Calendar: Wikis

Advertisements
  
  
  
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Calendar

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A page from the Hindu calendar 1871–1872.

A calendar is a system of organizing days for social, religious, commercial, or administrative purposes. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months, and years. The name given to each day is known as a date. Periods in a calendar (such as years and months) are usually, though not necessarily, synchronized with the cycle of the sun or the moon. Many civilizations and societies have devised a calendar, usually derived from other calendars on which they model their systems, suited to their particular needs.

A calendar is also a physical device (often paper). This is the most common usage of the word. Other similar types of calendars can include computerized systems, which can be set to remind the user of upcoming events and appointments.

As a subset, calendar is also used to denote a list of particular set of planned events (for example, court calendar).

The English word calendar is derived from the Latin word kalendae, which was the Latin name of the first day of every month.[1]

Contents

Calendar systems

A full calendar system has a different calendar date for every day. Thus the week cycle is by itself not a full calendar system; neither is a system to name the days within a year without a system for identifying the years.

The simplest calendar system just counts time periods from a reference date. This applies for the Julian day. Virtually the only possible variation is using a different reference date, in particular one less distant in the past to make the numbers smaller. Computations in these systems are just a matter of addition and subtraction.

Other calendars have one (or multiple) larger units of time.

Calendars that contain one level of cycles:

  • week and weekday – this system (without year, the week number keeps on increasing) is not very common
  • year and ordinal date within the year, e.g. the ISO 8601 ordinal date system

Calendars with two levels of cycles:

Cycles can be synchronized with periodic phenomena:

  • A lunar calendar is synchronized to the motion of the Moon (lunar phases); an example is the Islamic calendar.
  • A solar calendar is based on perceived seasonal changes synchronized to the apparent motion of the Sun; an example is the Persian calendar.
  • A "luni-solar calendar" is based on a combination of both solar and lunar reckonings; an example is the traditional calendar of China and the Hindu Calendar in India.
  • There are some calendars that appear to be synchronized to the motion of Venus, such as some of the ancient Egyptian calendars; synchronization to Venus appears to occur primarily in civilizations near the Equator.
  • The week cycle is an example of one that is not synchronized to any external phenomenon (although it may have been derived from lunar phases, beginning anew every month).

Very commonly a calendar includes more than one type of cycle, or has both cyclic and acyclic elements. A lunisolar calendar is synchronized both to the motion of the moon and to the apparent motion of the sun; an example is the Hebrew calendar.

Many calendars incorporate simpler calendars as elements. For example, the rules of the Hebrew calendar depend on the seven-day week cycle (a very simple calendar), so the week is one of the cycles of the Hebrew calendar. It is also common to operate two calendars simultaneously, usually providing unrelated cycles, and the result may also be considered a more complex calendar. For example, the Gregorian calendar has no inherent dependence on the seven-day week, but in Western society the two are used together, and calendar tools indicate both the Gregorian date and the day of week.[2]

The week cycle is shared by various calendar systems (although the significance of special days such as Friday, Saturday, and Sunday varies). Systems of leap days usually do not affect the week cycle. The week cycle was not even interrupted when 10, 11, 12, or 13 dates were skipped when the Julian calendar was replaced by the Gregorian calendar by various countries.

Advertisements

Solar calendars

Days used by solar calendars

Solar calendars assign a date to each solar day. A day may consist of the period between sunrise and sunset, with a following period of night, or it may be a period between successive events such as two sunsets. The length of the interval between two such successive events may be allowed to vary slightly during the year, or it may be averaged into a mean solar day. Other types of calendar may also use a solar day.

Calendar reform

There have been a number of proposals for reform of the calendar, such as the World Calendar, International Fixed Calendar and Holocene calendar. The United Nations considered adopting such a reformed calendar for a while in the 1950s, but these proposals have lost most of their popularity.

Lunar calendars

Not all calendars use the solar year as a unit. A lunar calendar is one in which days are numbered within each lunar phase cycle. Because the length of the lunar month is not an even fraction of the length of the tropical year, a purely lunar calendar quickly drifts against the seasons, which don't vary much near the equator. It does, however, stay constant with respect to other phenomena, notably tides. An example is the Islamic calendar. Alexander Marshack, in a controversial reading,[3] believed that marks on a bone baton (c. 25,000 BC) represented a lunar calendar. Other marked bones may also represent lunar calendars.[4] Similarly, Michael Rappenglueck believes that marks on a 15,000-year old cave painting represent a lunar calendar.[5]

Lunisolar calendars

A lunisolar calendar is a lunar calendar that compensates by adding an extra month as needed to realign the months with the seasons. An example is the Hebrew calendar which uses a 19-year cycle.

Calendar subdivisions

Nearly all calendar systems group consecutive days into "months" and also into "years". In a solar calendar a year approximates Earth's tropical year (that is, the time it takes for a complete cycle of seasons), traditionally used to facilitate the planning of agricultural activities. In a lunar calendar, the month approximates the cycle of the moon phase. Consecutive days may be grouped into other periods such as the week.

Because the number of days in the tropical year is not a whole number, a solar calendar must have a different number of days in different years. This may be handled, for example, by adding an extra day (29 February) in leap years. The same applies to months in a lunar calendar and also the number of months in a year in a lunisolar calendar. This is generally known as intercalation. Even if a calendar is solar, but not lunar, the year cannot be divided entirely into months that never vary in length.

Cultures may define other units of time, such as the week, for the purpose of scheduling regular activities that do not easily coincide with months or years. Many cultures use different baselines for their calendars' starting years. For example, the year in Japan is based on the reign of the current emperor: 2006 was Year 18 of the Emperor Akihito.

See Decade, Century, Millennium

Other calendar types

Arithmetic and astronomical calendars

An astronomical calendar is based on ongoing observation; examples are the religious Islamic calendar and the old religious Jewish calendar in the time of the Second Temple. Such a calendar is also referred to as an observation-based calendar. The advantage of such a calendar is that it is perfectly and perpetually accurate. The disadvantage is that working out when a particular date would occur is difficult.

An arithmetic calendar is one that is based on a strict set of rules; an example is the current Jewish calendar. Such a calendar is also referred to as a rule-based calendar. The advantage of such a calendar is the ease of calculating when a particular date occurs. The disadvantage is imperfect accuracy. Furthermore, even if the calendar is very accurate, its accuracy diminishes slowly over time, owing to changes in Earth's rotation. This limits the lifetime of an accurate arithmetic calendar to a few thousand years. After then, the rules would need to be modified from observations made since the invention of the calendar.

Complete and incomplete calendars

Calendars may be either complete or incomplete. Complete calendars provide a way of naming each consecutive day, while incomplete calendars do not. The early Roman calendar, which had no way of designating the days of the winter months other than to lump them together as "winter", is an example of an incomplete calendar, while the Gregorian calendar is an example of a complete calendar.

Uses

The primary practical use of a calendar is to identify days: to be informed about and/or to agree on a future event and to record an event that has happened. Days may be significant for civil, religious or social reasons. For example, a calendar provides a way to determine which days are religious or civil holidays, which days mark the beginning and end of business accounting periods, and which days have legal significance, such as the day taxes are due or a contract expires. Also a calendar may, by identifying a day, provide other useful information about the day such as its season.

Calendars are also used to help people manage their personal schedules, time and activities, particularly when individuals have numerous work, school, and family commitments. People frequently use multiple systems, and may keep both a business and family calendar to help prevent them from overcommitting their time.

Calendars are also used as part of a complete timekeeping system: date and time of day together specify a moment in time. In the modern world, written calendars are no longer an essential part of such systems, as the advent of accurate clocks has made it possible to record time independently of astronomical events.

Currently used calendars

Calendars in widespread use today include the Gregorian calendar, which is the de facto international standard, and is used almost everywhere in the world for civil purposes, including in the People's Republic of China and India (along with the Indian national calendar). Due to the Gregorian calendar's obvious connotations of Western Christianity, non-Christians and even some Christians sometimes justify its use by replacing the traditional era notations "AD" and "BC" ("Anno Domini" and "Before Christ") with "CE" and "BCE" ("Common Era" and "Before Common Era"). The Hindu calendars are some of the most ancient calendars of the world. Eastern Christians of eastern Europe and western Asia used for a long time the Julian Calendar, that of the old Orthodox church, in countries like Russia. For over 1500 years, Westerners used the Julian Calendar also.

While the Gregorian calendar is widely used in Israel's business and day-to-day affairs, the Hebrew calendar, used by Jews worldwide for religious and cultural affairs, also influences civil matters in Israel (such as national holidays) and can be used there for business dealings (such as for the dating of checks).

The Iranian (Persian) calendar is used in Iran and Afghanistan. The Islamic calendar is used by most non-Iranian Muslims worldwide. The Chinese, Hebrew, Hindu, and Julian calendars are widely used for religious and/or social purposes. The Ethiopian calendar or Ethiopic calendar is the principal calendar used in Ethiopia and Eritrea. In Thailand, where the Thai solar calendar is used, the months and days have adopted the western standard, although the years are still based on the traditional Buddhist calendar.

Even where there is a commonly used calendar such as the Gregorian calendar, alternate calendars may also be used, such as a fiscal calendar or the astronomical year numbering system[6].

Fiscal calendars

A fiscal calendar (such as a 4/4/5 calendar) fixes each month at a specific number of weeks to facilitate comparisons from month to month and year to year. January always has exactly 4 weeks (Sunday through Saturday), February has 4 weeks, March has 5 weeks, etc. Note that this calendar will normally need to add a 53rd week to every 5th or 6th year, which might be added to December or might not be, depending on how the organization uses those dates. There exists an international standard way to do this (the ISO week). The ISO week starts on a Monday, and ends on a Sunday. Week 1 is always the week that contains 4 January in the Gregorian calendar.

Fiscal calendars are also used by businesses. This is where the fiscal year is just any set of 12 months. This set of 12 months can start and end at any point on the Gregorian calendar. This is the most common usage of fiscal calendars.

Gregorian calendar with Easter Sunday

Calculating the calendar of a previous year (for the Gregorian calendar taking account of the week) is a relatively easy matter when Easter Sunday is not included on the calendar. However, calculating for Easter Sunday is difficult because the calculation requires the knowledge of the full moon cycle. Easter Sunday is on the first Sunday after the first full moon after the Vernal Equinox according to the computus. So, this makes an additional calculation necessary on top of the normal calculation for January 1 and the calculation of whether or not the year is a leap year.

There are only 14 different calendars when Easter Sunday is not involved. Each calendar is determined by the day of the week January 1 falls on and whether or not the year is a leap year. However, when Easter Sunday is included, there are 70 different calendars (two for each date of Easter).

Physical calendars

At-A-Glance 2004-2005 calendar

A calendar is also a physical device (often paper) (for example, a desktop calendar or a wall calendar). In a paper calendar one or two sheets can show a single day, a week, a month, or a year. If a sheet is for a single day, it easily shows the date and the weekday. If a sheet is for multiple days it shows a conversion table to convert from weekday to date and back. With a special pointing device, or by crossing out past days, it may indicate the current date and weekday. This is the most common usage of the word.

The sale of physical calendars has been restricted in some countries, and given as a monopoly to universities and national academies. Examples include the Prussian Academy of Sciences and the University of Helsinki, which had a monopoly on the sale of calendars in Finland until the 1990s.

Legal

For lawyers and judges, the calendar is the docket used by the court to schedule the order of hearings or trials. A paralegal or court officer may keep track of the cases by using docketing software.

Calendars in computing

Layout

There are different layouts for calendars.

See also

List of calendars

Sources

  • Birashk, Ahmad (1993), A comparative Calendar of the Iranian, Muslim Lunar, and Christian Eras for Three Thousand Years, Mazda Publishers, ISBN 0939214954 
  • Dershowitz, Nachum; Reingold, Edward M (1997), Calendrical Calculations, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521564743, http://emr.cs.iit.edu/home/reingold/calendar-book/second-edition/  with Online Calculator
  • Zerubavel, Eviatar (1985), The Seven Day Circle: The History and Meaning of the Week, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0226981657 
  • Doggett, LE (1992), "Calendars", in Seidelmann, P. Kenneth, Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac, University Science Books, ISBN 0935702687, http://astro.nmsu.edu/~lhuber/leaphist.html 
  • Árni Björnsson (1995), High Days and Holidays in Iceland, Reykjavík: Mál og menning, ISBN 9979308028, OCLC 186511596 
  • Richards, EG (1998), Mapping Time, the calendar and its history, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0198504136 
  • Rose, Lynn E (1999), Sun, Moon, and Sothis, Kronos Press, ISBN 0917994159 
  • Spier, Arthur (1986), The Comprehensive Hebrew Calendar, Feldheim Publishers, ISBN 0873063988 
  • Dieter Schuh (1973) (in German), Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der Tibetischen Kalenderrechnung, Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag, OCLC 1150484 

Further reading

  • Fraser, Julius Thomas (1987), Time, the Familiar Stranger (illustrated ed.), Amherst: Univ of Massachusetts Press, ISBN 0870235761, OCLC 15790499 
  • Whitrow, Gerald James (2003), What is Time?, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0198607814, OCLC 265440481 

References

  1. ^ New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary
  2. ^ Zerubavel, The Seven Day Circle (University of Chicago Press, 1985).
  3. ^ James Elkins, Our beautiful, dry, and distant texts (1998) 63ff.
  4. ^ How Menstruation Created Mathematics by John Kellermeier
  5. ^ Oldest lunar calendar identified
  6. ^ NASA – Year Dating Conventions

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

CALENDAR, so called from the Roman Calends or Kalends, a method of distributing time into certain periods adapted to the purposes of civil life, as hours, days, weeks, months, years, &c.

Of all the periods marked out by the motions of the celestial bodies, the most conspicuous, and the most intimately connected with the affairs of mankind, are the solar day, which is distinguished by the diurnal revolution of the earth and the alternation of light and darkness, and the solar year, which completes the circle of the seasons. But in the early ages of the world, when mankind were chiefly engaged in rural occupations, the phases of the moon must have been objects of great attention and interest, - hence the month, and the practice adopted by many nations of reckoning time by the motions of the moon, as well as the still more general practice of combining lunar with solar periods. The solar day, the solar year, and the lunar month, or lunation, may therefore be called the natural divisions of time. All others, as the hour, the week, and the civil month, though of the most ancient and general use, are only arbitrary and conventional.

Table of contents

Day

The subdivision of the day (q.v.) into twenty-four parts, or hours, has prevailed since the remotest ages, though different nations have not agreed either with respect to the epoch of its commencement or the manner of distributing the hours. Europeans in general, like the ancient Egyptians, place the commencement of the civil day at midnight, and reckon twelve morning hours from midnight to midday, and twelve evening hours from midday to midnight. Astronomers, after the example of Ptolemy, regard the day as commencing with the sun's culmination, or noon, and find it most convenient for the purposes of computation to reckon through the whole twentyfour hours. Hipparchus reckoned the twenty-four hours from midnight to midnight. Some nations, as the ancient Chaldeans and the modern Greeks, have chosen sunrise for the commencement of the day; others, again, as the Italians and Bohemians, suppose it to commence at sunset. In all these cases the beginning of the day varies with the seasons at all places not under the equator. In the early ages of Rome, and even down to the middle of the 5th century after the foundation of the city, no other divisions of the day were known than sunrise, sunset, and midday, which was marked by the arrival of the sun between the Rostra and a place called Graecostasis, where ambassadors from Greece and other countries used to stand. The Greeks divided the natural day and night into twelve equal parts each, and the hours thus formed were denominated temporary hours, from their varying in length according to the seasons of the year. The hours of the day and night were of course only equal at the time of the equinoxes. The whole period of day and night they called vVX91)µep011. Week. - The week is a period of seven days, having no reference whatever to the celestial motions, - a circumstance to which it owes its unalterable uniformity. Although it did not enter into the calendar of the Greeks, and was not introduced at Rome till after the reign of Theodosius, it has been employed from time immemorial in almost all eastern countries; and as it forms neither an aliquot part of the year nor of the lunar month, those who reject the Mosaic recital will be at a loss, as Delambre remarks, to assign it to an origin having much semblance of probability. It might have been suggested by the phases of the moon, or by the number of the planets known in ancient times, an origin which is rendered more probable from the names universally given to the different days of which it is composed. In the Egyptian astronomy, the order of the planets, beginning with the most remote, is Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, the Sun, Venus, Mercury, the Moon. Now, the day being divided into twentyfour hours, each hour was consecrated to a particular planet, namely, one to Saturn, the following to Jupiter, the third to Mars, and so on according to the above order; and the day received the name of the planet which presided over its first hour. If, then, the first hour of a day was consecrated to Saturn, that planet would also have the 8th, the 15th, and the 2 2nd hour; the 23rd would fall to Jupiter, the 24th to Mars, and the 25th, or the first hour of the second day, would belong to the Sun. In like manner the first hour of the 3rd day would fall to the Moon, the first of the 4th day to Mars, of the 5th to Mercury, of the 6th to Jupiter, and of the 7th to Venus. The cycle being completed, the first hour of the 8th day would return to Saturn, and all the others succeed in the same order. According to Dio Cassius, the Egyptian week commenced with Saturday. On their flight from Egypt, the Jews, from hatred to their ancient oppressors, made Saturday the last day of the week.

The English names of the days are derived from the Saxon. The ancient Saxons had borrowed the week from some Eastern nation, and substituted the names of their own divinities for those of the gods of Greece. In legislative and justiciary acts the Latin names are still retained.

Saxon. Sun's day. Moon's day. Tiw's day. Woden's day. Thor's day.

Dies Veneris. Friday. Frigg's day.

Dies Saturni. Saturday. Seterne's day.

Month

Long before the exact length of the year was determined, it must have been perceived that the synodic revolution. of the moon is accomplished in about 292 days. Twelve lunations, therefore, form a period of 354 days, which differs only by about 11 1/4 days from the solar year. From this circumstance has arisen the practice, perhaps universal, of dividing the year into twelve months. But in the course of a few years the accumulated difference between the solar year and twelve lunar months would become considerable, and have the effect of transporting the commencement of the year to a different season. The difficulties that arose in attempting to avoid this inconvenience induced some nations to abandon the moon altogether, and regulate their year by the course of the sun. The month, however, being a convenient period of time, has retained its place in the calendars of all nations; but, instead of denoting a synodic revolution of the moon, it is usually employed to denote an arbitrary number of days approaching to the twelfth part of a solar year.

Among the ancient Egyptians the month consisted of thirty days invariably; and in order to complete the year, five days were added at the end, called supplementary days. They made use of no intercalation, and by losing a fourth of a day every year, the commencement of the year went back one day in every period of four years, and consequently made a revolution of the seasons in 1461 years. Hence 1461 Egyptian years are equal to 1460 Julian years of 3654 days each. This year is called vague, by reason of its commencing sometimes at one season of the year, and sometimes at another.

The Greeks divided the month into three decades, or periods of ten days, - a practice which was imitated by the French in. their unsuccessful attempt to introduce a new calendar at the period of the Revolution. This division offers two advantages: the first is, that the period is an exact measure of the month of thirty days; and the second is, that the number of the day of the decade is connected with and suggests the number of the day of the month. For example, the 5th of the decade must necessarily be the 5th, the 5th, or the 25th of the month; so that when the day of the decade is known, that of the month can scarcely be mistaken. In reckoning by weeks, it is necessary to keep in mind the day of the week on which each month begins.

The Romans employed a division of the month and a method of reckoning the days which appear not a little extraordinary, and must, in practice, have been exceedingly inconvenient. As frequent allusion is made by classical writers to this embarrassing method of computation, which is carefully retained in the ecclesiastical calendar, we here give a table showing the correspondence of the Roman months with those of modern Europe.

Instead of distinguishing the days by the ordinal numbers first,, second, third, &c., the Romans counted backwards from three fixed epochs, namely, the Calends, the Nones and the Ides. The Calends, (or Kalends) were invariably the first day of the month, and were so denominated because it had been an ancient custom of the pontiffs to call the people together on that day, to apprize them of the festivals, or days that were to be kept sacred during the month. The Ides (from an obsolete verb iduare, to divide) were at the middle of the month, either the 13th or the 15th day; and the Nones were the ninth day before the Latin.

Dies Solis. Dies Lunae. Dies Martis. Dies Mercurii. Dies Jovis.

English. Sunday. Monday. Tuesday. Wednesday. Thursday.

Days of

the

Month.

March.

May.

October.

January.

August

December.

April.

September.

November.

February.

I

Calendae.

Calendae.

Calendae.

Calendae.

2

6

4

4

4

3

5

3

3

3

4

4

Prid. Nonas.

Prid. Nonas.

Prid. Nonas.

5

3

Nonae.

Nonae.

Nonae.

6

Prid. Nonas.

8

8

8

7

Nonae.

7

7

7

8

8

6

9

7

5

5

5

Io

6

4

4

4

II

5

3

3

3

12

4

Prid. Idus.

Prid. Idus.

Prid. Idus.

13

3

Idus.

Idus.

Idus.

14

Prid.Idus.

19

18

16

15

Idus.

18

17

15

16

17

17

16

14

17

16

16

15

13

18

15

15

14

12

19

14

'14

13

II

20

13

13

12

10

2 1

1 2

1 2

II

9

22

II

II

10

8

23

10

10

9

7

2 4

9

9

8

6

25

8

8

7

5

26

7

7

6

4

27

6

6

5

3

28

5

5

4

Prid. Cal.

2 9

4

4

3

Mart.

3 o

3

3

Prid. Calen.

31

Prid. Calen.

Prid. Calen.

Ides, counting inclusively. From these three terms the days received their denomination in the following manner: - Those which were comprised between the Calends and the Nones were called the days before the Nones; those between the Nones and the Ides were called the days before the Ides; and, lastly, all the days after the Ides to the end of the month were called the days before the Calends of the succeeding month. In the months of March, May, July and October, the Ides fell on the 5th day, and the Nones consequently on the 7th; so that each of these months had six days named from the Nones. In all the other months the Ides were on the 13th and the Nones on the 5th; consequently there were only four days named from the Nones. Every month had eight days named from the Ides. The number of days receiving their denomination from the Calends depended on the number of days in the month and the day on which the Ides fell. For example, if the month contained 31 days and the Ides fell on the 13th, as was the case in January, August and December, there would remain 18 days after the Ides, which, added to the first of the following month, made 19 days of Calends. In January, therefore, the 14th day of the month was called the nineteenth before the Calends of February (counting inclusively), the 15th was the 18th before the Calends and so onto the 3 0 th, which was called the third before the Calend (tertio Calendas), the last being the second of the Calends, or the day before the Calends (pridie Calendas). Year. The Year Is Either Astronomical Or Civil. The Solar Astronomical Year Is The Period Of Time In Which The Earth Performs A Revolution In Its Orbit About The Sun, Or Passes From Any Point Of The Ecliptic To The Same Point Again; And Consists Of 365 Days 5 Hours 48 Min. And 46 Sec. Of Mean Solar Time. The Civil Year Is That Which Is Employed In Chronology, And Varies Among Different Nations, Both In Respect Of The Season At Which It Commences And Of Its Subdivisions. When Regard Is Had To The Sun'S Motion Alone, The Regulation Of The Year, And The Distribution Of The Days Into Months, May Be Effected Without Much Trouble; But The Difficulty Is Greatly Increased When It Is Sought To Reconcile Solar And Lunar Periods, Or To Make The Subdivisions Of The Year Depend On The Moon, And At The Same Time To Preserve The Correspondence Between The Whole Year And The Seasons.

Of The Solar Year

In The Arrangement Of The Civil Year, Two Objects Are Sought To Be Accomplished, First, The Equable Distribution Of The Days Among Twelve Months; And Secondly, The Preservation Of The Beginning Of The Year At The Same Distance From The Solstices Or Equinoxes. Now, As The Year Consists Of 365 Days And A Fraction, And 365 Is A Number Not Divisible By 12, It Is Impossible That The Months Can All Be Of The Same Length And At The Same Time Include All The Days Of The Year. By Reason Also Of The Fractional Excess Of The Length Of The Year Above 365 Days, It Likewise Happens That The Years Cannot All Contain The Same Number Of Days If The Epoch Of Their Commencement Remains Fixed; For The Day And The Civil Year Must Necessarily Be Considered As Beginning At The Same Instant; And Therefore The Extra Hours Cannot Be Included In The Year Till They Have Accumulated To A Whole Day. As Soon As This Has Taken Place, An Additional Day Must Be Given To The Year.

The Civil Calendar Of All European Countries Has Been Borrowed From That Of The Romans. Romulus Is Said To Have Divided The Year Into Ten Months Only, Including In All 304 Days, And It Is Not Very Well Known How The Remaining Days Were Disposed Of. The Ancient Roman Year Commenced With March, As Is Indicated By The Names September, October, November, December, Which The Last Four Months Still Retain. July And August, Likewise, Were Anciently Denominated Quintilis And Sextilis, Their Present Appellations Having Been Bestowed In Compliment To Julius Caesar And Augustus. In The Reign Of Numa Two Months Were Added To The Year, January At The Beginning And February At The End; And This Arrangement Continued Till The Year 452 B.C., When The Decemvirs Changed The Order Of The Months, And Placed February After January. The Months Now Consisted Of Twenty Nine And Thirty Days Alternately, To Correspond With The Synodic Revolution Of The Moon, So That The Year Contained 354 Days; But A Day Was Added To Make The Number Odd, Which Was Considered More Fortunate, And The Year Therefore Consisted Of 355 Days. This Differed From The Solar Year By Ten Whole Days And A Fraction; But, To Restore The Coincidence, Numa Ordered An Additional Or Intercalary Month To Be Inserted Every Second Year Between The 23Rd And 24Th Of February, Consisting Of Twenty Two And Twenty Three Days Alternately, So That Four Years Contained 1465 Days, And The Mean Length Of The Year Was Consequently 3664 Days. The Additional Month Was Called Mercedinus:Or Mercedonius, From Merces, Wages, Probably Because The Wages Of Workmen And Domestics Were Usually Paid At This Season Of The Year. According To The Above Arrangement, The Year Was Too Long By One Day, Which Rendered Another Correction Necessary. As The Error Amounted To Twentyfour Days In As Many Years, It Was Ordered That Every Third Period Of Eight Years, Instead Of Containing Four Intercalary Months, Amounting In All To Ninety Days, Should Contain Only Three Of Those Months, Consisting Of Twenty Two Days Each. The Mean Length Of The Year Was Thus Reduced To 365.4 Days; But It Is Not Certain At What Time The Octennial Periods, Borrowed From The Greeks, Were Introduced Into The Roman Calendar, Or Whether They Were At Any Time Strictly Followed. It Does. Not Even Appear That The Length Of The Intercalary Month Was Regulated By Any Certain Principle, For A Discretionary Power Was Left With The Pontiffs, To Whom The Care Of The Calendar Was Committed, To Intercalate More Or Fewer Days According As The Year Was Found To Differ More Or Less From The Celestial Motions. This Power Was Quickly Abused To Serve Political Objects, And The Calendar Consequently Thrown Into Confusion. By Giving A Greater Or Less Number Of Days To The Intercalary Month, The Pontiffs Were Enabled To Prolong The Term Of A Magistracy Or Hasten The Annual Elections; And So Little Care Had Been Taken To Regulate The Year, That, At The Time Of Julius Caesar, The Civil Equinox Differed From The Astronomical By Three Months, So That The Winter Months Were Carried Back Into Autumn And The Autumnal Into Summer.

In Order To Put An End To The Disorders Arising From The Negligence Or Ignorance Of The Pontiffs, Caesar Abolished The Use Of The Lunar Year And The Intercalary Month, And Regulated The Civil Year Entirely By The Sun. With The Advice And Assistance Of Sosigenes, He Fixed The Mean Length Of The Year At 3654 Days, And Decreed That Every Fourth Year Should Have 366 Days, The Other Years Having Each 365. In Order To Restore The Vernal Equinox To The 25Th Of March, The Place It Occupied In The Time Of Numa, He Ordered Two Extraordinary Months To Be Inserted Between November And December In The Current Year, The First To Consist Of Thirty Three, And The Second Of Thirty Four Days. The Intercalary Month Of Twenty Three Days Fell Into The Year Of Course, So That The Ancient Year Of 355 Days Received An Augmentation Of Ninety Days; And The Year On That Occasion Contained In All 445 Days. This Was Called The Last Year Of Confusion. The First Julian Year Commenced With The 1St Of January Of The 46Th Before The Birth Of Christ, And The 708Th From The Foundation Of The City.

In The Distribution Of The Days Through The Several Months, Caesar Adopted A Simpler And More Commodious Arrangement Than That Which Has Since Prevailed. He Had Ordered That The First, Third, Fifth, Seventh, Ninth And Eleventh Months, That Is January, March, May, July, September And November, Should Have Each Thirty One Days, And The Other Months Thirty, Excepting February, Which In Common Years Should Have Only Twenty Nine, But Every Fourth Year Thirty Days. This Order Was Interrupted To Gratify The Vanity Of Augustus, By Giving The Month Bearing His Name As Many Days As July, Which Was Named After The First Caesar. A Day Was Accordingly Taken From February And Given To August; And In Order That Three Months Of Thirty One Days Might Not Come Together, September And November Were Reduced To Thirty Days, And Thirty One Given To October And December. For So Frivolous A Reason Was The Regulation Of Caesar Abandoned, And A Capricious Arrangement Introduced, Which It Requires Some Attention To Remember.

The Additional Day Which Occured Every Fourth Year Was Given To February, As Being The Shortest Month, And Was Inserted In The Calendar Between The 24Th And 25Th Day. February Having Then Twenty Nine Days, The 25Th Was The 6Th Of The Calends Of March, Sexto Calendas; The Preceding, Which Was The Additional Or Intercalary Day, Was Called Bis Sexto Calendas, Hence The Term Bissextile, Which Is Still Employed To Distinguish The Year Of 366 Days. The English Denomination Of Leap Year Would Have Been More Appropriate If That Year Had Differed From Common Years In Defect, And Contained Only 364 Days. In The Modern Calendar The Intercalary Day Is Still Added To February, Not, However, Between The 24Th And 25Th, But As The 29Th.

The Regulations Of Caesar Were Not At First Sufficiently Understood; And The Pontiffs, By Intercalating Every Third Year Instead Of Every Fourth, At The End Of Thirty Six Years Had Intercalated Twelve Times, Instead Of Nine. This Mistake Having Been Discovered, Augustus Ordered That All The Years From The Thirtyseventh Of The Era To The Forty Eighth Inclusive Should Be Common Years, By Which Means The Intercalations Were Reduced To The Proper Number Of Twelve In Forty Eight Years. No Account Is Taken Of This Blunder In Chronology; And It Is Tacitly Supposed That The Calendar Has Been Correctly Followed From Its Commencement.

Although The Julian Method Of Intercalation Is Perhaps The Most Convenient That Could Be Adopted, Yet, As It Supposes The Year Too Long By Ii Minutes 14 Seconds, It Could Not Without Correction Very Long Answer The Purpose For Which It Was Devised, Namely, That Of Preserving Always The Same Interval Of Time Between The Commencement Of The Year And The Equinox. Sosigenes Could Scarcely Fail To Know That This Year Was Too Long; For It Had Been Shown Long Before, By The Observations Of Hipparchus, That The Excess Of 3654 Days Above A True Solar Year Would Amount To A Day In 300 Years. The Real Error Is Indeed More Than Double Of This, And Amounts To A Day In 128 Years; But In The Time Of Caesar The Length Of The Year Was An Astronomical Element Not Very Well Determined. In The Course Of A Few Centuries, However, The Equinox Sensibly Retrograded Towards The Beginning Of The Year. When The Julian Calendar Was Introduced, The Equinox Fell On The 25Th Of March. At The Time Of The Council Of Nice, Which Was Held In 325, It Fell On The 21St; And When The Reformation Of The Calendar Was Made In 1582, It Had Retrograded To The 11Th. In Order To Restore The Equinox To Its Former Place, Pope Gregory Xiii. Directed Ten Days To Be Suppressed In The Calendar; And As The Error Of The Julian Intercalation Was Now Found To Amount To Three Days In 400 Years, He Ordered The Intercalations To Be Omitted On All The Centenary Years Excepting Those Which Are Multiples Of 400. According To The Gregorian Rule Of Intercalation, Therefore, Every Year Of Which The Number Is Divisible By Four Without A Remainder Is A Leap Year, Excepting The Centurial Years, Which Are Only Leap Years When Divisible By Four After Omitting The Two Ciphers. Thus 1600 Was A Leap Year, But 1700, 1800 And 1900 Are Common Years; 2000 Will Be A Leap Year, And So On.

As The Gregorian Method Of Intercalation Has Been Adopted In All Christian Countries, Russia Excepted, It Becomes Interesting To Examine With What Degrees Of Accuracy It Reconciles The Civil With The Solar Year. According To The Best Determinations Of Modern Astronomy (Le Verrier'S Solar Tables, Paris, 1858, P. 102), The Mean Geocentric Motion Of The Sun In Longitude, From The Mean Equinox During A Julian Year Of 365.25 Days, The Same Being Brought Up To The Present Date, Is 360 0 27" 685. Thus The Mean Length Of The Solar Year Is Found To Be 60° 7" 685 X365.25 =365.2422 3 Days, Or 365 Days 5 Hours 48 Min. 46 Sec. Now The Gregorian Rule Gives 97 Intercalations In 400 Years; 400 Years Therefore Contain 365 X400 97, That Is, 146,097 Days; And Consequently One Year Contains 365.2425 Days, Or 365 Days 5 Hours 49 Min. 12 Sec. This Exceeds The True Solar Year By 26 Seconds, Which Amount To A Day In 33 2 3 Years. It Is Perhaps Unnecessary To Make Any Formal Provision Against An Error Which Can Only Happen After So Long A Period Of Time; But As 3323 Differs Little From 4000, It Has Been Proposed To Correct The Gregorian Rule By Making The Year 4000 And All Its Multiples Common Years. With This Correction The Rule Of Intercalation Is As Follows: Every Year The Number Of Which Is Divisible By 4 Is A Leap Year, Excepting The Last Year Of Each Century, Which Is A Leap Year Only When The Number Of The Century Is Divisible By 4; But 4000, And Its Multiples, 8000, 12,000, 16,000, &C. Are Common Years. Thus The Uniformity Of The Intercalation, By Continuing To Depend On The Number Four, Is Preserved, And By Adopting The Last Correction The Commencement Of The Year Would Not Vary More Than A Day From Its Present Place In Two Hundred Centuries.

In Order To Discover Whether The Coincidence Of The Civil And Solar Year Could Not Be Restored In Shorter Periods By A Different Method Of Intercalation, We May Proceed As Follows: The Fraction 0.2422, Which Expresses The Excess Of The Solar Year Above A Whole Number Of Days, Being Converted Into A Continued Fraction, Becomes 4 I 7 1 I I 3 1 4 I 1, &C.

Which Gives The Series Of Approximating Fractions, I 7 8 31 132 163 &C.

4' 2 9 ' 33' 128' 545' 673', Gives The Julian Intercalation Of One Day In The First Of These, 4 G J Y Four Years, And Is Considerably Too Great. It Supposes The Year To Contain 365 Days 6 Hours.

The Second, ?9, Gives Seven Intercalary Days In Twenty Nine Years, And Errs In Defect, As It Supposes A Year Of 365 Days 5 Hours 47 Min. 35 Sec.

The Third 3 3, Gives Eight Intercalations In Thirty Three Years Or, Seven Successive Intercalations At The End Of Four Years Respectively, And The Eighth At The End Of Five Years. This Supposes The Year To Contain 365 Days 5 Hours 49 Min. 5.45 Sec.

The Fourth Fraction,I 7 Combines Three 128 ?99293 X33 29 Periods Of Thirty Three Years With One Of Twenty Nine, And Would Consequently Be Very Convenient In Application. It Supposes The Year To Consist Of 365 Days 5 Hours 48 Min. 45 Sec., And Is Practically Exact.

The Fraction 3 3 Offers A Convenient And Very Accurate Method Of Intercalation. It Implies A Year Differing In Excess From The True Year Only By 19.45 Sec., While The Gregorian Year Is Too Long By 26 Sec. It Produces A Much Nearer Coincidence Between The Civil And Solar Years Than The Gregorian Method; And, By Reason Of Its Shortness Of Period, Confines The Evagations Of The Mean Equinox From The True Within Much Narrower Limits. It Has Been Stated By Scaliger, Weidler, Montucla, And Others, That The Modern Persians Actually Follow This Method, And Intercalate Eight Days In Thirty Three Years. The Statement Has, However, Been Contested On Good Authority; And It Seems Proved (See Delambre, Astronomie Moderne, Torn. I. P.81) That The Persian Intercalation Combines The Two Periods 29 And 3 3. If They Follow The Combination 2 9 3 X33 18? Their Determination Of The Length Of The Tropical Year Has Been Extremely Exact. The Discovery Of The Period Of Thirty Three Years Is Ascribed To Omar Khayyam, One Of The Eight Astronomers Appointed Byjelal Ud Din Malik Shah, Sultan Of Khorasan, To Reform Or Construct A Calendar, About The Year 1079 Of Our Era.

If The Commencement Of The Year, Instead Of Being Retained At The Same Place In The Seasons By A Uniform Method Of Intercalation, Were Made To Depend On Astronomical Phenomena, The Intercalations Would Succeed Each Other In An Irregular Manner, Sometimes After Four Years And Sometimes After Five; And It Would Occasionally, Though Rarely Indeed, Happen, That It Would Be Impossible To Determine The Day On Which The Year Ought To Begin. In The Calendar, For Example, Which Was Attempted To Be Introduced In France In 1 793, The Beginning Of The Year Was Fixed At Midnight Preceding The Day In Which The True Autumnal Equinox Falls. But Supposing The Instant Of The Sun'S Entering Into The Sign Libra To Be Very Near Midnight, The Small Errors Of The Solar Tables Might Render It Doubtful To Which Day The Equinox Really Belonged; And It Would Be In Vain To Have Recourse To Observation To Obviate The Difficulty. It Is Therefore Infinitely More Commodious To Determine The Commencement Of The Year By A Fixed Rule Of Intercalation; And Of The Various Methods Which Might Be Employed, No One, Perhaps Is On The Whole More Easy Of Application, Or Better Adapted For The Purpose Of Computation, Than The Gregorian Now In Use. But A System Of 31 Intercalations In 128 Years Would Be By Far The Most Perfect As Regards Mathematical Accuracy. Its Adoption Upon Our Present Gregorian Calendar Would Only Require The Suppression Of The Usual Bissextile Once In Every 128 Years, And There Would Be No Necessity For Any Further Correction, As The Error Is So Insignificant That It Would Not Amount To A Day In 100,000 Years.

Of The Lunar Year And Luni Solar Periods

The Lunar Year, Consisting Of Twelve Lunar Months, Contains Only 354 Days; Its Commencement Consequently Anticipates That Of The Solar Year By Eleven Days, And Passes Through The Whole Circle Of The Seasons In About Thirty Four Lunar Years. It Is Therefore So Obviously Ill Adapted To The Computation Of Time, That, Excepting The Modern Jews And Mahommedans, Almost All Nations Who Have Regulated Their Months By The Moon Have Employed Some Method Of Intercalation By Means Of Which The Beginning Of The Year Is Retained At Nearly The Same Fixed Place In The Seasons.

In The Early Ages Of Greece The Year Was Regulated Entirely By The Moon. Solon Divided The Year Into Twelve Months, Consisting Alternately Of Twenty Nine And Thirty Days, The Former Of Which Were Called Deficient Months, And The Latter Full Months. The Lunar Year, Therefore, Contained 354 Days, Falling Short Of The Exact Time Of Twelve Lunations By About 8.8 Hours. The First Expedient Adopted To Reconcile The Lunar And Solar Years Seems To Have Been The Addition Of A Month Of Thirty Days To Every Second Year. Two Lunar Years Would Thus Contain 25 Months, Or 738 Days, While Two Solar Years, Of 3654 Days Each, Contain 7302 Days.V The `, Difference Of 72 Days Was Still Too Great To Escape Observation; It Was Accordingly Proposed By Cleostratus Of Tenedos, Who Flourished Shortly After The Time Of Thales, To Omit The Biennary Intercalation Every Eighth Year. In Fact, The 72 Days By Which Two Lunar Years Exceeded Two Solar Years, Amounted To Thirty Days, Or A Full Month, In Eight Years. By Inserting, Therefore, Three Additional Months Instead Of Four In Every Period Of Eight Years, The Coincidence Between The Solar And Lunar Year Would Have Been Exactly Restored If The Latter Had Contained Only 354 Days, Inasmuch As The Period Contains 354X8 3 X 30 = 2922 Days, Corresponding With Eight Solar Years Of 3654 Days Each. But The True Time Of 99 Lunations Is 2923.528 Days, Which Exceeds The Above Period By 1.528 Days, Or Thirtysix Hours And A Few Minutes. At The End Of Two Periods, Or Sixteen Years, The Excess Is Three Days, And At The End Of 160 Years, Thirty Days. It Was Therefore Proposed To Employ A Period Of 160 Years, In Which One Of The Intercalary Months Should Be Omitted; But As This Period Was Too Long To Be Of Any Practical Use, It Was Never Generally Adopted. The Common Practice Was To Make Occasional Corrections As They Became Necessary, In Order To Preserve The Relation Between The Octennial Period And The State Of The Heavens; But These Corrections Being Left To The Care Of Incompetent Persons, The Calendar Soon Fell Into Great Disorder, And No Certain Rule Was Followed Till A New Division Of The Year Was Proposed By Meton And Euctemon, Which Was Immediately Adopted In All The States And Dependencies Of Greece.

The Mean Motion Of The Moon In Longitude, From The Mean Equinox, During A Julian Year Of 365.25 Days (According To Hansen'S Tables De La Lune, London, 1857, Pages 15, 16) Is, At The Present Date, 13X360° 477644"'409; That Of The Sun Being 360° 27". 685. Thus The Corresponding Relative Mean Geocentric Motion Of The Moon From The Sun Is 12 X360 { 477616" 724; And The Duration Of The Mean Synodic Revolution Of The Moon, Or Lunar Month, Is Therefore 1236776072 25 = 29'530588 Days, Or 29 Days, 12 Hours, 44 Min. 2.8 Sec.

The Metonic Cycle, Which May Be Regarded As The Chef D'Oeuvre Of Ancient Astronomy, Is A Period Of Nineteen Solar Years, After Which The New Moons Again Happen On The Same Days Of The Year. In Nineteen Solar Years There Are 235 Lunations, A Number Which, On Being Divided By Nineteen, Gives Twelve Lunations For Each Year, With Seven Of A Remainder, To Be Distributed Among The Years Of The Period. The Period Of Meton, Therefore, Consisted Of Twelve Years Containing Twelve Months Each, And Seven Years Containing Thirteen Months Each; P And These Last Formed The Third, Fifth, Eighth, Eleventh, Thirteenth, Sixteenth, And Nineteenth Years Of The Cycle. As It Had Now Been Discovered That The Exact Length Of The Lunation Is A Little More Than Twenty Nine And A Half Days, It Became Necessary To Abandon The Alternate Succession Of Full And Deficient Months; And, In Order To Preserve A More Accurate Correspondence Between The Civil Month And The Lunation, Meton Divided The Cycle Into 125 Full Months Of Thirty Days, And 110 Deficient Months Of Twenty Nine Days Each. The Number Of Days In The Period Was Therefore 6940. In Order To Distribute The Deficient Months Through The Period In The Most Equable Manner, The Whole Period May Be Regarded As Consisting Of 235 Full Months Of Thirty Days, Or Of 7050 Days, From Which 1 10 Days Are To Be Deducted. This Gives One Day To Be Suppressed In Sixty Four; So That If We Suppose The Months To Contain Each Thirty Days, And Then Omit Every Sixty Fourth Day In Reckoning From The Beginning Of The Period, Those Months In Which The Omission Takes Place Will, Of Course, Be The Deficient Months.

The Number Of Days In The Period Being Known, It Is Easy To Ascertain Its Accuracy Both In Respect Of The Solar And Lunar Motions. The Exact Length Of Nineteen Solar Years Is 19X365'2422=6939'6018 Days, Or 6 939 Days 14 Hours 26.592 Minutes; Hence The Period, Which Is Exactly 6940 Days, Exceeds Nineteen Revolutions Of The Sun By Nine And A Half Hours Nearly. On The Other Hand, The Exact Time Of A Synodic Revolution Of The Moon Is 29'530588 Days; 235 Lunations, Therefore, Contain 2 35 X 29 530588 = 6 939'6 8818 Days, Or 6 939 Days 16 Hours 31 Minutes, So That The Period Exceeds 235 Lunations By Only Seven And A Half Hours. After The Metonic Cycle Had Been In Use About A Century, A Correction Was Proposed By Calippus. At The End For Four Cycles, Or Seventy Six Years, The Accumulation Of The Seven And A Half Hours Of Difference Between The Cycle And 235 Lunations Amounts To Thirty Hours, Or One Whole Day And Six Hours. Calippus, Therefore, Proposed To Quadruple The Period Of Meton, And Deduct One Day At The End Of That Time By Changing One Of The Full Months Into A Deficient Month. The Period Of Calippus, Therefore, Consisted Of Three Metonic Cycles Of 6940 Days Each, And A Period Of 6939 Days; And Its Error In Respect Of The Moon, Consequently, Amounted Only To Six Hours, Or To One Day In 304 Years. This Period Exceeds Seventy Six True Solar Years By Fourteen Hours And A Quarter Nearly, But Coincides Exactly With Seventy Six Julian Years; And In The Time Of Calippus The Length Of The Solar Year Was Almost Universally Supposed To Be Exactly 3 6 54 Days. The Calippic Period Is Frequently Referred To As A Date By Ptolemy.

Ecclesiastical Calendar

The Ecclesiastical Calendar, Which Is Adopted In All The Catholic, And Most Of The Protestant Countries Of Europe, Is Luni Solar, Being Regulated Partly By The Solar, And Partly By The Lunar Year, A Circumstance Which Gives Rise To The Distinction Between The Movable And Immovable Feasts. So Early As The Znd Century Of Our Era, Great Disputes Had Arisen Among The Christians Respecting The Proper Time Of Celebrating Easter, Which Governs All The Other Movable Feasts. The Jews Celebrated Their Passover On The 14Th Day Of The First Month, That Is To Say, The Lunar Month Of Which The Fourteenth Day Either Falls On, Or Next Follows, The Day Of The Vernal Equinox. Most Christian Sects Agreed That Easter Should Be Celebrated On A Sunday. Others Followed The Example Of The Jews, And Adhered To The 4Th Of The Moon; But These, As Usually Happened To The Minority, Were Accounted Heretics, And Received The Appellation Of Quartodecimans. In Order To Terminate Dissensions, Which Produced Both Scandal And Schism In The Church, The Council Of Nicaea, Which Was Held In The Year 325, Ordained That The Celebration Of Easter Should Thenceforth Always Take Place On The Sunday Which Immediately Follows The Full Moon That Happens Upon, Or Next After, The Day Of The Vernal Equinox. Should The 14Th Of The Moon, Which Is Regarded As The Day Of Full Moon, Happen On A Sunday, The Celebration Of Easter Was Deferred To The Sunday Following, In Order To Avoid Concurrence With The Jews And The Above Mentioned Heretics. The Observance Of This Rule Renders It Necessary To Reconcile Three Periods Which Have No Common Measure, Namely, The Week, The Lunar Month, And The Solar Year; And As This Can Only Be Done Approximately, And Within Certain Limits, The Determination Of Easter Is An Affair Of Considerable Nicety And Complication. It Is To Be Regretted That The Reverend Fathers Who Formed The Council Of Nicaea Did Not Abandon The Moon Altogether, And Appoint The First Or Second Sunday Of April For The Celebration Of The Easter Festival. The Ecclesiastical Calendar Would In That Case Have Possessed All The Simplicity And Uniformity Of The Civil Calendar, Which Only Requires The Adjustment Of The Civil To The Solar Year; But They Were Probably Not Sufficiently Versed In Astronomy To Be Aware Of The Practical Difficulties Which Their Regulation Had To Encounter.

Dominical Letter

The First Problem Which The Construction Of The Calendar Presents Is To Connect The Week With The Year, Or To Find The Day Of The Week Corresponding To A Given Day Of Any Year Of The Era. As The Number Of Days In The Week And The Number In The Year Are Prime To One Another, Two Successive Years Cannot Begin With The Same Day; For If A Common Year Begins, For Example, With Sunday, The Following Year Will Begin With Monday, And If A Leap Year Begins With Sunday, The Year Following Will Begin With Tuesday. For The Sake Of Greater Generality, The Days Of The Week Are Denoted By The First Seven Letters Of The Alphabet, A, B, C, D, E, F, G, Which Are Placed In The Calendar Beside The Days Of The Year, So That A Stands Opposite The First Day Of January, B Opposite The Second, And So On To G, Which Stands Opposite The Seventh; After Which A Returns To The Eighth, And So On Through The 365 Days Of The Year. Now If One Of The Days Of The Week, Sunday For Example, Is Represented By E, Monday Will Be Represented By F, Tuesday By G, Wednesday By A, And So On; And Every Sunday Through The Year Will Have The Same Character E, Every Monday F, And So With Regard To The Rest. The Letter Which Denotes Sunday Is Called The Dominical Letter, Or The Sunday Letter; And When The Dominical Letter Of The Year Is Known, The Letters Which Respectively Correspond To The Other Days Of The Week Become Known At The Same Time.

Solar Cycle

In The Julian Calendar The Dominical Letters Are Readily Found By Means Of A Short Cycle, In Which They Recur In The Same Order Without Interruption. The Number Of Years In The Intercalary Period Being Four, And The Days Of The Week Being Seven, Their Product Is 4 X 7 = 28; Twenty Eight Years Is Therefore A Period Which Includes All The Possible Combinations Of The Days Of The Week With The Commencement Of The Year. This Period Is Called The Solar Cycle, Or The Cycle Of The Sun, And Restores The First Day Of The Year To The Same Day Of The Week. At The End Of The Cycle The Dominical Letters Return Again In The Same Order On The Same Days Of The Month; Hence A Table Of Dominical Letters, Constructed For Twenty Eight Years, Will Serve To Show The Dominical Letter Of Any Given Year From The Corn Mencement Of The Era To The Reformation. The Cycle, Though Probably Not Invented Before The Time Of The Council Of Nicaea, Is Regarded As Having Commenced Nine Years Before The Era, So That The Year One Was The Tenth Of The Solar Cycle. To Find The Year Of The Cycle, We Have Therefore The Following Rule: Add Nine To The Date, Divide The Sum By Twenty Eight; The Quotient Is The Number Of Cycles Elapsed, And The Remainder Is The Year Of The Cycle. Should There Be No Remainder, The Proposed Year Is The Twentyeighth Or Last Of The Cycle. This Rule Is Conveniently Expressed By The Formula (X 9) R, In Which X Denotes The Date, And The Symbol R Denotes That The Remainder, Which Arises From The Division Of X 9 By 28, Is The Number Required. Thus, For 1840, We Have 1840-9966 2 1 G; Therefore (1849) R= 1, And The Year 1840 Is The First Of The Solar Cycle. In Order To Make Use Of The Solar Cycle In Finding The Dominical Letter, It Is Necessary To Know That The First Year Of The Christian Era Began With Saturday. The Dominical Letter Of That Year, Which Was The Tenth Of The Cycle, Was Consequently B. The Following Year, Or The I 1Th Of The Cycle, The Letter Was A; Then G. The Fourth Year Was Bissextile, And The Dominical Letters Were F, E; The Following Year D, And So On. In This Manner It Is Easy To Find The Dominical Letter Belonging To Each Of The Twenty Eight Years Of The Cycle. But At The End Of A Century The Order Is Interrupted In The Gregorian Calendar By The Secular Suppression Of The Leap Year; Hence The Cycle Can Only Be Employed During A Century. In The Reformed Calendar The Intercalary Period Is Four Hundred Years, Which Number Being Multiplied By Seven, Gives Two Thousand Eight Hundred Years As The Interval In Which The Coincidence Is Restored Between The Days Of The Year And The Days Of The Week. This Long Period, However, May Be Reduced To Four Hundred Years; For Since The Dominical Letter Goes Back Five Places Every Four Years, Its Variation In Four Hundred Years, In The Julian Calendar, Was Five Hundred Places, Which Is Equivalent To Only Three Places (For Five Hundred Divided By Seven Leaves Three); But The Gregorian Calendar Suppresses Exactly Three Intercalations In Four Hundred Years, So That After Four Hundred Years The Dominical Letters Must Again Return In The Same Order.

Hence The Following Table Of Dominical Letters For Four Hundred Years Will Serve To Show The Dominical Letter Of Any Year In The Gregorian Calendar For Ever. It Contains Four Columns Of Letters, Each Column Serving For A Century. In Order To Find The Column From Which The Letter In Any Given Case Is To Be Taken, Strike Off The Last Two Figures Of The Date, Divide The Preceding Figures By Four, And The Remainder Will Indicate The Column. The Symbol X, Employed In The Formula At The Top Of The Column, Denotes The Number Of Centuries, That Is, The Figures Remaining After The Last Two Have Been Struck Off. For Example, Required The Dominical Letter Of The Year 1839? In This Case X= 18, Therefore () R = 2; And In The Second Column Of Letters, Opposite 39, In The Table We Find F, Which Is The Letter Of The Proposed Year.

It Deserves To Be Remarked, That As The Dominical Letter Of The First Year Of The Era Was B, The First Column Of The Following Table Will Give The Dominical Letter Of Every Year From The Commencement Of The Era To The Reformation. For This Purpose Divide The Date By 28, And The Letter Opposite The Remainder, In The First Column Of Figures, Is The Dominical Letter Of The Year. For Example, Supposing The Date To Be 1148. On Dividing By 28, The Remainder Is O, Or 28; And Opposite 28, In The First Column Of Letters, We Find D, C, The Dominical Letters Of The Year 1148.

Years Of The Century.

(4 X) R = 1

(4) R =2

(4) R =3

(X 4) R = O

O

C

E

G

B,A

1 29 57 85

B

D

F

G

2 30 58 86

A

C

E

F

33159 87

G

B

D

E

4 32 60 88

F, E

A, G

C, B

D, C

5 33 61 89

D

F

A

B

6 34 62 90

C

E

G

A

7 3563 91

B

D

F

G

8 36 64 92

A, G

C, B

E, D

F, E

9 376593

F

A

C

D

10 38 66 9 4

E

G

B

C

Ii 39 67 95

D

F

A

B

12 40 68 96

C, B

E, D

G, F

A, G

1341-6997

A

C

E

F

14 42 70 98

G

B

D

E

1 5 437199

F

A

C

D

16 44 72

E, D

G, F

B, A

C, B

1 7 45 73

C

E

G

A

18 46 74

B

D

F

G

194775

A

C

E

F

20 48 76

G, F

B, A

D, C

E, D

21 49 77

E

G

B

C

22 50 78

D

F

A

B

2351 79

C

E

G

A

24 52 80

B, A

D, C

F, E

G, F

2 5 53 81

G

B

D

E

26 54 82

F

A

C

D

2 7 55 83

E

G

B

C

28 56 84

D, C

F, E

A, G

B, A

Lunar Cycle and Golden Number

In connecting the lunar month with the solar year, the framers of the ecclesiastical calendar adopted the period of Meton, or lunar cycle, which they supposed to be exact. A different arrangement has, however, been followed with respect to the distribution of the months. The lunations are supposed to consist of twenty-nine and thirty days alternately, or the lunar year of 354 days; and in order to make up nineteen solar years, six embolismic or intercalary months, of thirty days each, are introduced in the course of the cycle, and one of twenty-nine days is added at the end. This gives 19 X354+6 X 30429 = 6 935 days, to be distributed among 235 lunar months. But every leap year one day must be added to the lunar month in which the 29th of February is included. Now if leap year happens on the first, second or third year of the period, there will be five leap years in the period, but only four when the first leap year falls on the fourth. In the former case the number of days in the period becomes 6940 and in the latter 6939. The mean length of the cycle is [[Table I]]. Dominical Letters. it was so termed by the Greeks, or because it was usual to mark it with red letters in the calendar. The Golden Numbers were introduced into the calendar about the year 530, but disposed as they would have been if they had been inserted at the time of the council of Nicaea. The cycle is supposed to commence with the year in which the new moon falls on the ist of January, which. took place the year preceding the commencement of our era. Hence, to find the Golden Number N, for any year x, we have N= (- 19 ' 1) which gives the following rule: Add i to the date, divide the sum by 19; the quotient is the number of cycles elapsed, and the remainder is the Golden Number. When the remainder is o, the proposed year is of course the last or 19th of the cycle. It ought to be remarked that the new moons, determined in this manner, may differ from the astronomical new moons sometimes as much as two days. The reason is that the sum of the solar and lunar inequalities, which are compensated in the whole period, may amount in certain cases to io, and thereby cause the new moon to arrive on the second day before or after its mean time.

Dionysian Period

The cycle of the sun brings back the days of the month to the same day of the week; the lunar cycle restores the new moons to the same day of the month; therefore 28 X 19 = 53 2 years, includes all the variations in respect of the new moons and the dominical letters, and is consequently a period after which the new moons again occur on the same day of the month and the same day of the week. This is called the Dionysian or Great Paschal Period, from its having been employed by Dionysius Exiguus, familiarly styled " Denys the Little," in determining Easter Sunday. It was, however, first proposed by Victorius of Aquitain, who had been appointed by Pope Hilary to revise and correct the church calendar. Hence it is also called the Victorian Period. It continued in use till the Gregorian reformation.

Cycle of Indiction

Besides the solar and lunar cycles, there is a third of 15 years, called the cycle of indiction, frequently employed in the computations of chronologists. This period is not astronomical, like the two former, but has reference to certain judicial acts which took place at stated epochs under the Greek emperors. Its commencement is referred to the 1st of January of the year 313 of the common era. By extending it backwards, it will be found that the first of the era was the fourth of the cycle of indiction. The number of any year in this cycle therefore 69391 days, agreeing exactly with nineteen Julian years.

By means of the lunar cycle the new moons of the calendar were indicated before the Reformation. As the cycle restores these phenomena to the same days of the civil month, they will fall on the same days in any two years which occupy the same place in the cycle; consequently a table of the moon's phases for 19 years will serve for any year whatever when we know its number in the cycle. This number is called the Golden Number, either because will therefore be given by the formula (x 1 53) r, that is to say, add 3 totlzedate,divide the sum by 15, and the remainder is the year of the indiction. When the remainder is o, the proposed year is the fifteenth of the cycle.

JulianPeriod

The Julian period, proposed by the celebrated Joseph Scaliger as an universal measure of chronology, is formed by taking the continued product of the three cycles of the sun, of the moon, and of the indiction,and is consequently 28 X 19X I 5= 7980 years. In the course of this long period no two years can be expressed by the same numbers in all the three cycles. Hence, when the number of any proposed year in each of the cycles is known, its number in the Julian period can be determined by the resolution of a very simple problem of the indeterminate analysis. It is unnecessary, however, in the present case to exhibit the general solution of the problem, because when the number in the period corre sponding to any one year in the era has been ascertained, it is. easy to establish the correspondence for all other years, without having again recourse to the direct solution of the problem. We shall therefore find the number of the Julian period corresponding to the first of our era.

Month.

Dominical Letter.

Jan. Oct.

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

Feb. Mar. Nov.

D

E

F

G

A

B

C

April July

G'

A

B

C

D

E

F

May

B

C

D

E

F

G

A

June

E

F

G

A

B

C

D

August

C

D

E

F

G

A

B

Sept. Dec.

F

G

A

B

C

D

E

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

Sun.

Mon.

Tues.

Wed.

Thur.

Frid.

Sat.

Sat.

Sun.

Mon.

Tues.

Wed.

Thur.

Frid.

Frid.

Sat.

Sun.

Mon.

Tues.

Wed.

Thur.

Thur.

Frid.

Sat.

Sun.

Mon.

Tues.

Wed.

Wed.

Thur.

Frid.

Sat.

Sun.

Mon.

Tues.

Tues.

Wed.

Thur.

Frid.

Sat.

Sun.

Mon.

Mon.

Tues.

Wed.

Thur.

Frid.

Sat.

Sun.

We have already seen that the year 1 of the era had Io for its number in the solar cycle, 2 in the lunar cycle, and 4 in the cycle of indiction; the question is therefore to find a number such, that Iv. 32 [[Table Ii]]. The Day Of The Week. When It Is Divided By The Three Numbers 28, 19, And 15 Respectively The Three Quotients Shall Be 10, 2, And 4.

Let X, Y, And Z Be The Three Quotients Of The Divisions; The Number Sought Will Then Be Expressed By 28 X Io, By 19 Y 2, Or By 15 Z 4. Hence The Two Equations 28X 10=19Y 2=15Z 4.

To Solve The Equations 28 X Io =19 Y 2, Or Y =X 9198 , Let M= 9 19 8, We Have Thenx=2 M 172 8 9 Let M9 8 =M'; Then M= 9 M' 8; Hence X=18 M' 16 M'=19 M' 16 (I). Again, Since 28 X Io =15 Z 4, We Have 15Z=28X 6, Or Z = 2X2X 6 15 Let T R 6 N, Then 2X =15N 6, Andx=7N 3 N.

5 Let 2 Then N' =2 N'; Consequently X=14 N' 3=N'=15 N' 3 (2). Equating The Above Two Values Of X, We Have 15 N' 3 =19 M' 16; Whence N' =M' 4'N1 13.

5 Let 4 P, We Have Then 15 4M'=15 P I 3, And M'=4 P P ?3 4 Let P 13 P' 4 Then P= 4 P' 13; Whence M' = 16P' 52 P' = 1 5 P' 52.

Now In This Equation P' May Be Any Number Whatever, Provided 15 P Exceed 52. The Smallest Value Of P (Which Is The One Here Wanted) Is Therefore 4; For 15X4=60. Assuming Therefore P'= 4, We Have M' =60 52 =8; And Consequently, Since X=19 M' 16, X=19X8 16=168. The Number Required Is Consequently 28X168 10=4714.

Having Found The Number 4714 For The First Of The Era, The Correspondence Of The Years Of The Era And Of The Period Is As Follows: Era, I, 2, 3,... X, Period, 47 1 4, 47 1 5, 4716,...4713 X; From Which It Is Evident, That If We Take P To Represent The Year Of The Julian Period, And X The Corresponding Year Of The Christian Era, We Shall Have P= 47 1 3 X, And X=P 4713.

With Regard To The Numeration Of The Years Previous To The Commencement Of The Era, The Practice Is Not Uniform. Chronologists, In General, Reckon The Year Preceding The First Of The Era I, The Next Preceding 2, And So On. In This Case E Ra, I, 2, 3,... X, Period, 47 1 3, 4712, Whence P=4714 X, And X=4714 P.

But Astronomers, In Order To Preserve The Uniformity Of Computation, Make The Series Of Years Proceed Without Interruption, And Reckon The Year Preceding The First Of The Era O. Thus Era, O, I, 2,... X, Period, 47 1 3, 4712, 4711,...4713 X; Therefore, In This Case P=4713 X, And X=4713 P.

Reformation Of The Calendar

The Ancient Church Calendar Was Founded On Two Suppositions, Both Erroneous, Namely, That The Year Contains 3654 Days, And That 235 Lunations Are Exactly Equal To Nineteen Solar Years. It Could Not Therefore Long Continue To Preserve Its Correspondence With The Seasons, Or To Indicate The Days Of The New Moons With The Same Accuracy. About The Year 73 O The Venerable Bede Had Already Perceived The Anticipation Of The Equinoxes, And Remarked That These Phenomena Then Took Place About Three Days Earlier Than At The Time Of The Council Of Nicaea. Five Centuries After The Time Of Bede, The Divergence Of The True Equinox From The 21St Of March, Which Now Amounted To Seven Or Eight Days, Was Pointed Out By Johannes De Sacro Bosco (John Holywood, Fl. 1230) In His De Anni Ratione; And By Roger Bacon, In A Treatise De Reformatione Calendarii, Which, Though Never Published, Was Transmitted To The Pope. These Works Were Probably Little Regarded At The Time; But As The Errors Of The Calendar Went On Increasing, And The True Length Of The Year, In Consequence Of The Progress Of Astronomy, Became Better Known, The Project Of A Reformation Was Again Revived In The I 5Th Century; And In 1474 Pope Sixtus Iv. Invited Regiomontanus, The Most Celebrated Astronomer Of The Age, To Rome, To Superintend The Reconstruction Of The Calendar. The Premature Death Of Regiomontanus Caused The Design To Be Suspended For The Time; But In The Following Century Numerous Memoirs Appeared On The Subject, Among The Authors Of Which Were Staler, Albert Pighius, Johann Schbner, Lucas Gauricus, And Other Mathematicians Of Celebrity. At Length Pope Gregory Xiii. Perceiving That The Measure Was Likely To Confer A Great Eclat On His Pontificate, Undertook The Long Desired Reformation; And Having Found The Governments Of The Principal Catholic States Ready To Adopt His Views, He Issued A Brief In The Month Of March 1582, In Which He Abolished The Use Of The Ancient Calendar, And Substituted That Which Has Since Been Received In Almost All Christian Countries Under The Name Of The Gregorian Calendar Or New Style. The Author Of The System Adopted By Gregory Was Aloysius Lilius, Or Luigi Lilioghiraldi, A Learned Astronomer And Physician Of Naples, Who Died, However, Before Its Introduction; But The Individual Who Most Contributed To Give The Ecclesiastical Calendar Its Present Form, And Who Was Charged With All The Calculations Necessary For Its Verification, Was Clavius, By Whom It Was Completely Developed And Explained In A Great Folio Treatise Of 800 Pages, Published In 1603, The Title Of Which Is Given At The End Of This Article.

It Has Already Been Mentioned That The Error Of The Julian Year Was Corrected In The Gregorian Calendar By The Suppression Of Three Intercalations In 400 Years. In Order To Restore The Beginning Of The Year To The Same Place In The Seasons That It Had Occupied At The Time Of The Council Of Nicaea, Gregory Directed The Day Following The Feast Of St Francis, That Is To Say The 5Th Of October, To Be Reckoned The 15Th Of That Month. By This Regulation The Vernal Equinox Which Then Happened On The 11Th Of March Was Restored To The 21St. From 1582 To 1700 The Difference Between The Old And New Style Continued To Be Ten Days; But 1700 Being A Leap Year In The Julian Calendar, And A Common Year In The Gregorian, The Difference Of The Styles During The 18Th Century Was Eleven Days. The Year I 800 Was Also Common In The New Calendar, And, Consequently, The Difference In The 19Th Century Was Twelve Days. From 1900 To 2100 Inclusive It Is Thirteen Days.

The Restoration Of The Equinox To Its Former Place In The Year And The Correction Of The Intercalary Period, Were Attended With No Difficulty; But Lilius Had Also To Adapt The Lunar Year To The New Rule Of Intercalation. The Lunar Cycle Contained 6 939 Days 18 Hours, Whereas The Exact Time Of 235 Lunations, As We Have Already Seen, Is 235X29.530588= 6939 Days 16 Hours 31 Minutes. The Difference, Which Is I Hour 29 Minutes, Amounts To A Day In 308 Years, So That At The End Of This Time The New Moons Occur One Day Earlier Than They Are Indicated By The Golden Numbers. During The 1257 Years That Elapsed Between The Council Of Nicaea And The Reformation, The Error Had Accumulated To Four Days, So That The New Moons Which Were Marked In The Calendar As Happening, For Example, On The 5Th Of The Month, Actually Fell On The 1St. It Would Have Been Easy To Correct This Error By Placing The Golden Numbers Four Lines Higher In The New Calendar; And The Suppression Of The Ten Days Had Already Rendered It Necessary To Place Them Ten Lines Lower, And To Carry Those Which Belonged, For Example, To The 5Th And 6Th Of The Month, To The 15Th And 16Th. But, Supposing This Correction To Have Been Made, It Would Have Again Become Necessary, At The End Of 308 Years, To Advance Them One Line Higher, In Consequence Of The Accumulation Of The Error Of The Cycle To A Whole Day. On The Other Hand, As The Golden Numbers Were Only Adapted To The Julian Calendar, Every Omission Of The Centenary Intercalation Would Require Them To Be Placed One Line Lower, Opposite The 6Th, For Example, Instead Of The 5Th Of The Month; So That, Generally Speaking, The Places Of The Golden Numbers Would Have To Be Changed Every Century. On This Account Lilius Thought Fit To Reject The Golden Numbers From The Calendar, And Supply Their Place By Another Set Of Numbers Called Epacts, The Use Of Which We Shall Now Proceed To Explain.

Epacts

Epact Is A Word Of Greek Origin, Employed In The Calendar To Signify The Moon'S Age At The Beginning Of The Year.

4711,...4714 X; The Common Solar Year Containing 365 Days, And The Lunar Year Only 354 Days, The Difference Is Eleven; Whence, If A New Moon Fall On The 1St Of January In Any Year, The Moon Will Be Eleven Days Old On The First Day Of The Following Year, And Twentytwo Days On The First Of The Third Year. The Numbers Eleven And Twenty Two Are Therefore The Epacts Of Those Years Respectively. Another Addition Of Eleven Gives Thirty Three For The Epact Of The Fourth Year; But In Consequence Of The Insertion Of The Intercalary Month In Each Third Year Of The Lunar Cycle, This Epact Is Reduced To Three. In Like Manner The Epacts Of All The Following Years Of The Cycle Are Obtained By Successively Adding Eleven To The Epact Of The Former Year, And Rejecting Thirty As Often As The Sum Exceeds That Number. They Are Therefore Connected With The Golden Numbers By The Formula (I), In Which N Is Any Whole Number; Andor A Whole Lunar Cycle (Supposing The First Epact To Be 11), They Are As Follows: 11, 22, 3, 14, 25, 6, 17, 28, 9, 20, I, 12, 23, 4, 15, 26, 7, 18, 29. But The Order Is Interrupted At The End Of The Cycle; For The Epact Of The Following Year, Found In The Same Manner, Would Be 29 11=40 Or 10, Whereas It Ought Again To Be 1S To Correspond With The Moon'S Age And The Golden Number 1. The Reason Of This Is, That The Intercalary Month, Inserted At The End Of The Cycle, Contains Only Twenty Nine Days Instead Of Thirty; Whence, After 11 Has Been Added To The Epact Of The Year Corresponding To The Golden Number 19, We Must Reject Twenty Nine Instead Of Thirty, In Order To Have The Epact Of The Succeeding Year; Or, Which Comes To The Same Thing, We Must Add Twelve To The Epact Of The Last Year Of The Cycle, And Then Reject Thirty As Before.

This Method Of Forming The Epacts Might Have Been Continued Indefinitely If The Julian Intercalation Had Been Followed Without Correction, And The Cycle Been Perfectly Exact; But As Neither Of These Suppositions Is True, Two Equations Or Corrections Must Be Applied, One Depending On The Error Of The Julian Year, Which Is Called The Solar Equation; The Other On The Error Of The Lunar Cycle, Which Is Called The Lunar Equation. The Solar Equation Occurs Three Times In 400 Years, Namely, In Every Secular Year Which Is Not A Leap Year; For In This Case The Omission Of The Intercalary Day Causes The New Moons To Arrive One Day Later In All The Following Months, So That The Moon'S Age At The End Of The Month Is One Day Less Than It Would Have Been If The Intercalation Had Been Made, And The Epacts Must Accordingly Be All Diminished By Unity. Thus The Epacts I 1, 22, 3, 14, &C., Become 10, 21, 2, 13, &C. On The Other Hand, When The Time By Which The New Moons Anticipate The Lunar Cycle Amounts To A Whole Day, Which, As We Have Seen, It Does In 308 Years, The New Moons Will Arrive One Day Earlier, And The Epacts Must Consequently Be Increased By Unity. Thus The Epacts 11, 22, 3, 14, &C., In Consequence Of The Lunar Equation, Become 12, 23, 4, 15, &C. In Order To Preserve The Uniformity Of The Calendar, The Epacts Are Changed Only At The Commencement Of A Century; The Correction Of The Error Of The Lunar Cycle Is Therefore Made At The End Of 300 Years. In The Gregorian Calendar This Error Is Assumed To Amount To One Day In 3121 Years Or Eight Days In 2500 Years, An Assumption Which Requires The Line Of Epacts To Be Changed Seven Times Successively At The End Of Each Period Of 300 Years, And Once At The End Of 400 Years; And, From The Manner In Which The Epacts Were Disposed At The Reformation, It Was Found Most Correct To Suppose One Of The Periods Of 2500 Years To Terminate With The Year 1800.

The Years In Which The Solar Equation Occurs, Counting From The Reformation, Are 1700, 1800, 1900, 2100, 2200, 2300, 2500, &C. Those In Which The Lunar Equation Occurs Are 1800, 2100, 2400, 2700, 3000, 3300, 3600, 3900, After Which, 4300, 4600 And So On. When The Solar Equation Occurs, The Epacts Are Diminished By Unity; When The Lunar Equation Occurs, The Epacts Are Augmented By Unity; And When Both Equations Occur Together, As In 1800, 2100, 2700, &C., They Compensate Each Other, And The Epacts Are Not Changed.

In Consequence Of The Solar And Lunar Equations, It Is Evident That The Epact Or Moon'S Age At The Beginning Of The Year, Must, In The Course Of Centuries, Have All Different Values From One To Thirty Inclusive, Corresponding To The Days In A Full Lunar Month. Hence, For The Construction Of A Perpetual Calendar, There Must Be Thirty Different Sets Or Lines Of Epacts. These Are Exhibited In The Subjoined Table (Table Iii.) Called The Extended Table Of Epacts, Which Is Constructed In The Following Manner. The Series Of Golden Numbers Is Written In A Line At The Top Of The Table, And Under Each Golden Number Is A Column Of Thirty Epacts, Arranged In The Order Of The Natural Numbers, Beginning At The Bottom And Proceeding To The Top Of The Column. The First Column, Under The Golden Number 1, Contains The Epacts, 1, 2, 3, 4, &C., To 30 Or O. The Second Column, Corresponding To The Following Year In The Lunar Cycle, Must Have All Its Epacts Augmented By 11; The Lowest Number, Therefore, In The Column Is 12, Then 13, 14, 15 And So On. The Third Column Corresponding To The Golden Number 3, Has For Its First Epact 12 = 23; And In The Same Manner All The Nineteen Columns Of The Table Are Formed. Each Of The Thirty Lines Of Epacts Is Designated By A Letter Of The Alphabet, Which Serves As Its Index Or Argument. The Order Of The Letters, Like That Of The Numbers, Is From The Bottom Of The Column Upwards.

In The Tables Of The Church Calendar The Epacts Are Usually Printed In Roman Numerals, Excepting The Last, Which Is Designated By An Asterisk (*), Used As An Indefinite Symbol To Denote 30 Or O, And 25, Which In The Last Eight Columns Is Expressed In Arabic Characters, For A Reason That Will Immediately Be Explained. In The Table Here Given, This Distinction Is Made By Means Of An Accent Placed Over The Last Figure.

At The Reformation The Epacts Were Given By The Line D. The Year 1600 Was A Leap Year; The Intercalation Accordingly Took Place As Usual, And There Was No Interruption In The Order Of The Epacts; The Line D Was Employed Till 1700. In That Year The Omission Of The Intercalary Day Rendered It Necessary To Diminish The Epacts By Unity, Or To Pass To The Line C. In 1800 The Solar Equation Again Occurred, In Consequence Of Which It Was Necessary To Descend One Line To Have The Epacts Diminished By Unity; But In This Year The Lunar Equation Also Occurred, The Anticipation Of The New Moons Having Amounted To A Day; The New Moons Accordingly Happened A Day Earlier, Which Rendered It Necessary To Take The Epacts In The Next Higher Line. There Was, Consequently, No Alteration; The Two Equations Destroyed Each Other. The Line Of Epacts Belonging To The Present Century Is Therefore C. In 1900 The Solar Equation Occurs, After Which The Line Is B. The Year 2000 Is A Leap Year, And There Is No Alteration. In 2100 The Equations Again Occur Together And Destroy Each Other, So That The Line B Will Serve Three Centuries, From 1900 To 2200. From That Year To 2300 The Line Will Be A. In This Manner The Line Of Epacts Belonging To Any Given Century Is Easily Found, And The Method Of Proceeding Is Obvious. When The Solar Equation Occurs Alone, The Line Of Epacts Is Changed To The Next Lower In The Table; When The Lunar Equation Occurs Alone, The Line Is Changed To The Next Higher; When Both Equations Occur Together, No Change Takes Place. In Order That It May Be Perceived At Once To What Centuries The Different Lines Of Epacts Respectively Belong, They Have Been Placed In A Column On The Left Hand Side Of The Table On Next Page.

The Use Of The Epacts Is To Show The Days Of The New Moons, And Consequently The Moon'S Age On Any Day Of The Year. For This Purpose They Are Placed In The Calendar (Table Iv.) Along With The Days Of The Month And Dominical Letters, In A Retrograde Order, So That The Asterisk Stands Beside The 1St Of January, 29 Beside The 2Nd, 28 Beside The 3Rd And So On To 1, Which Corresponds To The 30Th. After This Comes The Asterisk, Which Corresponds To The 31St Of January, Then 29, Which Belongs To The 1St Of February, And So On To The End Of The Year. The Reason Of This Distribution Is Evident. If The Last Lunation Of Any Year Ends, For Example, On The 2Nd Of December, The New Moon Falls On The 3Rd; And The Moon'S Age On The 31St, Or At The End Of The Year, Is Twenty Nine Days. The Epact Of The Following Year Is Therefore Twenty Nine. Now That Lunation Having Commenced On The 3Rd Of December, And Consisting Of Thirty Days, Will End On The 1St Of January. The 2Nd Of January Is Therefore The Day Of The New Moon, Which Is Indicated By The Epact Twenty Nine. In Like Manner, If The New Moon Fell On The 4Th Of December, The Epact Of The Following Year Would Be Twenty Eight, Which, To Indicate The Day Of Next New Moon, Must Correspond To The 3Rd Of January.

When The Epact Of The Year Is Known, The Days On Which The New Moons Occur Throughout The Whole Year Are Shown By Table Iv., Which Is Called The Gregorian Calendar Of Epacts. For Example, The Golden Number Of The Year 1832 Is (= 9 19 R And The Epact, As Found In Table Iii., Is Twenty Eight. This Epact Occurs At The 3Rd Of January, The 2Nd Of February, The 3Rd Of March, The Znd Of April, The 1St Of May, &C., And These Days Are Consequently The Days Of The Ecclesiastical New Moons In 1832. The Astronomical New Moons Generally Take Place One Or Two Days, Sometimes Even Three Days, Earlier Than Those Of The Calendar.

There Are Some Artifices Employed In The Construction Of This Table, To Which It Is Necessary To Pay Attention. The Thirty Placed In The Calendar Beside 26. When 25 And 26 Occur In The Same Line Of Epacts, The 25 Is Not Accented, And In The Calendar Stands Beside 24. The Lines Of Epacts In Which 24 And 25 Both Occur, Are Those Which Are Marked By One Of The Eight Letters B, E, K, N, R, 'B, E,' N, In All Of Which 25' Stands In A Column Corresponding To A Golden Number Higher Than 11. There Are Also Eight Lines In Which 25 And 26 Occur, Namely, C, F, 1, P, S, C, F, P. In The Other 14 Lines, 25 Either Does Not Occur At All, Or It Occurs In A Line In Which Neither 24 Nor 26 Is Found. From This It Appears That If The Golden Number Of The Year Exceeds Ii, The Epact 25, In Six Months Of The Year, Must Correspond To The Same Day In The Calendar As 26; But If The Golden Number Does Not Exceed Ii, That Epact Must Correspond To The Same Day As 24. Hence The Reason For Distinguishing 25 And 25'. In Using The Calendar, If The Epact Of The Year Is 25, And The Golden Number Not Above Ii, Take 25; But If The Golden Number Exceeds Ii, Take 25'.

Years.

Index.

Golden Numbers.

I

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

To

Ii

1 2

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

1700 1800 8700

C

*

Ii

22

3

14

25

6

17

28

9

20

I

12

23

4

15

26

7

18

1900 2000 2100

B

29

Io

21

2

13

24

5

16

27

8

17

*

Ii

22

3

14

25'

6

17

2200 2400

A

28

9

20

I

1 2

23

4

15

26

7

19

29

10

21

2

13

24

5

16

2300 2500

U

27

8

19

*

Ii

22

3

14

25

6

17

28

9

20

I

12

23

4

15

2600 2700 2800

T

26

7

18

29

10

21

2

13

24

5

16

27

8

19

*

Ii

22

3

14

2900 3000

S

25

6

17

28

9

20

I

12

23

4

15

26

7

18

29

Jo

21

2

13

3100 3200 33 00

R

24

5

16

27

8

19

*

Ii

22

3

14

25'

6

17

28

9

20

I

1 2

34 00 3600

Q

23

4

15

26

7

18

29

10

21

2

13

24

5

16

27

8

19

*

Ii

3500-3700

P

22

3

14

25

6

17

28

9

20

I

12

23

4

15

26

7

18

29

10

3800 39 00 4000

N

21

2

13

24

5

16

27

8

19

*

Ii

22

3

14

25'

6

17

28

9

4100

M

20

I

12

23

4

15

26

7

18

29

Io

21

2

13

24

5

16

27

8

4200 43 00 4400

1

19

*

Ii

22

3

14

25

6

17

28

9

20

I

1 2

23

4

15

26

7

45 00 4600

K

18

29

Jo

21

2

13

24

5

16

27

8

19

*

Ii

22

3

14

25'

6

470 0 4800 49 00

I

17

28

9

20

I

12

23

4

15

26

7

18

29

10

21

2

13

2 4

5

5000 5200

H

16

27

8

19

*

Ii

22

3

14

25

6

17

28

9

20

I

12

23

4

5100 53 00

G

15

26

7

18

29

10

21

2

13

24

5

16

27

8

19

*

Ii

22

3

5400550 0 5600

F

14

25

6

17

28

9

20

I

12

23

4

15

26

7

18

29

10

21

2

570 0 5800

E

13

24

5

16

27

8

19

*

Ii

22

3

14

25'

6

17

28

9

20

I

59 00 6000 6100

D

12

23

4

15

26

7

18

29

10

21

2

13

24

5

16

27

8

19

*

6200 6400

C

Ii

22

3

14

25

6

17

28

9

20

I

12

23

4

15

26

7

18

29

6300 6500

B

10

21

2

13

24

5

16

27

8

19

*

Ii

22

3

14

25'

6

17

28

6600 6800

A

9

20

I

12

23

4

15

26

7

18

29

10

21

2

13

24

5

16

27

6700 6900

P

8

19

*

Ii

22

3

14

25

6

17

28

9

20

I

12

23

4

15

26

7000 7100 7200

N

7

18

29

Io

21

2

13

24

5

16

27

8

19

*

Ii

22

3

14

25'

73 00 7400

M

6

17

28

9

20

I

12

23

4

15

26

7

18

29

10

21

2

13

24

75 00 7600 77 00

H

5

16

27

8

19

*

Ii

22

3

14

25

6

17

28

9

20

I

12

23

7800 8000

G

4

15

26

7

18

29

10

21

2

13

24

5

16

27

8

19

*

Ii

22

79 00 810O

F

3

14

25

6

17

28

9

20

I

12

23

4

15

26

7

18

29

Io

21

8200 8300 8400

E

2

13

24

5

16

27

8

19

*

Ii

22

3

14

25'

6

17

28

9

20

1500 1600 8500

D

I

12

23

4

15

26

7

18

29

10

21

2

13

24

5

16

27

8

19

Another Peculiarity Requires Explanation. The Epact 19' (Also Distinguished By An Accent Or Different Character) Is Placed Table Iii. Extended Table Of Epacts. Epacts Correspond To The Thirty Days Of A Full Lunar Month; But The Lunar Months Consist Of Twenty Nine And Thirty Days Alternately, Therefore In Six Months Of The Year The Thirty Epacts Must Correspond Only To Twenty Nine Days. For This Reason The Epacts Twenty Five And Twenty Four Are Placed Together, So As To Belong Only To One Day In The Months Of February, April, June, August, September And November, And In The Same Months .Another 25', Distinguished By An Accent, Or By Being Printed In A :Different Character, Is Placed Beside 26, And Belongs To The Same ,Day. The Reason For Doubling The 25 Was To Prevent The New Moons From Being Indicated In The Calendar As Happening Twice .On The Same Day In The Course Of The Lunar Cycle, A Thing Which Actually Cannot Take Place. For Example, If We Observe The Line B In Table Iii., We Shall See That It Contains Both The Epacts Twenty Four And Twenty Five, So That If These Correspond To The Same Day Of The Month, Two New Moons Would Be Indicated As Happening On That Day Within Nineteen Years. Now The Three Epacts 24, 25, 26, Can Never Occur In The Same Line; Therefore In Those Lines In Which 24 And 25 Occur, The 25 Is Accented, And In The Same Line With 20 At The 31St Of December. It Is, However, Only Used In Those Years In Which The Epact 19 Concurs With The Golden Number 19. When The Golden Number Is 19, That Is To Say, In The Last Year Of The Lunar Cycle, The Supplementary Month Contains Only 29 Days. Hence, If In That Year The Epact Should Be 19, A New Moon Would Fall On The 2Nd Of December, And The Lunation Would Terminate On The 30Th, So That The Next New Moon Would Arrive On The 3 Ist. The Epact Of The Year, Therefore, Or 19, Must Stand Beside That Day, Whereas, According To The Regular Order, The Epact Corresponding To The 31St Of December Is 20; And This Is The Reason For The Distinction.

As An Example Of The Use Of The Preceding Tables, Suppose It Were Required To Determine The Moon'S Age On The Loth Of April 183 2. In 1832 The Golden Number Is (1832 1) 9, And The Line Of Epacts Belonging To The Century Is C. In Table Iii. Under 9, And In The Line C, We Find The Epact 28. In The Calendar, Table Iv., Look For April, And The Epact 28 Is Found Opposite The Second Day. The 2Nd Of April Is Therefore The First Day Of The Moon, And The Loth Is Consequently The Ninth Day Of The Moon. Again, Suppose It Were Required To Find The Moon'S Age On The 2Nd Of December In The Year 1916. In This Case The Golden Number Is (1916 1) = 17, And In Table Iii., Opposite To 1900, The Line Of 19 Epacts Is B. Under 17, In Line B, The Epact Is 25'. In The Calendar This Epact First Occurs Before The 2Nd Of December At The 26Th Of November. The 26Th Of November Is Consequently The First Day Of The Moon, And The 2Nd Of December Is Therefore The Seventh Day.

Easter

The Next, And Indeed The Principal Use Of The Calendar, Is To Find Easter, Which, According To The Traditional Regulation Of The Council Of Nice, Must Be Determined From The Following Conditions: 1St, Easter Must Be Celebrated On A Sunday; 2Nd, This Sunday Must Follow The 14Th Day Of The Paschal Moon, So That If The 14Th Of The Paschal Moon Falls On A Sunday Then Easter Must Be Celebrated On The Sunday Following; 3Rd, The Paschal In This Case The 18Th Of April Is Sunday, Then Easter Must Be Celebrated On The Following Sunday, Or The 25Th Of April. Hence Easter Sunday Cannot Happen Earlier Than The 22Nd Of March, Or Later Than The 25Th Of April.

Hence We Derive The Following Rule For Finding Easter Sunday From The Tables: 1St, Find The Golden Number, And, From Table Iii., The Epact Of The Proposed Year. 2Nd, Find In The Calendar (Table Iv.) The First Day After The 7Th Of March Which Corresponds To The Epact Of The Year; This Will Be The First Day Of The Paschal Moon. 3Rd, Reckon Thirteen Days After That Of The First Of The Moon, The Following Will Be The 14Th Of The Moon Or The Day Of The Full Paschal Moon. 4Th, Find From Table I. The Dominical Letter Of The Year, And Observe In The Calendar The First Day, After The Fourteenth Of The Moon, Which Corresponds To The Dominical Letter; This Will Be Easter Sunday.

Days.

J An.

Feb.

March.

April.

May.

June.

July.

August.

Sept.

October.

Nov.

Dec.

El

El

El

L

El

L

El

El

El

El

1

*A

29

D

*D

29

G

28

B

27

E

26

G

25 24

C

23

F

22

A

21

D

20

F

2

29

B

28

E

29

E

28

A

27

C

25'26

F

25'25

A

23

D

22

G

21

B

20

E

19

G

3

28

C

27

F

28

F

27

B

2 6

D

25 24

G

24

B

22

E

21

A

20

C

19

F

18

A

4

27

D

25'26

G

27

G

25'26

C

25'25

E

23

A

23

C

21

F

20

B

19

D

18

G

17

B

5

26

E

25 24

A

26

A

25 24

D

24

F

22

B

22

D

20

G

19

C

18

E

17

A

16

C

6

25'25

F

23

B

25'25

B

2 3

E

23

G

21

C

21

E

19

A

18

D

17

F

16

B

15

D

7

24

G

22

C

24

C

22

F

22

A

20

D

20

F

18

B

17

E

16

G

15

C

14

E

8

23

A

21

D

23

D

21

G

21

B

19

E

19

G

17

C

16

F

15

A

14

D

13

F

9

22

B

20

E

22

E

20

A

20

C

18

F

18

A

16

D

15

G

14

B

13

E

12

G

Io

21

C

19

F

21

F

19

B

19

D

17

G

17

B

15

E

14

A

13

C

12

F

Ii

A

Ii

20

D

18

G

20

G

18

C

18

E

16

A

16

C

14

F

13

B

12

D

Ii

G

Io

B

12

19

E

17

A

19

A

17

D

17

F

15

B

15

D

13

G

12

C

Ii

E

Io

A

9

C

13

18

F

16

B

18

B

16

E

16

G

14

C

14

E

12

A

Ii

D

To

F

9

B

8

D

14

17

G

15

C

17

C

15

F

15

A

13

D

13

F

Ii

B

Io

E

9

G

8

C

7

E

15

16

A

14

D

16

D

14

G

14

B

12

E

12

G

10C

9

F

8

A

7

D

6

F

16

15

B

13

E

15

E

13

A

13

C

Ii

F

Ii

A

9D

8G

7B

6E

5

G

17

14

C

12

F

14

F

12

B

12

D

Io

G

Io

B

8E

7A

6C

5F

4

A

18

13

D

11

G

13

G

Ii

C

Ii

E

9A

9C

7F

6B

5D

4G

3

B

19

12

E

Io

A

12

A

Io

D

Io

F

8B

8D

6G

5C

4E

3A

2

C

20

Ii

F

9

B

11

B

9E

9G

7C

7E

5

A

4D

3

F

2

B

I

D

21

Io

G

8

C

Io

C

8F

8A

6D

6F

4B

3E

2G

C

*E

22

9

A

7D

9D

7G

7B

5E

5G

3C

2F

A

*D

29

F

23

8B

6E

8E

6A

6C

4F

4A

2D

1G

*B

29

E

28

G

24

7C

5F

7F

5B

5D

3G

3B

1E

*A

29

C

28

F

27

A

25

6D

4G

6G

4C

4E

2A

2C

*F

29

B

28

D

27

G

26

B

26

5

E

3

A

5A

3D

3F

I

B

Id

29

G

28

C

27

E

25'26

A

25'25

C

27

4F

2B

4B

2E

2G

*E

2 8

A

27

D

26

F

25'24B

24

D

28

3G

I

C

3C

If

I

A

29

D

29

F

27

B

25'26

E

25'25

G

23

C

23

E

29

2

A

2 D

*G

*B

28

E

28

G

26

C

25 24

F

24

A

22

D

22

F

30

I

B

I E

29

A

29

C

27

F

27

A

25'25

D

23

G

2 3

B

21

E

21

G

31

* F

28

D

25'26

B

24

E

22

C

19'20

A

Example

Required the day on which Easter Sunday falls in the year 1840 ? 1st, For this year the golden number is [[Table Iv]]. - Gregorian Calendar. moon is that of which the 14th day falls on or next follows the day of the vernal equinox; 4th the equinox is fixed invariably in the calendar on the 21st of March. Sometimes a misunderstanding has arisen from not observing that this regulation is to be construed according to the tabular full moon as determined from the epact, and not by the true full moon, which, in general, occurs one or two days earlier.

From these conditions it follows that the paschal full moon, or the 14th of the paschal moon, cannot happen before the 21st of March, and that Easter in consequence cannot happen before the 22nd of March. If the 14th of the moon falls on the 21st, the new moon must fall on the. 8th; for 21-13 = 8; and the paschal new moon cannot happen before the 8th; for suppose the new moon to fall on the 7th, then the full moon would arrive on the 20th, or the day before the equinox. The following moon would be the paschal moon. But the fourteenth of this moon falls at the latest on the 18th of April, or 29 days after the 20th of March; for by reason of the double epact that occurs at the 4th and 5th of April, this lunation has only 29 days. Now, if (1840+1) = 17, and the epact (Table III. line C) is 26.2nd, 19 r After the 7th of March the epact 26 first occurs in Table III.

at the 4th of April, which, therefore, is the day of the new moon. 3rd, Since the new moon falls on the 4th, the full moon is on the 17th (4+13=17). 4th, The dominical letters of 1840 are E, D (Table I.), of which D must be taken, as E belongs only to January and February. After the 17th of April D first occurs in the calendar (Table IV.) at the 19th. Therefore, in 1840, Easter Sunday falls on the 19th of April. The operation is in all cases much facilitated by means of the table on next page.

Such is the very complicated and artificial, though highly ingenious method, invented by Lilius, for the determination of Easter and the other movable feasts. Its principal, though perhaps least obvious advantage, consists in its being entirely independent of astronomical tables, or indeed of any celestial phenomena whatever; so that all chances of disagreement arising from the inevitable errors of tables, or the uncertainty of observation, are avoided, and Easter determined without the possibility of mistake. But this advantage is only procured by the sacrifice of some accuracy; for notwithstanding the cumbersome apparatus employed, the conditions of the problem are not always exactly satisfied, nor is it possible that they can be always satisfied by any similar method of proceeding. The equinox is fixed on the 21st of March, though the sun enters Aries generally on the 20th of that month, sometimes even on the 19th. It is accordingly quite possible that a full moon may arrive after the true equinox, and yet precede the 21st of March. This, therefore, would not be the paschal moon of the calendar, though it undoubtedly ought to be so if the intention of the council of Nice were rigidly followed. The new moons indicated by the epacts also differ from the astronomical new moons, and even from the mean new moons, in general by one or two days. In imitation of the Jews, who counted the time of the new moon, not from the moment of the actual phase, but from the time the moon first became visible after the conjunction, the fourteenth day of the moon is regarded as the full moon: but the moon is in opposition generally on the 16th day; therefore, when the new moons of the [[Table V]]. Perpetual Table, Showing Easter. Calendar Nearly Concur With The True New Moons, The Full Moons Are Considerably In Error. The Epacts Are Also Placed So As To Indicate The Full Moons Generally One Or Two Days After The True Full Moons; But This Was Done Purposely, To Avoid The Chance Of Concurring With The Jewish Passover, Which The Framers Of The Calendar Seem To Have Considered A Greater Evil Than That Of Celebrating Easter A Week Too Late.

We Will Now Show In What Manner This Whole Apparatus Of Methods And Tables May Be Dispensed With, And The Gregorian Calendar Reduced To A Few Simple Formulae Of Easy Computation.

And, First, To Find The Dominical Letter. Let L Denote The Number Of The Dominical Letter Of Any Given Year Of The Era. Then, Since Every Year Which Is Not A Leap Year Ends With The Same Day As That With Which It Began, The Dominical Letter Of The Following Year Must Be L 1, Retrograding One Letter Every Common Year. After X Years, Therefore, The Number Of The Letter Will Be L X. But As L Can Never Exceed 7, The Number X Will Always Exceed L After The First Seven Years Of The Era. In Order, Therefore, To Render The Subtraction Possible, L Must Be Increased By Some Multiple Of 7, As 7M, And The Formula Then Becomes 7M L X. In The Year Preceding The First Of The Era, The Dominical Letter Was C; For That Year, Therefore, We Have L =3; Consequently For Any Succeeding Year X, L =7M 3 X, The Years Being All Supposed To Consist Of 365 Days. But Every Fourth Year Is A Leap Year, And The Effect Of The Intercalation Is To Throw The Dominical Letter One Place Farther Back. The Above Expression Must Therefore Be Diminished By The Number Of Units In 4, Or By () W (This Notation Being Used To Denote The Quotient, In A Whole Number, That Arises From Dividing X By 4). Hence In The Julian Calendar The Dominical Letter Is Given By The Equation L= 7M 3 X () W This Equation Gives The Dominical Letter Of Any Year From The Commencement Of The Era To The Reformation. In Order To Adapt It To The Gregorian Calendar, We Must First Add The To Days That Were Left Out Of The Year 1582; In The Second Place We Must Add One Day For Every Century That Has Elapsed Since 1600, In Consequence Of The Secular Suppression Of The Intercalary Day; And Lastly We Must Deduct The Units Contained In A Fourth Of The Same Number, Because Every Fourth Centesimal Year Is Still A Leap Year.Q Denoting, Therefore, The Number Of The Century (Or The Date After The Two Right Hand Digits Have Been Struck Out) By C, The Value Of L Must Be Increased By 10 (C 16) (6 C L = 7M 3 X (4 X) W Io (C 16) (C 4 16) W; That Is, Since 3 To =13 Or 6 (The 7 Days Being Rejected, As They Do Not Affect The Value Of L), L=7M 6 X () W _ 16) (_ L _ 6)W; This Formula Is Perfectly General, And Easily Calculated.

As An Example, Let Us Take The Year 1839. In This Case, X=18 39, () W (149) W = 459, C = 18, C 16=2, 4 C 1 And (46) W =O. Hence L= 7711 6 1839 459 2 O L= 7M 2290 =7X328 2290.

L =6 =Letter F.

The Year Therefore Begins With Tuesday. It Will Be Remembered That In A Leap Year There Are Always Two Dominical Letters, One Of Which Is Employed Till The 29Th Of February, And The Other Till The End Of The Year. In This Case, As The Formula Supposes The Intercalation Already Made, The Resulting Letter Is That Which Applies After The 29Th Of February. Before The Intercalation The Dominical Letter Had Retrograded One Place Less. Thus For 1840 The Formula Gives D; During The First Two Months, Therefore, The Dominical Letter Is E.

In Order To Investigate A Formula For The Epact, Let Us Make E=The True Epact Of The Given Year; J =The Julian Epact, That Is To Say, The Number The Epact Would Have Been If The Julian Year Had Been Still In Use And The Lunar Cycle Had Been Exact;, S =The Correction Depending On The Solar Year; M =The Correction Depending On The Lunar Cycle; Then The Equation Of The Epact Will Be E=J S M; So That E Will Be Known When The Numbers J, S, And M Are Determined.

The Epact J Depends On The Golden Number N, And Must Be Determined From The Fact That In 1582, The First Year Of The Reformed Calendar, N Was 6, And J 26. For The Following Years, Then, The Golden Numbers And Epacts Are As Follows: 1583, N= 7, J=26 Ii 30= 7; 1584, N= 8, J= 7 11 =18; 1585, N= 9, J = 18 Ii =29; 1586, N = To, J = 29 I I 30 10; And, Therefore, In General J = J (N Io(N I)) 30 R On Account Of The Solar Equation S, The Epact J Must Be Diminished By Unity Every Centesimal Year, Excepting Always The Fourth. After X Centuries, Therefore, It Must Be Diminished By X (4). Now, W .

As 1600 Was A Leap Year, The First Correction Of The Julian Intercalation Took Place In 1700; Hence, Taking C To Denote The Number Of The Century As Before, The Correction Becomes (C 16) (C 416) W, Which.

Epact.

Dominical Letter.

For Leap Years Use The Second Letter.

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

*

Apr. 16

Apr. 17

Apr. 18

Apr. 19

Apr. Zo

Apr. 14

Apr. 15

1

„ 16

„ 1 7

„ 18

„ 1 9

„ 1 3

„ 14

„ 15

2

„ 16

„ 1 7

,, 18

„ 12

„ 13

„ 14

„ 15

3

„ 16

„ 1 7

„ Ii

,, 12

,, 1 3

„ 1 4

,, 15

4

„ 16

„ Io

„ Ii

„ 12

,, 13

„ 14

„ 15

5

>, 9

„ To

„ Ii

„ 12

„ 1 3

„ 1 4

„ 15

6

„ 9

„ 10

„ Ii

„ 12

„ 1 3

„ 1 4

„ 8

7

„ 9

„ 10

„ Ii

„ 12

„ 1 3

7

8

8

„ 9

„ To

„ Ii

,, 12

„ 6

„ 7

„ 8

9

„ 9

„ To

„ I I

„ 5

6

7

8

10

„ 9

„ To

„ 4

5

6

7

8

Ii

„ 9

,, 3

,, 4

,, 5

,, 6

7

8

12

„ 2

„ 3

„ 4

„ 5

„ 6

„ 7

8

13

„ 2

„ 3

4

„ 5

„ 7

„ I

1 4

1,2

„ 3

,,4

„ 5

„ 6

Mar.

15

„ 2

,, 3

„ 4

„ 5

Mar. 30

„ 3

I

16

„ 2

„ 3

„ 4

Mar.29

„ 3 0

„ 3

I

17

„ 2

„ 3

Mar. 28

„ 29

„ 30

„ 31

„ I

18

2

Mar. 27

29

19

Mar. 26

„ 27

„ 28

„ 29

„ 30

„ 31

„ I

20

„ 26

„ 27

„ 28

„ 29

„ 30

„ 31

Mar. 25

21

„ 26

„ 2 7

„ 28

„ 2 9

„ 3 0

„ 2 4

„ 25

22

„ 26

„ 27

„ 28

„ 29

„ 23

„ 24

,, 25

2 3

, 26

„ 2 7

„ 28

„ 22

„ 23

„ 2 4

„ 25

24

Apr. 23

Apr. 24

Apr. 25

Apr. 19

Apr. 20

Apr. 21

Apr. 22

2 5

„ 23

,, 2 4

„ 2 5

„ 1 9

„ 20

„ 21

„ 22

26

„ 23

„ 24

„ 18

„ 19

„ 20

„ 21

„ 22

2 7

„ 23

,, 1 7

,, 18

„ 1 9

„ 20

„ 21

„ 22

28

„ 16

„ 17

,, 18

,, 19

„ 20

„ 21

„ 22

29

.. 16

„ 17

„ 18

„ 19

20

21

,. 15

I 4 W. We Have Then (26 1 30 (N 6)) R But The Numerator 3 Of This Fraction Becomes By Reduction I I N 40 Or 1 I N To (The 30 Being Rejected, As The Remainder Only Is Sought) =N Io(N I); Therefore, Ultimately, Must Be Deducted From J. We Have Therefore S= (C 16) (C 16) 4 With Regard To The Lunar Equation M, We Have Already Stated That In The Gregorian Calendar The Epacts Are Increased By Unity At The End Of Every Period Of 300 Years Seven Times Successively, And Then The Increase Takes Place Once At The End Of 400 Years. This Gives Eight To Be Added In A Period Of Twenty Five Centuries, And 85 In X Centuries. But 8J =3 5. Now, From The Manner In Which The Intercalation Is Directed To Be Made (Namely, Seven Times Successively At The End Of 300 Years, And Once At The End Of 400), It Is Evident That The Fraction 2 Must Amount To Unity When The 5 Number Of Centuries Amounts To Twenty Four. In Like Manner, When The Number Of Centuries Is 24 25=49, We Must Have 2 =2; When 5 The Number Of Centuries Is 24 2 X25 =74, Then 25=3; And, Generally, When The Number Of Centuries Is 24 N X25, Then 25 =N 1. Now This Is A Condition Which Will Evidently Be Expressed In General By The Formula N (N 1). Hence The Correction Of The Epact, W Or The Number Of Days To Be Intercalated After X Centuries Reckoned From The Commencement Of One Of The Periods Of Twenty Five (X I Centuries, Is ? ? 25) 3 Jw Centuries Terminated With 1800; Therefore, In Any Succeeding Year, If C Be The Number Of The Century, We Shall Have X = C 18 And X I =C 17. Let (C7) W =A, Then For All Years After 1800 The Value Of M Will Beiven By The Formula ( C 18 A), G' Y W Therefore, 3 Counting From The Beginning Of The Calendar In 1582, C 15 A ' M = 3 W By The Substitution Of These Values Of J, S And M, The Equation Of The Epact Becomes E C 16 (C 16 (C 15 A) 3 O R () 4 W 3 W.

It May Be Remarked, That As A (C _ 17) W' The Value Of A Will Be O Till C 17C 17 =25 Or C =42; Therefore, Till The Year 4200, A May Be Neglected In The Computation. Had The Anticipation Of The New Moons Been Taken, As It Ought To Have Been, At One Day In 308 Years Instead Of 3121, The Lunar Equation Would Have Occurred Only Twelve Times In 3700 Years, Or Eleven Times Successively At The End Of 300 Years, And Then At The End Of 400. In Strict Accuracy, Therefore, A Ought To Have No Value Till C 17C 17=37, Or C =54, That Is To Say, Till The Year 5400. The Above Formula For The Epact Is Given By Delambre (Hist. De L'Astronomie Moderne, T. I. P. 9); It May Be Exhibited Under A Variety Of Forms, But The Above Is Perhaps The Best Adapted For Calculation. Another Had Previously Been Given By Gauss, But Inaccurately, Inasmuch As The Correction Depending On A Was Omitted.

Having Determined The Epact Of The Year, It Only Remains To Find Easter Sunday From The Conditions Already Laid Down. Let P = The Number Of Days From The 21St Of March To The 15Th Of The Paschal Moon, Which Is The First Day On Which Easter Sunday Can Fall; P= The Number Of Days From The 21St Of March To Easter Sunday; L = The Number Of The Dominical Letter Of The Year; 1 = Letter Belonging To The Day On Which The 15Th Of The Moon Falls: Then, Since Easter Is The Sunday Following The 14Th Of The Moon, We Have P=P (L 1), Which Is Commonly Called The Number Of Direction. The Value Of L Is Always Given By The Formula For The Dominical Letter, And P And 1 Are Easily Deduced From The Epact, As Will Appear From The Following Considerations.

When P =I The Full Moon Is On The 21St Of March, And The New Moon On The 8Th (21 13 =8), Therefore The Moon'S Age On The 1St Of March (Which Is The Same As On The 1St Of January) Is Twentythree Days; The Epact Of The Year Is Consequently Twenty Three. When P=2 The New Moon Falls On The Ninth, And The Epact Is Consequently Twenty Two; And, In General, When P Becomes I X, E Becomes 23 X, Therefore P E = I X 23 X =24, And P =24 E. In Like Manner, When P =I, 1=D =4; For D Is The Dominical Letter Of The Calendar Belonging To The 22Nd Of March. But It Is Evident That When 1 Is Increased By Unity, That Is To Say, When The Full Moon Falls A Day Later, The Epact Of The Year Is Diminished By Unity; Therefore, In General, When 1=4 X, E=23 X, Whence L E =27 And 1=27 E. But P Can Never Be Less Than I Nor 1 Less Than 4, And In Both Cases E =23. When, Therefore, E Is Greater Than 23, We Must Add 30 In Order That P And 1 May Have Positive Values In The Formula P =24 E And 1=27 E. Hence There Are Two Cases.

When< 24, ? P= 54 E 1=57 E, Or (57 E) 7 R' By Substituting One Or Other Of These Values Of P And 1, According A; The Case May Be, In The Formula P = P (L L), We Shall Have P, Orthe Number Of Days From The 21St Of March To Easter Sunday. It Will Be Remarked, That As L 1 Cannot Either Be O Or Negative, We Must Add 7 To Las Often As May Be Necessary, In Order That L 1 May Be A Positive Whole Number.

By Means Of The Formulae Which We Have Now Given For The Dominical Letter, The Golden Number And The Epact, Easter Sunday May Be Computed For Any Year After The Reformation, Without The Assistance Of Any Tables Whatever. As An Example, Suppose It Were Required To Compute Easter For The Year 1840. By Substituting This Number In The Formula For The Dominical Letter, We Have X =1840, C 16 =2, /C 416) W =0, Therefore L =7M 6 1840 460 2 =7M 2292 = 7X328 2292 =2296 2292 = 4 L =4 =Letter D. (I). For The Golden Number We Have N = (401 $ 1) R; Therefore L = Before Easter.

After Easter.

The Gregorian Calendar Was Introduced Into Spain, Portugal And Part Of Italy The Same Day As At Rome. In France It Was Received In The Same Year In The Month Of December, And By The Catholic States Of Germany The Year Following. In The Protestant States Of Germany The Julian Calendar Was Adhered To Till The Year 1700, When It Was Decreed By The Diet Of Regensburg That The New Style And The Gregorian Correction Of The Intercalation Should Be Adopted. Instead, However, Of Employing The Golden Numbers And Epacts For The Determination Of Easter And The Movable Feasts, It Was Resolved That The Equinox And The Paschal Moon Should Be Found By Astronomical Computation From The Rudolphine Tables. But This Method, Though At First View It May Appear More Accurate, Was Soon Found To Be Attended With Numerous Inconveniences, And Was At Length In 1774 Abandoned At The Instance Of Frederick Ii., King Of Prussia. In Denmark And Sweden The Reformed Calendar Was Received About The Same Time As In The Protestant States Of Germany. It Is Remarkable That Russia Still Adheres To The Julian Reckoning.

In Great Britain The Alteration Of The Style Was For A Long Time Successfully Opposed By Popular Prejudice. The Inconvenience, However, Of Using A Different Date From That Employed By The Greater Part Of Europe In Matters Of History And Chronology Began To Be Generally Felt; And At Length The Calendar (New P =24 E.

I 1 =27 E, Or 27 E, (7 )R When E >23,. The Last Period Of Twenty Five N=17 For The Epact We Have (N Io(N 1) _ 117 160 (1 771 30 R 30 R 30) R =? 7 ' Likewise C 16=18 16=2, C 315 A=O; Therefore E=27 2 I =26 Now Since E >23, We Have For P And 1, P=54 E=54 26 =28, (57? E) R (57726) R (7)R3, Consequently, Since P =P (L L), P =28 (43) =29; That Is To Say, Easter Happens Twenty Nine Days After The 21St Of March, Or On The 19Th April, The Same Result As Was Before Found From The Tables.

The Principal Church Feasts Depending On Easter, And The Times Of Their Celebration Are As Follows: Septuagesima Sunday. 9 Weeks First Sunday In Lent. Is 6 Weeks Ash Wednesday. 46 Days Rogation Sunday. .. 5 Weeks Ascension Day Or Holy Thursday 39 Days Pentecost Or Whitsunday. Is 7 Weeks Trinity Sunday 8 Weeks Style) Act 1750 Was Passed For The Adoption Of The New Style In All Public And Legal Transactions. The Difference Of The Two Styles, Which Then Amounted To Eleven Days, Was Removed By Ordering The Day Following The 2Nd Of September Of The Year 1752 To Be Accounted The 14Th Of That Month; And In Order To Preserve Uniformity In Future, The Gregorian Rule Of Intercalation Respecting The Secular Years Was Adopted. At The Same Time, The Commencement Of The Legal Year Was Changed From The 25Th Of March To The 1St Of January. In Scotland, January Ist Was Adopted For New Year'S Day From 1600, According To An Act Of The Privy Council In December 1599. This Fact Is Of Importance With Reference To The Date Of Legal Deeds Executed In Scotland Between That Period And 1751, When The Change Was Effected In England. With Respect To The Movable Feasts, Easter Is Determined By The Rule Laid Down By The Council Of Nice; But Instead Of Employing The New Moons And Epacts, The Golden Numbers Are Prefixed To The Days Of The Full Moons. In Those Years In Which The Line Of Epacts Is Changed In The Gregorian Calendar, The Golden Numbers Are Removed To Different Days, And Of Course A New Table Is Required Whenever The Solar Or Lunar Equation Occurs. The Golden Numbers Have Been Placed So That Easter May Fall On The Same Day As In The Gregorian Calendar. The Calendar Of The Church Of England Is Therefore From Century To Century The Same In Form As The Old Roman Calendar, Excepting That The Golden Numbers Indicate The Full Moons Instead Of The New Moons.

Hebrew Calendar

In The Construction Of The Jewish Calendar Numerous Details Require Attention. The Calendar Is Dated From The Creation, Which Is Considered To Have Taken Place 37 60 Years And 3 Months Before The Commencement Of The Christian Era. The Year Is Luni Solar, And, According As It Is Ordinary Or Embolismic, Consists Of Twelve Or Thirteen Lunar Months, Each Of Which Has 29 Or 30 Days. Thus The Duration Of The Ordinary Year Is 354 Days, And That Of The Embolismic Is 384 Days. In Either Case, It Is Sometimes Made A Day More, And Sometimes A Day Less, In Order That Certain Festivals May Fall On Proper Days Of The Week For Their Due Observance. The Distribution Of The Embolismic Years, In Each Cycle Of 19 Years, Is Determined According To The Following Rule: The Number Of The Hebrew Year (Y) Which Has Its Commencement In A Gregorian Year (X) Is Obtained By The Addition Of 3761 Years; That Is, Y=X } 3761. Divide The Hebrew Year By 19; Then The Quotient Is The Number Of The Last Completed Cycle, And The Remainder Is The Year Of The Current Cycle. If The Remainder Be 3, 6, 8, 14, 17 Or 19 (O), The Year Is Embolismic; If Any Other Number, It Is Ordinary. Or, Otherwise, If We Find The Remainder R 19 R The Year Is Embolismic When R < 7.

The Calendar Is Constructed On The Assumptions That The Mean Lunation Is 29 Days 12 Hours 44 Min. 33 Sec., And That The Year Commences On, Or Immediately After, The New Moon Following The Autumnal Equinox. The Mean Solar Year Is Also Assumed To Be 365 Days 5 Hours 55 Min. 2 5 4 Sec., So That A Cycle Of Nineteen Of Such Years, Containing 6939 Days 16 Hours 33 Min. 33 Sec., Is The Exact Measure Of 235 Of The Assumed Lunations. The Year 5606 Was The First Of A Cycle, And The Mean New Moon, Appertaining To The 1St Of Tisri For That Year, Was 1845, October I, 15 Hours 42 Min. 433 Sec., As Computed By Lindo, And Adopting The Civil Mode Of Reckoning From The Previous Midnight. The Times Of All Future New Moons May Consequently Be Deduced By Successively Adding 29 Days 12 Hours 44 Min. 33 Sec. To This Date.

To Compute The Times Of The New Moons Which Determine The Commencement Of Successive Years, It Must Be Observed That In Passing From An Ordinary Year The New Moon Of The Following Year Is Deduced By Subtracting The Interval That Twelve Lunations Fall Short Of The Corresponding Gregorian Year Of 365 Or 366 Days; And That, In Passing From An Embolismic Year, It Is To Be Found By Adding The Excess Of Thirteen Lunations Over The Gregorian Year. Thus To Deduce The New Moon Of Tisri, For The Year Immediately Following Any Given Year (Y), When Y Is Ordinary, Subtract (1 1 °) Days 15 Hours Ii Min. 20 Sec., Embolismic, Add (17) D Ays 21 Hours 32 Min. 431 Sec.

The Second Mentioned Number Of Days Being Used, In Each Case, Whenever The Following Or New Gregorian Year Is Bissextile.

Hence, Knowing Which Of The Years Are Embolismic, From Their Ordinal Position In The Cycle, According To The Rule Before Stated, The Times Of The Commencement Of Successive Years May Be Thus Carried On Indefinitely Without Any Difficulty. But Some Slight Adjustments Will Occasionally Be Needed For The Reasons Before Assigned, Viz. To Avoid Certain Festivals Falling On Incompatible Days Of The Week. Whenever The Computed Conjunction Falls On A Sunday, Wednesday Or Friday, The New Year Is In Such Case To Be Fixed On The Day After. It Will Also Be Requisite To Attend To The Following Conditions: If The Computed New Moon Be After 18 Hours, The Following Day Is To Be Taken, And If That Happen To Be Sunday, Wednesday Or Friday, It Must Be Further Postponed One Day. If, For An Ordinary Year, The New Moon Falls On A Tuesday, As Late As 9 Hours 11 Min. 20 Sec., It Is Not To Be Observed Thereon; And As It May Not Be Held On A Wednesday, It Is In Such Case To Be Postponed To Thursday. If, For A Year Immediately Following An Embolismic Year, The Computed New Moon Is On Monday, As Late As 15 Hours 30 Min. 52 Sec., The New Year Is To Be Fixed On Tuesday.

After The Dates Of Commencement Of The Successive Hebrew Years Are Finally Adjusted, Conformably With The Foregoing Directions, An Estimation Of The Consecutive Intervals, By Taking The Differences, Will Show The Duration And Character Of The Years That Respectively Intervene. According To The Number Of Days Thus Found To Be Comprised In The Different Years, The Days Of The Several Months Are Distributed As In Table Vi.

The Signs And Are Respectively Annexed To Hesvan And Kislev To Indicate That The Former Of These Months May Sometimes Require To Have One Day More, And The Latter Sometimes One Day Less, Than The Number Of Days Shown In The Table The Result, In Every Case, Being At Once Determined By The Total Number Of Days That The Year May Happen To Contain. An Ordinary Year May Comprise 353, 354 Or 355 Days; And An Embolismic Year 383, 384 Or 385 Days. In These Cases Respectively The Year Is Said To Be Imperfect, Common Or Perfect. The Intercalary Month, Veadar, Is Introduced In Embolismic Years In Order That Passover, The 15Th Day Of Nisan, May Be Kept At Its Proper Season, Which Is The Full Moon Of The Vernal Equinox, Or That Which Takes Place After The Sun Has Entered The Sign Aries. It Always Precedes The Following New Year By 163 Days, Or 23 Weeks And 2 Days; And Pentecost Always Precedes The New Year By 113 Days, Or 16 Weeks And I Day.

Hebrew Month.

Ordinary

Year.

Embolismic

Year.

Tisri.. .

Hesvan. .

Kislev. .

30

29

30

30

29

30

Tebet. .

29

29

Sebat .

30

30

Adar.. .

29

30

(Veadar) .

(...)

(29)

Nisan. .

30

30

Yiar. .

29

29

Sivan .

30

30

Tamuz

29

29

Ab. .

30

30

Elul .

29

29

Total

354

384

[[Table Vi]]. - Hebrew Months. The Gregorian epact being the age of the moon of Tebet at the beginning of the Gregorian year, it represents the day of Tebet which corresponds to January I; and thus the approximate date of Tisri I, the commencement of the Hebrew year, may be otherwise deduced by subtracting the epact from Sept. 24 after ordinary Hebrew year.

Oct. 2 an embolismic The result so obtained would in general be more accurate than the Jewish calculation, from which it may differ a day, as fractions of a day do not enter alike in these computations. Such difference may also in part be accounted for by the fact that the assumed duration of the solar year is 6 min. 395 sec. in excess of the true astronomical value, which will cause the dates of commencement of future Jewish years, so calculated, to advance forward from the equinox a day in error in 216 years. The lunations are estimated with much greater precision.

Jewish

Year.

T

ber of

D

Days.

Commencement

(1st of Tisri).

Jewish

Year.

ber of

Days.

Commencement

(1st of Tisri).

5606

354

Thur.

2 Oct. 18 45

5 6 73

385

Thur.

12 Sept. 1912

07

355

Mon.

21 Sept. 1846

74

354

Thur.

2 Oct. 1913

08

383

Sat.

II Sept. 1847

6 75

353

Mon.

21 Sept. 1914

0 9

354

Thur.

28 Sept. 1848

v 76

385

Thur.

9 Sept. 1915

10

355

Mon.

17 Sept. 1 84

77

354

Thur.

28 Sept. 1916

II

385

Sat.

7 Sept. 1850

U 7 8

355

Mon.

17 Sept. 1917

12

353

Sat.

27 Sept. 1851

79

383

Sat.

7 Sept. 1918

13

384

Tues.

14 Sept. 1852

n 80

354

Thur.

25 Sept. 1919

1 4

355

Mon.

3 Oct. 1853

81

385

Mon.

13 Sept. 1920

› ,1 5

355

Sat.

23 Sept. 1854

5 68 2

355

Mon.

3 Oct. 1921

U 16

383

Thur.

13 Sept. 1855

0.1 7

354

Tues.

30 Sept. 1856

8 3

353

Sat.

23 Sept. 1922

N 18

19

20

355

385

354

Sat.

Thur.

Thur.

Mon.

19 Sept. 185

9 Sept. 185

29 Sept. 1858

8 4

85

86

3 8 4

355

355

ues.

Mon.

Sat.

II Sept. 1923

29 Sept. 1924

19 Sept. 1925

21

353

17 Sept. 1860

87

383

Thur.

9 Sept. 1926

22

2 3

385

354

Thur.

Thur.

5 Sept. 1861

25 Sept. 1862

8g

c, 09

354

305

Tues.

Sat.

27 Sept. 1927

15 Sept. 1928

24

383

Mon.

14 Sept. 1863

X90

353

Sat.

5 Oct. 1929

5 62 5

26

27

28

355

354

385

353

Sat.

Thur.

Mon.

Mon.

Thur.

I Oct. 1864

21 Sept. 1865

io Sept. 186 6

30 Sept. 1867

U 9 1

0 92

°,93

94

95

354

3 8 5

355

354

383

Tues.

Sat.

Sat.

Thur.

Mon.

23 Sept. 1930

12 Sept. 1931

I Oct. 1932

21 Sept. 1 933

Io Sept. 1934

2 9

30

354

385

Mon.

Mon.

Sept.

17 1868

6 Sept. 1869

96

97

355

354

Sat.

Thur.

28 Sept. 1935

17 Sept. 1936

3 1

.32

355

383

Sat.

Thur.

26 Sept. 1870

16 Sept. 1871

Oct.

98

99

385

353

Mon.

Mon.

6 Sept. 1937

26 Sept. 1938

33

X34

354

355

Mon.

3 1872

22 Sept. 1873

5700

385

Thur.

14 Sept. 1939

U 35

3 8 3

Sat.

12 Sept. 1874

X36

355

Thur.

30 Sept. 1875 57 01

354

Thur.

3 Oct. 1940

n 37

354

Tues.

19 Sept. 1876 02

355

Mon.

22 Sept. 1941

38

385

Sat.

8 Sept. 1877 0 3

3 8 3

Sat.

12 Sept. 1942

39

355

Sat.

28 Sept. 1878 0 4

354

Thur.

30 Sept. 1943

4 0

354

Thur.

18 Sept. 1879 0 5

355

Mon.

18 Sept. 1944

4 1

383

Mon.

6 Sept. 1880 06

383

Sat.

8 Sept. 1945

4 2

355

Sat.

24 Sept. 1881 07

354

Thur.

26 Sept. 1946

43

383

Thur.

14 Sept. 1882

08

385

Mon.

15 Sept. 1947

09

355

Mon.

4 Oct. 1948

5 6 44

354

Tues.

2 Oct. 1883. >,10

353

Sat.

24 Sept. 1949

45

355

Sat.

20 Sept. 1884 U 11

384

Tues.

12 Sept. 1950

46

385

Thur.

'co Sept. 1885 o 12

355

Mon.

1 Oct. 1951

47

354

Thur.

30 Sept. 1886 ")13

355

Sat.

20 Sept. 1952

4 8

353

Mon.

19 Sept. 1887 14

383

Thur.

10 Sept. 1953

49

385

Thur.

6 Sept. 1888 15

354

Tues.

28 Sept. 1954

5 0

354

Thur.

26 Sept. 1889 16

355

Sat.

17 Sept. 1955

51

383

Mon.

15 Sept. 1890 17

385

Thur.

6 Sept. 1956

7:, 52

355

Sat.

3 Oct. 1891 18

354

Thur.

26 Sept. 1957

U 53

354

Thur.

Mon.

22 Sept. 1892

19

383

Mon.

15 Sept. 1958

54

385

Sept.

II 1893

° ' 55

353

Mon.

1 Oct. 18 94 57 20

355

Sat.

3 Oct. 1959

5 6

355

Thur.

19 Sept. 18 95 21

354

Thur.

22 Sept. 1960

57

384

Tues.

8 Sept. 1896 22

383

Mon.

II Sept. 1961

5 8

355

Mon.

27 Sept. 1 897 2 3

355

Sat.

29 Sept. 1962

59

353

Sat.

17 Sept. 1898 24

354

Thur.

19 Sept. 1963

60

384

Tues.

5 Sept. 18 99 2 5

385

Mon.

7 Sept. 1964

61

355

Mon.

24 Sept. 1900 26

353

Mon.

27 Sept. 1965

62

383

Sat.

14 Sept. 27

385

Thur.

15 Sept. 1966

28

354

Thur.

5 Oct. 1967

5 66 3

355

Thur.

2 Oct. 1902

U 29

355

Mon.

23 Sept. 1968

6 4

354

Tues.

22 Sept. 1903-7430

383

Sat.

13 Sept. 1969

d 65

385

Sat.

Io Sept. 1904 oo 3 1

354

Thur.

1 Oct. 1970

66

355

Sat.

30 Sept. 1905 `x'32

355

Mon.

20 Sept. 1971

t 6 7

68

354

383

Thur.

Mon.

20 Sept. 1906 33

9 Sept. 1907 34

3 8 3

355

Sat.

Thur.

9 Sept. 1972

27 Sept. 1973

9

355

Sat.

26 Sept. 1908 35

354

Tues.

17 Sept. 1974

n 70

383

Thur.

16 Sept. 1909 36

385

Sat.

6 Sept. 1975

7 1

354

Tues.

4 Oct. 37

353

Sat.

25 Sept. 1976

_ 7 2

355

Sat.

23 Sept. 1911 38

384

Tues.

13 Sept. 1977

Jewish

Year .

Num-

ber

Days.

Commencement

(1st Tisri).

Jewish

Year.

b e r

Days.

Commencement

(rst of

5739

355

Mon.

2 Oct. 1 97 8

57 86

354

Tues.

23 Sept. 2025

4 0

355

Sat.

22 Sept. 1 979

8 7

385

Sat.

12 Sept. 2026

41

383

Thur.

11 Sept. 1980

88

355

Sat.

2 Oct. 2027

4 2

354

Tues.

29 Sept. 1981

6 89

354

Thur.

21 Sept. 2028

43

355

Sat.

18 Sept. 1982

90

383

Mon.

to Sept. 2029

44

385

Thur.

8 Sept. 1983

c.j 9 I

355

Sat.

28 Sept. 2030

45

354

Thur.

27 Sept. 1984

V,9 2

354

Thur.

18 Sept. 2031

, 3 4 6

383

Mon.

16 Sept. 1985

°,93

383

Mon.

6 Sept. 2032

47

355

Sat.

4 Oct. 1986

94

355

Sat.

24 Sept. 2033

u > '4 8

354

Thur.

24 Sept. 1987

95

385

Thur.

14. Sept. 2034

49

383

Mon.

12 Sept. 1988

0 5 o

355

Sat.

30 Sept. 1989

579 6

354

Thur.

4 Oct. 2035

`51

354

Thur.

20 Sept. 1 99 0

97

353

Mon.

22 Sept. 2036

52

385

Mon.

9 Sept. 1991

98

385

Thur.

Sept. 2037

53

353

Mon.

28 Sept. 1 99 2

99

354

Thur.

30 Sept. 2038

54

355

Thur.

16 Sept. 1 993

5 800

355

Mon.

19 Sept. 2039

55

384

Tues.

6 Sept. 1 994

01

383

Sat.

8 Sept. 2040

5 6

355

Mon.

25 Sept. 1 995

02

354

Thur.

26 Sept. 2041

57

383

Sat.

14 Sept. 1996

03

385

Mon.

15 Sept. 2042

0 4

353

Mon.

5 Oct. 2043

575 8

354

Thur.

2 Oct. 1997

a] 0 5

355

Thur.

Tues.

22 Sept. 2044

59

60

355

385

Mon.

Sat.

21 Sept. 1998

II Sept. 1999

<-, 06

08

384

355

Sept.

12 2045

Oct. 2046

61

353

Sat.

30 Sept. 2000

0 o

353

Sat.

21 t.2

P 47

62

354

Tues.

18 Sept. 2001

K, 0 9

384

Tues.

8 Sept. 2048

63

385

Sat.

7 Sept. 2002

10

355

Mon.

27 Sept. 2049

6 4

65

355

383

Sat.

Thur.

27 Sept. 2003

16 Sept. 2004

I I

12

355

383

Sat.

Thur.

17 Sept. 2050

7 Sept. 2051

.

66

354

Tues.

4 Oct. 2005

1 3

354

Tues.

24 Sept. 2052

X67

355

Sat.

23 Sept. 2006

1 4

385

Sat.

13 Sept. 2053

68

383

Thur.

Tues.

13 Sept. 2007

30 Sept. 2008

5815

355

Sat.

3 Oct. 2054

0 69

M70

354

355

Sat.

19 Sept. 2009

16

17

354

383

Thur.

Mon.

23 Sept. 2055

I I Sept. 2056

71

7 2

385

354

Thur.

Thur.

Mon.

8 Sept. 2010

29 Sept. 2011

17 Sept. 2012

Ig

19

355

354

Sat.

Thur.

29 Sept. 2057

19 Sept. 2058

73

74

353

385

Thur.

5 Sept. 2013

20

21

383

355

Mon.

Sat.

8 Sept. 2059

25 Sept. 2060

75

354

Thur.

25 Sept. 2014

22

385

Thur.

15 Sept. 2061

76

385

Mon.

14 Sept. 2015

23

354

Thur.

5 Oct. 2062

.,24

353

Mon.

24 Sept. 2063

5777

353

Mon.

3 Oct. 2016

U 25

385

Thur.

11 Sept. 2064

7 8

354

Thur.

21 Sept. 2017

'8-26

354

Thur.

1 Oct. 2065

79

385

Mon.

Io Sept. 2018

` 2 7

355

Mon.

20 Sept. 2066

.!", 80

355

Mon.

30 Sept. 2019

28

383

Sat.

Jo Sept. 2067

>,81

353

Sat.

19 Sept. 2020

29

354

Thur.

27 Sept. 2068

U 82

384

Tues.

7 Sept. 2021

3 0

355

Mon.

16 Sept. 2069

o 8 3

355

Mon.

26 Sept. 2022

31

383

Sat.

6 Sept. 2070

,)84

383

Sat.

16 Sept. 2023

3 2

355

Thur.

24 Sept. 2071

8 5

355

Thur.

3 Oct. 2024

33

384

Tues.

13 Sept. 2072

The following table is extracted from Woolhouse's Measures, Weights and Moneys of all Nations: TABLE VII. - Hebrew Years. Table Hebrew Years (Continued). Mahommedan Calendar. The Mahommedan Era, Or Era Of The Hegira, Used In Turkey, Persia, Arabia, &C., Is Dated From The First Day Of The Month Preceding The Flight Of Mahomet From Mecca To Medina, I.E. Thursday The 15Th Of July A.D. 622, And It Commenced On The Day Following. The Years Of The Hegira Are Purely Lunar, And Always Consist Of Twelve Lunar Months, Commencing With The Approximate New Moon, Without Any Intercalation To Keep Them To The Same Season With Respect To The Sun, So That They Retrograde Through All The Seasons In About 321 Years. They Are Also Partitioned Into Cycles Of 30 Years, 19 Of Which Are Common Years Of 354 Days Each, And The Other Ii Are Intercalary Years Having An Additional Day Appended To The Last Month. The Mean Length Of The Year Is Therefore 3541) Days, Or 354 Days 8 Hours 48 Min., Which Divided By 12 Gives 293 G O Days, Or 29 Days 12 Hours 44 Min., As The Time Of A Mean Lunation, And This Differs From The Astronomical Mean Lunation By Only 2.8 Seconds. This Small Error Will Only Amount To A Day In About 2400 Years.

To Find If A Year Is Intercalary Or Common, Divide It By 30; The Quotient Will Be The Number Of Completed Cycles And The Remainder Will Be The Year Of The Current Cycle; If This Last Be One Of The Numbers 2, 5, 7, 10, 13, 16, 18, 21, 24, 26, 29, The Year Is Intercalary And Consists Of 355 Days; If It Be Any Other Number, The Year Is Ordinary.

Or If Y Denote The Number Of The Mahommedan Year, And R (Iiy 14H / 30 R' The Year Is Intercalary When R < 1 1. Also The Number Of Intercalary Years From The Year 1 Up To The Year Y Inclusive = (11 Y? 141 Y ` 30 J W' And The Same Up To The Year /11 Y 31 Y 1 J 30 W' To Find The Day Of The Week On Which Any Year Of The Hegira Begins, We Observe That The Year 1' Began On A Friday, And That After Every Common Year Of 354 Days, Or 50 Weeks And 4 Days, The Day Of The Week Must Necessarily Become Postponed 4 Days, Besides The Additional Day Of Each Intercalary Year.

Hence If W= 1234567 Indicate Sun. I Mon. I Tues. I Wed. I Thur. I Frid. Sat. The Day Of The Week On Which The Year Y Commences Will Be W=2 } 4 (? L R { (11 3 0 W 31 (Rejecting Sevens).

But, 30(11 Y 3) (H1 3) _ 11 Y } 3 0 /W 30 R 3 Gives 120 (1130 3) W 12 44Y 4 (11303) R, Or (11303) W = 5 2 Y ? 3 (113031 R (Rejecting Sevens). So That J W=6 (Y) R 3 (113 0 3) R (Rejecting Sevens), The Values Of Which Obviously Circulate In A Period Of 7 Times 30 Or 210 Years.

Let C Denote The Number Of Completed Cycles, And Y The Year Of The Cycle; Then Y=30 C Y, And W= 5 (C) R 6 (7/ R 3 (U13) R (Rejecting Sevens). From This Formula The Following Table Has Been Constructed: Table Viii.

Mean Solar Year 365.2422 The Year 1 Began 16 July 622, Old Style, Or 19 July 622, According To The New Or Gregorian Style. Now The Day Of The Year Answering To The 19Th Of July Is 200, Which, In Parts Of The Solar Year, Is O 5476, And The Number Of Years Elapsed = I. Therefore, As The Intercalary Days Are Distributed With Considerable Regularity In Both Calendars, The Date Of Commencement Of The Year Y Expressed In Gregorian Years Is 0.97 022 4 (Y 1) 622.5476, Or 0.970224 Y 621.5774.

This Formula Gives The Following Rule For Calculating The Date Of The Commencement Of Any Year Of The Hegira, According To The Gregorian Or New Style.

Rule

Multiply 970224 By The Year Of The Hegira, Cut Off Six Decimals From The Product, And Add 621.5774. The Sum Will Be The Year Of The Christian Era, And The Day Of The Year Will Be Found By Multiplying The Decimal Figures By 365.

The Result May Sometimes Differ A Day From The Truth, As The Intercalary Days Do Not Occur Simultaneously; But As The Day Of The Week Can Always Be Accurately Obtained From The Foregoing Table, The Result Can Be Readily Adjusted.

Example

Required The Date On Which The Year 1362 Of The Hegira Begins.

970224 1362 1940448 5821344 2910672 970224 1 321.445088 621.5774 1943.0225 365 1125 1350 675 8.2125 Thus The Date Is The 8Th Day, Or The 8Th Of January, Of The Year 1943.

To Find, As A Test, The Accurate Day Of The Week, The Proposed Year Of The Hegira, Divided By 30, Gives 45 Cycles, And Remainder 12, The Year Of The Current Cycle.

Also 45, Divided By 7, Leaves A Remainder 3 For The Number Of The Period.

Therefore, Referring To 3 At The Top Of The Table, And 12 On The Left, The Required Day Is Friday.

The Tables, Page 571, Show That 8Th January 1943 Is A Friday, Therefore The Date Is Exact.

For Any Other Date Of The Mahommedan Year It Is Only Requisite To Know The Names Of The Consecutive Months, And The Number Of Days In Each; These Are Shaaban. ... 29 Ramadan.. 30 Shawall (Shawwal) 29 Dulkaada (Dhu'L Qa`Da) 30 Dulheggia (Dhu'L Hijja) 29 And In Intercalary Years.. .. 30 The Ninth Month, Ramadan, Is The Month Of Abstinence Observed By The Moslems.

The Moslem Calendar May Evidently Be Carried On Indefinitely By Successive Addition, Observing Only To Allow For The Additional Day That Occurs In The Bissextile And Intercalary Years; But For Any Remote Date The Computation According To The Preceding Rules Will Be Most Efficient, And Such Computation May Be Usefully Employed As A Check On The Accuracy Of Any Considerable Extension Of The Calendar By Induction Alone.

The Following Table, Taken From Woolhouse'S Measures, Weights And Moneys Of All Nations, Shows The Dates Of Commencement Of Mahommedan Years From 1845 Up To 2047, Or From The 43Rd To The 49Th Cycle Inclusive, Which Form The Whole Of The Seventh Period Of Seven Cycles. Throughout The Next Period Of Seven Cycles, And All Other Like Periods, The Days Of The Week Will Recur In Exactly The Same Order. All The Tables Of This Kind Previously Published, Which Extend Beyond The Year 1900 Of The Christian Era, Are Erroneous, Not Excepting The Celebrated French Work, L'Art De Verifier Les Dates, So Justly Regarded As The Greatest Authority In Chronological Matters. The Errors Have Probably Arisen From A Continued Excess Of 10 In The Discrimination Of The Intercalary Years.

43Rd Cycle.

Year Of

Commencement

Year Of

Commencement

Hegira.

(Rst Of Muharram).

Hegira.

(1St Of Muharram).

1261

Frid.

To Jan. 1845

1273*

Mon.

1 Sept. 1856

1262*

Tues.

30 Dec. 1845

1274

Sat.

22 Aug. 1857

1263

Sun.

20 Dec. 1846

1275

Wed.

11 Aug. 1858

1264

Thur.

9 Dec. 1847

1276*

Sun.

31 July 1859

1265*

Mon.

27 Nov. 1848

1277*

Frid.

Zo July 1860

1266

Sat.

17 Nov. 1849

1278*

Tues.

9 July 1861

1267*

Wed.

6 Nov. 1850

1279

Sun.

29 June 1862

1268

Mon.

27 Oct. 1851

1280

Thur.

18 June 1863

1269

Frid.

15 Oct. 1852

1281*

Mon.

6 June 1864

1270*

Tues.

4 Oct. 1853

1282

Sat.

27 May 1865

1271

Sun.

24 Sept. 1854

1283

Wed.

16 May 1866

1272

Thur.

13 Sept. 1855

1284*

Sun.

5 May 1867

[[Table Ix]]. - Mahommedan Years. To find from this table the day of the week on which any year of the Hegira commences, the rule to be observed will be as follows: Rule. - Divide the year of the Hegira by 30; the quotient is the number of cycles, and the remainder is the year of the current cycle. Next divide the number of cycles by 7, and the second remainder will be the Number of the Period, which being found at the top of the table, and the year of the cycle on the left hand, the required day of the week is immediately shown.

The intercalary years of the cycle are distinguished by an asterisk. For the computation of the Christian date, the ratio of a mean year of the Hegira to a solar year is Year of Hegira 354s =0.970224.

Year of the

Current Cycle (y).

Number of the Period of Seven Cycles = (C)

7 r

0

I

2

3

4

5

6

o

8

Mon.

Sat.

Thur.

Tues.

Sun.

Frid.

Wed.

1

9

17

25

Frid.

Wed.

Mon.

Sat.

Thur.

Tues.

Sun.

* 2

*10

*18

*26

Tues.

Sun.

Frid.

Wed.

Mon.

Sat.

Thur.

3

11

19

27

Sun.

Frid.

Wed.

Mon.

Sat.

Thur.

Tues.

4

12

20

28

Thur.

Tues.

Sun.

Frid.

Wed.

Mon.

Sat.

*5

*13

*21

* 29

Mon.

Sat.

Thur.

Tues.

Sun.

Frid.

Wed.

6

14

22

30

Sat.

Thur.

Tues.

Sun.

Frid.

Wed.

Mon.

*7

15

23

Wed.

Mon.

Sat.

Thur.

Tues.

Sun.

Frid.

*16

*24

Sun.

Frid.

Wed.

Mon.

Sat.

Thur.

Tues.

M uharram Saphar. Rabia I.. Rabia II.. Jomada I. Jomada II. Rajab .

43 rd Cycle - continued.

46th Cycle - continued

Year of

Hegira.

Commencement

(1st of Muharram).

Year of

Hegira.

Commencement

(1st of Muharram).

1285

Frid.

24 April 1868

1362

Frid.

8 Jan. 1943

1286*

Tues.

13 April 1869

1363*

Tues.

28 Dec. 1943

1287

Sun.

3 April 1870

1364

Sun.

17 Dec. 1944

1288

Thur.

23 Mar. 1871

1365

Thur.

6 Dec. 1945

1289 *

Mon.

II Mar. 1872

1366*

Mon.

25 Nov. 1946

1290

Sat.

1 Mar. 1873

1367

Sat.

15 Nov. 1947

1368*

Wed.

3 Nov. 1948

44 th Cycle.

1369

Mon.

24 Oct. 1949

1291

Wed.

18 Feb. 1874

1370

Frid.

13 Oct. 1950

1292*

Sun.

7 Feb. 1875

1 37 1*

Tues.

2 Oct. 1951

1293

Frid.

28 Jan. 1876

1 37 2

Sun.

21 Sept. 1952

1294

Tues.

16 Jan. 1877

1 373

Thur.

Io Sept. 1953

1295*

Sat.

5 Jan. 1878

1 374 *

Mon.

30 Aug. 1954

1296

Thur.

26 Dec. 1878

1 375

Sat.

20 Aug. 1955

1297*

Mon.

15 Dec. 1879

1376*

Wed.

8 Aug. 1956

1298

Sat.

4 Dec. 1880

1 377

Mon.

29 July 1957

1299

Wed.

23 Nov. 1881

1 378

Frid.

18 July 1958

1300*

Sun.

12 Nov. 1882

1 379 *

Tues.

7 July 1959

1301

Frid.

2 Nov. 1883

1380

Sun.

26 June 1960

2302

1303*

Tues.

Sat.

21 Oct. 1884

io Oct. 1885

47th Cycle.

47 Y

1304

Thur.

30 Sept. 1886

1381

Thur.

15 June 1961

130

Mon.

19 Sept. 1887

13 8 2 *

Mon.

4 June 1962

*

1306*

Frid.

7 Sept. 1888

1383

Sat.

25 May 1963

1307 *

Wed.

28 Aug. 1889

1384

Wed.

13 May 1964

1308

1309

Sun.

Frid.

17 Aug. 1890

7 Aug. 1891

13 8 5 *

1386

Sun.

Frid.

2 May 1965

22 April 1966

1310

Tues.

26 July 18 9 2

1387*

Tues.

ii April 1967

1311*

Sat.

15 July 1893

1388

Sun.

31 Mar. 1968

1312

Thur.

5 July 18 94

1389

Thur.

20 Mar. 1969

1313

Mon.

24 June 18 95

1390*

Mon.

9 Mar. 1970

1314*

Frid.

12 June 18 9 6

1391

Sat.

27 Feb. 1971

131

*

Wed.

2 June 18 97

1392

Wed.

16 Feb. 1972

1316*

Sun.

22 May 1898

1 393 *

Sun.

4 Feb. 1973

1317

Frid.

12 May 1899

1 394

Frid.

25 Jan. 1974

1318

Tues.

I May 1900

1 395

Tues.

14 Jan. 1975

1319*

Sat.

20 April 1901

1396*

Sat.

3 Jan. 1976

1320

Thur.

io April 1902

1397

Thur.

23 Dec. 1976

45th Cycle.

1398 *

1399

Mon.

Sat.

12 Dec. 1977

2 Dec. 1978

1321

Mon.

30 Mar. 1903

1400

Wed.

21 Nov. 1979

1322*

Frid.

18 Mar. 1904

1401*

Sun.

9 Nov. 1980

1323

Wed.

8 Mar. 1905

1402

Frid.

30 Oct. 1981

1324

Sun.

25 Feb. 1906

1403

Tues.

19 Oct. 1982

1325

Thur.

14 Feb. 1907

1404*

Sat.

8 Oct. 1983

1326

Tues.

4 Feb. 1908

1405

Thur.

27 Sept. 1984

1327*

Sat.

23 Jan. 1909

1406*

Mon.

16 Sept. 1985

1328

Thur.

13 Jan. 1910

1407

Sat.

6 Sept. 1986

1329

Mon.

2 Jan. 1911

1408

Wed.

26 Aug. 1987

1330*

Frid.

22 Dec. 1911

1409*

Sun.

14 Aug. 1988

1331

Wed.

II Dec. 1912

1410

Frid.

4 Aug. 1989

1332

Sun.

30 Nov. 1913

1333*

Thur.

19 Nov. 1914

48th Cycle.

1 334

Tues.

9 Nov. 1915

1411

Tues.

24 July 1990

1335

Sat.

28 Oct. 1916

1412*

Sat.

13 July 1991

1336

Wed.

17 Oct. 1917

1413

Thur.

2 July 1992

1337 *

Mon.

7 Oct. 1918

1414

Mon.

21 June 1993

1338

Frid.

26 Sept. 1919

¶415*

Frid.

io June 1994

1 339

Wed.

15 Sept. 1920

1416

Wed.

31 May 1995

1340 *

Sun.

4 Sept. 1921

1417*

Sun.

19 May 1996

1341

Thur.

24 Aug. 1922

1418

Frid.

9 May 1997

1342

Tues.

14 Aug. 1923

1419

Tues.

28 April 1998

1 343 *

Sat.

2 Aug. 1924

1420*

Sat.

17 April 1999

1 344

Wed.

22 July 1925

1421

Thur.

6 April 2000

1 345

Mon.

12 July 1926

122

Mon.

26 Mar. 2001

1346*

Frid.

1 July 1927

1423*

Frid.

15 Mar. 2002

1 347

Wed.

20 June 1928

14 2 4

Wed.

5 Mar. 2003

1348

Sun.

9 June 1929

1425

Sun.

22 Feb. 2004

1 349 *

Thur.

29 May 1930

1426*

Thur.

io Feb. 2005

1350

Tues.

19 May 1 93 1

1427

Tues.

31 Jan. 2006

46th Cycle.

1428*

1429

Sat.

Thur.

20 Jan. 2007

io Jan. 2008

1351

Sat.

7 May 1932

1430

Mon.

29 Dec. 2008

1352*

Wed.

26 April 1933

1431*

Frid.

18 Dec. 2009

1 353

Mon.

16 April 1934

1432

Wed.

8 Dec. 2010

1 354

Frid.

5 April 1 935

1 433

Sun.

27 Nov. 2011

1 355 *

Tues.

24 Mar. 1 93 6

1 434 *

Thur.

15 Nov. 2012

1356

Sun.

14 Mar. 1 937

1 435

Tues.

5 Nov. 2013

1357*

Thur.

3 Mar. 1938

1436*

Sat.

25 Oct. 2014

1358

Tues.

21 Feb. 1 939

1 437

Thur.

15 Oct. 2015

1 359

Sat.

¶0 Feb. 1940

1438

Mon.

3 Oct. 2016

1360*

Wed.

29 Jan. 1 94 1

1 439 *

Frid.

22 Sept. 2017

1361

Mon.

19 Jan. 1942

1440

Wed.

12 Sept. 2018

49 th Cycle.

Year of

Hegira.

Commencement

(1st of Muharram) .

Year of

Hegira.

Commencement

(1st of Muharram) .

1441

Sun.

1 Sept. 2019

1456*

Tues.

21 Mar. 2034

1 44 2*

Thur.

20 Aug. 2020

1457

Sun.

II Mar. 2035

1 443

Tues.

Io Aug. 2021

1458*

Thur.

28 Feb. 2036

1 444

Sat.

30 July 2022

1 459

Tues.

17 Feb. 2037

1 445 *

Wed.

19 July 2023

1460

Sat.

6 Feb. 2038

1446

Mon.

8 July 2024

1461*

. Wed.

26 Jan. 2039

1447*

Frid.

27 June 2025

1462

Mon.

16 Jan. 2040

1448

Wed.

17 June 2026

1463

Frid.

4 Jan. 2041

1 449

Sun.

6 June 2027

1464*

Tues.

24 Dec. 2041

1450*

Thur.

25 May 2028

1465

Sun.

14 Dec. 2042

1451

Tues.

15 May 2029

1466*

Thur.

3 Dec. 2043

1452

Sat.

4 May 2030

1467

Tues.

22 Nov. 2044

1 453 *

Wed.

23 April 2031

1468

Sat.

11 Nov. 2045

1454

Mon.

12 April 2032

1469*

Wed.

31 Oct. 2046

1 455

Frid.

1 April 2033

1470

Mon.

21 Oct. 2047

30 29 30 29 30 29 30 [[Table X]]. - Principal Days of the Hebrew Calendar. I, New Year, Feast of Trumpets.

3, 1 Fast of Guedaliah. 10, Fast of Expiation.

15, Feast of Tabernacles.

21, Last Day of the Festival.

22, Feast of the 8th Day.

„ 23, Rejoicing of the Law. Kislev 25, Dedication of the Temple. Tebet 10, Fast, Siege of Jerusalem.

Adar 13, 2 Fast of Esther, 8 In embolismic „ 14, Purim, years. Veadar.

Nisan 15, Passover.

Sivan 6, Pentecost.

Tamuz 17, 1 Fast, Taking of Jerusalem.

Ab 9,1 Fast, Destruction of the Temple.

[[Table Xl]] - Principal Days of the Mahommedan Calendar. Muharram 1, New Year.

„ 10, Ashura.

Rabic I. II, Birth of Mahomet. Jomada I. 20, Taking of Constantinople.

Rajab 15, Day of Victory.

„ 20, Exaltation of Mahomet. Shaaban 15, Borak's Night.

Shawall 1, 2, 3, Kutshuk Bairam.

Dulheggia 10, Qurban Bairam.

Name.

Christian Date of

Commencement.

Dame

Christian Date of

Commencement.

Grecian Mun-

Sidonian era .

Oct. I10 B.C.

dane era. .

1 Sep. 5598 B.C.

Caesarean era

Civil era of Con-

of Antioch .

1 Sep. 48 „

stantinople .

i Sep. 5508 „

Julian year .

I Jan. 45 „

Alexandrian

Spanish era .

I Jan. 38 „

era.. .

29 Aug. 5502 „

Actian era .

I Jan. 30 „

Ecclesiastical

era of An-

Augustan era

Vulgar Chris-

14 Feb. 27 „

tioch .

I Sep. 549 2 „

tian era. .

I Jan. I A. D.

Julian Period .

I Jan. 4713 „

Destruction of

Mundane era .

Oct. 4008 „

Jerusalem .

I Sep. 69 „

Jewish Mun-

Era of Macca-

dane era. .

Oct. 3761 „

bees.. .

24 Nov.166 „

Era of Abraham

I Oct. 2015 „

Era of Diocle-

Era of the

tian.. .

17 Sep. 284 „

Olympiads .

I July 776 „

Era of Ascen-

Roman era .

24 April 753 „

sion.. .

12 Nov.295 „

Era of Nabo-

Era of the Ar-

nassar. .

Metonic Cycle .

Grecian or Syro-

26 Feb. 747 ,,

15 July 432 „

menians. .

Mahommedan

era of the

7 July 552 „

Macedonian

Hegira

16 July 622 „

era.. .

I Sep. 312 „

Persian era of

Tyrian era .

19 Oct. 125 „

Yezdegird __ .

16 June 632 „

[[Table Xil]] - Epochs, Eras, and Periods. For the Revolutionary Calendar see French Revolution ad fin The principal works on the calendar are the following: Clavius Romani Calendarii a Gregorio Xiii. P.M. restituti Explicatio (Rome, 1603); L' Art de verifier les dates; Lalande, Astronomic, tome ii.; Traite de la sphere et du calendrier, par M. Revard (Paris, 1816); Delambre, Traite de l'astronomie theorique et pratique, tome iii.; Histoire de l'astronomie moderne; Methodus technica brevis, perfacilis, ac perpetua construendi Calendarium Ecclesiasticum, Stylo tam novo quam vetere, pro cunctis Christianis Europae populis, F&c., auctore Paulo Tittel (Göttingen, 1816); Formole analitsche pel 1 If Saturday, substitute Sunday immediately following.

2 If Saturday, substitute Thursday immediately preceding.

Tisri calcolo della Pasqua, e correzione di quello di Gauss, con critiche o;servazioni sit quanto ha scrittc del calendario it Delambri, di Lodovico Ciccolini (Rome, 1817); E. H. Lindo, Jewish Calendar for Sixty-four Years (1838); W. S. B. Woolhouse, Measures, Weights, and Moneys of all Nations (1869). (T. G.; W. S. B. W.)


<< Calenberg

Calender >>


Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

The history of the Jewish calendar may be divided into three periods—the Biblical, the Talmudic, and the post-Talmudic. The first rested purely on the observation of the sun and the moon, the second on observation and reckoning, the third entirely on reckoning.

The study of astronomy was largely due to the need of fixing the dates of the festivals. The command (Deut. xvi. 1), "Keep the month of Abib," made it necessary to be acquainted with the position of the sun; and the command, "Also observe themoon and sanctify it," made it necessary to study the phases of the moon.

The oldest term in Hebrew for the science of the calendar is (image) ("fixing of the month"); later (image) ("sanctification of the new moon"); (image) ("sanctification of the new moon by means of observation"); (image) (image) ("sanctification of the new moon by means of reckoning"); (image) ("science of fixing the month"); (image) ("rules for the sanctification of the new moon"). Among other names besides these we find (image) (" the secret of intercalation"). The medieval and modern name is (image) .

Contents

Babylonian Calendar.

The Babylonian year, which influenced the French time reckoning, seems to have consisted of 12 months of 30 days each, intercalary months being added by the priests when necessary. Two Babylonian calendars are preserved in the inscriptions, and in both each month has 30 days as far as can be learnt. In later times, however, months of 29 days alternated with those of 30. The method of intercalation is uncertain, and the practise seems to have varied.

The Babylonian years were soli-lunar; that is to say, the year of 12 months containing 354 days was bound to the solar year of 365 days by intercalating, as occasion required, a thirteenth month. Out of every 11 years there were 7 with 12 months and 4 with 13 months.

Strassmeier and Epping, in "Astronomisches aus Babylon," have shown that the ancient Babylonians were sufficiently advanced in astronomy to enable them to draw up almanacs in which the eclipses of the sun and moon and the times of new and full moon were predicted ("Proc. Soc. Bib. Arch., 1891-1892," p. 112).

The Talmud (Yerushalmi, Rosh ha-Shanah i. 1) correctly states that the Jews got the names of the months at the time of the Babylonian exile.

There is no mention of an intercalary month in the Bible, and it is not known whether the correction was applied in ancient times by the addition of 1 month in 3 years or by the adding of 10 or 11 days at the end of each year.

Bound Lunar Year.

Astronomers know this kind of year as a bound lunar year. The Greeks had a similar year. Even the Christian year, although a purely solar year, is forced to take account of the moon for the fixing of the date of Easter. The Mohammedans, on the other hand, have a free lunar year.

It thus seems plain that the Jewish year was not a simple lunar year; for while the Jewish festivals no doubt were fixed on given days of lunar months, they also had a dependence on the position of the sun. Thus the Passover Feast was to be celebrated in the month of the wheat harvest ( (image) ), and the Feast of Tabernacles, also called (image) , took place in the fall. Sometimes the feasts are mentioned as taking place in certain lunar months (Lev. xxiii.; Num. xxviii., xxix.), and at other times they are fixed in accordance with certain crops; that is, with the solar year.

In post-Talmudic times Nisan, Siwan, Ab, Tishri, Kislew, and Shebaṭ had 30 days, and Iyyar, Tammuz, Elul, Ḥeshwan, Ṭebet, and Adar, 29. In leap-year, Adar had 30 days and We-Adar 29.

According to Pirḳe Rabbi Eliezer, there was a lunar solar cycle of 48 years. This cycle was followed by the Hellenists, Essenes, and early Christians.

In the times of the Second Temple it appears from the Mishnah (R. H. i. 7) that the priests had a court to which witnesses came and reported. This function was afterward taken over by the civil court (see B. Zuckermann, "Materialien zur Entwicklung der Altjüdischen Zeitrechnung im Talmud, "Breslau, 1882).

The fixing of the lengths of the months and the intercalation of months was the prerogative of the Sanhedrin, at whose head there was a patriarch or (image) . The entire Sanhedrin was not called upon to act in this matter, the decision being left to a special court of three. The Sanhedrin met on the 29th of each month to await the report of the witnesses.

From before the destruction of the Temple certain rules were in existence. The new moon can not occur before a lapse of 29½ days and ⅔ of an hour. If the moon could not be exactly determined, one month was to have 30 days and the next 29. The full months were not to be less than 4 nor more than 8, so that the year could not be less than 352 days nor more than 356. After the destruction of the Temple (70 C.E.) Joḥanan ben Zakkai removed the Sanhedrin to Jabneh. To this body he transferred decisions concerning the calendar, which had previously belonged to the patriarch. After this the witnesses of the new moon came direct to the Sanhedrin.

Empirical Determination of Leap-Year.

Every two or three years, as the case might be, an extra month was intercalated. The intercalation seems to have depended on actual calculation of the relative lengths of the solar and lunar years, which were handed down by tradition in the patriarchal family. Moreover, it was possible to judge by the grain harvest. If the month of Nisan arrived and the sun was at such a distance from the vernal equinox that it could not reach it by the 16th of the month, then this month was not called Nisan, but Adar Sheni (second).

On the evening before the announcement of the intercalation the patriarch assembled certain scholars who assisted in the decision. It was then announced to the various Jewish communities by letters. To this epistle was added the reason for the intercalation. A copy of such a letter of Rabban Gamaliel is preserved in the Talmud (Sanh. xi. 2).

The country people and the inhabitants of Babylonia were informed of the beginning of the month by fire-signals, which were readily carried from station to station in the mountain country. These signals could not be carried to the exiles in Egypt, Asia Minor, and Greece, who, being accordingly left in doubt, celebrated two days as the new moon.

Owing to the weather it was frequently impossible to observe the new moon. In order to remove any uncertainty with regard to the length of the year on this account, it was ordained that the year should not have less than 4 nor more than 8 fullmonths. After the fixing of the calendar it was settled that the year should not have less than 5 nor more than 7 full months.

R. Gamaliel II. (80-116 C.E.) used to receive the reports of the witnesses in person, and showed them representations of the moon to test their accuracy. On one occasion he fixed the first of Tishri after the testimony of two suspected witnesses. The accuracy of the decision was disputed by Rabbi Joshua, who was thereupon commanded by the patriarch to appear before him prepared for travel on the day which was, according to his (Joshua's) calculation, the Day of Atonement, an order with which he most reluctantly complied.

During the persecutions under Hadrian and in the time of his successor, Antoninus Pius, the martyr Rabbi Akiba and his pupils attempted to lay down rules for the intercalation of a month.

Under the patriarchate of Simon III. (140-163) a great quarrel arose concerning the feast-days and the leap-year, which threatened to cause a permanent schism between the Babylonian and the Palestinian communities—a result which was only averted by the exercise of much diplomacy.

Talmudic Period.

Under the patriarchate of Rabbi Judah I., surnamed "the Holy" (163-193), the Samaritans, in order to confuse the Jews, set up fire-signals at improper times, and thus caused the Jews to fall into error with regard to the day of the new moon. Rabbi Judah accordingly abolished the fire-signals and employed messengers. The inhabitants of countries who could not be reached by messengers before the feast were accordingly in doubt, and used to celebrate two days of the holidays. By this time the fixing of the new moon according to the testimony of witnesses seems to have lost its importance, and astronomical calculations were in the main relied upon.

One of the important figures in the history of the calendar was Samuel (born about 165, died about 250), surnamed "Yarḥinai" because of his familiarity with the moon. He was an astronomer, and it was said that he knew the courses of the heavens as well as the streets of his city (Ber. 58b). He was director of a school in Nehardea (Babylonia), and while there arranged a calendar of the feasts in order that his fellow-countrymen might be independent of Judea. He also calculated the calendar for sixty years. His calculations greatly influenced the subsequent calendar of Hillel. According to Bartolocci his tables are preserved in the Vatican. A contemporary of his, R. Adda (born 183), also left a work on the calendar.

Mar Samuel reckoned the solar year at 365 days and 6 hours, and Rab Adda at 365 days, 5 hours, 55 minutes, and 25 25/57 seconds.

In 325 the Council of Nice was held, and by that time the equinox had retrograded to March 21. This council made no practical change in the existing civil calendar, but addressed itself to the reform of the Church calendar, which was soli-lunar on the Jewish system. Great disputes had arisen as to the time of celebrating Easter. Moreover, the Church was not fully established, many Christians being still simply Jewish sectarians. A new rule was therefore made, which, while still keeping Easter dependent on the moon, prevented it from coinciding with Passover.

Under the patriarchate of Rabbi Judah III. (300-330) the testimony of the witnesses with regard to the appearance of the new moon was received as a mere formality, the settlement of the day depending entirely on calculation. This innovation seems to have been viewed with disfavor by some members of the Sanhedrin, particularly Rabbi Jose, who wrote to both the Babylonian and the Alexandrian communities, advising them to follow the customs of their fathers and continue to celebrate two days, an advice which was followed, and is still followed, by the majority of Jews living outside of Palestine.

Under the reign of Constantius (337-361) the persecutions of the Jews reached such a height that all religious exercises, including the computation of the calendar, were forbidden under pain of severe punishment. The Sanhedrin was apparently prevented from inserting the intercalary month in the spring; it accordingly placed it after the month of Ab (July-August).

Post-Talmudic Period.

The persecutions under Constantius finally decided the patriarch, Hillel II. (330-365), to publish rules for the computation of the calendar, which had hitherto been regarded as a secret science. The political difficulties attendant upon the meetings of the Sanhedrin became so numerous in this period, and the consequent uncertainty of the feast-days was so great, that R. Huna b. Abin made known the following secret of the calendar to Raba in Babylonia: Whenever it becomes apparent that the winter will last till the 16th of Nisan, make the year a leap-year without hesitation.

This unselfish promulgation of the calendar, though it destroyed the hold of the patriarchs on the scattered Judeans, fixed the celebration of the Jewish feasts upon the same day everywhere. Later Jewish writers agree that the calendar was fixed by Hillel II. in the year 670 of the Seleucidan era; that is, 4119 A.M. or 359 C.E. Some, however, as Isaac Israeli, have fixed the date as late as 500. Saadia afterward formulated calendar rules, after having disputed the correctness of the calendar established by the Karaites. That there is a slight error in the Jewish calendar—due to inaccuracies in the length of both the lunar and the solar years upon which it is based—has been asserted by a number of writers.

Error in the Calendar.

According to Isidore Loeb the Jewish cycle in 19 years exceeds the Gregorian by 2 hours, 8 minutes, and 15.3 seconds. This makes a difference in a hundred cycles (1900 years) of 8 days, 21 hours, 45 minutes, and 5 seconds ("Tables du Calendrier Juif," p. 6, Paris, 1886).

The assumed duration of the solar year is 6 minutes, 39 25/57 seconds in excess of the true astronomical value, which will cause the dates of the commencement of future Jewish years, which are so calculated, to advance from the equinox a day in error in 216 years ("Encyc. Brit." s. v. " Calendar," 9th ed., iv. 678).

The following calculation of the differences between the Jewish and Gregorian lengths of the year and month was privately made for the writer byProf. William Harkness, formerly astronomical director of the United States Naval Observatory at Washington:

1 year = 365d. 05h. 997 12/19 ḥalaḳim or 365d. 05h. 55m. 25.439 s. 48m. 46.069 s. true value (29d. 12h. 793 ḥalaḳim) 235 = 6939d. 16h. 595 ḥalaḳim = 19 years 29d. 12h. 44m. 3⅓s. True value = 29d. 12h. 44m. 02.841s.

According to these calculations the Jewish year exceeds the Gregorian by 6 m. 39.37s. and the Jewish month by .492 s. Insignificant as these differences may appear, they will cause a considerable divergence in the relations between Nisan and spring as time goes on, and may require a Pan-Judaic Synod to adjust.

Writers on the Calendar:

Mashallah, 754-813; Sahl ben Rabban al-Ṭabari, 800; Sind ben Ali, 829-832; Shabbethai b. Abraham Donolo, 949; Ḥasan, judge of Cordova, 972; Abraham b. Ḥiyya, d. 1136; Abraham ibn Ezra, 1093-1168; Isaac b. Joseph Israeli, 1310; Immanuel b. Jacob of Tarrascon, 1330-1346; Elia Misraḥi, d. 1490; Abraham b. Samuel Zacuto, professor of astronomy at Saragossa, 1492, Moses Isserles, d. 1573; David Gans (d. 1613), a friend of Keppler and Tycho Brahe; Raphael Levi Hannover, 1734; Israel Lyons, 1773, member of an English polar expedition. Besides the following works of the Talmudic period: (image) , Baraita of the secret of intercalation (R. H. xx. 2); (image) (Pirḳe de Rabbi Eliezer ha-Gadol b. Hyrcanus).

Bibliography: L. M. Lewisohn, Geschichte und System des Jüdischen Kalenderwesens, Leipsic, 1853 (Schriften heraus-gegeben vom Institute zur Förderung der Israelitischen Literatur); also the works of Steinschneider, Scaliger, and Ideler.

This entry includes text from the Jewish Encyclopedia, 1906.
Facts about CALENDAR, HISTORY OF (Jewish Encyclopedia)RDF feed

Simple English

A calendar is a system for assigning calendar dates to days. The dates may be based on how things in the sky seem to move, like the Sun or moon. The calendar most commonly used by people in the Western world is the Gregorian Calendar.

A calendar is also something (often paper) that shows the system in writing (for example, a desktop calendar).

The term is also used to mean a set of planned events (for example, court calendar).

Other pages

Links

krc:Орузлама


Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message