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A Calcium channel is an ion channel which displays selective permeabiltiy to calcium ions. It is sometimes synonymous as voltage-dependent calcium channel,[1] although there are also ligand-gated calcium channels.[2]

Contents

Comparison tables

The following tables explain gating, gene, location and function of different types of calcium channels, both voltage and ligand-gated.

Voltage-gated

Type Gated by Protein Gene Location Function
L-type high voltage Cav1.1
Cav1.2
Cav1.3
Cav1.4
CACNA1S
CACNA1C
CACNA1D
CACNA1F
Skeletal muscle, bone (osteoblasts), ventricular myocytes**, dendrites and dendritic spines of cortical neurones SMC and cardiac muscle contraction [3]. Responsible for prolonged action potential in cardiac muscle.
P-type/Q-type high voltage Cav2.1 CACNA1A Purkinje neurons in the cerebellum / Cerebellar granule cells neurotransmitter release [3]
N-type high voltage Cav2.2 CACNA1B Throughout the brain neurotransmitter release [3]
R-type intermediate voltage Cav2.3 CACNA1E Cerebellar granule cells, other neurons  ?[3]
T-type low voltage Cav3.1
Cav3.2
Cav3.3
CACNA1G
CACNA1H
CACNA1I
neurons, cells that have pacemaker activity, bone (osteocytes) Regular sinus rhythm[3]

Ligand-gated

Type Gated by Gene Location Function
IP3 receptor IP3 ITPR1, ITPR2, ITPR3 ER/SR Releases calcium from ER/SR in response to IP3 by e.g. GPCRs [3]
Ryanodine receptor dihydropyridine receptors in T-tubules and increased intracellular calcium (Calcium Induced Calcium Release - CICR) RYR1, RYR2, RYR3 ER/SR Calcium-induced calcium release in myocytes [3]
Two-pore channel
Cation channels of sperm
store-operated channels indirectly by ER/SR depletion of calcium[3] ORAI1, ORAI2, ORAI3 plasma membrane

Pharmacology

Calcium channel blockers are used to treat hypertension.

References

  1. ^ calcium channel at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
  2. ^ Striggow F, Ehrlich BE (August 1996). "Ligand-gated calcium channels inside and out". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 8 (4): 490–5. doi:10.1016/S0955-0674(96)80025-1. PMID 8791458. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0955-0674(96)80025-1. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Rang, H. P. (2003). Pharmacology. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. ISBN 0-443-07145-4.  Page 53
  4. ^ Walter F., PhD. Boron (2005). Medical Physiology: A Cellular And Molecular Approach. Elsevier/Saunders. ISBN 1-4160-2328-3.  Page 479

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