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Calyampudi Radhakrishna Rao: Wikis


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C. R. Rao
Born September 10, 1920 (1920-09-10) (age 89)
Hadagali, State of Mysore, India
Residence India
United Kingdom
United States
Nationality India
Fields Mathematician
Institutions Indian Statistical Institute
Cambridge University
Penn State University
Alma mater Andhra University
University of Calcutta
Cambridge University
Doctoral advisor Ronald Fisher
Known for Cramér-Rao bound
Rao-Blackwell theorem
Notable awards Padma Vibhushan
National Medal of Science
S. S. Bhatnagar Prize
Guy Medal

Calyampudi Radhakrishna Rao (Kannada: ಕಲ್ಯಾಂಪುದಿ ರಾಧಾಕೃಷ್ಣ ರಾಯ) FRS (born September 10, 1920) is a world-renowned Indian born statistician, National Medal of Science Awardee, and currently Professor emeritus at Penn State University and Research Professor at the University at Buffalo. He is widely regarded as an eminent statistician of modern times along with Deming and Fisher [1]. The Times of India chose C.R. Rao as one of the top 10 Indian Scientists of all time; the list includes esteemed scientists such as S.N. Bose, S. Ramanujan, and G.N. Ramachandran. He was born in Hadagali, in the state of Karnataka, India.


Academic career

He received an M.S. degree in mathematics from Andhra University and an M.S. degree in statistics from Calcutta University in 1943.

Rao worked at the Indian Statistical Institute and the Anthropological Museum in Cambridge before acquiring a Ph.D. degree at King's College in Cambridge University under R.A. Fisher in 1948, to which he added a Sc.D. degree, also from Cambridge, in 1965. He held several important positions, as the Director of the Indian Statistical Institute, Jawaharlal Nehru Professor and National Professor in India, University Professor at the University of Pittsburgh and Eberly Professor and Chair of Statistics and Director of the Center for Multivariate Analysis at the Pennsylvania State University. As Head and later Director of the Research and Training School at the Indian Statistical Institute for a period of over 40 years, Rao developed research and training programs and produced several leaders in the field of Mathematics. On the basis of Dr. Rao's recommendation, the ASI (The Asian Statistical Institute) now known as Statistical Institute for Asia and Pacific was established in Tokyo to provide training to statisticians working in government and industrial organizations. [2]

Among his best-known discoveries are the Cramér-Rao bound and the Rao-Blackwell theorem both related to the quality of estimators. Other areas he worked in include multivariate analysis, estimation and differential geometry. His other contributions include the Fisher-Rao Theorem, Rao distance, and orthogonal arrays. He is the author of 14 books and has published over 400 journal publications.

Rao has received over 30 honorary doctoral degrees from universities in 17 countries around the world and numerous awards and medals for his contributions to statistics and science. He is a member of eight National Academies in India, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Italy. Rao was awarded the United States National Medal of Science, that nation's highest award for lifetime achievement in fields of scientific research, in June 2002.

He has been the President of the International Statistical Institute, Institute of Mathematical Statistics (USA), and the International Biometric Society. He was inducted into the Hall of Fame of India's National Institution for Quality and Reliability (Chennai Branch) for his contribution to industrial statistics and the promotion of quality control programs in industries.


His areas of research contributions

Awards & Medals

In his honor


External links

For the Cramér-Rao inequality and the Rao-Blackwell theorem see the relevant entries on

Photograph of Rao with Harald Cramér in 1978


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