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Calendula
Field marigold (Calendula arvensis)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Calenduleae
Genus: Calendula
L.
Species

See text

Calendula (pronounced /kəˈlɛndjuːlə/ Ca-lén-du-la),[1] pot marigold, is a genus of about 12-20 species of annual or perennial herbaceous plants in the daisy family Asteraceae, native to the area from Macaronesia east through the Mediterranean region to Iran. Calendula should not be confused with other plants that are also known as marigolds, such as plants of the genus Tagetes, corn marigolds or marsh marigolds.

The name Calendula stems from the Latin kalendae, meaning first day of the month, presumably because pot marigolds are in bloom at the start of most months of the year. The common name marigold probably refers to the Virgin Mary, or its old Saxon name 'ymbglidegold', which means 'it turns with the sun'. Marigolds typically bloom quickly (in under two months) in bright yellows, reds, and oranges throughout the summer and well into the fall.

Marigolds are considered by many gardening experts as one of the most versatile flowers to grow in a garden, especially since it is easy to grow. Seeds sown in the spring, in most soils, will germinate freely in sunny or half-sunny locations. They do best, however, if planted in sunny locations with rich, well-drained soil. The leaves are spirally arranged, 5-18 cm long, simple, and slightly hairy. The flower heads range from pastel yellow to deep orange, and are 3-7 cm across, with both ray florets and disc florets. They have a spicy aroma and are produced from spring to autumn in temperate climates. It is recommended to deadhead (removal of dying flower heads) the plants regularly to maintain even blossom production.

Marigolds are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Cabbage Moth, The Gothic, Large Yellow Underwing and Setaceous Hebrew Character.

Marigold petals are considered edible. They are often used to add color to salads, and marigold extract is commonly added to chicken feed to produce darker egg yolks. Their aroma, however, is not sweet, and resembles the smell of hops in beer. The oil from its seed contains calendic acid.

Contents

Constituents

The flowers of Calendula officinalis contain flavonol glycosides, triterpene oligoglycosides, oleanane-type triterpene glycosides, saponins, and a sesquiterpene glucoside.[2][3]

Medicinal effects

Plant pharmacological studies have suggested that Calendula extracts have anti-viral, anti-genotoxic and anti-inflammatory properties. [4] Calendula in suspension or in tincture is used topically to treat acne, reducing inflammation, controlling bleeding and soothing irritated tissue.[5][6] There is "limited evidence" that calendula cream or ointment is effective in treating radiation dermatitis.[7][8]

Calendula has been used traditionally for abdominal cramps and constipation.[9] In experiments with rabbit jejunum the aqueous-ethanol extract of Calendula officinalis flowers was shown to have both spasmolytic and spasmogenic effects, thus providing a scientific rationale for this traditional use.[9] An aqueous extract of Calendula officinalis obtained by a novel extraction method has demonstrated anti-tumor (cytotoxic) activity and immunomodulatory properties (lymphocyte activation) in vitro, as well as anti-tumor activity in mice. [4]

Selected species

  • Calendula arvensis – Field Marigold
  • Calendula bicolor
  • Calendula eckerleinii
  • Calendula lanzae
  • Calendula maderensis – Madeiran Marigold
  • Calendula maritima – Sea Marigold
  • Calendula maroccana
  • Calendula meuselii
  • Calendula officinalis – Pot Marigold
  • Calendula stellata
  • Calendula suffruticosa
  • Calendula tripterocarpa

References

  1. ^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
  2. ^ Ukiya M, Akihisa T, Yasukawa K et al. Anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor-promoting, and cytotoxic activities of constituents of marigold (Calendula officinalis) flowers. (2006). J Nat Prod. 69:1692-1696.
  3. ^ Yoshikawa M, Murakami T, Kishi A et al. (2001). Medicinal flowers.III. Marigold.(1): hypoglycemic, gastric emptying inhibitory, and gastroprotective principles and new oleanane-type triterpene oligolycosides, calendasaponins A, B, C, and D, from Egyptian Calendula officinalis. Chem Pharm Bull. 49:863-70.
  4. ^ a b Jimenez-Medina E, Garcia-Lora A, Paco L et al. (2006). A new extract of the plant Calendula officinalis produces a dual in vitro effect: cytotoxic anti-tumor activity and lymphocyte activation. BMC Cancer. 6:6.
  5. ^ "Results of the clinical examination of an ointment with marigold (Calendula officinalis) extract in the treatment of venous leg ulcers". Int J Tissue React. 27 (3): 101–6. 2005. PMID 16372475 : 16372475.  
  6. ^ "Phase III randomized trial of Calendula officinalis compared with trolamine for the prevention of acute dermatitis during irradiation for breast cancer". J Clin Oncol.;():1447-53 22: 1447–53. 2004-04-15. PMID 15084618 : 15084618.  
  7. ^ McQuestion M. (2006). Evidence-based skin care management in radiation therapy. Semin Oncol Nurs". 22:163-173.
  8. ^ Bolderston A, LLoyd NS, Wong RK et al. (2006). The prevention and management of acute skin reactions related to radiation therapy: a systematic review and practice guideline. Support Care Cancer. 14:802-817
  9. ^ a b Bashir S, Janbaz KH, Jabeen Q et al. (2006). Studies on spasmogenic and spasmolytic activities of Calendula officinalis flowers. Phytother Res. 20:906-910.

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also calendula

Translingual

Calendula officinalis

Proper noun

Calendula

  1. (botany) A taxonomic genus, within the family Asteraceae - the calendulas, often called marigolds.

Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Taxonavigation

Classification System: APG II (down to family level)

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiospermae
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Euasterids II
Ordo: Asterales
Familia: Asteraceae
Subfamilia: Asteroideae
Tribus: Calenduleae
Genus: Calendula
Species: C. arvensis - C. eckerleinii - C. lanzae - C. maroccana - C. meuselii - C. officinalis - C. stellata - C. suffruticosa - C. tripterocarpa

Name

Calendula L.

Vernacular name

Türkçe: Öküzgözü

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