does not appear to be statistically significant, while a much larger number of women wanting to have a vaginal birth find that the lack of support and medico-legal restrictions led to their Caesarean.^ Guidelines for vaginal birth after previous caesarean birth.
  • The current management of vaginal birth after previous caesarean delivery -- Ball and Hinshaw 9 (2): 77 -- The Obstetrician & Gynaecologist 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC onlinetog.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Vaginal births after caesarean are possible.
  • CAESAREAN SECTION 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.planababy.com [Source type: General]

^ Now we can also reduce the rate by encouraging women to look seriously at vaginal birth after caesarean section, or VBAC. There has been a significant trend downwards in the number of women that choose VBAC. It was quite a popular option 10 or 15 years ago, maybe 50% or 60% of women who were eligible for that method of birth were choosing it, we're now down to 15% or 20%.
  • Caesarean sections - part two - Health Report - 9 November 2009 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]
.Some 42% of obstetricians blame expectant mothers (among other sources) for the rising caesarean section rates[43].^ What are some risks concerning caesarean sections?

^ Caesarean sections are on the rise.
  • Caesarean sections - part one of a two part feature - Health Report - 2 November 2009 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

^ What are some risks during a caesarean section?

Studies from Sweden also confirm this.[44].

Anaesthesia

.Both general and regional anaesthesia (spinal, epidural or combined spinal and epidural anaesthesia) are acceptable for use during caesarean section.^ Sometimes a combined epidural/spinal technique is used and can offer the benefits of both techniques.
  • PREOP - Anaesthetic Information For Caesarean Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.preop.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This can be achieved using a general anaesthetic, a spinal anaesthetic or an epidural anaesthetic.
  • PREOP - Anaesthetic Information For Caesarean Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.preop.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the mother already has an epidural in, this epidural can often be used for the caesarean section.
  • What is Caesarean Section? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Regional anaesthesia is preferred as it allows the mother to be awake and interact immediately with her baby.^ Lyons is wrong on abortion Jun 29, 2009 Her doctors performed an immediate C-section and both mother and baby survived ...
  • SurfWax: News, Reviews and Articles On C-Section 17 September 2009 3:15 UTC health.surfwax.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Speaking as a mother I have found it hard to come to terms with the way my daughter was brought into the world - but at least I was awake and I saw her immediately.
  • Planning a Good Caesarean Section: UK Midwifery Archives 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.radmid.demon.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Regional anaesthesia, that is one, which acts to block the pain only at the operative area (and below), is usually preferred.
  • CAESAREAN SECTION 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.planababy.com [Source type: General]

[45] .Other advantages of regional anesthesia include the absence of typical risks of general anesthesia: pulmonary aspiration (which has a relatively high incidence in patients undergoing anesthesia in late pregnancy) of gastric contents and Oesophageal intubation.^ Use epidural or spinal anesthesia: Regional anesthesia (you are numbed from your ribs down) is safer for you and your baby than general anesthesia (being "put to sleep").
  • MoonDragon's ObGyn Information: Procedures - Cesarean Section 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.moondragon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For further improvement, the present non-digestible oligosaccharide preferably has a relatively high content of short chain oligosaccharides, as these strongly stimulate the growth of Bifidobacteria.
  • PREVENTING DISEASES IN INFANTS DELIVERED VIA CAESAREAN SECTION - Patent application 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ More than that, some risks of general anaesthesia like aspiration, respiratory complications and delayed breastfeeding are also avoided.
  • CAESAREAN SECTION 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.planababy.com [Source type: General]

[46]
.Regional anaesthesia is used in 95% of deliveries, with spinal and combined spinal and epidural anaesthesia being the most commonly used regional techniques in scheduled caesarean section.^ If the mother already has an epidural in, this epidural can often be used for the caesarean section.
  • What is Caesarean Section? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The mother has the option of receiving regional anaesthesia ( spinal or epidural ) or general anaesthesia for caesarean section.
  • What is Caesarean Section? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Caesarean section Advertisement Most popular .
  • Caesarean section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.babycenter.ca [Source type: General]

[47] .Regional anaesthesia during caesarean section is different to the analgesia (pain relief) used in labor and vaginal delivery.^ What to expect during VBAC labor and delivery.
  • Vaginal Birth After Cesarean (VBAC) - Yahoo! Health 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Labor pain: Medications for labor and delivery .
  • OhioHealth - C-section — What to expect 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.ohiohealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What are some risks during a caesarean section?

.The pain that is experienced because of surgery is greater than that of labor and therefore requires a more intense nerve block.^ A C-section is major surgery and is more painful than natural labor.
  • Healthy Pregnancy: C-Section By Choice? 17 September 2009 3:15 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If the birth dictates a C-section, and a localized nerve block fails, the woman will require a general anesthetic - and that's still best done on an empty stomach.
  • SurfWax: News, Reviews and Articles On C-Section 17 September 2009 3:15 UTC health.surfwax.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Critics worry that caesareans are performed because they are profitable for the hospital, or because a quick caesarean is more convenient for an obstetrician than a lengthy vaginal birth, or because it is easier to perform surgery at 7 a.m.
  • What is Caesarean Section? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The dermatomal level of anesthesia required for caesarean delivery is also higher than that required for labor analgesia.^ Morgan B. Maternal anesthesia and analgesia in labor.
  • West Indian Medical Journal - Comparison of general anaesthesia and spinal anaesthesia for Caesarean section in Antigua and Barbuda 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC caribbean.scielo.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Which types of pain medicine or anesthesia you may use during labor and delivery or a cesarean.
  • Vaginal Birth After Cesarean (VBAC) - Yahoo! Health 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you have a trial of labor and need to have a C-section, your risk of infection is slightly higher than if you just had a C-section.
  • Vaginal Birth After Cesarean (VBAC) - Yahoo! Health 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[46]
.General anesthesia may be necessary because of specific risks to mother or child.^ For those with poor general health, especially heart or lung disease, the risks may be greater.
  • PREOP - Anaesthetic Information For Caesarean Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.preop.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That is, anaesthetic and other drug risks to both mother and child, the risk of excessive blood loss, surgical damage to adjacent organs, etc.
  • Caesarean Sections - What Actually Happens? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.bellybelly.com.au [Source type: General]

^ C - Women who are infected with hepatitis C should not be offered a planned CS because this does not reduce mother-to-child transmission of the virus.
  • NGC - NGC Summary 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.guideline.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Patients with heavy, uncontrolled bleeding may not tolerate the hemodynamic effects of regional anesthesia.^ Theoretically, the combined approach might expose the patient to higher MTX dose and side-effects may result.
  • Ectopic pregnancies in Caesarean section scars: the 8 year experience of one medical centre -- Maymon et al. 19 (2): 278 -- Human Reproduction 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC humrep.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Individual medical conditions like uncontrolled blood pressure or profuse bleeding from the placenta may make a vaginal birth more dangerous for the mother.
  • CAESAREAN SECTION 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.planababy.com [Source type: General]

^ Sometimes, despite knowing that the baby will be premature, an emergency caesarean may be needed, such as, for bleeding from the placenta, uncontrolled hypertension, etc, in the mothers best interest.
  • CAESAREAN SECTION 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.planababy.com [Source type: General]

.General anesthesia is also preferred in very urgent cases, such as severe fetal distress, when there is no time to perform a regional anesthesia.^ There are many ways of performing a caesarean section, and the techniques used depend on a number factors, including the clinical situation and the preference of the operator.
  • Systematic Reviews of Caesarean Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.healthinsite.gov.au [Source type: Reference]

^ As with a first-time childbirth, even if you are a good candidate for a successful VBAC, there is no guarantee that you will give birth vaginally and without complications.
  • Vaginal Birth After Cesarean (VBAC) - Yahoo! Health 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After stress, there were no significant differences between birth groups in D2-like receptor binding in any brain region assessed.
  • Caesarean Section Birth Produces Long Term Changes in Dopamine D1 Receptors and in Stress-induced Regulation of D3 and D4 Receptors in the Rat Brain 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

Vaginal birth after caesarean

.While Vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC) are not uncommon today, their numbers are shrinking[48].^ This is called vaginal birth after cesarean, or VBAC. .
  • Vaginal Birth After Cesarean (VBAC) - Yahoo! Health 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Guidelines for vaginal birth after previous caesarean birth.
  • The current management of vaginal birth after previous caesarean delivery -- Ball and Hinshaw 9 (2): 77 -- The Obstetrician & Gynaecologist 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC onlinetog.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Vaginal births after caesarean .
  • What is Caesarean Section? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The medical practice until the late 1970s was "once a caesarean, always a caesarean" but a consumer-driven movement supporting VBAC changed the medical practice.^ Before being released from the hospital I was loaded up with gas medication because they refused to let me leave until I had a bowel movement.
  • Healthy Pregnancy: C-Section By Choice? 17 September 2009 3:15 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A planned caesarean is sometimes an easier option, but medical studies have shown that VBAC is usually safer than a repeat caesareanin selected cases.
  • CAESAREAN SECTION 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.planababy.com [Source type: General]

^ Challenging the Unexpected Her plans for a Vaginal Birth after Caesarean Section (VBAC) progressed well until 31.4 weeks, estimated gestation.
  • >> STORY BOOK - Natural Birth After Caesarean Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.melbmidwifery.com.au [Source type: General]

.Rates of VBAC in the 80s and early 90s soared, but more recently the rates of VBAC have dramatically dropped owing to medico-legal restrictions.^ The medico-legal restrictions on vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC), have also increased the caesarean rate.
  • What is Caesarean Section? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rates of VBAC in the 80s and early 90s soared, but more recently the rates of VBAC have dramatically dropped due to medico-legal restrictions.
  • What is Caesarean Section? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Medico-legal restrictions on VBAC (vaginal birth after caesarean) are also driving the caesarean rate.
  • What is Caesarean Section? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the past, caesarean sections used a vertical incision which cut the uterine muscle fibres in an up and down direction (a classical caesarean).^ This type of incision runs vertically (up and down) your uterus.
  • Caesarean Sections - What Actually Happens? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.bellybelly.com.au [Source type: General]

^ Up Difficulties with Caesarean section .
  • http://www.meb.uni-bonn.de/dtc/primsurg/docbook/html/x5840.html 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.meb.uni-bonn.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A vertical (classical) uterine incision that reaches above the lower uterus.
  • Vaginal Birth After Cesarean (VBAC) - Yahoo! Health 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Modern caesareans typically involve a horizontal incision along the muscle fibres in the lower portion of the uterus (hence the term lower uterine segment caesarean section, LUSCS/LSCS).^ Modern caesareans typically involve a horizontal incision along the muscle fibres in the lower portion of the uterus (hence the term lower uterine segment caesarean section, LUSCS/LSCS).
  • What is Caesarean Section? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hence a Caesarean section may be done.
  • CAESAREAN SECTION 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.planababy.com [Source type: General]

^ A caesarean section (c-section) is a surgical procedure where an infant is delivered through an incision made in the mother's abdominal wall, and then through the wall of the uterus.
  • PREVENTING DISEASES IN INFANTS DELIVERED VIA CAESAREAN SECTION - Patent application 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.The uterus then better maintains its integrity and can tolerate the strong contractions of future childbirth.^ The uterus then better maintains its integrity and can tolerate the strong contractions of future childbirth.
  • What is Caesarean Section? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The whole point of pit is to create long and strong contractions, which may or may not be tolerated by the infant.
  • Variation in Caesarian section deliveries : Effect Measure 24 September 2009 22:14 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the uterus ruptures, it usually ruptures at home before you even get to the hospital because most ruptures happen with the first couple of strong contractions.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Vaginal Birth after a Cesarean (VBAC) 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: Original source]

Cosmetically the scar for modern caesareans is below the "bikini line."
.Obstetricians and other caregivers differ on the relative merits of vaginal and caesarean section following a caesarean delivery; some still recommend a caesarean routinely, others do not.^ What are some risks concerning caesarean sections?

^ General anaesthetics for caesarean section are different to general anaesthetics for other types of operation.
  • PREOP - Anaesthetic Information For Caesarean Section 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.preop.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Caesarean section is recommended when vaginal delivery might pose a risk to the mother or baby.
  • What is Caesarean Section? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.What should be emphasized in modern obstetric care is that the decision should be a mutual decision between the obstetrician and the mother/birth partner after assessing the risks and benefits of each type of delivery.^ What should be emphasised in modern obstetric care is that the decision should be a mutual decision between the obstetrician and the mother/birth partner after assessing the risks and benefits of each type of delivery.
  • What is Caesarean Section? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The National Center for Health Statistics should consider revising (1) the standard certificates of birth and fetal death to include items that distinguish between cesarean and vaginal delivery, and (2) the standard certificates of death to include or modify items that improve the identification of maternal deaths.
  • The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Consensus Development Program: Cesarean Childbirth 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC consensus.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Nesbitt TS, Connell FA, Hart LG, Rosenblatt RA. Access to obstetrical care in rural areas: effect on birth outcomes.
  • Cesarean Delivery in Family Medicine (Position Paper) -- Policy & Advocacy -- American Academy of Family Physicians 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

As is the case for all surgical procedures a patient signed form relating to informed consent must be obtained prior to surgery attesting the completeness of patient information because of reasonable and viable alternatives to maternal choice CS.
.In the United States of America, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) modified the guidelines on vaginal birth after previous caesarean delivery in 1999 and again in 2004[49].^ American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (2000; reaffirmed 2003).
  • Cesarean Section - Yahoo! Health 17 September 2009 3:15 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The current management of vaginal birth after previous caesarean delivery -- Ball and Hinshaw 9 (2): 77 -- The Obstetrician & Gynaecologist .
  • The current management of vaginal birth after previous caesarean delivery -- Ball and Hinshaw 9 (2): 77 -- The Obstetrician & Gynaecologist 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC onlinetog.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Vaginal births after caesarean are possible.
  • CAESAREAN SECTION 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.planababy.com [Source type: General]

This modification to the guideline including the addition of following recommendation:
.Because uterine rupture may be catastrophic, VBAC should be attempted in institutions equipped to respond to emergencies with physicians immediately available to provide emergency care.^ This may be because you are not on empty stomach, or there are life threatening problems like severe bleeding or rise in your blood pressure, or complete facilities like experienced anaesthetist / neonatologist / operative team / blood may not be immediately available.
  • CAESAREAN SECTION 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.planababy.com [Source type: General]

^ To continue providing perinatal care, such hospitals need physicians who can perform not only normal deliveries but also assisted vaginal deliveries and cesarean delivery when necessary.
  • Cesarean Delivery in Family Medicine (Position Paper) -- Policy & Advocacy -- American Academy of Family Physicians 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Fetal and maternal complications – uterine rupture in particular – have a strong association with the failure of VBAC. 8 In the UK the relative risk of uterine rupture is 2.76.
  • The current management of vaginal birth after previous caesarean delivery -- Ball and Hinshaw 9 (2): 77 -- The Obstetrician & Gynaecologist 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC onlinetog.org [Source type: Academic]

[50]
.This recommendation has, in some cases, had a major impact on the availability of VBACs to birthing mothers in the United States.^ In many hospitals, especially in the United States , United Kingdom , Canada , Australia , and New Zealand the mother's birth partner is encouraged to attend the surgery to support the mother and share the experience.
  • What is Caesarean Section? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CESAREANS There are some concerns about psychological effects of cesareans on mothers around the time of birth.
  • MoonDragon's ObGyn Information: Procedures - Cesarean Section 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.moondragon.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is incredible potential for transformation in vaginal birth - if you are not at high risk for a VBAC, and it sounds like you aren't, I would recommend you consider it.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Vaginal Birth after a Cesarean (VBAC) 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: Original source]

.For example, a study of the change in frequency of VBAC deliveries in California after the change in guidelines, published in 2006, found that the VBAC rate fell to 13.5% after the change, compared with 24% VBAC rate before the change[51].^ The reductions in the rate of caesarian delivery found have been as large as 50 percent.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Vaginal Birth after a Cesarean (VBAC) 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ FYI, the New England Journal of Medicine just published a study showing higher than thought complications for uterine rupture during a VBAC labor.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Cesarean Sections 17 September 2009 3:15 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This is because of a study that claimed to have found an increased risk of uterine rupture with VBACs.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Vaginal Birth after a Cesarean (VBAC) 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The new recommendation has been interpreted by many hospitals as indicating that a full surgical team must be standing by to perform a caesarean section for the full duration of a VBAC woman's labor.^ She is believed to be the only woman to have performed a successful caesarean section on herself.
  • What is Caesarean Section? 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC ipedia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At this point, if a woman is in early labor, a c-section may have to be performed.
  • Cesarean Section – FREE Cesarean Section information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Cesarean Section research 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the indication for the first caesarean section was not recurrent (i.e.
  • CAESAREAN SECTION 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.planababy.com [Source type: General]

.Hospitals that prohibit VBACs entirely are said to have a 'VBAC ban'. In these situations, birthing mothers are forced to choose between having a repeat caesarean section, finding an alternate hospital in which to deliver their baby or attempting delivery outside the hospital setting[52].^ Methods of delivering the placenta at caesarean section.

^ C-section vs attempt VBAC .
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Vaginal Birth after a Cesarean (VBAC) 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ I will deliver via repeat c-section in 2 weeks.
  • Healthy Pregnancy: C-Section By Choice? 17 September 2009 3:15 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

.Recovery Period Typically the recovery time depends on the patient and their pain/ inflammation levels.^ The post partum period is hard enough both physically and mentally, without having to deal with the pain and frustration that comes with a c section recovery.
  • Healthy Pregnancy: C-Section By Choice? 17 September 2009 3:15 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Driving may be resumed after two weeks, although some doctors recommend waiting for six weeks, which is the typical recovery period from major surgery.
  • Cesarean Section – FREE Cesarean Section information | Encyclopedia.com: Find Cesarean Section research 16 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Documenting the process of recovery, maternal-infant bonding and infant care over an extended period of time will assist medical professionals in appropriately supporting this increasingly growing population.
  • http://www.dur.ac.uk/anthropology.journal/vol14/iss1/klingaman-ball.html 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.dur.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

Doctors do recommend no strenuous work i.e. lifting objects over 10 lbs., running, walking up stairs, or athletics for up to two weeks.

References

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  2. ^ Kiwi caesarean rate continues to rise - New Zealand news on Stuff.co.nz
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  6. ^ Pliny the Elder, Historia naturalis 7.47.
  7. ^ About.com
  8. ^ For a summary (in German), of an article (also in German) that deals usefully with many of the relevant historical and linguistic questions raised here, go here.
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  24. ^ March of Dimes: Cesarian Birth for Medical Reasons
  25. ^ March of Dimes: Cesarian Birth for Medical Reasons
  26. ^ Study: Early Repeat C-Sections Puts Babies At Risk
  27. ^ Study: Caesarian babies' Diabetes risk
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  29. ^ a b [http://www.corriere.it/cronache/09_gennaio_14/clinica_cesareo_margherita_de_bac_83de8688-e204-11dd-b227-00144f02aabc.shtml= "La clinica dei record: 9 neonati su 10 nati con il parto cesareo"]. Corriere della Sera. January 14, 2009. http://www.corriere.it/cronache/09_gennaio_14/clinica_cesareo_margherita_de_bac_83de8688-e204-11dd-b227-00144f02aabc.shtml=. Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
  30. ^ "Sagliocco denuncia boom di parti cesarei in Campania". Pupia informazione Campania. January 31, 2009. http://www.pupia.tv/campania/politica/3798/sagliocco-denuncia-boom-parti-cesarei-campania.html=. Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
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  33. ^ Stephen Smith, "C-sections leap to 1 in 3 births in Bay State, to outstrip US", Boston Globe, February 14, 2008
  34. ^ Homer CS, Davis GK, Brodie PM, et al. (January 2001). "Collaboration in maternity care: a randomised controlled trial comparing community-based continuity of care with standard hospital care". BJOG 108 (1): 16–22. doi:10.1016/S0306-5456(00)00022-X. PMID 11212998. 
  35. ^ Hodnett ED (2000). "Continuity of caregivers for care during pregnancy and childbirth". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2): CD000062. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000062. PMID 10796108. 
    Hodnett ED (2008). "WITHDRAWN: Continuity of caregivers for care during pregnancy and childbirth". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (4): CD000062. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000062.pub2. PMID 18843605. 
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  38. ^ Walsh, Joseph "'Evolution and the Cesarean Section Rate'" September 2008. The American Biology Teacher. http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1662/0002-7685%282008%2970%5B401%3AETCSR%5D2.0.CO%3B2
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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

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Etymology

.Said to be how Julius Caesar was delivered, or possible corruption of Latin caedō (to cut).^ On the other hand, it is argued that the general's family, the Julii, acquired the cognomen Caesar (from Latin caedere , to cut) because the operation wasonce performed on a forebear.
  • Cesarean section Definition | Definition of Cesarean section at Dictionary.com 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ She said: "the findings of this study indicate that the way a baby is delivered could affect how likely it is to develop this condition later in life.
  • Babies Delivered by Caesarian Section More Likely to Develop Diabetes - Science - InfoNIAC 24 September 2009 22:14 UTC www.infoniac.com [Source type: General]

^ Supposedly, Julius Caesar was delivered in this manner, hence the name.
  • TopRated: What is a C-Section? Cesarean Section 24 September 2009 22:14 UTC www.pregnancy-info.net [Source type: General]

Alternative spellings

Noun

  1. (British) Delivery of a baby through an incision in the womb.

Synonyms

Antonyms

  • vaginal delivery

Translations


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 20, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Caesarean section, which are similar to those in the above article.








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