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Kingdom of Cambodia
ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា
Preăh Réachéa Anachâk Kâmpŭchea
Flag Coat of arms
MottoCambodiaMotto.svg
"Nation, Religion, King"
AnthemNokoreach
Royal Kingdom
Location of  Cambodia  (green)

in ASEAN  (dark grey)  —  [Legend]

Capital
(and largest city)
Phnom Penh
11°33′N 104°55′E / 11.55°N 104.917°E / 11.55; 104.917
Official language(s) Khmer
Official scripts Khmer script
Demonym Khmer or Cambodian
Government Constitutional monarchy,
Parliamentary representative democracy
 -  King Norodom Sihamoni
 -  Prime Minister Hun Sen
Legislature Parliament
 -  Upper House Senate
 -  Lower House National Assembly
Formation
 -  Khmer empire 802 
 -  French colonization 1863 
 -  Independence from France November 9, 1953 
 -  Monarchy abolished March 18, 1970 
 -  Monarchy restored September 24, 1993 
Area
 -  Total 181,035 km2 (88th)
69,898 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 2.5
Population
 -  2009 estimate 14,805,000[1] (67th)
 -  2008 census 13,388,910 
 -  Density 81.8/km2 (125th)
211.8/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $28.461 billion[2] 
 -  Per capita $2,082[2] 
GDP (nominal) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $11.250 billion[2] 
 -  Per capita $823[2] 
HDI (2007) 0.593[3] (medium) (137th)
Currency Riel (banknotes and coins) (៛)1 (KHR)
Time zone (UTC+7)
 -  Summer (DST)  (UTC+7)
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .kh
Calling code 855
1 Local currency, although US dollars are widely used.
This article contains Indic text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks or boxes, misplaced vowels or missing conjuncts instead of Indic text.
.The Kingdom of Cambodia (pronounced /kæmˈboʊdiə/), formerly known as Kampuchea (/kæmpuːˈtʃiːə/, ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា Preăh Réachéa Nachâk Kâmpŭchea, derived from Sanskrit Kambujadesa (कम्बोजदेश)), is a country in Southeast Asia that borders Thailand to the west and northwest, Laos to the north and Vietnam to the east and southeast.^ Hy Vuthy was a member of the country's largest union, the Free Trade Union of Workers in the Kingdom of Cambodia (FTUWKC), which alleged that he might have been killed because of his labor work.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The monk was known locally for providing food and shelter to Khmer Kampuchea Krom coming from Vietnam.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Home » Under Secretary for Democracy and Global Affairs » Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor » Releases » Human Rights » 2007 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices » East Asia and the Pacific » Cambodia .
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

In the south it faces the Gulf of Thailand. The geography of Cambodia is dominated by the Mekong River (Khmer: Tonle Thom (ទន្លេធំ) or "the great river") and the Tonlé Sap (ទន្លេសាប; "the fresh water lake").
.Like neighboring Thailand, Cambodia is a constitutional monarchy.^ Cambodia is a constitutional monarchy with an elected government and a population of approximately 14 million.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

Phnom Penh is the kingdom's capital and largest city, and is the principal center for economics, industry, commerce and culture. Siem Reap, a city located near the famed ruins of Angkor Wat and gateway to the Angkor region, is Cambodia's main destination for tourism. Battambang, the largest city in western Cambodia, is known for rice production and Sihanoukville, a coastal city, is the primary sea port.
.Cambodia has an area of approximately 181,035 square kilometres (69,898 sq mi) and a population of over 14 million ethnic Khmer.^ Cambodia is a constitutional monarchy with an elected government and a population of approximately 14 million.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

A citizen of Cambodia is usually identified as "Cambodian" or "Khmer", though the latter strictly refers to ethnic Khmers. .Most Cambodians are Theravada Buddhists of Khmer extraction, but the country also has a substantial number of predominantly Muslim Cham, as well as ethnic Chinese, Vietnamese and small animist hill tribes.^ Ethnic Cham Muslims constitute most of the remaining population.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ A 2003 study estimated the number of trafficking victims in the sex industry to be 2,000, approximately 80 percent of whom were ethnic Vietnamese women and girls.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ There were no developments in a 2005 land dispute involving indigenous Phnong hill tribe members and a Chinese company in Mondulkiri Province.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

[4].
Agriculture has long been the most important sector of the Cambodian economy, with around 59% of the population relying on agriculture for their livelihood (with rice being the principal crop).[5] .Garments, tourism, and construction are also important, yielded, foreign visitors to Angkor Wat numbered more than 4 million.^ Youth and Education Student Website Diplomatic History Student Career Programs Virtual Student Foreign Service Youth Exchange Programs Fulbright Program Exchange Visitor Program U.S. Diplomacy Center More...
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

[6] In 2005, oil and natural gas deposits were found beneath Cambodia's territorial waters, and once commercial extraction begins in 2011, the oil revenues could profoundly affect Cambodia's economy.[7] Observers fear much of the revenue could end up in the hands of the political elites if not monitored correctly.[8]

Contents

Etymology

Cambodia is the traditional English name, taken from the French Cambodge, while Kâmpŭchea (កម្ពុជា), formerly the name of the country in English, is the direct transliteration, more faithful to the Khmer pronunciation. The Khmer Kampuchea is derived from the ancient Khmer kingdom of Kambuja (Kambujadeśa (कम्बोजदेश; "Land of Kambuja")). Kambuja or Kamboja (Devangari: कम्बोज) is the ancient Sanskrit name of the Kambojas, an early tribe of north India, named after their founder Kambu Svayambhuva,[9] believed to be a variant of Cambyses. See Etymology of Kamboja.
"Khmer Land" in Khmer writing, a local expression which refers to Cambodia
Preahreachanachâk Kampuchea means "Kingdom of Cambodia". Etymologically, its components are: Preah- ("sacred"); -reach- ("king, royal, realm", from Sanskrit); -ana- (from Pāli āṇā, "authority, command, power", itself from Sanskrit ājñā, same meaning) -châk (from Sanskrit chakra, meaning "wheel", a symbol of power and rule).
The name used on formal occasions, such as political speeches and news programs, is Prâteh Kampuchea (Khmer: ប្រទេសកម្ពុជា), literally "the Country of Cambodia". Prâteh is a formal word meaning "country." The colloquial name most used by Khmer people, is Srok Khmae (Khmer: ស្រុកខ្មែរ), literally "the Khmer Land". Srok is a Mon-Khmer word roughly equal to prâteh, but less formal. Khmer is spelled with a final "r" in the Khmer alphabet, but the word-final "r" phoneme disappeared from most dialects of Khmer in the 19th century and is not pronounced in the contemporary speech of the standard dialect.
.Since independence, the official name of Cambodia has changed several times, following the troubled history of the country.^ The Cambodia Independent Teachers Association (CITA), registered as an "association" due to prohibitions on public sector unions, represented 8,150 of the country's 89,000 teachers.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

The following names have been used in English and French since 1954.
  • Kingdom of Cambodia/Royaume du Cambodge under the rule of the monarchy from 1953 through 1970;
  • Khmer Republic/République Khmère under the Lon Nol led government from 1970 to 1975;
  • Democratic Kampuchea/Kampuchea démocratique under the rule of the communist Khmer Rouge from 1975 to 1979;
  • People's Republic of Kampuchea/République populaire du Kampuchea under the rule of the Vietnamese-sponsored government from 1979 to 1989;
  • State of Cambodia/État du Cambodge (a neutral name, while deciding whether to return to monarchy) under the rule of the United Nations transitional authority from 1989 to 1993;
  • Kingdom of Cambodia/Royaume du Cambodge reused after the restoration of the monarchy in 1993.

History

A Khmer army going to war against the Cham, from a relief on the Bayon

Prehistory

The sparse evidence for a Pleistocene human occupation of present day Cambodia are quartz and quartzite pebble tools found in terraces along Mekong River, in Stung Treng and Kratié provinces, and in Kampot Province, but their dating is not reliable.[10]
Some slight archaeological evidence shows communities of hunter-gatherers inhabited Cambodia during Holocene: the most ancient Cambodian archeological site is considered to be the cave of Laang Spean, in Battambang Province, which belongs to the so-called Hoabinhian period. Excavations in its lower layers produced a series of radiocarbon dates as of 6000 BC.[10][11]
Upper layers in the same site gave evidence of transition to Neolithic, containing the earliest dated earthenware ceramics in Cambodia[12]
Archeological records for the period between Holocene and Iron Age remain equally limited. .Other prehistoric sites of somewhat uncertain date are Samrong Sen (not far from ancient capital of Oudong), where first investigations started just in 1877,[13] and Phum Snay, in the northern province of Banteay Meanchey.^ On July 27, three unidentified persons shot and killed Kleb Un, SRP commune‑level vice party chairperson in Banteay Meanchey Province.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ On May 19, two military police officers in Banteay Meanchey Province detained Kim Heang for three days after Kim Heang had a dispute with his neighbor, a regional military official.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ On March 10, authorities arrested CPP member and military Colonel Te Haing over a 2,500‑acre land dispute in Banteay Meanchey Province.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

[14] Prehistoric artifacts are often found during mining activities in Ratanakiri.[10]
The most outstanding prehistoric evidence in Cambodia however are probably "circular earthworks", discovered in the red soils near Memot and in adjacent region of Vietnam as of the end of the 1950s. Their function and age are still debated, but some of them possibly date from 2nd millennium BC at least.[15][16]
A pivotal event in Cambodian prehistory was the slow penetration of the first rice farmers from North, which begun in the late 3rd millennium BC. They probably spoke ancestral Mon-Khmer.[17]
Iron was worked by about 500 BC. The most part of evidence come from Khorat Plateau, Thai country nowadays. In Cambodia some Iron Age settlement were found beneath Angkorian temples, like Baksei Chamkrong, others were circular earthworks, like Lovea, a few kilometers north-west of Angkor. Burials, much richer, testify improvement of food availability and trade (even on long distances: in the 4th century BC trade relations with India were already opened) and the existence of a social structure and labor organization.[17]

Pre-Angkorian and Angkorian polities

Southeast Asia circa 1100 AD. Khmer Empire lands in blue
.During the 3rd, 4th, and 5th centuries, the Indianised states of Funan and Chenla coalesced in what is now present-day Cambodia and southwestern Vietnam.^ The defrocking order stated Tim Sakhorn "broke the solidarity" between Cambodia and Vietnam by using pagodas to spread propaganda that affects the dignity of Buddhism.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

These states are assumed by most scholars to have been Khmer.[18] .For more than 2,000 years, Cambodia absorbed influences from India and China passing them on to other Southeast Asian civilisations that are now Thailand, Vietnam, and Laos.^ The MOSAVY worked with the IOM to repatriate trafficked victims from Thailand and Vietnam to Cambodia, and from Cambodia to Vietnam.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The MOSAVY repatriated from Thailand, Vietnam, and Malaysia 845 child and adult victims, as well as others vulnerable to becoming victims, and reintegrated them with their families.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ A domestic NGO estimated that more than 1,200 street children in Phnom Penh had no relationship with their families and more than 10,000 children worked on the streets but returned to families in the evenings.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

[19] The Khmer Empire flourished in the area from the 9th to the 13th century.[20] Around the 13th century, Theravada Buddhism was introduced to the area through monks from Sri Lanka.[21] From then on Theravada Buddhism grew and eventually became the most popular religion. The Khmer Empire declined yet remained powerful in the region until the 15th century. The empire's centre of power was Angkor, where a series of capitals was constructed during the empire's zenith. Angkor could have supported a population of up to one million people.[22] Angkor, the world's largest pre-industrial civilization[citation needed], and Angkor Wat, the most famous and best-preserved religious temple at the site, are reminders of Cambodia's past as a major regional power.

Dark ages of Cambodia

After a long series of wars with neighbouring kingdoms, Angkor was sacked by the Thai and abandoned in 1432 because of ecological failure and infrastructure breakdown.[23][24] The court moved the Capital to Lovek where the kingdom sought to regain its glory through maritime trade. .The attempt was short-lived, however, as continued wars with the Thai and Vietnamese resulted in the loss of more territory and Lovek was conquered in 1594. During the next three centuries, the Khmer kingdom alternated as a vassal state of the Thai and Vietnamese kings, with short-lived periods of relative independence between.^ On February 27, police and military police dispersed 60 Khmer Kampuchea Krom Buddhist monks demonstrating at the Vietnamese embassy in Phnom Penh during a state visit by the Vietnamese president.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The deceased monk was discovered the morning after he participated in a demonstration in front of the Vietnamese embassy in Phnom Penh for the rights of Khmer Kampuchea Krom persons living in Vietnam.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]

Modernity and French Indochina

King Norodom is credited for saving Cambodia from disappearing altogether
In 1863, King Norodom, who had been installed by Thailand,[25] sought the protection of France from the Thai and Vietnamese, after tensions grew between them. In 1867, the Thai king signed a treaty with France, renouncing suzerainty over Cambodia in exchange for the control of Battambang and Siem Reap provinces which officially became part of Thailand. The provinces were ceded back to Cambodia by a border treaty between France and Thailand in 1906.
Cambodia continued as a protectorate of France from 1863 to 1953, administered as part of the colony of French Indochina, though occupied by the Japanese empire from 1941 to 1945.[26] After King Norodom's death in 1904, France manipulated the choice of king and Sisowath, Norodom's brother, was placed on the throne. The throne became vacant in 1941 with the death of Monivong, Sisowath's son, and France passed over Monivong's son, Monireth, feeling he was too independently minded. Instead, Norodom Sihanouk, who was eighteen years old at the time, was enthroned. The French thought young Sihanouk would be easy to control.[26] They were wrong, however, and under the reign of King Norodom Sihanouk, Cambodia gained independence from France on November 9, 1953.[26]
Cambodia became a constitutional monarchy under King Norodom Sihanouk. When French Indochina was given independence, Cambodia lost official control over the Mekong Delta as it was awarded to Vietnam. The area had been controlled by the Vietnamese since 1698 with King Chey Chettha II granting Vietnamese permission to settle in the area decades before.[26]

Independence and Cold War

Independence Monument, or Vimean Ekareach, was built in 1958 in Phnom Penh to commemorate Cambodia's independence from French colonial rule.
In 1955, Sihanouk abdicated in favour of his father in order to be elected Prime Minister. Upon his father's death in 1960, Sihanouk again became head of state, taking the title of Prince. As the Vietnam War progressed, Sihanouk adopted an official policy of neutrality in the Cold War. However, Cambodians began to take sides, and he was ousted in 1970 by a military coup led by Prime Minister General Lon Nol and Prince Sisowath Sirik Matak with the back-up support of the United States, while on a trip abroad. Settling in the next alternative country, Beijing, China, Sihanouk was forced to realign himself with the Chinese communist. Soon the Khmer Rouge rebels would use him for gaining territory in the regions. The King urged his followers to help in overthrowing the pro-United States government of Lon Nol, hastening the onset of civil war.[27]
Between 1969 and 1973, Republic of Vietnam forces and U.S. forces bombed and briefly invaded Cambodia in an effort to disrupt the Viet Cong and Khmer Rouge.[28] Some two million Cambodians were made refugees by the war and fled to Phnom Penh. Estimates of the number of Cambodians killed during the bombing campaigns vary widely, as do views of the effects of the bombing. The US Seventh Air Force argued that the bombing prevented the fall of Phnom Penh in 1973 by killing 16,000 of 25,500 Khmer Rouge fighters besieging the city.[29] However, journalist William Shawcross and Cambodia specialists Milton Osborne, David P. Chandler and Ben Kiernan argued that the bombing drove peasants to join the Khmer Rouge.[30] Cambodia specialist Craig Etcheson argued that the Khmer Rouge "would have won anyway", even without US intervention driving recruitment although the US secretly played a major role behind the leading cause of the Khmer Rouge.[31]
As the war ended, a draft US AID report observed that the country faced famine in 1975, with 75% of its draft animals destroyed, and that rice planting for the next harvest would have to be done "by the hard labour of seriously malnourished people". The report predicted that
"Without large-scale external food and equipment assistance there will be widespread starvation between now and next February ... Slave labour and starvation rations for half the nation's people (probably heaviest among those who supported the republic) will be a cruel necessity for this year, and general deprivation and suffering will stretch over the next two or three years before Cambodia can get back to rice self-sufficiency".[32]
A stupa which houses the skulls of those killed at Choeung Ek
The Khmer Rouge reached Phnom Penh and took power in 1975. The regime, led by Pol Pot, changed the official name of the country to Democratic Kampuchea, and was heavily influenced and backed by China. They immediately evacuated the cities and sent the entire population on forced marches to rural work projects. They attempted to rebuild the country's agriculture on the model of the 11th century, discarded Western medicine, and destroyed temples, libraries, and anything considered Western. Over a million Cambodians, out of a total population of 8 million, died from executions, overwork, starvation and disease.[33]
Estimates as to how many people were killed by the Khmer Rouge regime range from approximately one to three million.[34][35] This era gave rise to the term Killing Fields, and the prison Tuol Sleng became notorious for its history of mass killing. Hundreds of thousands fled across the border into neighbouring Thailand. The regime disproportionately targeted ethnic minority groups. The Cham Muslims suffered serious purges with as much as half of their population exterminated.[36] In the late 1960s, an estimated 425,000 ethnic Chinese lived in Cambodia, but by 1984, as a result of Khmer Rouge genocide and emigration, only about 61,400 Chinese remained in the country.[37] The professions, such as doctors, lawyers, and teachers, were also targeted. According to Robert D. Kaplan, "eyeglasses were as deadly as the yellow star" as they were seen as a sign of intellectualism.[33]
In November 1978, Vietnam invaded Cambodia to stop Khmer Rouge incursions across the border and the genocide in Cambodia.[38] Violent occupation and warfare between the Vietnamese and Khmer Rouge holdouts continued throughout the 1980s. Peace efforts began in Paris in 1989, culminating two years later in October 1991 in a comprehensive peace settlement. The United Nations was given a mandate to enforce a ceasefire, and deal with refugees and disarmament.[39]

Reconstruction and constitutional monarchy

In recent years, reconstruction efforts have progressed and led to some political stability under the form of a multiparty democracy under a constitutional monarchy.[40]
The stability established following the conflict was shaken in 1997 by a coup d'état,[41] but has otherwise remained in place. Cambodia has been aided by a number of more developed nations like Japan, France, Germany, Canada, Australia, the United States and the United Kingdom.[citation needed]

Politics and government

The politics of Cambodia formally take place, according to the nation's constitution of 1993, in the framework of a constitutional monarchy operated as a parliamentary representative democracy. The Prime Minister of Cambodia is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system, while the king is the head of state.
The Prime Minister is appointed by the King, on the advice and with the approval of the National Assembly; the Prime Minister and his or her ministerial appointees exercise executive power in government. Legislative power is vested in both the executive and the two chambers of parliament, the National Assembly of Cambodia and the Senate.
On October 14, 2004, King Norodom Sihamoni was selected by a special nine-member throne council, part of a selection process that was quickly put in place after the surprise abdication of King Norodom Sihanouk a week before. Sihamoni's selection was endorsed by Prime Minister Hun Sen and National Assembly Speaker Prince Norodom Ranariddh (the king's half brother and current chief advisor), both members of the throne council. He was enthroned in Phnom Penh on October 29, 2004.

Armed forces

The Royal Cambodian Armed Forces consists of the Royal Cambodian Army, the Royal Cambodian Navy, and the Royal Cambodian Air Force. The king is the Supreme Commander of the Royal Cambodian Armed Forces (RCAF) and the country's prime minister effectively holds the position of commander-in-chief. The introduction of a revised command structure early in 2000 was a key prelude to the reorganisation of the RCAF. This saw the ministry of national defence form three subordinate general departments responsible for logistics and finance, materials and technical services, and defence services. The High Command Headquarters (HCHQ) was left unchanged, but the general staff was dismantled and the former will assume responsibility over three autonomous infantry divisions. A joint staff was also formed, responsible for inter-service co-ordination and staff management within HCHQ.
The minister of National Defence is General Tea Banh. Banh has served as defence minister since 1979. The Secretaries of State for Defence are Chay Saing Yun and Por Bun Sreu. In January 2009, General Ke Kim Yan was removed from his post as Commander-in-Chief of the RCAF and was replaced by his deputy, Gen. Pol Saroeun, the new Commander-in-Chief of the RCAF, who is a long time loyalist of Prime Minister Hun Sen. There were rumours that Prime Minister Hun Sen had plans to remove Ke Kim Yan from commander of RCAF because of an internal dispute in the CPP. Days later after the news broke out that Yan was being removed, members of the CPP Party said it was a regular reshuffle of the Kingdom's military leadership and that there are no internal problems within the CPP party. It is expected that Ke Kim Yan will be promoted to Deputy Prime Minister by Hun Sen and will be in charge of anti-drugs trafficking. The Army Commander is General Meas Sophea and the Army Chief of Staff is Chea Saran.
Cambodian island of Koh Tonsay (Rabbit Island)

Geography

Monsoon season in Kampong Speu Province
Cambodia has an area of 181,035 square kilometers (69,898 sq mi) and lies entirely within the tropics. It borders Thailand to the north and west, Laos to the northeast, and Vietnam to the east and southeast. It has a 443-kilometer (275 mi) coastline along the Gulf of Thailand.
The most distinctive geographical feature is the lacustrine plain, formed by the inundations of the Tonle Sap (Great Lake), measuring about 2,590 square kilometers (1,000 sq mi) during the dry season and expanding to about 24,605 square kilometers (9,500 sq mi) during the rainy season. This densely populated plain, which is devoted to wet rice cultivation, is the heartland of Cambodia. Much of this area has been designated as a biosphere reserve.
Most (about 75%) of the country lies at elevations of less than 100 metres (330 ft) above sea level, the exceptions being the Cardamom Mountains (highest elevation 1,813 m / 5,948 ft) and their southeast extension the Dâmrei Mountains ("Elephant Mountains") (elevation range 500–1,000 m or 1,640–3,280 ft), as well the steep escarpment of the Dângrêk Mountains (average elevation 500 m / 1,640 ft) along the border with Thailand's Isan region. The highest elevation of Cambodia is Phnom Aoral, near Pursat in the center of the country, at 1,813 meters (5,948 ft).

Climate

Phnom Penh
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
7
 
31
21
 
 
10
 
32
22
 
 
40
 
34
23
 
 
77
 
35
24
 
 
134
 
34
24
 
 
155
 
33
24
 
 
171
 
32
24
 
 
160
 
32
26
 
 
224
 
31
25
 
 
257
 
30
24
 
 
127
 
30
23
 
 
45
 
30
22
average max. and min. temperatures in °C
precipitation totals in mm
source: BBC Weather
Rainfall in Phnom Penh, 2007.
Cambodia's climate, like that of the rest of Southeast Asia is dominated by Monsoons, which are known as tropical wet and dry because of the distinctly marked seasonal differences.
Cambodia's temperatures range from 21° to 35°C (69° to 95°F) and experiences tropical monsoons. Southwest monsoons blow inland bringing moisture-laden winds from the Gulf of Thailand and Indian Ocean from May to October. The northeast monsoon ushers in the dry season, which lasts from November to March. The country experiences the heaviest precipitation from September to October with the driest period occurring from January to February.
Cambodia has two distinct seasons. The rainy season, which runs from May to October, can see temperatures drop to 22 °C and is generally accompanied with high humidity. The dry season lasts from November to April when temperatures can rise up to 40 °C around April. The best months to visit Cambodia are November to January when temperatures and humidity are lower. Disastrous flooding, due to extremely heavy rainfall, occurred in 2001 and again in 2002.

Administrative divisions

Capital (Reach Theani) and Provinces (Khaet) are Cambodia's First-level administrative divisions. Cambodian areas are divided into 23 provinces and the capital. Municipalities, Districts (Srok) and Khan are the second-level administrative divisions of Cambodia. The provinces are divided into 26 municipalities and 159 districts, and the capital is divided into 8 khan. The districts in turn are further divided into communes (khum) and sangkat. The municipalities and khan are divided into sangkat.

City and province sizes

Monivong Boulevard in Phnom Penh
A fishing boat in Koh Rung Samleom Island
Floating houses along the Sangker river, Cambodia
No. City or province Area
km²
1 Capital of Phnom Penh 290 112
2 Kandal Province 3,568 1,378
3 Takeo Province 3,563 1,376
4 Kampong Cham Province 9,799 3,783
5 Kampong Thom Province 13,814 5,334
6 Siem Reap Province 10,299 3,976
7 Preah Vihear Province 13,788 5,324
8 Oddar Meancheay Province 6,158 2,378
9 Banteay Meanchey Province 6,679 2,579
10 Battambang Province 11,072 4,275
11 Pailin Province 803 310
12 Pursat Province 12,692 4,900
13 Kampong Chhnang Province 5,521 2,132
14 Kampong Speu Province 7,017 2,709
15 Koh Kong Province 11,160 4,309
16 Sihanoukville Province 868 335
17 Kampot Province 4,873.2 1,881.6
18 Kep Province 335.8 129.7
19 Prey Veng Province 4,883 1,885
20 Svay Rieng Province 2,966 1,145
21 Kratie Province 11,094 4,283
22 Stung Treng Province 11,092 4,283
23 Ratanakiri Province 10,782 4,163
24 Mondulkiri Province 14,288 5,517
25 Tonlé Sap 3,000 1,158
TOTAL AREA 181,035 69,898
On 22 December 2008, King Norodom Sihamoni signed a Royal Decree that changed the municipalities of Kep, Pailin and Sihanoukville into provinces, as well as adjusting several provincial borders.[42]

Foreign relations

Cambodia's ambassador to Russia Khieu Thavika presents his letter of credentials to former President Vladimir Putin.
Cambodia is a member of the United Nations, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. It is an Asian Development Bank (ADB) member, a member of ASEAN, and joined the WTO on October 13, 2004. In 2005 Cambodia attended the inaugural East Asia Summit.
Cambodia has established diplomatic relations with numerous countries; the government reports twenty embassies in the country[43] including many of its Asian neighbours and those of important players during the Paris peace negotiations, including the US, Australia, Canada, China, the European Union (EU), Japan, and Russia.[44] As a result of its international relations, various charitable organizations have assisted with both social and civil infrastructure needs.
While the violent ruptures of the 1970s and 80s have passed, several border disputes between Cambodia and its neighbours persist. There are disagreements over some offshore islands and sections of the boundary with Vietnam, and undefined maritime boundaries and border areas with Thailand.
Preah Vihear temple is one of the main factors of the current Cambodia-Thai dispute
In January 2003, there were anti-Thai riots in Phnom Penh prompted by rumoured comments about Angkor Wat allegedly made by a Thai actress and printed in Reaksmei Angkor, a Cambodian newspaper, and later quoted by Prime Minister Hun Sen.[45] The Thai government sent military aircraft to evacuate Thai nationals and closed its border with Cambodia to Thais and Cambodians (at no time was the border ever closed to foreigners or Western tourists) while Thais demonstrated outside the Cambodian embassy in Bangkok. The border was re-opened on March 21, after the Cambodian government paid $6 million USD in compensation for the destruction of the Thai embassy and agreed to compensate individual Thai businesses for their losses. The "comments" that had sparked the riots turned out to have never been made. More problems came between Cambodia and Thailand in mid 2008 when Cambodia wanted to list Prasat Preah Vihear as a UNESCO World heritage site, which later resulted in a stand-off in which both countries deployed their soldiers near the border and around the disputed territory between the two countries. Conflict restarted in April 2009, where 2 Thai soldiers died as a result of a recent clash.[46]

Wildlife of Cambodia

The Indian Elephant is the main type of Asian elephant found in Cambodia
Cambodia has a wide variety of plants and animals. There are 212 mammal species, 536 bird species, 240 reptile species, 850 freshwater fish species (Tonle Sap Lake area), and 435 marine fish species. Much of this biodiversity is contained around the Tonle Sap Lake and the surrounding biosphere.[47] The Tonle Sap Biosphere Reserve is a unique ecological phenomenon surrounding the Tonle Sap. It encompasses the lake and nine provinces: Kampong Thom, Siem Reap, Battambang, Pursat, Kampong Chhnang, Banteay Meanchey, Krong Pailin, Otdar Meanchey and Preah Vihear. In 1997, it was successfully nominated as a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve.[48] Other key habitats include the dry forest of Mondolkiri and Ratanakiri provinces and the Cardamom Mountains ecosystem, including Bokor National Park, Botum-Sakor National Park, and the Phnom Aural and Phnom Samkos wildlife sanctuaries.
The country has experienced one of the highest deforestation rates in the world. Since 1970, Cambodia's primary rainforest cover has fallen from over 70 percent to just 3.1 percent in 2007. In total, Cambodia lost 25,000 square kilometres (9,700 sq mi) of forest between 1990 and 2005—3,340 km2 (1,290 sq mi) of which was primary forest. As of 2007, less than 3,220 km2 (1,243 sq mi) of primary forest remain with the result that the future sustainability of the forest reserves of Cambodia is under severe threat, with illegal loggers looking to generate revenue.[49]

Economy

The OCIC Tower in Phnom Penh is the tallest building in Cambodia.
Final economic indicators for 2007 are not yet available. 2006 GDP was $7.265 billion (per capita GDP $513), with annual growth of 10.8%. Estimates for 2007 are for a GDP of $8.251 billion (per capita $571) and annual growth of 8.5%. Inflation for 2006 was 2.6%, and the current estimate for final 2007 inflation is 6.2%.[50]
Rice cropping plays an important role in the economy.
Cambodia's per capita income is rapidly increasing, but is low compared with other countries in the region. Most rural households depend on agriculture and its related sub-sectors. Rice, fish, timber, garments and rubber are Cambodia's major exports. The International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) reintroduced more than 750 traditional rice varieties to Cambodia from its rice seed bank in the Philippines.[51] These varieties had been collected in the 1960s.
In 1987, the Australian government funded IRRI to assist Cambodia to improve its rice production. By 2000, Cambodia was once again self-sufficient in rice.[52] However, few Cambodian farmers grow other crops leaving them vulnerable to crop failure. In recent years, various international aid organisations have begun crop diversification programs to encourage farmers to grow other crops.
The recovery of Cambodia's economy slowed dramatically in 1997–98, because of the regional economic crisis, civil violence, and political infighting. Foreign investment and tourism also fell off drastically. Since then however, growth has been steady. In 1999, the first full year of peace in 30 years, progress was made on economic reforms and growth resumed at 5.0%.
Despite severe flooding, GDP grew at 5.0% in 2000, 6.3% in 2001, and 5.2% in 2002. Tourism was Cambodia's fastest growing industry, with arrivals increasing from 219,000 in 1997 to 1,055,000 in 2004. During 2003 and 2004 the growth rate remained steady at 5.0%, while in 2004 inflation was at 1.7% and exports at $1.6 billion USD. As of 2005, GDP per capita in PPP terms was $2,200, which ranked 178th (out of 233) countries.[53]
Prasat Angkor Wat, the biggest tourist draw of Cambodia
The older population often lacks education, particularly in the countryside, which suffers from a lack of basic infrastructure. Fear of renewed political instability and corruption within the government discourage foreign investment and delay foreign aid, although there has been significant assistance from bilateral and multilateral donors. Donors pledged $504 million to the country in 2004,[54] while the Asian Development Bank alone has provided $850 million in loans, grants, and technical assistance.[55]
The tourism industry is the country's second-greatest source of hard currency after the textile industry.[39] Between January and December 2007, visitor arrivals were 2.0 million, an increase of 18.5% over the same period in 2006. Most visitors (51%) arrived through Siem Reap with the remainder (49%) through Phnom Penh and other destinations.[56] Other tourist destinations include Sihanoukville in the south east which has several popular beaches, and the area around Kampot and Kep including the Bokor Hill Station.

Demographics

Cham Muslims of Cambodia
90% of its population is of Khmer origin and speaks the Khmer language, the country's official language. The remainder include Chinese, Vietnamese, Cham and Khmer Loeu.[57]
The Khmer language is a member of the Mon-Khmer subfamily of the Austroasiatic language group. French, once the language of government in Indochina, is still spoken by some older Cambodians. French is also the language of instruction in some schools and universities that are funded by the government of France. Cambodian French, a remnant of the country's colonial past, is a dialect found in Cambodia and is sometimes used in government.
However, in recent decades, many younger Cambodians and those in the business-class have favoured learning English. In the major cities and tourist centers, English is widely spoken and taught at a large number of schools because of the overwhelming number of tourists from English-speaking countries. Even in the most rural outposts, most young people speak at least some English, as it is often taught by monks at the local pagodas where many children are educated.
Local women at a market in Battambang
Cambodia religiosity
religion percent
Buddhism
  
95%
Islam
  
3%
Christianity
  
2%
The dominant religion, a form of Theravada Buddhism (95%), was suppressed by the Khmer Rouge but has since experienced a revival. Islam (3%) and Christianity (2%) are also practiced.[58]
The civil war and its aftermath have had a marked effect on the Cambodian population. 50% of the population is younger than 22. At 0.96 males/female, Cambodia has the most female-biased sex ratio in the Greater Mekong Subregion.[59] In the Cambodian population over 65, the female to male ratio is 1.6:1.[54]
UNICEF has designated Cambodia the third most landmined country in the world,[60] attributing over 60,000 civilian deaths and thousands more maimed or injured since 1970 to the unexploded land mines left behind in rural areas.[61] The majority of the victims are children herding animals or playing in the fields.[60]
Adults that survive landmines often require amputation of one or more limbs and have to resort to begging for survival.[61] In 2006, the number of landmine casualties in Cambodia took a sharp decrease of more than 50% compared to 2005, with the number of landmine victims down from 800 in 2005 to less than 400 in 2006. The reduced casualty rate continued in 2007, with 208 casualties (38 killed and 170 injured).[62]

Health

Cambodia's infant mortality rate has decreased from 115 in 1993 to 89.4 per 1000 live births in 1998. In the same period, the under-five mortality rate decreased from 181 to 115 per 1000 live births.[63] In the province with worst health indicators, Ratanakiri, 22.9% of children die before the age of five.[64]

Culture and society

Buddhist art at Phnom Santuk, Kompong Thom.
Various factors contribute to Cambodian culture including Theravada Buddhism, French Colonialism, Hinduism, Angkor era culture, and modern globalization. The Cambodian Ministry of Culture and Fine Arts is responsible for promoting and developing Cambodian culture. Cambodian culture not only includes the culture of the lowland ethnic majority, the Khmer, but of also some 20 culturally distinct hill tribes colloquially known as the Khmer Loeu, a term coined by Norodom Sihanouk to generate unity between the highlanders and lowlanders.
Rural Cambodians wear a krama scarf which is a unique aspect of Cambodian clothing. Khmer culture, as developed and spread by the Khmer empire, has distinctive styles of dance, architecture and sculpture, which have been exchanged with neighbouring Laos and Thailand through the history. Angkor Wat (Angkor means "city" and Wat "temple") is the best preserved example of Khmer architecture from the Angkorian era and hundreds of other temples have been discovered in and around the region.
Traditionally, the Khmer people have a unique method of recording information on Tra leaf. Tra leaf books record information on legends of the Khmer people, the Ramayana, the origin of Buddhism and other prayer book series. They are greatly taken care of and wrapped in cloth as to protect from moisture and the jungle climate.[65]
Bonn Om Teuk (Festival of Boat Racing), the annual boat rowing contest, is the most attended Cambodian national festival. Held at the end of the rainy season when the Mekong river begins to sink back to its normal levels allowing the Tonle Sap River to reverse flow, approximately 10% of Cambodia's population attends this event each year to play games, give thanks to the moon, watch fireworks, and attend the boat race in a carnival-type atmosphere.[66] Popular games include cockfighting, soccer, and kicking a sey, which is similar to a footbag. Based on Theravada Buddhism, the Cambodian New Year is a major holiday that takes place in April. Recent artistic figures include singers Sinn Sisamouth and Ros Sereysothea (and later Meng Keo Pichenda), who introduced new musical styles to the country.
Phnom Penh Style Noodle Soup (Ka Tieu Phnom Penh)
Rice, as in other Southeast Asian countries, is the staple grain, while fish from the Mekong and Tonle Sap also form an important part of the diet. The Cambodian per capita supply of fish and fish products for food and trade in 2000 was 20 kilograms of fish per year or 2 ounces per day per person.[67] Some of the fish can be made into prahok for longer storage. The cuisine of Cambodia contains tropical fruits, soups and noodles. Key ingredients in Cambodian cuisine are kaffir lime, lemon grass, garlic, fish sauce, soy sauce, curry, tamarind, ginger, oyster sauce, coconut milk and black pepper.
An example of French influence on Cambodian cuisine, is Cambodian red curry with toasted baguette bread. The toasted baguette pieces are dipped in the curry and eaten. Cambodian red curry is also eaten with rice and rice vermicelli noodles. Probably the most popular dine out dish, ka tieu, is a pork broth rice noodle soup with fried garlic, scallions, green onions that may also contain various toppings such as beef balls, shrimp, pork liver or lettuce. The cuisine is relatively unknown to the world compared to that of its neighbours Thailand and Vietnam.
Football is one of the more popular sports, although professional organized sports are not as prevalent in Cambodia as in western countries because of the economic conditions. Football was brought to Cambodia by the French and became popular with the locals.[68] The Cambodia national football team managed fourth in the 1972 Asian Cup but development has slowed since the civil war. Western sports such as volleyball, bodybuilding, field hockey, rugby union, golf, and baseball are gaining popularity. Native sports include traditional boat racing, buffalo racing, Pradal Serey, Khmer traditional wrestling and Bokator. Cambodia first participated in the Olympics during the 1956 Summer Olympic Games sending Equestrian riders. Cambodia also hosted the GANEFO Games, the alternative to the Olympics, in the 1960s.

Transport

The civil war and neglect severely damaged Cambodia's transport system, but with assistance and equipment from other countries Cambodia has been upgrading the main highways to international standards and most are vastly improved from 2006. Most main roads are now paved.
Cambodia has two rail lines, totalling about 612 kilometers (380 mi) of single, one meter gauge track.[69] The lines run from the capital to Sihanoukville on the southern coast, and from Phnom Penh to Sisophon (although trains often run only as far as Battambang). Currently only one passenger train per week operates, between Phnom Penh and Battambang.
Besides the main interprovincial traffic artery connecting the capital Phnom Penh with Sihanoukville, resurfacing a former dirt road with concrete / asphalt and implementation of 5 major river crossings by means of bridges have now permanently connected Phnom Penh with Koh Kong and hence there is now uninterrupted road access to neighboring Thailand and their vast road system.
The nation's extensive inland waterways were important historically in international trade. The Mekong and the Tonle Sap River, their numerous tributaries, and the Tonle Sap provided avenues of considerable length, including 3,700 kilometers (2,300 mi) navigable all year by craft drawing 0.6 meters (2 ft) and another 282 kilometers (175 mi) navigable to craft drawing 1.8 meters (6 ft).
National Highway 4
[69] Cambodia has two major ports, Phnom Penh and Sihanoukville, and five minor ones. Phnom Penh, located at the junction of the Bassac, the Mekong, and the Tonle Sap rivers, is the only river port capable of receiving 8,000-ton ships during the wet season and 5,000-ton ships during the dry season. With increasing economic activity has come an increase in automobile and motorcycle use, though bicycles still predominate.[70] Cycle rickshaws are an additional option often used by visitors.
The country has four commercial airports. .Phnom Penh International Airport (Pochentong) in Phnom Penh is the second largest in Cambodia.^ Phnom Penh International Airport .
  • Cambodia Visa, Apply Cambodia Visa Online, Cambodia e-Visa - Official Site 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mfaic.gov.kh [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Siem Reap-Angkor International Airport is the largest and serves the most international flights in and out of Cambodia. The other airports are in Sihanoukville and Battambang.

International rankings

(as in 2009)
Organization Index Rank Score
Institute for Economics and Peace Global Peace Index 105 out of 144[71] 2.179[71]
Heritage Foundation Index of Economic Freedom 106 out of 179[citation needed] 56.6[citation needed]
Reporters Without Borders Worldwide Press Freedom Index 117 out of 175[citation needed] 34.25[citation needed]
Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 166 out of 180[citation needed] 1.8[citation needed]
United Nations Development Programme Human Development Index 137 out of 182[citation needed] 0.593[citation needed]
World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report 110 out of 133[citation needed] 3.51[citation needed]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division (2009) (PDF). World Population Prospects, Table A.1. 2008 revision. United Nations. http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/wpp2008/wpp2008_text_tables.pdf. Retrieved 2009-03-12. 
  2. ^ a b c d "Cambodia". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2006&ey=2009&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=522&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=57&pr.y=20. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  3. ^ "Human Development Report 2009. Human development index trends: Table G". The United Nations. http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2009_EN_Complete.pdf. Retrieved 2009-10-05. 
  4. ^ "General Population Census of Cambodia 2008 – Provisional population totals" (PDF). National Institute of Statistics, Ministry of Planning. September 3, 2008. http://www.stat.go.jp/english/info/meetings/cambodia/pdf/pre_rep1.pdf. Retrieved 2009-06-22. 
  5. ^ "Microsoft Word - Full report FINAL FOR CONSULTATION.doc" (PDF). http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTCAMBODIA/Resources/293755-1181597132695/kh_growth_report2009part1.pdf. Retrieved 2009-08-11. 
  6. ^ Elizabeth Sanchez-Lacson (May 30, 2008). "San Miguel eyes projects in Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar". Philippine Daily Inquirer. http://business.inquirer.net/money/breakingnews/view/20080530-139652/San-Miguel-eyes-projects-in-Laos-Cambodia-Myanmar. Retrieved 2009-03-03. 
  7. ^ Ek Madra (January 19, 2007). "Cambodia hopes to start oil production in 2009". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/companyNewsAndPR/idUSBKK30404620070119. Retrieved 2009-03-06. 
  8. ^ "Cambodia's oil resources: Blessing or curse?". Economist. February 26, 2009. http://www.economist.com/world/asia/displaystory.cfm?story_id=13184945. Retrieved 2009-03-03. 
  9. ^ Casey, Robert. Four Faces of Siva. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1934, p 88-100.
  10. ^ a b c Miriam Stark (2005). "Pre-Angkorian and Angkorian Cambodia". in Glover, Ian; Bellwood, Peter S.. Southeast Asia: from prehistory to history. Routledge. ISBN 978-0415391177. 
  11. ^ Tranet, Michel (2009-10-20). "The Second Prehistoric Archaeological Excavation in Laang Spean (2009)". http://www.smartcambodia.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=841%3Athe-second-prehistoric-archaeological-excavation-in-laang-spean-2009&catid=80&lang=en. Retrieved 2009-11-17. 
  12. ^ "The Oldest Ceramic in Cambodia's Laang Spean (1966–68)". 2009-10-20. http://www.smartcambodia.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=840%3Athe-oldest-ceramic-in-cambodias-laang-spean-1966-68&catid=80&lang=en. Retrieved 2009-11-17. 
  13. ^ Charles Higham (1989). The Archaeology of Mainland Southeast Asia. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521275255. , p.120
  14. ^ Dougald J.W. O'Reilly; Angela von den Driesch; Vuthy Voeun (2006). Archaeology and Archaeozoology of Phum Snay: A Late Prehistoric Cemetery in Northwestern Cambodia. 45. ISSN 0066-8435. 
  15. ^ "Research History". Memot Centre for Archaeology. http://memotcentre.org/Earthwork.html. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  16. ^ Gerd Albrecht et al. (2000). "Circular Earthwork Krek 52/62 Recent Research on the Prehistory of Cambodia". Asian Perspectives 39 (1–2). ISSN 0066-8435. http://muse.jhu.edu/demo/asian_perspectives/v039/39.1albrecht.pdf. Retrieved 2009-11-15. 
  17. ^ a b Charles Higham. The civilization of Angkor. Phoenix. ISBN 978-1842125847. http://books.google.com/books?id=_oZ52cuX8s4C. , pp.13–22
  18. ^ Country-Studies.com. Country Studies Handbook; information taken from US Dept of the Army. Retrieved July 25, 2006.
  19. ^ Britannica.com. History of Cambodia.. Retrieved July 25, 2006.
  20. ^ Khmer Empire Map
  21. ^ "Windows on Asia". Archived from the original on 2007-05-21. http://web.archive.org/web/20070521010839/http://asia.msu.edu/seasia/Cambodia/religion.html. 
  22. ^ Metropolis: Angkor, the world's first mega-city, The Independent, August 15, 2007
  23. ^ Chandler, David P. "The Land and the People of Cambodia". 1991. HarperCollins. New York, New York. p 77
  24. ^ Scientists dig and fly over Angkor in search of answers to golden city's fall, The Associated Press, June 13, 2004
  25. ^ Chandler, D.P. (1993). A history of Cambodia (2nd ed.). Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. 
  26. ^ a b c d Kamm, Henry (1998). Cambodia: report from a stricken land. New York: Arcade Publishing. p. 27. ISBN 1559704330. http://books.google.com/books?id=wtBkD5CoIMkC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Cambodia+Report+from+a+Stricken+Land#v=onepage&q=&f=false. 
  27. ^ Sihanouk, Norodom (1973). My War with the CIA, The Memoirs of Prince Norodom Sihanouk as related to Wilfred Burchett. Pantheon Books. 
  28. ^ Shawcross, William (1987). Sideshow: Kissinger, Nixon and the destruction of Cambodia. United States: Touchstone. 
  29. ^ Shawcross, Sideshow p. 298.
  30. ^ e.g. Chandler, David P. Pacific Affairs, vol. 56, no. 2, Summer 1983, p. 295.
  31. ^ Etcheson, Craig, The Rise and Demise of Democratic Kampuchea, Westview Press, 1984, p. 97
  32. ^ Shawcross, Sideshow pp. 374–375.
  33. ^ a b Kaplan, Robert D., The Ends of the Earth, Vintage, 1996, p. 406.
  34. ^ Shawcross, William, The Quality of Mercy: Cambodia, Holocaust and Modern Conscience, Touchstone, 1985, pp. 115–116.
  35. ^ Vickery, Michael, Correspondence, Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars, vol. 20, no. 1, January–March 1988, p. 73.
  36. ^ The Cambodian Genocide and International Law, By Dr. Gregory H. Stanton, Presented February 22, 1992 at Yale Law School
  37. ^ Cambodia the Chinese. Country Studies.
  38. ^ CambodianGenocide.org.A Brief History of the Cambodian Genocide.. Retrieved July 25, 2006.
  39. ^ a b US Department of State. Country Profile of Cambodia.. Retrieved July 26, 2006.
  40. ^ CIA – The World Factbook. Cambodia.. Retrieved September 13, 2009.
  41. ^ UN OHCHR Cambodia [1]PDF (10.3 KB)
  42. ^ Vong Sokheng (31 December 2008). "Decree creates three new provinces". The Phnom Penh Post: p. 3. "King Norodom Sihamoni signed a royal decree on December 22 that would change the municipalities of Kep, Sihanoukville and Pailin into provinces and re-demarcate the boundaries between the provinces of Battambang and Pursat, and Sihanoukville and Koh Kong." 
  43. ^ Royal Government of Cambodia."Foreign Embassies". Archived from the original on 2007-02-12. http://web.archive.org/web/20070212040416/http://www.cambodia.gov.kh/unisql1/egov/english/country.foreign_embassy.html. .
  44. ^ Catharin E. Dalpino and David G. Timberman. ""Cambodia's Political Future: Issues for U.S. Policy". Archived from the original on 2005-10-28. http://web.archive.org/web/20051028015243/http://www.asiasociety.org/publications/cambodia_policy.html. ", Asia Society, March 26, 1998.
  45. ^ Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs of the US Department of State.Report to the Congress on the Anti-Thai Riots in Cambodia on January 29, 2003.
  46. ^ Cambodia, Thai troops on alert.Straits Times.
  47. ^ Tonle Sap Biosphere Reserve: perspective 2000, Mekong River Commission (MRC), Mar 1 2003. Retrieved from TSBR website, 29/12/2008 [2]
  48. ^ Complete list of biosphere reserves in pdf, Publication Date: 03-11-2008, retrieved from UNESCO website, 29/12/2008 [3]
  49. ^ Planet Ark : Logging threatens Cambodian tragedy – UN
  50. ^ Economic Institute of Cambodia.
  51. ^ Jahn 2006,2007
  52. ^ Puckridge 2004, Fredenburg and Hill 1978
  53. ^ CIA Factbook. GDP per Capita rankings. Retrieved July 24, 2006.
  54. ^ a b CIA FactBook.. Retrieved September 9, 2006.
  55. ^ A Fact Sheet: Cambodia and ADB, Asian Development Bank. Retrieved September 9, 2006.
  56. ^ Ministry of Tourism. . Retrieved December 29, 2008.
  57. ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/cb.html
  58. ^ Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labour of the US Department of State. International Religious Freedom Report 2005.. Retrieved July 24, 2006.
  59. ^ CIA World Factbook
  60. ^ a b UNICEF. "The Legacy of Landmines". Retrieved July 25, 2006.
  61. ^ a b PBS.org (July 25, 2003). Cambodia Land Mines.. Retrieved July 24, 2006.
  62. ^ Cambodia, Landmine Monitor Report 2007
  63. ^ "WHO country cooperation strategy" (PDF). World Health Organization. April 2001. http://www.who.int/countryfocus/cooperation_strategy/ccs_khm_en.pdf. Retrieved 2009-06-22. 
  64. ^ "National Child Mortality and Malnutrition (Food Insecurity Outcome) Maps". United Nations World Food Programme. Retrieved 2008-05-04.
  65. ^ VietNam Net, http://english.vietnamnet.vn/travel/2008/09/805123/; accessed January 31, 2009
  66. ^ "Government of Cambodia Webpage, Bonn Om Touk, the Water and Moon Festivals; accessed July 24, 2006". Archived from the original on 2007-10-11. http://web.archive.org/web/20071011210454/http://cambodia.gov.kh/unisql1/egov/english/news.view.html?doc_oid=@140%7c1%7c1. 
  67. ^ Earthtrends.org Cambodia Country ProfilePDF
  68. ^ AFF- The official site of the ASEAN Football Federation. Retrieved February 20, 2009.
  69. ^ a b CountryData.com
  70. ^ "Picking Up Speed: As Cambodia's Traffic Levels Increase, So Too Does the Road Death Toll", The Cambodia Daily, Saturday, March 9–10, 2002."
  71. ^ a b "Global Peace Index Rankings". Vision of Humanity. http://www.visionofhumanity.org/gpi/results/rankings.php. Retrieved February 9, 2010. 

External links

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Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Asia : Southeast Asia : Cambodia
noframe
Location
noframe
Flag
Image:cb-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital Phnom Penh
Government multiparty democracy under a constitutional monarchy established in September 1993
Currency Riel (KHR)
Area 181,040 km2
Population 13,995,904 (July 2007 est.)
Language Khmer (official) 95%, French, English,Thai
Religion Theravada Buddhist 95%, other 5%
Electricity 230V/50 Hz; both British and European plugs are common
Calling Code 855
Internet TLD .kh
Time Zone UTC +7
.The Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា ឬ ប្រទេសកម្ពុជា) [1] (sometimes transliterated as Kampuchea to more closely represent the Khmer pronunciation) is a Southeast Asian nation bordered by Vietnam to the east, Laos to the north, Thailand to the northwest, and the Gulf of Thailand to the southwest.^ Cambodia borders Thailand, Laos, and Vietnam in the southeastern part of Asia.
  • EthnoMed: Cambodian Cultural Profile 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC ethnomed.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A product from north east province of Cambodia .
  • Cambodians cheer World Heritage nod for temple | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]
  • Cambodians pray for peace in temple standoff | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]

^ Cambodia, Thailand border row escalates .
  • Cambodia: News & Videos about Cambodia - CNN.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: News]

Understand

.Cambodia has had a pretty bad run of luck for the last half-millennium or so.^ Cambodia has seen imperial rule and for nearly half a millennium.
  • Cambodia Overview, History of Cambodia, Cambodia Geography, Cambodia Travel Guide 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Ever since the fall of Angkor in 1431, the once mighty Khmer Empire has been plundered by all its neighbors, plus colonial France as well.^ Since the fall of Angkor in 1431, the powerful Khmer Empire has been looted and plundered by its neighboring countries and faced imperial rule under France.
  • Cambodia Overview, History of Cambodia, Cambodia Geography, Cambodia Travel Guide 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Forces of the Thai kingdom of Ayudhya sacked Angkor in 1431, leaving the Khmers plagued by dynastic rivalries and continual warfare with the Thais for a century and a half.

^ The Angkor period of Cambodian history lasted approximately from AD 802 to AD 1431 and represents the greatest period of Khmer architectural, artistic and cultural achievement.
  • Cambodia Adventure Holidays | Cycling to Angkor Wat | Cambodia & South East Asia tours 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.worldexpeditions.com [Source type: News]

.After a false dawn of independence in 1953, Cambodia promptly plunged back into the horrors of civil war in 1970 to suffer the Khmer Rouge's incredibly brutal reign of terror, and only after UN-sponsored elections in 1993 did the country begin to totter back onto its feet.^ In 1953, Cambodia achieved independence from France.
  • Cambodia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cambodia was now plunged into civil war, with increasing savagery on both sides.
  • President Richard NIxon, Henry Kissinger, and the Bombing of Cambodia excerpted from the book Lying for Empire How to Commit War Crimes With A Straight Face by David Model Common Courage Press, 2005, paper 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.thirdworldtraveler.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However Cambodia achieved a semblance of peace and stability after the Un sponsored elections in 1993.
  • Cambodia Overview, History of Cambodia, Cambodia Geography, Cambodia Travel Guide 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Much of the population still subsists on less than US$1 a day, the provision of even basic services remains spotty, and political intrigue remains as complex and opaque as ever; but the security situation has improved immeasurably, and increasing numbers of visitors are rediscovering Cambodia's temples and beaches.^ With nearly 80% of the population surviving on less than $2 per day whilst a small elite enjoys a business boom in the capital city, Cambodia has become one of Asia's most unequal countries, especially between its rural and urban communities.
  • OneWorld Cambodia Guide 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC uk.oneworld.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cambodia has recently re-established it self on the tourism map and is now known for its idyllic beaches and exotic temples.
  • Cambodia Overview, History of Cambodia, Cambodia Geography, Cambodia Travel Guide 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, women have much less access than men to the highest positions of political and economic power.
  • Culture of Cambodia - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, wedding, population, religion, rituals 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Siem Reap, the gateway to Angkor, now sports luxury hotels, chic nightspots, ATMs, and an airport fielding flights from all over the region, while Sihanoukville is getting good press as an up-and-coming beach destination.^ Siem Reap-Angkor International Airport (REP) has about the same number of flights to the same destinations.
  • Cambodia - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This was a good representation of what were to see in Siem Reap.

^ Cambodia - Phnom Penh - Siem Reap - Sihanoukville View hotels in Cambodia Cambodia Overview The kingdom of Cambodia (also know as Kampuchea) is a Southeast Asian Nation flanked by Vietnam in the east, Laos in the North and the Gulf of Thailand to its Southwest.
  • Cambodia Overview, History of Cambodia, Cambodia Geography, Cambodia Travel Guide 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However travel beyond the most popular tourist destinations is still an adventure.^ Without doubt the ancient Khmer temples of Angkor Wat , located near Siem Reap, is the most important tourist destination in Cambodia.
  • Cambodia Adventure Holidays | Cycling to Angkor Wat | Cambodia & South East Asia tours 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.worldexpeditions.com [Source type: News]

^ Overview Culture Popular Destinations Tourist Attractions Festivals And Events What & Where To Eat Things To Do How To Get In Useful Information Phnom Penh Siem Reap Sihanoukville .
  • Cambodia Hotels, Cheap Hotel in Cambodia, Hotels in Cambodia, Discount Hotel Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

History

.It is important to remember that Cambodian history did not begin with the Khmer Rouge.^ The Khmer ( Cambodian ) kites history .
  • Cambodians cheer World Heritage nod for temple | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]
  • Cambodians pray for peace in temple standoff | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]

^ In the months following the election, a government-sponsored amnesty secured the first defections from Khmer ranks, with more defections occurring from 1994 when the Khmer Rouge was finally outlawed by the Cambodian government.

^ The Angkor period of Cambodian history lasted approximately from AD 802 to AD 1431 and represents the greatest period of Khmer architectural, artistic and cultural achievement.
  • Cambodia Adventure Holidays | Cycling to Angkor Wat | Cambodia & South East Asia tours 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.worldexpeditions.com [Source type: News]

.Pol Pot's incredibly harsh regime has garnered most attention, but the Cambodians enjoy a long and often triumphant history.^ Mine contamination occurred after Vietnam invaded Cambodia in 1978, ousting Pol Pot’s Khmer Rouge regime and driving its forces to the Thai-Cambodian border.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This new regime was headed by Pol Pot and they began to systematically eliminate the Cambodian population in a reign of terror lasting from 1975 to 1979.
  • EthnoMed: Cambodian Cultural Profile 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC ethnomed.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We thought a sign at the Killing Fields represented the Cambodian view of what Pol Pot had done: "They wanted to transform ....

.Anybody who witnesses the magnificence of the temples at Ankor will be able to see that the Khmer Empire was once wealthy, and a major force in the region.^ The most important cultural symbol is the ancient Khmer temple Angkor Wat, along with the ancient Khmer Empire and its monumental antiquities.
  • Culture of Cambodia - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, wedding, population, religion, rituals 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The population of the empire included Siamese and probably other Austroasiatic peoples who gradually assimilated to the Khmer.
  • Culture of Cambodia - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, wedding, population, religion, rituals 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A large portion of the Khmer Rouge's military forces eluded Vietnamese troops and established themselves in remote regions.

Its zenith came under Jayavarman VII (1181-ca. 1218), where the Empire made significant territorial gains from the Vietnamese and Cham.
.The period following the demise of the Khmer Empire has been described as Cambodia's dark ages.^ The rise of Siam (now Thailand) as an empire and nation and the gradual expansion of Vietnam drastically decreased Khmer territory and led to a period when Cambodia was dominated by those kingdoms.
  • Culture of Cambodia - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, wedding, population, religion, rituals 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ T. D. Allman, one of the most knowledgeable and enterprising of the American correspondents now in Cambodia, describes the situation as follows: .
  • Cambodia, by Noam Chomsky 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.chomsky.info [Source type: Original source]

^ With the rise of the Khmer Empire , Cambodia became dominant in SE Asia.
  • Cambodia News - Breaking World Cambodia News - The New York Times 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.French colonial expansion in the area known then as Indochina included coming to dominate Cambodia as a protectorate under French political control.^ The French reestablished control over Cambodia in late 1945 but a new spirit of independence posed a challenge to the French.
  • President Richard NIxon, Henry Kissinger, and the Bombing of Cambodia excerpted from the book Lying for Empire How to Commit War Crimes With A Straight Face by David Model Common Courage Press, 2005, paper 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.thirdworldtraveler.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Most of this area has long been under Pathet Lao control.
  • Cambodia, by Noam Chomsky 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.chomsky.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Many Vietnamese were brought to Cambodia (as to Laos) by the French to work in rubber plantations (in Laos, in the mines), but also to serve as administrators for the colonial government and private businesses.
  • Cambodia, by Noam Chomsky 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.chomsky.info [Source type: Original source]

.However, the French were always more concerned with their possessions in Vietnam.^ The French were preoccupied with their war in Vietnam, a more valuable colony than Cambodia.
  • President Richard NIxon, Henry Kissinger, and the Bombing of Cambodia excerpted from the book Lying for Empire How to Commit War Crimes With A Straight Face by David Model Common Courage Press, 2005, paper 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.thirdworldtraveler.com [Source type: Original source]

Education of Cambodians was neglected for all but the established Elite. It was from this elite that many "Red Khmers" would emerge. .Japan's hold on Southeast Asia during the Second world War undermined French prestige and following the Allied victory Prince Sihanouk soon declared independence.^ Once known as the Pearl of Asia, Cambodias capital lost some of its shine during the Vietnam War under the rule of the Khmer Rouge.

^ A nationalist movement began to grow in the 1930s, which became particularly fervent during World War II. Shortly after the war, a young King Sihanouk successfully campaigned for complete independence from Cambodia, and France gave up power in 1953.
  • Cambodia - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although Prince [Norodom] Sihanouk owed his crown to the French, he was well aware of the growing demand for independence and decided to pursue the route of negotiation rather than armed conflict.
  • President Richard NIxon, Henry Kissinger, and the Bombing of Cambodia excerpted from the book Lying for Empire How to Commit War Crimes With A Straight Face by David Model Common Courage Press, 2005, paper 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.thirdworldtraveler.com [Source type: Original source]

This was a relatively peaceful transition; France was too absorbed with its struggle in Vietnam, which it saw as more important to its conception of L'Indochine Francaise.
.Prince Sihanouk was the main power figure in the country after this.^ Lon Nol deposed Prince Sihanouk and assumed power.

^ Then they might well announce the return of Prince Sihanouk to one of these zonesarmed with a powerful radio transmitter.
  • Cambodia, by Noam Chomsky 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.chomsky.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Sihanouk was removed from power in a bloodless coup by Cambodian General Lon Nol in 1970 while Sihanouk was traveling outside the country.
  • AllGov - Nations - Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.allgov.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He was noted for making very strange movies in which he starred, wrote and directed.^ The trees and roots of Ta Phrom are still very much a part of the scene and make for a magical experience that seems like something out of a movie.

His rule was characterized at this point with a Buddhist revival and an emphasis on education. This was a mixed blessing however. .He succeeded in making an educated elite who became increasingly disenchanted with the lack of jobs available.^ This can be seen with Cambodian parents in Lowell, Massachusetts, who enroll their children in an all English school system, even though bilingual education is available to them.

.As the economic situation in Cambodia deteriorated, many of these young people were attracted to the Indochinese Communist Party, and later the Khmer Rouge.^ A bombing campaign in Cambodia by U.S. warplanes alienated much of the population, enabling the communist Khmer Rouge under Pol Pot to seize power in 1975.
  • Cambodia -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This very popular festival attracts many people to watch the longboat races on the Tonle Sap in Phnom Penh, fireworks and a lighted flotilla of boats.

^ A somber reminder of the recent reign of the Khmer Rouge can be experienced with a visit to the Cambodia Landmine Museum, a cause dear to the heart of the late Princess Diana.

.As the Second Indochina War spread to Cambodia's border (an important part of the "Ho Chi Minh trail"), the USA became increasingly concerned with events in the country.^ Cambodia became part of the Union of Indochina in 1887.
  • Cambodia News - Breaking World Cambodia News - The New York Times 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cambodia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1887 Cambodia became part of the Union of Indochina .
  • Cambodia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PAVN regiments and battalions that had passed through Cambodia on their way down the Ho Chi Minh Trail, with dates and strengths.
  • Moïse's Bibliography: Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.clemson.edu [Source type: Academic]

.While traveling to Moscow and Beinjing, Sihanouk was overthrown by Lon Nol and other generals who were looked upon favorably by the United States.^ Since the law in the United States does not permit the body to be kept at home, some rituals are skipped while many others are either done at the temple or at home while the body is at the funeral home.
  • EthnoMed: Cambodian Cultural Profile 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC ethnomed.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Determined to return to power, Sihanouk courted China and garnered its support to help the Khmer Rouge in its fight against the government of Lon Nol, which received military support from the United States.
  • AllGov - Nations - Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.allgov.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Do the 'Columbia Eagle' and the 'Caribou' planes that are flying an entire arsenal of weapons for Lon Nol and Sirik Matak and their mercenaries come from General Giap?
  • Cambodia, by Noam Chomsky 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.chomsky.info [Source type: Original source]

.Sihanouk then put his support behind the Khmer Rouge.^ Prince Sihanouk, who had been imprisoned in his palace by the Khmer Rouge, again fled to Beijing.
  • Cambodia News - Breaking World Cambodia News - The New York Times 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cambodia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sihanouk's press began to speak of Viet Cong support for the small local guerrilla groups, the so-called "Red Khmer" or "Khmer Viet Minh."
  • Cambodia, by Noam Chomsky 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.chomsky.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Determined to return to power, Sihanouk courted China and garnered its support to help the Khmer Rouge in its fight against the government of Lon Nol, which received military support from the United States.
  • AllGov - Nations - Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.allgov.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This change influenced many to follow suit; he was after all considered a Boddhisatva. .Meanwhile the Khmer Rouge followed the Vietnamese example and began to engender themselves to the rural poor.^ Khmer Rouge by Vietnamese forces in 1979.
  • Cambodia News: - Khmer News - ពត៌មាន/ព្រឹតិ្តការណ៍ថ្មីៗ - Cambodian Information Center 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.cambodia.org [Source type: News]
  • VOA News - Cambodian News 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voanews.com [Source type: News]

^ In the months following the election, a government-sponsored amnesty secured the first defections from Khmer ranks, with more defections occurring from 1994 when the Khmer Rouge was finally outlawed by the Cambodian government.

^ Khmer Rouge troops held out on Bokor for weeks after Vietnamese forces swept past them to take the bulk of southeastern Cambodia and the capital.
  • Cambodia Travel Tips 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.garella.com [Source type: General]

.Following a five-year struggle, Communist Khmer Rouge forces captured Phnom Penh in 1975 and ordered the evacuation of all cities and towns.^ Later, he was in Phnom Penh when the Khmer Rouge arrived in 1975.
  • Moïse's Bibliography: Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.clemson.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Phnom Penh is the capital and largest city.
  • Cambodia News - Breaking World Cambodia News - The New York Times 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cambodia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After five more years of bitter fighting, the Khmer Rouge forces closed in on Phnom Penh .

.Over 1 million people (and possibly many more) died from execution or enforced hardships.^ In 1996, for example, more than 50 people, and in 1998 more than 44 people, died from consuming the poisonous wine.
  • EthnoMed: Cambodian Cultural Profile 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC ethnomed.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ MRE in Cambodia has reached more than four million people since 1993.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The hardship after the war caused many people to seek ways to leave the country.

.Those from the cities were known as "new" people and suffered worst at first.^ We continued traveling northward by tractor-wagon, always careful to mingle with groups of “new people” (the KR term for those who had been evacuated from the cities), those who were being relocated.

^ Many of those forced to evacuate the cities were resettled in new villages, which lacked food, agricultural implements, and medical care.

^ When the city folk were forced to the rice fields by the Khmer Rouge, these "new people" fell in droves under the backbreaking labor that the peasants were accustomed to.
  • Cambodia Travel Tips 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.garella.com [Source type: General]

The rural peasantry were regarded as "base" people and fared better. .However, the Khmer Rouge's cruelty was enacted on both groups.^ The United States moved to provide material assistance to the new government's armed forces, which were engaged against both the Khmer Rouge insurgents and NVA/VC forces.

^ July 2009 " Cambodia pushes to curb Khmer Rouge court, group says ," by Michael Heath, Bloomberg.com .

^ However, provisions calling for disarmament of all factions were resisted by the Khmer Rouge, who resumed guerrilla warfare.
  • Cambodia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It also depended much upon where you were from. For example, people in the East generally got it worse. .It is debated whether or not the Khmer Rouge began "crimes against humanity" or a protracted "genocide". What is clear, as Ben Kiernan argues, there was a disproportionate number of ethnic Chams killed, and the ethnically Vietnamese also suffered persecution.^ Serge Thion and Ben Kiernan, Khmers rouges!
  • Moïse's Bibliography: Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.clemson.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Khmer Rouge by Vietnamese forces in 1979.
  • Cambodia News: - Khmer News - ពត៌មាន/ព្រឹតិ្តការណ៍ថ្មីៗ - Cambodian Information Center 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.cambodia.org [Source type: News]
  • VOA News - Cambodian News 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voanews.com [Source type: News]

^ Since the 1991 Paris Agreements, there have been two well-publicized massacres of Vietnamese villagers and numerous smaller incidents of violence against Vietnamese, mostly attributable to Khmer Rouge guerrillas.
  • Culture of Cambodia - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, wedding, population, religion, rituals 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nonetheless, being Khmer did not save you from the often indescriminate mass killings.^ Later, I knew the cross had saved my life from the Khmer Rouge, but I did not know why.

.A 1978 Vietnamese invasion drove the Khmer Rouge into the countryside and ended 13 years of fighting (but the fighting would continue for some time in in border areas).^ Khmer Rouge by Vietnamese forces in 1979.
  • Cambodia News: - Khmer News - ពត៌មាន/ព្រឹតិ្តការណ៍ថ្មីៗ - Cambodian Information Center 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.cambodia.org [Source type: News]
  • VOA News - Cambodian News 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voanews.com [Source type: News]

^ Attempts at mediation with the Khmer Rouge failed, and fighting continued.
  • Cambodia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Serious flooding occurs in both Phnom Penh and the rest of Cambodia starting at the end of July or early August and continues into November.

.As a result of the devastating politics of the Khmer Rouge regime, there was virtually no infrastructure left.^ Although there were no reports that the government or its agents committed politically motivated killings, security forces committed extrajudicial killings and acted with impunity.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ January 2007 " Former Khmer Rouge No.

^ There were no reports that the government or its agents committed politically motivated killings.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Institutions of higher education, money, and all forms of commerce industries were destroyed in 1978, so the country had to be built up from scratch.^ While Cambodia was a colony of France (1853-1953), French instruction was begun in primary school and all higher education was in French.
  • EthnoMed: Cambodian Cultural Profile 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC ethnomed.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.UN-sponsored elections in 1993 helped restore some semblance of normalcy, as did the rapid diminution of the Khmer Rouge in the mid-1990s.^ However Cambodia achieved a semblance of peace and stability after the Un sponsored elections in 1993.
  • Cambodia Overview, History of Cambodia, Cambodia Geography, Cambodia Travel Guide 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the months following the election, a government-sponsored amnesty secured the first defections from Khmer ranks, with more defections occurring from 1994 when the Khmer Rouge was finally outlawed by the Cambodian government.

^ Over 4 million Cambodians (about 90% of eligible voters) participated in the May 1993 elections, although the Khmer Rouge or Party of Democratic Kampuchea (PDK), whose forces were never actually disarmed or demobilized, barred some people from participating.

.A coalition government, formed after national elections in 1998, brought renewed political stability and the surrender of remaining Khmer Rouge forces.^ In 1993, elections were held (without the Khmer Rouge) and a coalition government was formed.
  • Cambodia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Khmer Rouge by Vietnamese forces in 1979.
  • VOA News - Cambodian News 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voanews.com [Source type: News]

^ In the months following the election, a government-sponsored amnesty secured the first defections from Khmer ranks, with more defections occurring from 1994 when the Khmer Rouge was finally outlawed by the Cambodian government.

The International Criminal Court is currently putting Leng Sary, Pol Pot's brother in law, on trial for 'crimes against humanity'.

Economy

.The two pillars of Cambodia's newly-stable economy are textiles and tourism.^ Tourism is now the second-largest foreign currency earner in Cambodia's economy, and Angkor Wat has helped attract international tourism to the country.

.The latter has grown rapidly with over 1.7 million visitors arriving in 2006. The long-term development of the economy after decades of war remains a daunting challenge, as the population (more than half under 27 years of age) lacks education and productive skills, particularly in the poverty-ridden countryside, which suffers from an almost total lack of basic infrastructure.^ Cambodia has a population of 13607069 with a population growth rate of 1.81% as of 2005 and a median age of 19.91 years.
  • Cambodia Overview, History of Cambodia, Cambodia Geography, Cambodia Travel Guide 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The economy also has a poor track record in creating jobs in the formal sector, and the challenge will only become more daunting in the future since 50% of the population is under 20 years of age and large numbers of job seekers will begin to enter the work force each year over the next 10 years.

^ Since organized mine clearance operations began in 1992, the CMAA reports that a surface area of more than 200 million square meters has been demined.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

80% of the population still gets by on subsistence farming. .On the brighter side, the government is addressing these issues - plus government corruption - with assistance from bilateral and multilateral donors.^ In doing so, ongoing patient needs, the current and future role of government, and declining donor support would be addressed.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cambodia remains heavily reliant on foreign assistance--about half of the central government budget depends on donor assistance.
  • Cambodia (05/09) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.infoplease.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In December the Ministry of Information issued a directive that reiterates these limits and prohibits publishers and editors from running stories that insult or defame government leaders and institutions.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

Map of Cambodia with regions colour-coded
Map of Cambodia with regions colour-coded
Cardamom and Elephant Mountains (Battambang, Kampot, Koh Kong, Poipet, Pursat, Sihanoukville, Sisophon, Bokor National Park, Kep)
the western mountain ranges, gulf coast beaches and offshore islands
North-western Cambodia (Angkor Archaeological Park, Siem Reap, Koh Ker, Tonle Sap Lake, Preah Vihear)
Angkor, the main reason most visitors come to Cambodia, plus a huge lake and the northern mountains
Mekong Lowlands and Central Plains (Phnom Penh, Kampong Cham , Kompong Thom, Krek)
the capital city and the central flatlands
Eastern Cambodia (Banlung, Kratie, Sen Monorom, Stung Treng)
remote rural areas and national parks east of the mighty Mekong
  • Banlung - far northeastern provincial capital located near some great waterfalls and national parks
  • Battambang - the second biggest town, after the capital
  • Kampot - town between the capital and Sihanoukville and gateway to the Bokor National Park
  • Koh Kong - small town border crossing town on the Thai border
  • Kompong Thom - access to less well known (and less crowded) ancient temples and other sites
  • Kratie - relaxed river town in the north-east on the Mekong, and an excellent place to get close look at endangered river dolphins
  • Siem Reap - the access point for Angkor
  • Sihanoukville - seaside town in the south, also known as Kompong Som
  • Angkor Archaeological Park - home of the imposing ruins of ancient Khmer civilization
  • Bokor National Park - ghostly former French hill resort
  • Kampong Cham - nice countryside village on the Mekong river and good place to meet real Cambodia.
  • Koh Ker - more ancient ruins, north of Angkor
  • Krek - a small village on the backpacker trail between Kratie and Kampong Cham
  • Kep - a seaside area which predates Sihanoukville as the main beach resort in Cambodia; slowly being re-discovered by travellers
  • Poipet - small town in the north-west on the border with Thailand
  • Preah Vihear - cliff-top temple pre-dating Angkor
  • Tonle Sap Lake - huge lake with floating villages and Southeast Asia's premier bird sanctuary

Get in

Visas

.All visitors, except citizens of Malaysia, Singapore, Philippines, Laos and Vietnam need a visa to enter Cambodia.^ Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam tourism cooperation .
  • Cambodians cheer World Heritage nod for temple | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]
  • Cambodians pray for peace in temple standoff | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]

^ Both Vietnam and Laos require visas for onward travel from Cambodia.
  • Cambodia travel advice 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fco.gov.uk [Source type: News]

^ You need a visa for Cambodia.
  • Cambodia travel advice 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fco.gov.uk [Source type: News]

.The official price for a tourist visa is US$20, and US$25 for a business visa - but expect much higher prices (US$30 or more for the tourist visa) to be demanded at land border crossings.^ It's $20 for a one-month tourist visa , or $25 for a one-month working visa .
  • Cambodia Travel Tips 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.garella.com [Source type: General]

^ Border crossing with Laos: This is a semi-official crossing.
  • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

^ The e-Visa costs US $20.
  • Cambodia travel advice 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fco.gov.uk [Source type: News]

.Visas can be obtained at any Cambodian embassy or consulate overseas.^ Any method of obtaining a Cambodian visa requires a passport-sized photograph and a passport that is valid for a minimum of six months beyond the date of entry into Cambodia.

^ Overseas inquiries may be made at the nearest embassy or consulate of Cambodia or visit the Embassy of the Kingdom of Cambodia web site http://www.embassyofcambodia.org/ for the most current visa information.

^ Tourist and business visas can be obtained at a Cambodian embassy abroad, upon arrival at the airports in Phnom Penh and Siem Reap, or at certain land borders.
  • Cambodia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

.Visas are also available "on arrival" at both international airports, all six international border crossings with Thailand, some international border crossings with Vietnam, and at the main border crossing with Laos.^ Border crossings with Thailand: Cambodian visas and 30-day Thai transit visas are available at all Thai/Cambodian border crossings.
  • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

^ Vietnam visas are not available at any international border crossing.
  • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

^ Cambodian visas and 30-day Thai transit visas are available at all Thai border crossings.
  • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

.
  • Tourist visa: when applied for in advance, these are valid for 90 days (ie must be used within 3 months), and good for a 30 day entry permit stamp which can be extended once only for a further 30 days in Phnom Penh (or elsewhere via agencies) at a cost of US$15.
  • Business visa: the best choice for stays over two months and/or multiple entries, as they can be extended indefinitely (approx US$140 per 6 month extension) and have multiple entry status when extended.^ Tourist and business visas are valid for one month beginning with the date of entry into Cambodia.

    ^ Visas must be renewed for stays in excess of thirty days and may only be extended once.
    • Cambodia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

    ^ The e-visa permits a single entry and stay of up to 30 days.
    • Cambodia - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Most Phnom Penh travel agencies process the extensions.
.To apply for a visa, you will need one or two (depending on where you apply) passport-size photo(s) (although when applying on arrival, the fee for not having one is usually only US$1-2), a passport which is valid for at least 6 months and has at least one completely blank visa page remaining, passport photocopies when applying at some embassies/consulates (not needed if applying on arrival), and clean US$ notes with which to pay the fee (expect to pay a substantially higher price if paying in a local currency).^ Additionally, you will be expected to pay for the visa extension that you should have sought.
  • Cambodia travel advice 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fco.gov.uk [Source type: News]

^ A tourist visa can be extended only for one extra month.
  • Cambodia travel advice 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fco.gov.uk [Source type: News]

^ You need a visa for Cambodia.
  • Cambodia travel advice 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fco.gov.uk [Source type: News]

e-Visa scam?
.The original provider of the e-Visa service was kicked out in murky circumstances, and their site [2] now rails against the evils of the new provider.^ The United States moved to provide material assistance to the new government's armed forces, which were engaged against both the Khmer Rouge insurgents and NVA/VC forces.
  • Cambodia (05/09) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ICRC provided a new database for the physical rehabilitation centers to collect statistics related to services.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rights and housing advocates on Wednesday continued to rail against a new law on imminent domain that they say will make it easier for people to lose their land.
  • Cambodia News: - Khmer News - ពត៌មាន/ព្រឹតិ្តការណ៍ថ្មីៗ - Cambodian Information Center 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.cambodia.org [Source type: News]

.However, travellers who have obtained e-Visas with the new system report no problems using them.^ Tourists travelling to Laos from Cambodia must obtain the relevant visa prior to arrival at the border.
  • Cambodia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ Some travelers report that visas are only available at the road crossing, not at the river crossing.
  • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

^ There are no reports of use of antipersonnel or antivehicle mines by government forces or any opposition forces.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Alternatively, citizens of most nations can now apply for an e-Visa [3] online.^ Citizens and residents of the United States (holding a Green Card or any valid long-term U.S. visa except B1/B2) can submit United States visa application online.
  • Embassy of United States in Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC united-states.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Citizens and residents of the United States (holding a Green Card or any valid long-term U.S. visa except B1/B2) can submit France visa application online.
  • Embassy of France in Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC france.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Citizens and residents of the United States (holding a Green Card or any valid long-term U.S. visa except B1/B2) can submit Nepal visa application online.
  • Embassy of Nepal in Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC nepal.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The cost is US$25 (US$20 + US$5 processing charge) instead of the normal US$20, and you get the visa by e-mail in 3 business days.^ A fee of US$25 is charged for the exchange.
  • Cambodia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ It costs US$25 (US$20 + $5 processing charge) and takes three days to be processed.
  • Cambodia - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Visas are required by UK, EU, US, Australian and most other western nationals, but they can be bought at the frontier points at Poiphet and Bavet/Moc Bai, cost about 15/$25.
  • Train & bus travel in Cambodia | Bangkok-Phnom Penh, Phnom Penh-Saigon 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: News]

.For the e-visa you will need one photograph of yourself.^ You need a visa for Cambodia.
  • Cambodia travel advice 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fco.gov.uk [Source type: News]

^ Touts will insist you need their help to obtain a visa but this is untrue.
  • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

^ You should inform yourself about the correct visa requirements and fees before travel.
  • Cambodia travel advice 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fco.gov.uk [Source type: News]

.You can scan your passport photo (into .jpg format, please!^ If you have any information about the custom requirements of Cambodia that could be helpful to others, please use this form to post your comments.
  • Embassy of Cambodia in Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cambodia.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You should ensure that your passport is stamped on arrival, especially if you cross over a land border.
  • Cambodia travel advice 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fco.gov.uk [Source type: News]

^ Don't carry lots of cash or your passport (carry a photocopy of it if you must).
  • Cambodia Travel Tips 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.garella.com [Source type: General]

) or take a passport photograph of yourself with a digital camera.
.With the e-visa you will breeze through immigration.^ To cross the border, just walk along the main road through the entry gate and you will find the visa-checkpoint right at the end on the right side.
  • Train & bus travel in Cambodia | Bangkok-Phnom Penh, Phnom Penh-Saigon 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: News]

The e-visa will come back as a PDF file. .You will then need to print out two copies (one for the entry and one for the exit).^ The signs to the visa entry point are not the best and hence you might fall for one of the help offers from the scams.
  • Train & bus travel in Cambodia | Bangkok-Phnom Penh, Phnom Penh-Saigon 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: News]

^ Should you find one, don't try to just pull it out, use tick pincers (obtainable from chemists) or seek medical attention.
  • Cambodia - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Drugs, such as loperamide and diphenoxylate, can be taken if you really need to when on the road to prevent diarrhoea (not suitable for children under two years old).
  • Cambodia - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After printing out your two copies, cut out the e-visa part and put both copies into your passport.^ Any method of obtaining a Cambodian visa requires a passport-sized photograph and a passport that is valid for a minimum of six months beyond the date of entry into Cambodia.

^ Police attempted to disperse the crowd, but the monks refused to disband, and violence broke out on part of both the police and the monks.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Buy your visa and walk into Cambodia.
  • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

.For those entering by air, the e-Visa is valid at both Phnom Penh and Siem Reap airports.^ Find a hotel in Phnom Penh, Siem Reap or elsewhere in Cambodia...
  • Train & bus travel in Cambodia | Bangkok-Phnom Penh, Phnom Penh-Saigon 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: News]

^ It is possible to fly between the two major airports in Phnom Penh and Siem Reap .
  • Cambodia - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Phnom Penh traffic strong, Siem Reap dips slightly .
  • Cambodians cheer World Heritage nod for temple | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]
  • Cambodians pray for peace in temple standoff | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]

.It's cheaper to get your visa on arrival at either airport.^ Tourist and business visas can be obtained at a Cambodian embassy abroad, upon arrival at the airports in Phnom Penh and Siem Reap, or at certain land borders.
  • Cambodia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

.However if you get a visa in advance (online or from an embassy/consulate) you do get to skip two lines at the airport: the line to apply for the visa, and the line at the cashier to pay the fee.^ The embassy/consulate staff can assist you to find appropriate medical care, to contact family members or friends and explain how funds can be transferred.

^ You may also apply in person at the Cambodian Embassy located at 4530 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011, tel.

^ Additionally, you will be expected to pay for the visa extension that you should have sought.
  • Cambodia travel advice 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fco.gov.uk [Source type: News]

.Of course, if you checked luggage, you'll probably have to spend the saved time waiting for your bag.^ After you get your luggage, you'll pass confidently by the guys who could demand to search your bags, but won't because they are charmed by your pleasant and friendly demeanor.
  • Cambodia Travel Tips 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.garella.com [Source type: General]

^ We know banners can be annoying at times, but we hope you will appreciate the good your support does.
  • Cambodia food recipes dishes with pictures anf food information from Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC asiarecipe.com [Source type: General]

^ Smile : You'll do this anyway, but always act respectful, don't raise your voice or your eyebrows, and smile at everybody.
  • Cambodia Travel Tips 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.garella.com [Source type: General]

.For those entering overland, do note that overland e-Visa entries are restricted to just three border crossings: Bavet (Svay Rieng) from Moc Bai (Tay Ninh Province, Vietnam); Koh Kong (from Hat Lek / Trat, Thailand); and Poipet (from Aranyaprathet, Thailand).^ Vietnam visas are not available at any international border crossing.
  • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

^ Cross the border to Poipet Cambodia.
  • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

^ Visas to enter Thailand from Cambodia can be obtained at the border.
  • Cambodia travel advice 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fco.gov.uk [Source type: News]

.However getting a visa in advance (online or from an embassy/consulate) is definitely the way to go in order to avoid the common scam of visa overpricing at border crossings (see Scam alert).^ Border crossings with Thailand: Cambodian visas and 30-day Thai transit visas are available at all Thai/Cambodian border crossings.
  • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

^ Vietnam visas are not available at any international border crossing.
  • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

^ It was very helpful to avoid getting in contact with all the scams offering other types of visa shortly before you cross the border.
  • Train & bus travel in Cambodia | Bangkok-Phnom Penh, Phnom Penh-Saigon 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: News]

.If you are a foreign national, be aware that you will have to pay an airport departure tax when you leave Cambodia through the airports, about $25 for international flights, it is about $4-6 for internal flights between Phnom Penh and Siem Reap.^ A departure tax is charged on all domestic and international flights.

^ Find a hotel in Phnom Penh, Siem Reap or elsewhere in Cambodia...
  • Train & bus travel in Cambodia | Bangkok-Phnom Penh, Phnom Penh-Saigon 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: News]

^ It is possible to fly between the two major airports in Phnom Penh and Siem Reap .
  • Cambodia - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

International departure tax
.From both Phnom Penh and Siem Reap, the surcharge is a steep US$25 for adults and US$13 for children 12 and under.^ Siem Reap-Phnom Penh by river boat .
  • Train & bus travel in Cambodia | Bangkok-Phnom Penh, Phnom Penh-Saigon 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: News]

^ Find a hotel in Phnom Penh, Siem Reap or elsewhere in Cambodia...
  • Train & bus travel in Cambodia | Bangkok-Phnom Penh, Phnom Penh-Saigon 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: News]

^ Phnom Penh traffic strong, Siem Reap dips slightly .
  • Cambodians cheer World Heritage nod for temple | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]

.The tax is not included in your flight ticket.^ You should be aware that the US$25 airport departure tax is not included in your ticket, and is payable on departure from Phnom Penh and Siem Reap international airports.
  • Cambodia travel advice 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fco.gov.uk [Source type: News]

.Cambodia has international airports at Phnom Penh and Siem Reap.^ Find a hotel in Phnom Penh, Siem Reap or elsewhere in Cambodia...
  • Train & bus travel in Cambodia | Bangkok-Phnom Penh, Phnom Penh-Saigon 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: News]

^ It is possible to fly between the two major airports in Phnom Penh and Siem Reap .
  • Cambodia - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Phnom Penh International Airport (PNH) is near the capital.
  • Cambodia - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Direct flights connect Phnom Penh International Airport [4] (previously Pochentong International Airport) with China (Guangzhou | Hong Kong | Shanghai), Laos (Vientiane), Malaysia (Kuala Lumpur), Singapore, South Korea (Incheon/Seoul), Taiwan (Taipei), Thailand (Bangkok) and Vietnam (Ho Chi Minh City).^ At year's end there were 467 Montagnards in UNHCR protection sites in Phnom Penh, which included 101 Montagnards who arrived in previous years.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ A new entrance of meter Taxis would facilitate an easy accessibility in Phnom Penh City, Cambodia.
  • Cambodians cheer World Heritage nod for temple | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]
  • Cambodians pray for peace in temple standoff | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]

^ Phnom Penh ► Bangkok .
  • Train & bus travel in Cambodia | Bangkok-Phnom Penh, Phnom Penh-Saigon 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: News]

.Direct flights connect Siem Reap - Angkor International Airport [5] with Laos (Pakse | Vientiane), Malaysia (Kuala Lumpur), Singapore, South Korea (Incheon/Seoul), Taiwan (Kaohsiung | Taipei), Thailand (Bangkok | U-Tapao (Sattahip/Pattaya)) and Vietnam (Hanoi | Ho Chi Minh City).^ Majestic Angkor Hotel Siem Reap .
  • Cambodia Hotels, Cheap Hotel in Cambodia, Hotels in Cambodia, Discount Hotel Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Visa On Arrival It is also possible to obtain a visa on arrival at selected checkpoints between Cambodia and Thailand (Cham Yeam, Poi Pet and O’Smach) and Vietnam (Bavet, Kha Orm Sam Nor, Koh Rohka), as well as Phnom Penh and Siem Reap airports.
  • Cambodia - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Taiwan's TransAsia Airways to fly Taipei-Siem Reap route .
  • Cambodians cheer World Heritage nod for temple | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]
  • Cambodians pray for peace in temple standoff | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]

.Travellers going specifically to visit the Angkor temple ruins may prefer to use Siem Reap as it's only a few minutes away from the main sites; however as Bangkok Airways has a monopoly on direct flights between Bangkok and Siem Reap, it's a lot cheaper to fly to Phnom Penh and to take the bus (or cross overland from Bangkok).^ Siem Reap is the gateway to the Temples of Angkor, magnificent ruins built between the 9 th to 14 th centuries.
  • Cambodia Tours and Cambodia Package Tours by Exotissimo Travel Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cambodia.exotissimo.com [Source type: General]

^ Phnom Penh-Saigon by bus .
  • Train & bus travel in Cambodia | Bangkok-Phnom Penh, Phnom Penh-Saigon 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: News]

^ HCMC to open direct bus to Cambodia?s Siem Reap .
  • Cambodians cheer World Heritage nod for temple | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]
  • Cambodians pray for peace in temple standoff | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]

.Low-cost carrier Air Asia [6] has introduced flights from Kuala Lumpur and Bangkok to Phnom Penh and Kuala Lumpur to Siem Reap, while Jetstar Asia [7] has begun flying from Singapore to Siem Reap and Phnom Penh.^ There are a few bank machines in Phnom Penh and Siem Reap.
  • Cambodia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ If so, see the Bangkok-Siem Reap & Seam Reap-Phnom Penh sections below.
  • Train & bus travel in Cambodia | Bangkok-Phnom Penh, Phnom Penh-Saigon 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: News]

^ Siem Reap-Phnom Penh by river boat .
  • Train & bus travel in Cambodia | Bangkok-Phnom Penh, Phnom Penh-Saigon 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: News]

.Other airlines operating flights to/from Cambodia include Asiana Airlines [8], Bangkok Airways [9], China Southern Airlines [10], Dragonair [11], Eva Airways [12], Korean Air [13], Lao Airlines [14], Malaysia Airlines (MAS) [15], Shanghai Airlines [16], Siem Reap Airways [17] (a subsidiary of Bangkok Airways), SilkAir [18], Singapore Airlines [19], Thai Airways International [20], and Vietnam Airlines [21].^ Veterans International Cambodia operated three rehabilitation centers, in Phnom Penh, Kratie and Prey Veng, and also provided community-based rehabilitation, outreach teams and referrals to other services.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The best experience I had in Cambodia was at Kbal Spean, about 50 km from Siem Reap.
  • Cambodia Tours and Cambodia Package Tours by Exotissimo Travel Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cambodia.exotissimo.com [Source type: General]

^ One Day: Sihanoukville to Siem Reap, Cambodia by Bus .

Scam alert
.Beware of scams when entering Cambodia overland.^ Most overland travelers from Thailand to Siem Reap enter Cambodia through the Poipet/Aranyaprathet border crossing and either bus or taxi into Siem Reap.
  • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

^ Most overland travelers from Thailand to Siem Reap enter Cambodia through the Poipet/Aranyaprathet Border Crossing and either bus or taxi into Siem Reap .
  • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

.Most common is the inflation of the visa fee from the official US$20 to 1000 baht (US$30+) or more.^ Cambodian authorities charge 1000 baht for a tourist visa rather than the usual US$20.
  • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

^ The visa fee is US$20, though visitors are advised to be wary of border officials trying to overcharge them by making them pay in Thai baht.
  • Cambodia - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Travellers must pay a fee of US$20 for tourist visas or US$25 for business visas (cash only) and provide two passport-sized photos.
  • Cambodia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

.To avoid this, get your visa in advance - either from a Cambodian embassy/consulate (via an agency if necessary) or from the e-Visa website.^ Tourist and business visas can be obtained at a Cambodian embassy abroad, upon arrival at the airports in Phnom Penh and Siem Reap, or at certain land borders.
  • Cambodia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ You must get your Vietnam visa in advance.
  • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

^ The Department of State encourages all U.S. citizens traveling or residing abroad to register via the State Department's travel registration website or at the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate abroad.
  • Cambodia (05/09) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.See the Visas section for full details.^ Visas at Overland Border Crossings See Visas page for prices and other details on visas.
  • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

.Past scams have included telling travelers they have to get visas from a consulate at inflated prices before going to the border (not true), fines for not presenting a vaccination certification (even though this is not mandatory), charging 50 baht for a (bogus) SARS health form, and enforcing an imaginary US$100 to Cambodian riel exchange requirement (at lousy rates).^ Travelers report Cambodian visas available at the border.
  • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

^ Cambodian visas are available at the border, though authorities charge 1200 baht for a tourist visa rather than the usual US$20.
  • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

^ Border officials may insist that travellers entering Cambodia overland produce an international vaccination certificate or purchase malaria or other tablets from them before granting entry.
  • Cambodia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

From Thailand

.All six international border crossings are open 7 AM to 8 PM and all have visa-on-arrival facilities at the Cambodian immigration checkpoints.^ Vietnam visas are not available at any international border crossing.
  • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

^ Cambodian visas and 30-day Thai transit visas are available at all Thai border crossings.
  • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

^ Cambodian E-Visa accepted at this crossing.
  • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

.On the Thai side, there are good sealed roads to all 6 crossings.^ Cambodian visas and 30-day Thai transit visas are available at all Thai border crossings.
  • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

^ You will not step on any landmines unless you go out into the countryside and then wander off the road, so don't go there until and unless you have good information.
  • Cambodia Travel Tips 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.garella.com [Source type: General]

^ We did not know exactly when we had crossed into Thailand , but when we heard people speaking Thai, we figured we were there.

.There are no direct bus services from Thailand that cross the border, but there are buses to all crossings except Chong Sa-Ngam.^ No bus change at the border.
  • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

^ Rural and uneducated Cambodians who crossed the border and fled to Thailand in 1975.
  • EthnoMed: Cambodian Cultural Profile 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC ethnomed.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chong Sa Ngam, Thailand/Anlong Veng, Cambodia Cambodian visas available.
  • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

.On the Cambodian side, more basic and less frequent bus services are available from Poipet and Koh Kong.^ At time of printing (March 2009,) ferry service between Sihanoukville and Koh Kong was running every other day.
  • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

^ On the Cambodian side, take a free shuttle bus to the transport station.
  • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

^ Some couples must both work outside the home to support the family, with grandparents, or more frequently, other Cambodian families taking care of their children.
  • EthnoMed: Cambodian Cultural Profile 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC ethnomed.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The busiest land crossing into Cambodia, and the most convenient for onward travel to Siem Reap and the Angkor Archaeological Park.^ Siem Reap, home to the magnificent Temples of Angkor, is the focal point of most Cambodia travel.
  • Cambodia Travel - Tours, Hotels and Day Trips in Cambodia by Exotissimo 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cambodia.exotissimo.com [Source type: General]

^ Chaos at the landing at Siem Reap.
  • Train & bus travel in Cambodia | Bangkok-Phnom Penh, Phnom Penh-Saigon 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: News]

^ The main temple complex, just 7 kilometers from central Siem Reap, is where one can find Angkor Wat, Bayon, and Ta Phrom.
  • Cambodia Travel - Tours, Hotels and Day Trips in Cambodia by Exotissimo 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cambodia.exotissimo.com [Source type: General]

.Long the stuff of nightmares, the road has finally been paved all the way from the border to Sieam Reap and Phnom Penh.^ Direct flight from Sihanoukville to Siem Reap, and Phnom Penh ( Re-opened ) .
  • Cambodians cheer World Heritage nod for temple | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]
  • Cambodians pray for peace in temple standoff | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]

^ A visit to Phnom Penh , the nation's capital and best way to understand the atrocities of the Khmer Rouge, is a must for all travellers.
  • Cambodia - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The provincial towns have some of the signs of Phnom Penh's relative prosperity, but the countryside shows little sign that daily life has changed at all.
  • Cambodia Travel Tips 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.garella.com [Source type: General]

.Take a bus to Trat (transfer in Chanthaburi if necessary) and from there a minibus to the border.^ Just go there and take the next bus.
  • Cambodia Travel Tips 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.garella.com [Source type: General]

^ Take a van from Trat to the Thai border town of Had Lek (120 baht).
  • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

^ From Aranyaprathet, take a moto or tuk-tuk from the bus station to the border for 50 and 60 baht, respectively.
  • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

.After crossing into Cambodia there are two possibilities - the once-daily boat to Sihanoukville (can be unpleasant in adverse weather), or else a minibus or taxi to either Sihanoukville or Phnom Penh.^ Coming from Cambodia, this crossing is accessed primarily from Phnom Penh .
  • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

^ There's a daily boat along the river from Siem Reap to Phnom Penh.
  • Train & bus travel in Cambodia | Bangkok-Phnom Penh, Phnom Penh-Saigon 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: News]

^ Coming from Cambodia, this crossing can be accessed from either Phnom Penh or Kampot .
  • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

Those with a yen for adventure can try out the four other international crossings:
.
  • To Siem Reap- Take the minibus from Surin bus station to the border.^ One Day: Sihanoukville to Siem Reap, Cambodia by Bus .

    ^ On the Cambodian side, take a free shuttle bus to the transport station.
    • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Aranyaprathet, Thailand / Poipet, Cambodia Border Crossing: The Route from Bangkok to Siem Reap Its a 465km, 6-9 hour trip from Bangkok to Siem Reap.
    • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

    .Once you cross the border, you are in the middle of nowhere,and there are not currently any buses direct from the border.^ It was very helpful to avoid getting in contact with all the scams offering other types of visa shortly before you cross the border.
    • Train & bus travel in Cambodia | Bangkok-Phnom Penh, Phnom Penh-Saigon 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: News]

    ^ At the border, you will disembark and will be told to cross the border on your own and how to locate your onward transportation once on the Cambodian side.
    • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

    ^ You will depart Bangkok between 7AM and 8AM, arriving at the border crossing near Aranyaprathet 4-5 hours later.
    • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

    .A taxi can be hired for the 5 hour journey to Siem Reap, most of it very bumpy.^ Siem Reap, home to the magnificent Temples of Angkor, is the focal point of most Cambodia travel.
    • Cambodia Travel - Tours, Hotels and Day Trips in Cambodia by Exotissimo 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cambodia.exotissimo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ In the more remote areas of the country or west of Siem Reap it is best to hire a car in order not to feel the pain of the horrible roads.
    • Cambodia - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Finding a reasonable transportation to Siem Reap cost us about 1.5 hours in the sun and lots of negotiation.
    • Train & bus travel in Cambodia | Bangkok-Phnom Penh, Phnom Penh-Saigon 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: News]

    .However you will get a great and unique insight into rural Cambodian life away from tourist areas.^ In rural areas, plows, machetes, A young Cambodian monk burning incense.
    • Culture of Cambodia - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, wedding, population, religion, rituals 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The presence of Vietnamese throughout the country and their intrusion into nearly all aspects of Cambodian life alienated much of the populace.
    • Cambodia (05/09) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In the rural areas, smoking is even used to keep away insects.
    • EthnoMed: Cambodian Cultural Profile 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC ethnomed.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Be warned, this journey can be difficult during the rainy season.

From Vietnam

.Through bus tickets cost ~USD$10-12. Bus passengers must walk between the Cambodian and Vietnamese checkpoints and transfer between the two buses that travel the Cambodian and Vietnamese legs respectively.^ Many travellers have had horrible incidents on Cambodian trains, watching people and buses go faster then the train was moving.
  • Cambodia - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You must change buses and make your way across the frontier between Moc Bai and Bavet on foot.
  • Train & bus travel in Cambodia | Bangkok-Phnom Penh, Phnom Penh-Saigon 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: News]

^ Virak-Buntham bus company offers direct daily bus service between Koh Kong and Sihanoukville using full size a/c buses.
  • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

.At this crossing only one passport photo is required for a Cambodian visa.^ ENTRY/EXIT REQUIREMENTS: A valid passport and a Cambodian visa are required.

^ Cambodian E-Visa accepted at this crossing.
  • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

^ Any method of obtaining a Cambodian visa requires a passport-sized photograph and a passport that is valid for a minimum of six months beyond the date of entry into Cambodia.

.Alternatively, it can be interesting to join a Mekong Delta tour (2-3 days) that travels between the two cities; the total cost is about US$25-35 for three days.^ The trip takes about 4-5 hours and costs US$25 for foreigners.
  • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

^ It costs US$25 (US$20 + $5 processing charge) and takes three days to be processed.
  • Cambodia - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Visas are required by UK, EU, US, Australian and most other western nationals, but they can be bought at the frontier points at Poiphet and Bavet/Moc Bai, cost about 15/$25.
  • Train & bus travel in Cambodia | Bangkok-Phnom Penh, Phnom Penh-Saigon 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: News]

Mai Linh Taxi Company [22] in Ho Chi Minh City provides bus from Ho Chi Minh City to Siem Reap directly from beginning of 2007. The price is US$18.
.It is possible to cross at the Trapeang Phlong - Xa Mat border but as of now you have to organise your own transport.^ You did not lose the cross,” she said, “you found it in your heart.” .

^ It was very helpful to avoid getting in contact with all the scams offering other types of visa shortly before you cross the border.
  • Train & bus travel in Cambodia | Bangkok-Phnom Penh, Phnom Penh-Saigon 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: News]

^ At the border, you will disembark and will be told to cross the border on your own and how to locate your onward transportation once on the Cambodian side.
  • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

From Laos

  • Voeung Kam, Laos - Dom Kralor, Cambodia
.Onward transportation not regularly available.^ Onward transportation is available right there at the border.
  • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

^ But otherwise, there is no regularly scheduled onward transportation available on the Cambodian side of the border.
  • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

.Cambodian visas available, but expect 1$ to 2$ of transaction fees on both sides of the border.^ Expect extra fees for stamps on both sides of the border.
  • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

^ Cambodian visas available.
  • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

^ Cambodian visas are available at the border.
  • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

.Travel agencies on both sides have border crossing packages.^ For those coming from Vietnam, motodups usually wait at the border crossing to take travelers to Kep or Kampot .
  • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

^ Most overland travelers from Thailand to Siem Reap enter Cambodia through the Poipet/Aranyaprathet border crossing and either bus or taxi into Siem Reap.
  • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

^ Border crossings and regional trips Working in Cambodia Safety Bangkok arrival tips More travel info and stories: the camera obscura .
  • Cambodia Travel Tips 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.garella.com [Source type: General]

By boat

.To/from Laos - There is one border crossing for tourists on the Mekong, a 90 minute speedboat ride north of Stung Treng.^ Border crossing with Laos: This is a semi-official crossing.
  • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

^ Also, the smaller speedboats are grossly overpowered, go too fast, and if one was to hit something or go out of control on the lake there would be many casualties.
  • Cambodia Travel Tips 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.garella.com [Source type: General]

^ The following information regarding the Laos border crossing has not been updated for approximately 1 year (11/08.
  • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

.The border guards have few opportunities for "alternative" income, and will usually try to make a few extra dollars from scamming tourists.^ The visa fee is US$20, though visitors are advised to be wary of border officials trying to overcharge them by making them pay in Thai baht.
  • Cambodia - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To/from Thailand - There are no ferry services between Cambodia and Thailand.^ Cambodia lies between Thailand and Vietnam in mainland southeast Asia, with a smaller stretch of the northern border adjoining Laos.
  • Culture of Cambodia - traditional, history, people, clothing, traditions, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage, men, life, wedding, population, religion, rituals 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At time of printing (March 2009,) ferry service between Sihanoukville and Koh Kong was running every other day.
  • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

^ Bus: There are several bus companies offering direct a/c bus service between Phnom Penh and Ho Chi Minh City for $10-$12.
  • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

.However it is possible to cross the border from Thailand to Koh Kong on foot, take a 15 minute share taxi or motodop (motorbike taxi) ride, and then proceed to Sihanoukville by ferry from there (or vice-versa).^ Koh Kong to/from Sihanoukville by road .
  • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

^ Shared taxi costs $5 for a cramped, harrowing ride to the border.
  • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

^ The Route: Bangkok to Sihanoukville via Koh Kong The usual route runs from Bangkok, to Trat (with some people opting for a detour to Koh Chang), then on to the border crossing at Had Lek Thailand where you cross to Koh Kong City, Cambodia.
  • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

.To/from Vietnam - It's possible to travel between Ho Chi Minh City and Phnom Penh by boat, or by combination of road and boat.^ The Moc Bai crossing is the closest and most convenient to Phnom Penh and Ho Chi Minh City.
  • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

^ Visa On Arrival It is also possible to obtain a visa on arrival at selected checkpoints between Cambodia and Thailand (Cham Yeam, Poi Pet and O’Smach) and Vietnam (Bavet, Kha Orm Sam Nor, Koh Rohka), as well as Phnom Penh and Siem Reap airports.
  • Cambodia - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One option to come from Ho Chi Minh City to Phnom Penh is to take the backpacker bus to Tay Ninh (headquarters of the Cao Dai cult), then hire a moto-taxi to the Cambodian border, where you cross and get a taxi to Phnom Penh for another $6 (more if you want a whole seat).
  • Cambodia Travel Tips 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.garella.com [Source type: General]

.Fast boats leave daily from Chau Doc in Vietnam's Mekong Delta and take 5 hours to reach Phnom Penh.^ On July 29, 2007, three improvised explosive devices (IEDs) were planted at the Vietnam-Cambodia Friendship Monument in Phnom Penh.

^ Asylum seekers who reached the UNHCR Phnom Penh office were processed with government cooperation.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Traveller Justin Kilby reports : "The fast boat from Phnom Penh to Siem Reap is fairly comfortable and quite an interesting journey up the Tonle Sap river and across Tonle Sap Lake, but make sure you take food and water as there is none available on the boat.
  • Train & bus travel in Cambodia | Bangkok-Phnom Penh, Phnom Penh-Saigon 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: News]

.Chau Doc is a four hour drive from Ho Chi Minh City.^ The road from Phnom Penh , through the Moc Bai crossing to Ho Chi Minh City is in very good condition except for short stretches under construction between Neak Loung and Phnom Penh .
  • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

^ Bus: There are several bus companies offering direct a/c bus service between Phnom Penh and Ho Chi Minh City for $10-$12.
  • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

^ In Ho Chi Minh City, most of the bus stations and offices are in the Pham Ngu Lao area.
  • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

.A popular overland route is to make a three day trip, stopping at Can Tho and Chau Doc before taking the boat to Phnom Penh.^ Allot about 5 hours for the trip from Phnom Penh to Chau Doc.
  • Cambodia: Overland Travel and International Border Crossings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canbypublications.com [Source type: News]

^ The Cambodian water festival in October is a lively affair with 3 days of dragon boat racing taking place in Siem Reap and Phnom Penh and Buddhist New Year in April as well as Pchum Ben Festival in September see families gathering at temples to celebrate.
  • Introducing Cambodia - Cambodia Travel Guide | Exotissimo 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.exotissimo.com [Source type: General]

^ Popular day trips can be taken from Siem Reap to floating villages such as Kampong Phluck or, for a truly unique journey, overnight trips can be arranged between Siem Reap and Phnom Penh.
  • Cambodia Travel - Tours, Hotels and Day Trips in Cambodia by Exotissimo 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cambodia.exotissimo.com [Source type: General]

Domestic departure tax
.From both Phnom Penh and Siem Reap, the domestic departure tax is US$12.^ There are a few bank machines in Phnom Penh and Siem Reap.
  • Cambodia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ Siem Reap-Phnom Penh by river boat .
  • Train & bus travel in Cambodia | Bangkok-Phnom Penh, Phnom Penh-Saigon 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: News]

^ Find a hotel in Phnom Penh, Siem Reap or elsewhere in Cambodia...
  • Train & bus travel in Cambodia | Bangkok-Phnom Penh, Phnom Penh-Saigon 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: News]

The domestic aviation scene in Cambodia is in a permanent state of flux.
.The only airports currently operating scheduled passenger flights are Phnom Penh and Siem Reap.^ Find a hotel in Phnom Penh, Siem Reap or elsewhere in Cambodia...
  • Train & bus travel in Cambodia | Bangkok-Phnom Penh, Phnom Penh-Saigon 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: News]

^ It is possible to fly between the two major airports in Phnom Penh and Siem Reap .
  • Cambodia - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Phnom Penh traffic strong, Siem Reap dips slightly .
  • Cambodians cheer World Heritage nod for temple | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]
  • Cambodians pray for peace in temple standoff | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]

The third major airport, Sihanoukville, which in the past has seen some activity, is expected to start receiving scheduled flights again in early 2010.
.The main operator has long been Siem Reap Airways [23], a subsidiary of Bangkok Airways, which currently flies ATR-72 turboprops between Phnom Penh and Siem Reap (55 min, around US$60 one-way plus taxes, 4-6 flights daily).^ Find a hotel in Phnom Penh, Siem Reap or elsewhere in Cambodia...
  • Train & bus travel in Cambodia | Bangkok-Phnom Penh, Phnom Penh-Saigon 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: News]

^ Bangkok - Phnom Penh by train+bus .
  • Train & bus travel in Cambodia | Bangkok-Phnom Penh, Phnom Penh-Saigon 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: News]

^ Then fly back to Phnom Penh.
  • Cambodia Travel Tips 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.garella.com [Source type: General]

.Siem Reap Airways had its operator license suspended in December 2008, but its owner and big brother Bangkok Airways [24] has stepped in to fill the gap.^ Bangkok - Siem Reap by train+bus .
  • Train & bus travel in Cambodia | Bangkok-Phnom Penh, Phnom Penh-Saigon 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: News]

^ Taiwan's TransAsia Airways to fly Taipei-Siem Reap route .
  • Cambodians cheer World Heritage nod for temple | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]
  • Cambodians pray for peace in temple standoff | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]

^ Siem Reap Cambodia: Step forwards the foremost tourism destination in South East Asia .
  • Cambodians cheer World Heritage nod for temple | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]
  • Cambodians pray for peace in temple standoff | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]

.The new kid on the block is Cambodia Angkor Air [25], a joint venture between the government and Vietnam Airlines, which flies between Phnom Penh, Siem Reap and Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam).^ There are a few bank machines in Phnom Penh and Siem Reap.
  • Cambodia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ Siem Reap-Phnom Penh by river boat .
  • Train & bus travel in Cambodia | Bangkok-Phnom Penh, Phnom Penh-Saigon 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: News]

^ Vietnam to Cambodia by the new travel route .
  • Cambodians cheer World Heritage nod for temple | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]
  • Cambodians pray for peace in temple standoff | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]

.A non-commercial provider of services is Mission Aviation Fellowship [26] which operates flights to Mondulkiri, Ratanakiri, Stung Treng and other destinations.^ Veterans International Cambodia operated three rehabilitation centers, in Phnom Penh, Kratie and Prey Veng, and also provided community-based rehabilitation, outreach teams and referrals to other services.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Aid workers and medical cases have priority but seats may be available.

By helicopter

.Sokha Helicopters [27], a VIP helicopter charter and scenic flights company, operate to virtually anywhere in Cambodia.^ CMAA denies that any commercial companies are accredited to operate in Cambodia.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Helicopters can be chartered to fly from Phnom Penh and Siem Reap for one-way or return journeys.^ Find a hotel in Phnom Penh, Siem Reap or elsewhere in Cambodia...
  • Train & bus travel in Cambodia | Bangkok-Phnom Penh, Phnom Penh-Saigon 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: News]

^ It is possible to fly between the two major airports in Phnom Penh and Siem Reap .
  • Cambodia - Wiki Travel Guide - Travellerspoint 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.travellerspoint.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then fly back to Phnom Penh.
  • Cambodia Travel Tips 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.garella.com [Source type: General]

.The basic hourly charter rate is US$1495 per flight hour plus 10% VAT and 10% SPT. They operate modern, air-conditioned French-built Eurocopter Ecureuils with luxury leather seating for up to 5 passengers.^ They armed the 1600 workers, 95 percent of whom are Cambodians, and took them along as they fled from US tank and air attacks.
  • Cambodia, by Noam Chomsky 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.chomsky.info [Source type: Original source]

They also have licensed Australian and foreign pilots. .A pick-up and set-down transfer service is also available at both international airports.^ Don't worry, just hand your passport over, and move down to the other end of the counter to pick it up and pay the fee.
  • Cambodia Travel Tips 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.garella.com [Source type: General]

By road

.The three main routes to Phnom Penh (from Siem Reap, Sisophon, and Sihanoukville) are all sealed and in good condition.^ There are a few bank machines in Phnom Penh and Siem Reap.
  • Cambodia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ Siem Reap-Phnom Penh by river boat .
  • Train & bus travel in Cambodia | Bangkok-Phnom Penh, Phnom Penh-Saigon 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: News]

^ Find a hotel in Phnom Penh, Siem Reap or elsewhere in Cambodia...
  • Train & bus travel in Cambodia | Bangkok-Phnom Penh, Phnom Penh-Saigon 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: News]

.National Route #7 from Stung Treng to Phnom Penh (Skuon) is in good condition, paved between Kratie and Phnom Penh, partly paved and partly gravel between Stung Treng and Kratie, but well maintained, even in the wet season.^ On January 2, 2009 , three small explosive devices were found near the Cambodian Ministry of National Defence on Russian Boulevard in Phnom Penh .
  • Cambodia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ Banditry continues, largely at night, in rural areas and on routes between Snoul, Kratie and Stung Treng in the northeastern provinces.
  • Cambodia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ In 2005, RCAF concentrated clearance in the eastern provinces of Kratie and Stung Treng as part of the reconstruction of Route 7.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most other roads are unpaved dirt; many are in abysmal condition, others are maintained fairly regularly (but fall apart with alarming speed in the wet season).^ At the provincial level, CMAC receives a list of areas to be cleared from the Land Use Planning Unit (LUPU) and makes assessments on access roads, soil condition, vegetation, wet/dry season and land use.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the wet season, RAC with its five weekly flights to the capital's red dirt airstrip is the only option.
  • Cambodia Travel Tips 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.garella.com [Source type: General]

^ Two temples are found within Seattle, one in the Beacon Hill area and the other in the White Center area; many individuals report going regularly to the temples.
  • EthnoMed: Cambodian Cultural Profile 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC ethnomed.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

On the unsealed routes, overloaded trucks do a good job of smashing poorly built bridges. .In all, buffer your schedule and expect delays when travelling around the country, especially on the dirt roads, and doubly so in the wet season.^ In the wet season, RAC with its five weekly flights to the capital's red dirt airstrip is the only option.
  • Cambodia Travel Tips 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.garella.com [Source type: General]

^ Before cancelling a scheduled trip, you should discuss the matter with your travel agent, your travel insurer, or the airline.
  • Cambodia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ Travel by road should be undertaken in daylight hours, either by scheduled bus or cars travelling in convoy.
  • Cambodia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

.For longer journeys there is a system of buses and pickup trucks that usually operate from the local market square.^ There are also buses, some quite basic, from Poiphet to Siem Reap, fare around $3, journey time around 6 hours.
  • Train & bus travel in Cambodia | Bangkok-Phnom Penh, Phnom Penh-Saigon 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: News]

Mekong Express has the best reputation for comfort and speed and consequently charges a premium, while Sorya (formerly Ho Wah Genting) and GST offer a slightly cheaper no-frills service. .Travel remains cheap, with journeys from Phnom Penh to Siem Reap or Sihanoukville costing under US$5, but bring along something warm if you don't like freezing air-conditioning and earplugs if you don't like Khmer karaoke.^ There are a few bank machines in Phnom Penh and Siem Reap.
  • Cambodia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ Phnom Penh traffic strong, Siem Reap dips slightly .
  • Cambodians cheer World Heritage nod for temple | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]
  • Cambodians pray for peace in temple standoff | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]

^ Direct flight from Sihanoukville to Siem Reap, and Phnom Penh ( Re-opened ) .
  • Cambodians cheer World Heritage nod for temple | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]
  • Cambodians pray for peace in temple standoff | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]

.There are few, if any, night-time services, so most buses leave in the early hours of the morning (6-7 AM) and the last ones leave in the afternoon.^ No one was injured, primarily because the explosion occurred during the early morning hours.

^ There are a few acceptable guesthouses in Banlung, and one hotel which appears to be a failed venture by the governor and is barely open.
  • Cambodia Travel Tips 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.garella.com [Source type: General]

^ Buses to Sihanoukville, Cambodia's main beach town, run all day from early morning until early afternoon.
  • Cambodia Travel Tips 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.garella.com [Source type: General]

Motorcycle taxis are ubiquitous. .For quick trips across town, just stand on a corner for a moment and someone will offer you a lift - for a small, usually standard, fee of US$1 or less.^ At the street-corner schools they just want someone to stand there and speak.
  • Cambodia Travel Tips 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.garella.com [Source type: General]

^ Bring two small photos and $25 US. You will get two forms to fill out on the airplane.
  • Cambodia Travel Tips 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.garella.com [Source type: General]

.Motorcycle rentals are available in many towns, with the notable exception of Siem Reap.^ Small towns such as Kampong Thom and Kampong Cham are home to more ancient temples from the Angkorian era but yet do not receive the crowds found in Siem Reap.
  • Cambodia Travel - Tours, Hotels and Day Trips in Cambodia by Exotissimo 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cambodia.exotissimo.com [Source type: General]

^ With the exception of flights between Phnom Penh and Siem Reap, internal air service can be unpredictable and flights may be cancelled on short notice.
  • Cambodia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ Tourists in Siem Reap are not permitted to rent motorcycles.
  • Cambodia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

.Display extreme caution if you decide to risk driving or riding yourself, as driving practices are vastly different from developed countries.^ The only difference is that the working visa can be renewed without leaving the country, so if you might stay more than a month, choose that one.
  • Cambodia Travel Tips 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.garella.com [Source type: General]

Local road 'rules' will also differ from city to city. In any case, choosing one of the above options will be cheaper and easier for even the most experienced traveller.

By boat

Ferries operate seasonally along many of the major rivers. .Major routes include Phnom Penh to Siem Reap, Siem Reap to Battambang, and Sihanoukville to Koh Kong.^ There are a few bank machines in Phnom Penh and Siem Reap.
  • Cambodia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ Phnom Penh traffic strong, Siem Reap dips slightly .
  • Cambodians cheer World Heritage nod for temple | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]
  • Cambodians pray for peace in temple standoff | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]

^ Direct flight from Sihanoukville to Siem Reap, and Phnom Penh ( Re-opened ) .
  • Cambodians cheer World Heritage nod for temple | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]
  • Cambodians pray for peace in temple standoff | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]

Boats are slower than road transport, charge higher prices for foreigners, and are sometimes overcrowded and unsafe. Then again, Cambodia's highways are also dangerous, and boats are probably the safer of the two options. .The high speed boat from Phnom Penh to Siem Reap costs US$33 and takes about 6 hours, departing at 7.30am, and offers a spectacular view of rural life along the Tonle Sap river.^ Phnom Penh traffic strong, Siem Reap dips slightly .
  • Cambodians cheer World Heritage nod for temple | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]
  • Cambodians pray for peace in temple standoff | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]

^ There are a few bank machines in Phnom Penh and Siem Reap.
  • Cambodia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ Phnom Penh geographic coordinates: 11 33 N, 104 55 E time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time) .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Cambodia 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There is also a few luxury boats operating between Siem Reap, Phnom Penh and Saigon.^ Phnom Penh traffic strong, Siem Reap dips slightly .
  • Cambodians cheer World Heritage nod for temple | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]
  • Cambodians pray for peace in temple standoff | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]

^ There are a few bank machines in Phnom Penh and Siem Reap.
  • Cambodia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ Cambodia - Phnom Penh - Siem Reap - Sihanoukville View hotels in Cambodia Cambodia Overview The kingdom of Cambodia (also know as Kampuchea) is a Southeast Asian Nation flanked by Vietnam in the east, Laos in the North and the Gulf of Thailand to its Southwest.
  • Cambodia Overview, History of Cambodia, Cambodia Geography, Cambodia Travel Guide 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For something around 150$/day including accommodation, food and excursions, it's a good alternative to regular boat service.
.The boat trip between Siem Reap and Battambang takes longer (especially in the dry season), and is less comfortable and more expensive than taking a seat in a share taxi, but is favoured by some travellers for its up-close view of subsistence farming (and hundreds of waving children) along the river.^ Landmines can be found in rural areas, especially in Banteay Meanchey, Siem Reap (except in the town of Siem Reap and the Angkor temples which are safe), Battambang, Kampong Thom, and Pursat provinces.
  • Cambodia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ You will also visit local villages, explore less visited temples, and enjoy a boat ride along the Mekong River.
  • Cambodia Tours and Cambodia Package Tours by Exotissimo Travel Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cambodia.exotissimo.com [Source type: General]

^ Siem Reap is the gateway to the Temples of Angkor, magnificent ruins built between the 9 th to 14 th centuries.
  • Cambodia Tours and Cambodia Package Tours by Exotissimo Travel Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cambodia.exotissimo.com [Source type: General]

.Taking the boat late in the dry season (April and May) is not advisable as low water levels mean that you must transfer to smaller vessels in mid-river.^ (May to November); dry season (December to April); little seasonal temperature variation .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Cambodia 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the rainy season the boat between Sihanoukville and Koh Kong can also be dangerous due to high waves as well as due to the fact that these Malaysian river taxis were not built for the open sea.^ There were no developments in the May 2006 case of an ADHOC activist temporarily detained in Koh Kong Province for photographing a confrontation between villagers and officials.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Sihanoukville is great for a few carefree days by the beach, but I prefer to go into the wild in Koh Kong, trek in the virtually unexplored Cardamom Mountains and see the mangrove forests by boat.
  • Cambodia Travel - Tours, Hotels and Day Trips in Cambodia by Exotissimo 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cambodia.exotissimo.com [Source type: General]

^ During the rainy season, both urban and rural road conditions deteriorate considerably.

By train

.As of 2009, the only normal passenger train in Cambodia from Phnom Penh to Battambang has been suspended [28].^ Serious flooding occurs in both Phnom Penh and the rest of Cambodia starting at the end of July or early August and continues into November.

^ On July 29, 2007, three improvised explosive devices (IEDs) were planted at the Vietnam-Cambodia Friendship Monument in Phnom Penh.

^ Response to Landmine Monitor questionnaire by Pith Sokra, Cambodia Trust, Phnom Penh, 23 January 2003.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are no passenger services to Sihanoukville or Kampot anymore, but it may be possible to hitch a ride on a cargo train if you enjoy that kind of thing.^ You will also visit local villages, explore less visited temples, and enjoy a boat ride along the Mekong River.
  • Cambodia Tours and Cambodia Package Tours by Exotissimo Travel Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cambodia.exotissimo.com [Source type: General]

^ There were no developments in the May 2006 case of an ADHOC activist temporarily detained in Koh Kong Province for photographing a confrontation between villagers and officials.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ In his statement of May 2, in which he discussed the possibility of a resumption of the bombing of North Vietnam, Secretary Laird made no mention of the attack that had already taken place.
  • Cambodia, by Noam Chomsky 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.chomsky.info [Source type: Original source]

.Note that there will be a proper direct railway linking Saigon with Bangkok via Cambodia built by 2011 [29].^ (The Americans do much the same, relying on Khmer mercenaries in South Vietnamsee note 32and using the Saigon Army to restore order in Cambodia.
  • Cambodia, by Noam Chomsky 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.chomsky.info [Source type: Original source]

By bamboo train

.Despite the lack of normal train services there are bamboo trains or noris running around Battambang, and you can also travel on a bamboo train from the outskirts of Phnom Penh to Battambang on demand.^ There is a lack of trained healthcare workers.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Travelers should be particularly vigilant during annual festivals and at tourist sites in Phnom Penh, Siem Reap and Sihanoukville, where there have been marked increases in motorcycle “snatch and grab” thefts of bags and purses.

^ At year's end there were 467 Montagnards in UNHCR protection sites in Phnom Penh, which included 101 Montagnards who arrived in previous years.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.These trains are home made railcars which carry just about anything, pigs, motorcycles, crops, you name it, as long as it fits on the train.^ This group is made up of Cambodians who were trained by the American Special Forces in South Vietnam and have carried out operations against Cambodia from bases in South Vietnam and Thailand.
  • Cambodia, by Noam Chomsky 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.chomsky.info [Source type: Original source]

They are also great fun to ride on and they are actually reasonably safe, and the drivers are friendly. They cost around $2 per person for a short journey and around $6 to hire one with a driver. Ask locally where you can find a norry, or you can find one at Battambang station.
Good advice for learning the language
Good advice for learning the language
See also: Khmer phrasebook
.Cambodians primarily speak Khmer, which unlike most languages in the region is not tonal, but makes up for it with a large assortment of consonant and vowel clusters.^ Most Cambodians consider themselves to be Khmers, descendants of the Angkor Empire that extended over much of Southeast Asia and reached its zenith between the 10th and 13th centuries.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Cambodia 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most Cambodians consider themselves to be Khmers, whose Angkor Empire extended over much of Southeast Asia and reached its zenith between the 10th and 13th centuries.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Seattle, Cambodians mainly speak their language while at home, and as stated previously many can not read or write Khmer.
  • EthnoMed: Cambodian Cultural Profile 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC ethnomed.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Young Khmer prefer to learn English over other European languages and you will find people who speak anywhere from basic to fluent English in major towns and cities.^ In April 1975, after a five-year struggle, Communist Khmer Rouge forces captured Phnom Penh and evacuated all cities and towns.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Cambodia 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are two major English-language newspapers, one of which is produced daily.
  • Cambodia (05/09) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ English and we didn’t speak Khmer, we managed to communicate somehow.
  • Cambodia Tours and Cambodia Package Tours by Exotissimo Travel Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cambodia.exotissimo.com [Source type: General]

.In market situations, most Khmers will know enough English to complete a basic transaction, though many vendors carry calculators into which they punch numbers and show you the screen to demonstrate the price.^ Most women are very modest and will avoid annual exams because they know pelvic and breast exams will be included.
  • EthnoMed: Cambodian Cultural Profile 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC ethnomed.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is often thought to diminish respect for their parents as they consider them "stupid" because they do not know English.
  • EthnoMed: Cambodian Cultural Profile 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC ethnomed.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most elders continue to speak Khmer only, while many middle-age individuals are learning English through ESL (English as a second language) classes.
  • EthnoMed: Cambodian Cultural Profile 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC ethnomed.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some elder Khmers speak French from the colonial days, but partly because of the Khmer Rouge era (in which those speaking foreign languages were targeted for extermination), actually encountering anyone fluent in French is rare in most parts of the country.^ UN-sponsored elections in 1993 helped restore some semblance of normalcy and the final elements of the Khmer Rouge surrendered in early 1999.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some of the surviving Khmer Rouge leaders are awaiting trial by a UN-sponsored tribunal for crimes against humanity.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Cambodia 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Travel to the Killing Fields and tour Tuol Sleng Prison for a sobering glimpse in to the tragic Khmer Rouge era of the 1970s.
  • Cambodia Travel - Tours, Hotels and Day Trips in Cambodia by Exotissimo 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cambodia.exotissimo.com [Source type: General]

.German and other European tongues can be found in the tourist centres (but are even rarer than French) and Japanese is also a popular language for tourist industry workers.^ In Cambodia the nuclear family is more common than the extended families found in other Southeast Asian cultures.
  • EthnoMed: Cambodian Cultural Profile 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC ethnomed.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some French is still spoken in urban areas, and English is increasingly popular as a second language.
  • Cambodia (05/09) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Languages: Khmer (official) spoken by more than 95% of the population; some French still spoken in urban areas; English increasingly popular as a second language.
  • Cambodia (05/09) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

  • The temples of Angkor are the main draw to the country.
  • Phnom Penh offers traces of the colonial past and shocking reminders of the brutality of the Khmer Rouge era.

Buy

When shopping be sure to look for businesses that display the Heritage Friendly Business Logo. .Heritage Watch has launched a campaign that aims to encourage support for Cambodia's arts, culture, heritage and development.^ In April 1970, U.S. and South Vietnamese forces entered Cambodia in a campaign aimed at destroying NVA/VC base areas.
  • Cambodia (05/09) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.infoplease.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ World Vision Cambodia (WVC) conducts the Mine Awareness/Action Team (MAT) project aimed at integrating mine action and community development structures.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cambodia to Develop Preah Vihear as Heritage Tourism Destination .
  • Cambodians cheer World Heritage nod for temple | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]
  • Cambodians pray for peace in temple standoff | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]

Businesses that are giving back to the community are certified as Heritage Friendly by the independent organization and permitted to display either a gold or silver Heritage Friendly logo. Look for the logo to ensure that you are supporting socially responsible corporate citizens!

Haggling

.Khmers are by and large not the hardcore hagglers that their Vietnamese neighbours are, so it's important to be respectful when haggling over something in the market or with your motodop.^ A large portion of the Khmer Rouge's military forces eluded Vietnamese troops and established themselves in remote regions.

.Most vendors will not "high ball" you with an asking price that is many multiples higher than the real market price - unless of course you are at a very popular tourist attraction.^ Rubber exports declined more than 15% in 2008 due to falling world market prices.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Cambodia 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most large garment factories producing for markets in developed countries met relatively high health and safety standards as conditions of their contracts with buyers.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Overview Culture Popular Destinations Tourist Attractions Festivals And Events What & Where To Eat Things To Do How To Get In Useful Information Phnom Penh Siem Reap Sihanoukville .
  • Cambodia Hotels, Cheap Hotel in Cambodia, Hotels in Cambodia, Discount Hotel Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.asiarooms.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, keep in mind that paying too much more than the customary price is not necessarily helpful to locals either in that it can encourage rent-seeking behavior and over-dependence on tourism.^ As in Cambodia, many of the local individuals will use more than one treatment for the same illness, either simultaneously or in succession.
  • EthnoMed: Cambodian Cultural Profile 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC ethnomed.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rubber exports declined more than 15% in 2008 due to falling world market prices.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Cambodia 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, in the first half of 2009 the industry contracted more than 15%.
  • Cambodia (05/09) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Cash

.The Cambodian riel is the official currency, but US dollars are universally accepted in Cambodia.^ Official clearance agencies in Cambodia are CMAC, MAG, HALO Trust, and the Royal Cambodian Armed Forces (RCAF).
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates.

^ Khmer (also known as Cambodian) is the official language of Cambodia.
  • EthnoMed: Cambodian Cultural Profile 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC ethnomed.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While there are sufficient ATMs in the major tourist areas of Sihanoukville, Siem Reap and Phnom Penh which dispense US$ it may be wise to bring your own supply of US$1, $5, $10 and $20 bills to avoid problems changing larger denominations of $50 or $100 notes.^ Phnom Penh traffic strong, Siem Reap dips slightly .
  • Cambodians cheer World Heritage nod for temple | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]
  • Cambodians pray for peace in temple standoff | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]

^ There are a few bank machines in Phnom Penh and Siem Reap.
  • Cambodia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ Direct flight from Sihanoukville to Siem Reap, and Phnom Penh ( Re-opened ) .
  • Cambodians cheer World Heritage nod for temple | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]
  • Cambodians pray for peace in temple standoff | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]

US dollar coins buy nothing but confused looks.
.The exchange rate is fairly stable at 4000 riel to the US$, and it's not uncommon to receive change in a mix of the two.^ Average exchange rate for 2005: US$1 = NOK6.4412.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Historically, the mine/UXO casualty rate declined from 12 new casualties every day in 1996, to about two casualties a day in 2000; since then the casualty rate has remained fairly constant.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Average exchange rate for 2005: US$1 = SEK7.4710.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Near the Thai border (especially Battambang, Koh Kong, and Poipet) Thai baht is also accepted; further east (including Siem Reap) baht can easily be exchanged, but cannot be spent - except at uncompetitive rates.^ Landmines can be found in rural areas, especially in Banteay Meanchey, Siem Reap (except in the town of Siem Reap and the Angkor temples which are safe), Battambang, Kampong Thom, and Pursat provinces.
  • Cambodia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ Siem Reap Cambodia: Step forwards the foremost tourism destination in South East Asia .
  • Cambodians cheer World Heritage nod for temple | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]
  • Cambodians pray for peace in temple standoff | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]

^ HALO conducts some MRE activities in the provinces where it operates, including Banteay Meanchey, Oddar Meanchey, Preah Vihear, and Siem Reap.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Likewise Euro can easily be exchanged, but cannot be spent - except at uncompetitive rates. Banks give the best rates, avoid money changers at markets or on the street. Torn foreign currency notes can be difficult to exchange. It's acceptable to check each note and ask to have them changed if you aren't happy with the quality, even in banks.
If you're planning on heading out off the beaten track, you need to take enough US dollars to get you back to a point where you can get more.
In many of the larger towns one or more of the local banks operate as Western Union Money Transfer agents.

Plastic

.ATMs can be found in Phnom Penh, Siem Reap, Sihanoukville, and Kampot; both debit card withdrawls (Maestro, Cirrus, Plus, VISA) and cash advances on credit cards are possible.^ Direct flight from Sihanoukville to Siem Reap, and Phnom Penh ( Re-opened ) .
  • Cambodians cheer World Heritage nod for temple | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]
  • Cambodians pray for peace in temple standoff | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]

^ Some banks in Phnom Penh accept Visa and MasterCard for cash advances.
  • Cambodia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ Phnom Penh traffic strong, Siem Reap dips slightly .
  • Cambodians cheer World Heritage nod for temple | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]
  • Cambodians pray for peace in temple standoff | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]

.For the rest of the country it's best to stick to cash or traveller's checks (in US$).^ Travellers must pay a fee of US$20 for tourist visas or US$25 for business visas (cash only) and provide two passport-sized photos.
  • Cambodia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

.VISA and JCB are the most widely accepted credit cards; MasterCard and American Express cards are slowly becoming more widely accepted.^ Personal cheques and credit cards are not widely accepted.
  • Cambodia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ Check with your bank to find out if your credit card will be accepted abroad.
  • Cambodia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ Some banks in Phnom Penh accept Visa and MasterCard for cash advances.
  • Cambodia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

Note that ATMs will dispense US$ in varying denominations. .If you receive bills in poor condition(especially $50 or $100) from an ATM attached directly to a bank try to change it there immediately as it may be difficult to change later.^ Registration will make your presence and whereabouts known in case it is necessary to contact you in an emergency and will enable you to receive up-to-date information on security conditions.
  • Cambodia (05/09) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There were no developments on the prime minister's May 2006 plan to redistribute 494,210 acres of land to 50,000 farmers in Sihanoukville.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Please note that ATMs throughout most of Asia only accept a 4-digit PIN. If your PIN is more than 4 digits, best to take care of that at home before you need cash and find yourself out of luck.^ Only (new) undamaged notes are accepted.
  • Cambodia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ Before cancelling a scheduled trip, you should discuss the matter with your travel agent, your travel insurer, or the airline.
  • Cambodia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ Check with your bank to find out if your credit card will be accepted abroad.
  • Cambodia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

Traveller's checks

.Traveller's checks, like credit cards, are accepted in major business establishments, such as large hotels, some restaurants, travel agencies and some souvenir shops; American Express (in US$) are the most widely accepted flavour.^ Personal cheques and credit cards are not widely accepted.
  • Cambodia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ Some credit cards offer their holders health and travel insurance.
  • Cambodia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ Traveller's cheques are accepted by major hotels and banks.
  • Cambodia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

.However, competitive rates are only usually found in banks in Cambodia's larger cities (guesthouses in heavily touristed areas may offer similar services but at horrendous rates).^ Business # Preetam Rai lists the prepaid mobile internet services offered by mobile telcos in Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore and Vietnam .

.The usual fee for cashing traveler's checks is 2% and US$2 minimum.^ Travellers must pay a fee of US$20 for tourist visas or US$25 for business visas (cash only) and provide two passport-sized photos.
  • Cambodia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

Fried noodles, sour soup and a Khmer-style curry
Fried noodles, sour soup and a Khmer-style curry
One of the must-try local Cambodian pan cake
One of the must-try local Cambodian pan cake
.While not as spicy or as varied as food from neighbouring Thailand, Malaysia or Vietnam, Khmer food is tasty and cheap and is invariably accompanied by rice (or occasionally noodles).^ The MOSAVY repatriated from Thailand, Vietnam, and Malaysia 845 child and adult victims, as well as others vulnerable to becoming victims, and reintegrated them with their families.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The monk was known locally for providing food and shelter to Khmer Kampuchea Krom coming from Vietnam.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Business # Preetam Rai lists the prepaid mobile internet services offered by mobile telcos in Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore and Vietnam .

.Thai and Vietnamese characteristics can be found in Khmer food, although Cambodians love a stronger sour taste in their dishes, especially through the addition of prahok, the famous Khmer fish paste (although for most foreigners this is most definitely an acquired taste!^ Mine contamination occurred after Vietnam invaded Cambodia in 1978, ousting Pol Pot’s Khmer Rouge regime and driving its forces to the Thai-Cambodian border.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most Cambodians consider themselves to be Khmers, descendants of the Angkor Empire that extended over much of Southeast Asia and reached its zenith between the 10th and 13th centuries.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Cambodia 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The large majority of its population of about 7 million is Khmer (the term is often used as synonymous with "Cambodian"), but there are substantial Chinese and Vietnamese minorities of perhaps about half a million each, in addition to mountain tribes.
  • Cambodia, by Noam Chomsky 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.chomsky.info [Source type: Original source]

). .In addition to Khmer food, there are large number of Chinese restaurants, especially in Phnom Penh and large provincial centers.^ September 2009 " Tribunal moves on additional inquiries ," by Robbie Corey-Boulet, The Phnom Penh Post .

^ There are reports of armed assaults along the riverfront in Phnom Penh and on isolated beaches in Sihanoukville.
  • Cambodia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ At year's end there were 467 Montagnards in UNHCR protection sites in Phnom Penh, which included 101 Montagnards who arrived in previous years.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

Typical Khmer dishes which are palatable to westerners include:
  • Amok - The most popular Cambodian dish with travellers. A coconut milk curry dish less spicy than those found in Thailand. Amok is usually made with chicken, fish, or shrimp, plus some vegetables. It is sometimes served in a hollowed-out coconut with rice on the side. Quite delicious.
  • K'tieu (Kuytheav) - A noodle soup generally served for breakfast. Can be made with pork, beef or seafood. Flavorings are added to the customers taste in the form of lime juice, chili powder, sugar and fish sauce.
  • Somlah Machou Khmae - A sweet and sour soup made with pineapple, tomatoes and fish.
  • Bai Saik Ch'rouk - Another breakfast staple. Rice (bai) with pork meat (sec trouk) often barbequed. Very tasty and served with some pickled vegetables.
  • Saik Ch'rouk Cha Kn'yei - Pork fried with ginger. Ginger is relatively commonly used as a vegetable. This tasty dish is available just about everywhere.
  • Lok lak - Chopped up beefsteak cooked quickly. Probably a holdover from the days of French colonization. Served with lettuce and onion, and often with chips.
  • Mi / Bai Chaa - Fried noodles or rice. Never particularly inspiring, but a good traveller's staple.
  • Trey Ch'ien Chou 'Ayme - Trey (fish) fried with a sweet chili sauce and vegetables. Very tasty. Chou 'ayme is the phrase for "sweet and sour".
  • K'dam - Crab. Kampot in the south is famous for its crab cooked in pepper. A very tasty meal.
Don't forget Khmer desserts - Pong Aime (sweets). These are available from stalls in most Khmer towns and can be excellent. Choose from a variety of sweetmeats and have them served with ice, condensed milk and sugar water. A must try is the Tuk-a-loc, a blended drink of fruits, raw egg, sweetened condensed milk and ice.
There is also a wide variety of fresh fruit available from markets. .The prices vary according to which fruit is in season but mangoes (around Khmer New Year, with up to 9 varieties on sale) and mangosteen (May/June) are both superb.^ On New Year's Day 1975, communist troops launched an offensive that, in 117 days of the hardest fighting of the war, destroyed the Khmer Republic.
  • Cambodia (05/09) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ June 2009 " Co-Prosecutor of UN-backed tribunal trying Khmer Rouge leaders steps down ," by UN News Centre .

^ March 2003 " 'Time is of essence' in setting up court for Khmer Rouge crimes- UN official " UN News Centre.

.Other popular Khmer foods which are less palatable to westerners include pregnant eggs (duck eggs with the embryo still inside), Prahok (a fermented fish paste) and almost every variety of creepy or crawly animal (spiders, crickets, water beetles) as well as barbecued rats, frogs, snakes, bats and small birds.^ Travellers should avoid poultry farms, contact with animals in live-food markets, and any surfaces that appear to be contaminated with feces from poultry or other animals.
  • Cambodia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ Languages: Khmer (official) spoken by more than 95% of the population; some French still spoken in urban areas; English increasingly popular as a second language.
  • Cambodia (05/09) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Drink

Tap water is not potable. .Bottled water is ubiquitous and cheap Khmer brands in blue plastic bottles sell for 1000 riels or less (although prices are often marked up for tourists).^ Garment-sector employers almost universally paid regular workers at least the minimum wage, although casual workers were often paid less.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

Soft drinks

Iced coffee is ubiquitous in Cambodia. It is made Vietnamese style, freshly brewed and mixed with sweetened condensed milk. Walk past a local eatery any time of the day and you are bound to see at least a table of locals drinking them. One glass costs between 1500-2000riel. Iced tea made with lemon and sugar is also refreshing and ubiquitous.
Fresh coconut can be found everywhere, you could say it is ubiquitous, and is healthy and sanitary if drunk straight from the fruit.
Nightlife, Siem Reap
Nightlife, Siem Reap
In general, Khmers are not what could be described as casual drinkers: the main objective is to get hammered as quickly as possible. Know your limits if invited to join in!
The two domestic Cambodian beers are Anchor — best ordered "an-CHOR" with a ch sound! — and Angkor. Beer Lao and Tiger are popular beers with foreigners. A plethora of other beers include ABC Stout, which is dark and not so bad, in addition to the standard Heineken and Carlsberg. Many of the cheaper beers are not especially nice, such as Crown or Leo, and only drunk by the locals.
Palm wine and rice wine are available in villages and can be OK at 500-1000 riel for 1 litre bottle. However, some safety concerns have been raised with regard to sanitation, so the local wines may be best avoided. Bottled water is readily available at 500 riel for a cheap 1L bottle, or double that for a screw-cap. .In Phnom Penh tap water is theoretically clean, though most travellers still buy bottles.^ On August 9, the Phnom Penh Municipal Court convicted six persons and acquitted two charged with planning bombings at the November 2006 Water Festival.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Tourist in Phnom Penh likes traveling by cyclos to see the good view of the city .
  • Cambodians cheer World Heritage nod for temple | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]
  • Cambodians pray for peace in temple standoff | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]

^ The sites lacked sufficient sanitation facilities, electricity, clean water, health facilities, schools, and central markets and were far from Phnom Penh's commercial center, where residents could earn an adequate income.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

For a truly Khmer experience, hunt down a bottle of Golden Muscle Wine. Advertised on tuk-tuks everywhere, this pitch-black concoction made from deer antlers and assorted herbs packs a 35% punch and tastes vile when drunk straight, but can be made reasonably palatable (if not exactly tasty) by the addition of tonic water or cola. At US$2 for a 350 ml flask of the original and a budget-busting US$3 for the "X.O." version, it's also the cheapest legitimate tipple around.

Drugs

Drugs, including cannabis, are illegal in Cambodia, and penalties can be very severe. That said, enforcement tends to be on the lax side and many guesthouses are permanently shrouded in purple haze. Low-grade cannabis (ganchaa) is fairly common in Cambodian cooking (for the flavor), but the days when you could just walk up to the Central Market and buy a kilo are over.
.Both Phnom Penh and Siem Reap are full of Happy Herb pizzerias, but the police crack down occasionally, so even if you ask for "extra happy" and try out your secret handshake, you may only end up with lawn clippings.^ Phnom Penh traffic strong, Siem Reap dips slightly .
  • Cambodians cheer World Heritage nod for temple | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]
  • Cambodians pray for peace in temple standoff | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]

^ Registration will make your presence and whereabouts known in case it is necessary to contact you in an emergency and will enable you to receive up-to-date information on security conditions.
  • Cambodia (05/09) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ August 2009 " 'Just a series of ghastly screw-ups' ," by James O'Toole, The Phnom Penh Post .

.Alternatively, if they do deliver, be warned that effect of eating Happy Pizza comes on only slowly and you may end off biting more than you can chew, so proceed with caution.^ By biting off the hand which fed them, the tiny group of aristocrats, army officers and businessmen which toppled Sihanouk may have insured its own doom.
  • Cambodia, by Noam Chomsky 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.chomsky.info [Source type: Original source]

^ They never enter our territory more than 500 metres, even at night.
  • Cambodia, by Noam Chomsky 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.chomsky.info [Source type: Original source]

^ By the end of 2005, HALO had mapped more than 50 square kilometers of land returned to productive use that CMAA agreed to remove from the database of suspect land.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Heroin is very high grade in SE Asia and foreigners requesting cocaine are sometimes provided with it instead, this regularly leads to deaths.

Sleep

.Western-style accommodation is generally only available in the big tourist hotspots of Phnom Penh, Siem Reap and (to a lesser extent) Sihanoukville.^ Phnom Penh traffic strong, Siem Reap dips slightly .
  • Cambodians cheer World Heritage nod for temple | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]
  • Cambodians pray for peace in temple standoff | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]

^ Direct flight from Sihanoukville to Siem Reap, and Phnom Penh ( Re-opened ) .
  • Cambodians cheer World Heritage nod for temple | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]
  • Cambodians pray for peace in temple standoff | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]

^ Interview with Sam Sotha, Secretary-General, CMAA, Phnom Penh, 13 March 2006.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Basic guesthouses can go as low as US$2/night in the countryside but prices in the cities are usually in the US$5-10 range. At the budget end, expect to provide your own towels etc. .If you want air-con and hot water, the price creeps up to close to US$20, and you can easily pay over US$100/night if you want to stay in a branded five-star hotel.^ A new US$100 million five-star hotel is being built by the Sokimex conglomerate in Cambodia's capita .
  • Cambodians cheer World Heritage nod for temple | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]
  • Cambodians pray for peace in temple standoff | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]

Learn

.Cambodia has fewer opportunities for language and cultural studies for the short-term traveller, though there are many language schools and private teachers advertising for those who are hanging around a bit longer.^ The decision still rankles many Thais even though the temple is culturally Cambodian, sharing the Hindu-influenced style of the more famous Angkor complex.
  • Cambodians pray for peace in temple standoff | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]

.There are also meditation groups which meet at some of the Buddhist Pagodas in Phnom Penh.^ UNICEF, “Mine/UXO risk education in Cambodia,” powerpoint presentation for Landmine Monitor Global Researchers meeting, Phnom Penh, 3 April 2006.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At year's end there were 467 Montagnards in UNHCR protection sites in Phnom Penh, which included 101 Montagnards who arrived in previous years.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ UNICEF, “Mine/UXO risk education in Cambodia,” presentation for Landmine Monitor Global Research Meeting, Phnom Penh, 3 April 2006.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Work

An excellent way to get to know and understand more of the country is to do some voluntary work. .Travel to Teach runs a project with schoolchildren in Phnom Penh [30] and also helps "beach kids" in Sihanoukville.^ Then he asked whether there was news in Phnom Penh of help from the Americans.
  • Cambodia, by Noam Chomsky 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.chomsky.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Emails from Christopher Minko, Secreatry-General, CNVLD, Phnom Penh, 1 and 30 March 2006; www.standupcambodia.org , accessed 19 June 2006.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tourist in Phnom Penh likes traveling by cyclos to see the good view of the city .
  • Cambodians pray for peace in temple standoff | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]

.Finding a paid job teaching English in Phnom Penh and Siem Reap is easy for English speakers, even if you have no other qualifications.^ Phnom Penh traffic strong, Siem Reap dips slightly .
  • Cambodians cheer World Heritage nod for temple | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]

^ A new entrance of meter Taxis would facilitate an easy accessibility in Phnom Penh City, Cambodia.
  • Cambodians cheer World Heritage nod for temple | Bayon Heritage Travel and Tours 24 September 2009 22:17 UTC www.tourismindochina.com [Source type: General]

^ Prince Sihanouk, President of the Supreme National Council of Cambodia (SNC), and other members of the SNC returned to Phnom Penh in November 1991, to begin the resettlement process in Cambodia.
  • Cambodia (05/09) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

If you're interested, print out some resumes and start handing them out to various schools.
Land mine warning sign
Land mine warning sign
.Cambodia is a safe and friendly country, with the usual exception for large cities late at night, particularly Phnom Penh, and unobserved luggage or wallets.^ UNICEF, “Mine/UXO risk education in Cambodia,” powerpoint presentation for Landmine Monitor Global Researchers meeting, Phnom Penh, 3 April 2006.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HALO, “The need to document reclaimed land on the National Mine Area Database in Cambodia,” Phnom Penh, 16 September 2005, p.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cambodia Trust supported physical rehabilitation services at centers in Phnom Penh, Sihanoukville and Kampong Chhnang.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Bag snatching, even from those on bicycles and motorcycles, is a problem in Phnom Penh.^ A domestic NGO estimated that more than 1,200 street children in Phnom Penh had no relationship with their families and more than 10,000 children worked on the streets but returned to families in the evenings.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Be discreet with your possessions, especially cash and cameras, and as always, take extra care in all poorly lit or more remote areas.^ Transportation to medical care is often not available and it can take a day or more to reach a health facility, which results in many casualties dying before reaching a hospital.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Crime and corruption

.Intending visitors should be aware that there is no real rule of law in Cambodia.^ There is no anticorruption law, and only a few provisions of other laws provide criminal penalties for official corruption.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Penalties are specified in the law, but there are no specific provisions to protect workers who complain about unsafe or unhealthy conditions.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Cambodia subsequently declared that there have been no antipersonnel mine stockpiles in the country since 2001.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Crimes may or may not be investigated; if perpetrators are wealthy or connected to the government they will often be untouchable by police and courts.^ NGOs reported that it was not uncommon for police to torture detained suspects until they confessed to a crime.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ According to a human rights NGO, local police completed an investigation and submitted findings to the court.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Police, court officials, and judges often did not separate victims from perpetrators during raids, arrests, and trials.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.This, combined with the country's high traffic accident rate, makes Cambodia a riskier travel destination than most.^ Cambodia remains one of the most heavily forested countries in the region, although deforestation continues at an alarming rate.
  • Cambodia (05/09) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Apply for Cambodia Visa Online » To apply for visas to several countries add Cambodia to selection and return to the list of destinations.
  • Cambodia Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Cambodian Visas Online. 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cambodia.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Per capita income and education levels are lower than in most neighboring countries.
  • Cambodia (05/09) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Some long-term expats lose a friend a year, or more, to crime and traffic. You should also be aware that the courts are corrupt, so contracts are not enforceable.

Land mines

.Cambodia suffers from a legacy of millions of land mines left during the war years.^ Cambodia intervened during the sessions on mine clearance and on victim assistance.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ADHOC reported receiving 382 land‑related cases affecting 19,329 families during the year.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Many of these countries have suffered years of war, random mine-laying, clearance and destruction of mines, and unreported village clearance.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, to tourists, land mines present a minimal to nonexistent threat, as most areas near touristed areas have been thoroughly de-mined.^ HALO, “The need to document reclaimed land on the National Mine Area Database in Cambodia,” Phnom Penh, 16 September 2005, p.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HALO, “The need to document reclaimed land on the National Mine Area Database in Cambodia,” Phnom Penh, 16 September 2005, pp.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HALO, “The need to document reclaimed land on the National Mined Area Database,” Phnom Penh, 2005.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many tourists mistake electric or sewage warning signs along national highways for land mine signs.^ HALO, “The need to document reclaimed land on the National Mine Area Database in Cambodia,” Phnom Penh, 16 September 2005, p.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HALO, “The need to document reclaimed land on the National Mine Area Database in Cambodia,” Phnom Penh, 16 September 2005, pp.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HALO, “The need to document reclaimed land on the National Mined Area Database,” Phnom Penh, 2005.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.HALO Trust, a leading mine removal organization in Cambodia asserts that you would have to drive through the jungle for at least an hour north of Angkor Wat to come across any mines.^ Mine contamination occurred after Vietnam invaded Cambodia in 1978, ousting Pol Pot’s Khmer Rouge regime and driving its forces to the Thai-Cambodian border.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to CMAA, there are more than 30 organizations working to rehabilitate mine survivors and other people with disabilities in Cambodia.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jesuit Service Cambodia produced 1,155 wheelchairs and 64 tricycles in 2005, which were distributed by other organizations; 21 of 24 staff are mine survivors.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The threat is to locals in extremely rural areas who rely on subsistence agriculture for their livelihoods.
.All that said, in remote areas such as Preah Vihear (near the border) and Pailin (a former Khmer Rouge stronghold), exercise caution: ask for local advice and heed warning signs, red paint and red rope, which may indicate mined areas.^ Mine contamination occurred after Vietnam invaded Cambodia in 1978, ousting Pol Pot’s Khmer Rouge regime and driving its forces to the Thai-Cambodian border.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ January 2007 " Former Khmer Rouge No.

^ Sihanouk's press began to speak of Viet Cong support for the small local guerrilla groups, the so-called "Red Khmer" or "Khmer Viet Minh."
  • Cambodia, by Noam Chomsky 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.chomsky.info [Source type: Original source]

Do not venture beyond well established roads and paths.

Prostitution

.The age of consent in Cambodia is 15. Prostitution is theoretically illegal but widespread, although generally not overtly aimed at tourists (there are no go-go bars and such).^ Although there were no reports that the government or its agents committed politically motivated killings, security forces committed extrajudicial killings and acted with impunity.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ In general there were no legal impediments to academic freedom.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Cambodia subsequently declared that there have been no antipersonnel mine stockpiles in the country since 2001.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many bar and clubs, however, do have taxi-girls wandering the premises, especially in Phnom Penh.^ July 2009 " KR Tribunal: bar takes no action on KRT lawyer ," by Georgia Wilkins, The Phnom Penh Post .

^ January 2009 " How Mant are too many defendants at the KRT? " by David Scheffer, The Phnom Penh Post .

.Bear in mind that Southeast Asia has a fast-growing HIV infection rate, so safe sex is a must in all cases.^ Data Map > All Regions / Continents > All Countries > Region: Southeast Asia > Country: Cambodia .
  • Joshua Project - Ethnic People Groups of Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.joshuaproject.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Cambodia has gained some notoriety as a destination for pedophiles, but under Cambodian law the penalty for sex with minors can be up to 30 years in prison, and such tourists may be prosecuted by their home countries as well.^ On May 25, the Ratanakiri Provincial Court sentenced a 13‑year‑old Jarai ethnic minority youth to eight months and 10 days in prison for stealing brass gongs.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The law establishes a prison sentence of 15 to 20 years for a person convicted of trafficking in persons under 15 years of age; the penalty is 10 to 15 years for trafficking persons age 15 or older.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Through the assistance of the UNHCR, during the year the government provided temporary protection to individuals who may not qualify as refugees under the 1951 convention and the 1967 protocol, affording such protection to approximately 150 persons.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

Contrary to certain sensationalist claims made in the Western media, pedophilia is not at all condoned in Cambodia.

Stay healthy

.As Cambodia is one of the poorest countries in the world, reliable medical facilities, doctors, clinics, hospitals or medication are scarce, especially in rural areas.^ Transportation to medical care is often not available and it can take a day or more to reach a health facility, which results in many casualties dying before reaching a hospital.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For more serious ailments it is very advisable to get to Bangkok, or to Saigon as more specialists are available and repatriation to your own country is easier. Make sure that you have travel insurance which covers flying you to a city where you can be treated.
.Local hospitals and clinics in Siem Reap (and in the rest of Cambodia) can be in very poor condition and badly equipped and medicines are often past their sell-by date or made up of local mixtures of flour and sugar.^ Working conditions in some small‑scale factories and cottage industries were poor and often did not meet international standards.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ This group is made up of Cambodians who were trained by the American Special Forces in South Vietnam and have carried out operations against Cambodia from bases in South Vietnam and Thailand.
  • Cambodia, by Noam Chomsky 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.chomsky.info [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition to the mine action teams, it has developed locality demining teams made up of villagers that MAG trains and equips for local demining tasks.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In local clinics, avoid getting an infusion to treat dehydration, as there is a risk of septicemia which is caused by bacteria entering their blood during infusions. The same goes for blood transfusions.
Although no health certificates or vaccinations are required by visitors to Cambodia, it is recommended that you get vaccinations against tetanus, diphtheria, meningitis, a polio booster and especially gamma globulin shots (against hepatitis A). In addition to this, you should take a course of malaria tablets, as well as a mosquito net. The mosquitoes come out in force in Siem Reap at dusk. Take a medical kit including panadol, antihistamines, antibiotics, kaolin, oral rehydration solution (ORS), calamine lotion, bandages and band-aids, scissors, DEET insect repellent, etc.
The most common ailment for travelers is diarrhea, which can deteriorate into dysentery, resulting in dehydration. Avoid untreated water, ice made from untreated water and any raw fruit or vegetables that may have been washed in untreated water.
The local water supply is not drinkable, so avoid. Bottled water is available everywhere and is very cheap and you should try to drink 3 liters a day if possible. .Take water purification tablets with you or iodine crystals to sterilize water if you plan to go more rural areas.^ While this shift to the right was taking place within the government, the radical left took on a more activist policy in the cities, with demonstrations and popular agitation, and rebel groups were formed in rural areas.
  • Cambodia, by Noam Chomsky 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.chomsky.info [Source type: Original source]

If you do get severe diarrhea and become badly dehydrated, use an oral rehydration solution to help you overcome it as well as plenty bottled mineral water. However, if you have a lot of blood or mucus in your stools get to a doctor as you probably have dysentery and will need antibiotics.
In the hottest months, March and April, the temperature can rise to 35°C, so use sunscreen and always wear a hat to avoid sunstroke.
Consult your doctor a few weeks before you leave to get the most up to date advice on which inoculations you need and what to take with you.
Please be aware that local prostitutes of both sexes carry with them many STD's. The official HIV rate within the prostitute population is 34%.
.Most medical services in Cambodia are not up to Western standards, and the rest are few and far between and very expensive.^ Pomonti is one of the very few correspondents to have reported in depth from Cambodia.
  • Cambodia, by Noam Chomsky 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.chomsky.info [Source type: Original source]

^ The contrast between Cambodia and its immediate neighbors was described by T. D. Allman, just a few months ago, as follows: .
  • Cambodia, by Noam Chomsky 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.chomsky.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Very likely something of the sort accounts for many, perhaps most, of the attacks on Cambodia.
  • Cambodia, by Noam Chomsky 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.chomsky.info [Source type: Original source]

.Should you become seriously ill or injured while in Cambodia, evacuation to Thailand or Singapore will be the most likely result.^ It is, in fact, directed against civilian targets and has resulted in almost total destruction of most settled areas and forced evacuation of much of the population.
  • Cambodia, by Noam Chomsky 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.chomsky.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Very likely something of the sort accounts for many, perhaps most, of the attacks on Cambodia.
  • Cambodia, by Noam Chomsky 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.chomsky.info [Source type: Original source]

^ June 2006 " Lawyer Says Jailed Ta Mok Is Seriously Ill " The Cambodia Daily.

Because this can be incredibly costly, adequate insurance coverage is an absolute must while in Cambodia.
.There are presently no vaccination requirements to enter Cambodia, unless arriving directly from Africa.^ As they spoke, a policeman entered to report bombing and strafing 200 meters inside Cambodia: "Incidentally, there is no one there [the policeman reported].
  • Cambodia, by Noam Chomsky 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.chomsky.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Cambodia subsequently declared that there have been no antipersonnel mine stockpiles in the country since 2001.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is no requirement that buildings and government services be accessible to people with disabilities and no concerted efforts are made to assist them in becoming civically engaged.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Border officials have from time to time operated scams whereby travellers were "fined" for not having proof of vaccinations, however this now appears to have stopped completely.
Before visiting Cambodia, be sure to discuss prevention with a qualified specialist / travel clinic. .It's especially important to review the relevant vaccinations (hepatitis A, hepatitis B, Japanese encephalitis, measles, rabies, tetanus-diphtheria, typhoid, etc) well in advance; in addition, both malaria and dengue fever are endemic in some parts of Cambodia, particularly in heavily forested areas for malaria, though dengue fever can be found throughout the country.^ Physical rehabilitation services for landmine survivors are generally well organized and of a good quality in Cambodia, particularly for amputees, although the needs remain immense.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.HIV/AIDS is widespread and on the increase, with some surveys showing as many as 40% of commercial sex workers being HIV positive.^ Some Vietnamese women and girls were trafficked through the country for exploitation in the commercial sex trade in other Asian countries.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

If you intend to engage in such activities, be sure to use protection.
Tap water in Cambodia is not suitable for drinking. .Phnom Penh municipality claims that its water is treated and cleaned, and this is probably true; however by the time it gets to your tap, it's most likely been contaminated anyway.^ The Phnom Penh Municipal Court reported 49 convictions of human trafficking offenders from January to October.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ September 2009 " It's all a question of timing ," by Benny Widyono, The Phnom Penh Post .

^ In February the Phnom Penh Municipal Court charged Sralanh Khmer of disinformation and insulting the court's director, Chiv Keng.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

Bottled water is the only thing you should ever drink or brush your teeth with. Iced drinks are safe as the ice is delivered every morning from ice factories.

Respect

Cambodia is a country at a crossroads. .While the more heavily touristed places like Phnom Penh and Siem Reap are well adjusted to tourist behaviour, people in places such as Stung Treng or Banlung are less so.^ Trauma casualties are admitted from several provinces, including Battambang, Krong Pailin, Pursat, Banteay Meanchey, Takeo, Siem Reap, Oddar Meanchey, Kampong Thom and Phnom Penh.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People look at portraits of Khmer Rouge victims at Toul Sleng genocide museum in Phnom Penh April 3, 2008.

^ A domestic NGO estimated that more than 1,200 street children in Phnom Penh had no relationship with their families and more than 10,000 children worked on the streets but returned to families in the evenings.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Always ask permission before you take somebody's picture, as many in the more remote areas do not like to be photographed, and some in the urban areas will ask for payment.^ Transportation to medical care is often not available and it can take a day or more to reach a health facility, which results in many casualties dying before reaching a hospital.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In many areas schools were remote and transportation was a problem.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

Dress for women is more conservative in Cambodia. .While shorts are now acceptable in Phnom Penh and Siem Reap, it is more respectful to wear knee length shorts or trousers when outside of these areas.^ Trauma casualties are admitted from several provinces, including Battambang, Krong Pailin, Pursat, Banteay Meanchey, Takeo, Siem Reap, Oddar Meanchey, Kampong Thom and Phnom Penh.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HALO, “The need to document reclaimed land on the National Mine Area Database in Cambodia,” Phnom Penh, 16 September 2005, p.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HALO, “The need to document reclaimed land on the National Mined Area Database,” Phnom Penh, 2005.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Groups of young children can be found everywhere in Cambodia and many travellers feel 'pestered' by them to purchase their friendship bracelets and other wares. .However, it's often the case that children enjoy the chance to practice their English on you- and by asking them their names and ages a conversation is likely to develop where the 'hard sell' is forgotten.^ Twenty‑nine of the cases involved children below age five.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The government has adopted laws to protect children from exploitation in the workplace; however, enforcement was often weak.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Sexual intercourse with a person under age 15 is illegal; however, child prostitution and trafficking in children occurred.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

Children and adults alike enjoy looking at photographs of your family and home country.
.The Khmer Rouge issue is a very delicate one, and one which Cambodians generally prefer not to talk about.^ Mine contamination occurred after Vietnam invaded Cambodia in 1978, ousting Pol Pot’s Khmer Rouge regime and driving its forces to the Thai-Cambodian border.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ April 2006 " For one child of survivors, Cambodian killings resemble Shoah " by Tibor Krausz, JTA. 13 April 2006 " Last chance to try the Khmer Rouge " The International Herald Tribune.

^ May 2006 " Cambodians mark Day of Anger to remember victims of Khmer Rouge " The Associated Press.

.However, if you approach it with politeness, they'll gladly respond.^ However, the judiciary was generally viewed as corrupt, politically biased, and weak, and persons seldom filed complaints because they did not trust the judicial system.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.People, in general, hold no qualms when talking about the Vietnamese; in fact, they have been widely perceived as liberators when they intervened in Cambodia in 1979 to overthrow the aforementioned brutal regime.^ January 2010 " Cambodia marks overthrow of Khmer Rouge regime ," by The Associated Press .

.The pro-Vietnamese regime gradually rebuilt all the infrastructure that was severely damaged by the Khmer Rouge's policy of de-urbanising the country leading to economic prosperity in the 1980s, with sporadic uprisings.^ Mine contamination occurred after Vietnam invaded Cambodia in 1978, ousting Pol Pot’s Khmer Rouge regime and driving its forces to the Thai-Cambodian border.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Membership in the Khmer Rouge, which ruled the country from 1975 to 1979 and after its overthrow conducted an armed insurgency against the government, is illegal, as is membership in an armed group.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ August 2009 " Khmer Rouge tribunal keeps the country informed ," by Robert Carmichael .

Contact

Cambodia uses the GSM mobile system and Mobitel [31] is the largest operator. .Pre-paid SIM cards are widely available, but technically limited to residents of Cambodia only.^ Cambodia has data available from a number of partial surveys, the Landmine Impact Survey completed in 2002 and extensive technical surveying undertaken by demining operators in the past 14 years.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It's usually easy enough to get your tuk-tuk driver or even the guy at the shop to sign his name on your behalf.
.Internet cafes are cheap (US$0.75-US$1/hour) and especially popular in Phnom Penh and Siem Reap.^ Trauma casualties are admitted from several provinces, including Battambang, Krong Pailin, Pursat, Banteay Meanchey, Takeo, Siem Reap, Oddar Meanchey, Kampong Thom and Phnom Penh.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The directive was issued for her alleged acceptance of bribes in exchange for the release of human traffickers who were running the Chhay Hour II brothel in Phnom Penh.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Landmine Monitor Report 2005 was distributed along the road during the marathon from Siem Reap to Phnom Penh from 27 November to 3 December 2005.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In Kampot, Kratie and Sihanoukville the rate is around US$1/hour. Elsewhere, Internet access can be scarce or non-existent; many cafes feature dated computers and slow dial-up connections.

Get out

Thailand

Ko Chang

From Siem Reap
Ask your hotel for a bus ticket to Ko Chang. We paid 15 USD each and at least the Thailand part of the journey was comfortable (traveling in an aircon mini-bus with a really fast driver). For the Cambodian part of the tour expect several stops at local shops on the way from Siem Reap to Poipet and an very old bus. .Note that the ticket includes the ferry to Ko Chang using Centrepoint Ferry but no transfer to your hotel (just take a songthaew).^ There have been no specific allegations of use, production or transfer of antipersonnel mines by government forces or any opposition forces since 1999.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The bus leaves at 7:30 in Siem Reap and you arrive by a mini-bus at 18:00.
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Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

Cambodian flag
.The Kingdom of Cambodia is a country in South East Asia with a population of over 3 million people.^ South East Asia Air Sortie Database, cited in Dave McCracken, “National Explosive Remnants of War Study, Cambodia,” (draft), NPA in collaboration with CMAA, March 2006, p.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cambodia is a constitutional monarchy with an elected government and a population of approximately 14 million.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Email from Marc Bonnet, Regional Representative, NPA South East Asia, 15 February 2006.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Cambodia is the successor state of the once powerful Hindu and Buddhist Khmer Empire, which ruled most of the Indochinese Peninsula between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries.^ The defrocking order stated Tim Sakhorn "broke the solidarity" between Cambodia and Vietnam by using pagodas to spread propaganda that affects the dignity of Buddhism.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ January 2007 " Cambodias Ruling Party Lashes Out at Khmer Rouge Tribunal Critics " Asia Pacific News.

.Today Cambodia is regarded as one of developing countries, therefore it has many problems, including problems related with educational development.^ Mine-affected States can name many competing needs in their countries to meet the Millennium Development Goals.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cambodia has included mine action within its ninth Millennium Development Goal.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]


Cambodian brief profile

Cb-map.png
Ta Phrom by Berglind R
.Cambodia has an area of 181,035 square kilometers, and it borders Thailand to its west and northwest, Laos to its northeast, and Vietnam to its east and southeast.^ During the Vietnam War, the United States dropped more than a million tons of general purpose bombs and millions of cluster bomblets on Cambodia, mostly in the southeast and the sparsely populated northeast along the border with Vietnam.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An independent evaluation of mine action in 2004 estimated the area at 460 square kilometers and concluded that this figure could be substantially reduced by updated survey and mapping.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, it area-reduced another 35 square kilometers.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Cambodia gained independence from France on November 9, 1953. Cambodia's main industries are garments, tourism, and construction. .As for its language, more than 90% of its population is of Khmer origin therefore speaks the Khmer language, the country's official language.^ Buddhism is the state religion, and more than 93 percent of the population is Buddhist.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ July 2005 " Khmer Rouge tribunal needs more than money " The Bangkok Post.

^ August 2006 " The Khmer Rouge Tribunal as an Opportunity for More than Answers " Searching for the Truth.

The remainder includes Chinese, Vietnamese, and Indians. .As for the religion, most Cambodians are Buddhists of Khmer extraction, but the country also has a substantial number of Muslim Cham, as well as small animist tribes.^ Ethnic Cham Muslims constitute most of the remaining population.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ July 2009 " Engaging Cham Muslims in Khmer Rouge History Learning: Will the Khmer Rouge Leaders Be Charged for Genocide?

^ December 2009 " Cham Muslim Women Seek More Rights ," by Pich Samnang, VOA Khmer .

 In addition, according the report of The World Bank, “Cambodia's economy is showing resilience in spite of the challenging international economic environment. .Economic growth in 2001 was estimated at 6.3 percent, driven by an expanding tourism sector and robust garment exports.^ The Economic Institute's 2006 assessment of corruption in the private sector estimated that in 2005 private sector unofficial payments to public officials totaled $330 million riels.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

In 2001, there was nearly zero inflation. In 2002 inflation continued to be low (World Bank)”. That is, Cambodia’s economic growth has been moderately strong over the past decade. However, this growth has been concentrated in urban areas (The World Bank). Therefore the rural-urban income gap is widening these days. And around 40 percent of the population still remains under the national poverty line.
History

1863 - Cambodia becomes a protectorate of France. French colonial rule lasts for 90 years. .1941 - Prince Norodom Sihanouk becomes king.^ In honour of his memory we reprint the letter which was signed by HRH King Sihanouk, the Prime Minister Samdech Hun Sen, HRH Prince Norodom Rannaridh, Excellency Sam Rainsy and many other famous Cambodians: ‘We are amputees.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Cambodia is occupied by Japan during World War II. 1945 - The Japanese occupation ends. 1946 - France re-imposes its protectorate. Communist guerrillas begin an armed campaign against the French. 1953 - Cambodia wins its independence from France. Under King Sihanouk, it becomes the Kingdom of Cambodia. .Early 1970s - Cambodian army faces two enemies: the North Vietnamese and communist Khmer Rouge.^ Mine contamination occurred after Vietnam invaded Cambodia in 1978, ousting Pol Pot’s Khmer Rouge regime and driving its forces to the Thai-Cambodian border.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ May 2006 " Cambodians mark Day of Anger to remember victims of Khmer Rouge " The Associated Press.

^ August 2009 " Khmer Rouge trial enthrals Cambodian public ," by Robert Carmichael, IPS .

Gradually, the army loses territory. .1975 - Lon Nol is overthrown as the Khmer Rouge led by Pol Pot occupied Phnom Penh.^ Mine contamination occurred after Vietnam invaded Cambodia in 1978, ousting Pol Pot’s Khmer Rouge regime and driving its forces to the Thai-Cambodian border.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ May 2009 " Khmer Rouge defendant: Pol Pot a 'murderer '," by The Associated Press .

^ Membership in the Khmer Rouge, which ruled the country from 1975 to 1979 and after its overthrow conducted an armed insurgency against the government, is illegal, as is membership in an armed group.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

Sihanouk briefly becomes head of state, the country is re-named Kampuchea. Basic freedoms are curtailed and religion is banned. Hundreds of thousands of the educated middle-classes are tortured and executed in special centres. Others starve, or die from disease or exhaustion. 1976 - The country is re-named Democratic Kampuchea. .Sihanouk resigns, Khieu Samphan becomes head of state, Pol Pot is prime minister.^ July 2003 " Khieu Ponnary, 83, First Wife of Pol Pot, Cambodian Despot, Dies " by Elizabeth Becker, The New York Times.

1977 - Fighting breaks out with Vietnam. .1979 January - The Vietnamese take Phnom Penh.^ The Phnom Penh Municipal Court reported 49 convictions of human trafficking offenders from January to October.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Response to Landmine Monitor Questionnaire by Heng Rattana, CMAC, Phnom Penh, 9 February 2006; HALO, “Annual Report 2005,” Phnom Penh, 11 January 2006, p.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Interview with Richard Boulter, HALO, Phnom Penh, 21 April 2006; HALO, “Annual Report 2005,” 11 January 2006, p.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Pol Pot and Khmer Rouge forces flee to the border region with Thailand.^ Mine contamination occurred after Vietnam invaded Cambodia in 1978, ousting Pol Pot’s Khmer Rouge regime and driving its forces to the Thai-Cambodian border.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ May 2009 " Khmer Rouge defendant: Pol Pot a 'murderer '," by The Associated Press .

^ March 2009 " Ex-Khmer Rouge still dominate regions of Cambodia " by Denis Gray, The Miami Herald .

The People's Republic of Kampuchea is established. .Many elements of life before the Khmer Rouge take-over started to be re-established.^ January 2005 " The members of the European Union fear the Khmer Rouge leaders will be killed before they are tried " by Moneaksekar Khmer.

^ Transportation to medical care is often not available and it can take a day or more to reach a health facility, which results in many casualties dying before reaching a hospital.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ July 2009 " Khmer Rouge interrogator feared for his life ," by The Associated Press .

1981 - The pro-Vietnamese Kampuchean People's Revolutionary Party wins the elections to the National Assembly. 1989 - Vietnamese troops withdraw. The country is re-named the State of Cambodia. .Buddhism is re-established as the state religion.^ Buddhism is the state religion, and more than 93 percent of the population is Buddhist.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

1991 - A peace agreement is signed in Paris. .A UN transitional authority shares power temporarily with representatives of the various factions in Cambodia.^ Cambodia notes the mines “were collected by civilian and military authorities from various sources, locations and caches.” [11] .
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prior to enactment of this code, the maximum length of pretrial detention for an adult person was six months under the UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) code, although the government sometimes held pretrial detainees for longer periods.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

Sihanouk becomes head of state. .1993 - General election sees the royalist Funcinpec party win the most seats followed by Hun Sen's Cambodian People's Party (CPP).^ Following national elections in 2003, the Cambodian People's Party (CPP), led by Prime Minister Hun Sen, and the National United Front for a Neutral, Peaceful, Cooperative, and Independent Cambodia (FUNCINPEC), led by Prince Norodom Ranariddh, formed a coalition government in 2004.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ People with disabilities are one of the most vulnerable and poorest groups in Cambodian society; disabled people are generally the poorest of the poor, with very limited access to basic social services, education, skills or vocational training, job placement, and income-generating opportunities.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most were controlled or strongly influenced by the CPP, although a few were independent or aligned with other parties.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.A three-party coalition is formed with Funcinpec's Prince Norodom Ranariddh as prime minister and Hun Sen as deputy prime minister.^ Following national elections in 2003, the Cambodian People's Party (CPP), led by Prime Minister Hun Sen, and the National United Front for a Neutral, Peaceful, Cooperative, and Independent Cambodia (FUNCINPEC), led by Prince Norodom Ranariddh, formed a coalition government in 2004.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The prime minister, NRP president Prince Norodom Ranariddh, FUNCINPEC party leaders, and opposition party leader Sam Rainsy frequently came under attack.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The CPP continued to dominate the three branches of government and other national institutions, with most power concentrated in the hands of the prime minister.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

The monarchy is restored, Sihanouk becomes king again. .The country is re-named the Kingdom of Cambodia.^ Hy Vuthy was a member of the country's largest union, the Free Trade Union of Workers in the Kingdom of Cambodia (FTUWKC), which alleged that he might have been killed because of his labor work.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.1994 - Thousands of Khmer Rouge guerrillas surrender in government amnesty.^ Membership in the Khmer Rouge, which ruled the country from 1975 to 1979 and after its overthrow conducted an armed insurgency against the government, is illegal, as is membership in an armed group.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ April 2005 " Governments pledge $38.48 million for Khmer Rouge trials in Cambodia " by The Pledging Conference for UN in Assistance to Khmer Rouge Trials.

^ October 2004 " Cambodias legislature bars government from pardoning Khmer Rouge " by Ker Munthit, The Associated Press.

.1997 - Hun Sen stages a coup against the prime ministar, Prince Ranariddh, and replaces him with Ung Huot.^ In honour of his memory we reprint the letter which was signed by HRH King Sihanouk, the Prime Minister Samdech Hun Sen, HRH Prince Norodom Rannaridh, Excellency Sam Rainsy and many other famous Cambodians: ‘We are amputees.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Samdech Hun Sen, Prime Minister, television address to the national Mine Awareness Day, 24 February 2006.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Following national elections in 2003, the Cambodian People's Party (CPP), led by Prime Minister Hun Sen, and the National United Front for a Neutral, Peaceful, Cooperative, and Independent Cambodia (FUNCINPEC), led by Prince Norodom Ranariddh, formed a coalition government in 2004.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The coup attracts international condemnation and Cambodia's membership of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is delayed.^ November 2006 " Joint Statement by National and International Judicial Officers of the ECCC " by Reach Sambath, Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia.

.The Khmer Rouge put Pol Pot on trial and sentence him to life imprisonment.^ Mine contamination occurred after Vietnam invaded Cambodia in 1978, ousting Pol Pot’s Khmer Rouge regime and driving its forces to the Thai-Cambodian border.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ January 2007 " German Development Service Donates 300,000 Dollars toward Khmer Rouge Trials " The Deutsch Presse-Agentur.

^ January 2006 " Cambodia prepares Khmer Rouge trial " The International Herald Tribune.

.1998 -Pol Pot dies in his jungle hideout.^ July 2003 " Khieu Ponnary, 83, First Wife of Pol Pot, Cambodian Despot, Dies " by Elizabeth Becker, The New York Times.

Elections in July are won by Hun Sen's CPP, amid allegations of harassment. .A coalition is formed between the CPP and Funcinpec.^ In May the prime minister publicly criticized an RFA reporter as "insolent" and "rude" for asking questions about the coalition between the CPP and FUNCINPEC. Purportedly fearing for his personal safety, the reporter went into hiding outside the country.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Hun Sen becomes prime minister, Ranariddh is president of the National Assembly.^ In honour of his memory we reprint the letter which was signed by HRH King Sihanouk, the Prime Minister Samdech Hun Sen, HRH Prince Norodom Rannaridh, Excellency Sam Rainsy and many other famous Cambodians: ‘We are amputees.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prime Minister Hun Sen set out a goal of making Cambodia free from the impact of mines and UXO by 2012, implying that it was likely that Cambodia would not achieve the Article 5 deadline.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Samdech Hun Sen, Prime Minister, television address to the national Mine Awareness Day, 24 February 2006.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.2001 - Senate approves a law to create a tribunal to bring genocide charges against Khmer Rouge leaders.^ As a cornerstone of national law also to be employed at the Khmer Rouge Tribunal, the new code was based on wide international consultation and was viewed as meeting an international standard suitable for the tribunal's trial judges.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Membership in the Khmer Rouge, which ruled the country from 1975 to 1979 and after its overthrow conducted an armed insurgency against the government, is illegal, as is membership in an armed group.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The ECCC later arrested and detained four more Khmer Rouge leaders and charged them with crimes against humanity and war crimes: Nuon Chea (also known as "Brother Number 2"), Khieu Samphan, Ieng Sary, and Ieng Thirith, who was charged only with crimes against humanity.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.2001 June - International donors, encouraged by Cambodia's reform efforts, pledge $560 million in aid at a donor conference in Tokyo.^ For the meeting of the Consultative Group on Cambodia Donors on 2-4 March 2006, the CCBL, Handicap International and Norwegian People’s Aid prepared an NGO statement on humanitarian mine action.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.2001 June - Five Cambodians, three of them US citizens, are sentenced to life for involvement in armed attack by US-based Cambodian Freedom Fighters (CFF) on government buildings in Phnom Penh in 2000. CFF says it will continue campaign to overthrow Prime Minister Hun Sen.^ In honour of his memory we reprint the letter which was signed by HRH King Sihanouk, the Prime Minister Samdech Hun Sen, HRH Prince Norodom Rannaridh, Excellency Sam Rainsy and many other famous Cambodians: ‘We are amputees.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Asylum seekers who reached the UNHCR Phnom Penh office were processed with government cooperation.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Veterans International Cambodia operated three rehabilitation centers, in Phnom Penh, Kratie and Prey Veng, and also provided community-based rehabilitation, outreach teams and referrals to other services.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

2001 December - First bridge across the Mekong River opens, linking the east and west of the country. The 1.36km bridge cost $56 million. .2002 February - First multi-party local elections; ruling Cambodian People's Party wins in all but 23 out of 1,620 communes.^ NGOs reported that on election day, some ruling party incumbents illegally issued voter registration documents, stood watch in some polling station areas where local authorities were prohibited, and provided assistance to voters in these prohibited areas.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ On February 14, three unidentified persons killed Sam Rainsy Party (SRP) activist Chea Sovin, spouse of an SRP candidate for the April commune council elections in Battambang Province.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.2004 August - Parliament ratifies kingdom's entry into World Trade Organization (WTO).^ The Kingdom of Cambodia signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 3 December 1997, ratified on 28 July 1999 and the treaty entered into force on 1 January 2000.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

2004 October - King Sihanouk abdicates and is succeeded by his son Norodom Sihamoni. .2005 April - Tribunal to try surviving Khmer Rouge leaders gets green light from UN after years of debate about funding.^ Landmine Monitor obtained a copy of Cambodia’s Article 7 report dated April 2006, for calendar year 2005; this was not recorded by the UN website as of 19 June 2006.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.2005 October - Prime minister signs a controversial border agreement with Vietnam.^ Deputy Prime Minister Sok An, address during the signing ceremony between UN Development Programme (UNDP) and Australia, 25 January 2006.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Deputy Prime Minister Sok An, address during the signing ceremony between UNDP and Australia, 25 January 2006.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It submitted the first five chapters for approval by the Prime Minister in 2005 and they came into effect in August.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Legal action is taken against some critics of the deal, prompting international concern.^ No administrative or legal action was taken against the officers.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ There was no investigation into the case or legal action against Prak Vutha.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ According to ADHOC, no legal or disciplinary actions were taken against the persons responsible for the illegal actions.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.2006 July - Ta Mok, one of the top leaders of the brutal Khmer Rouge regime, dies aged 80. 2007 July - UN-backed court tribunals begin questioning suspects about allegations of genocide by the Khmer Rouge.^ Mine contamination occurred after Vietnam invaded Cambodia in 1978, ousting Pol Pot’s Khmer Rouge regime and driving its forces to the Thai-Cambodian border.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A July 2006 Council of Ministers directive prohibiting government officials and employees from speaking to the media or the public about government corruption remained in effect.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ In the case of at least one Khmer Kampuchea Krom activist, an arrest warrant was outstanding due to his statements about what the government considers to be sovereign Vietnamese territory.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.2007 September - Most senior surviving member of Khmer Rouge, Nuon Chea - "Brother Number Two" - is arrested and charged with crimes against humanity.^ The ECCC later arrested and detained four more Khmer Rouge leaders and charged them with crimes against humanity and war crimes: Nuon Chea (also known as "Brother Number 2"), Khieu Samphan, Ieng Sary, and Ieng Thirith, who was charged only with crimes against humanity.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ On July 31, the ECCC charged Kaing Guek Eav, alias Duch, with crimes against humanity and subsequently charged four other senior officials; at year's end all were in detention awaiting trial.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ In February two major daily Khmer newspapers refused to print advertisements demanding justice for the two men imprisoned for the killing of union leader Chea Vichea.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.2008 February - Cambodian court sentences 20 member of small Cambodian Freedom Fighters group to prison for attack on prime minister's office in November 2000. 2008 March - Genocide tribunal refuses bail plea of Nuon Chea.^ Samdech Hun Sen, Prime Minister, television address to the national Mine Awareness Day, 24 February 2006.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The law establishes a prison sentence of 15 to 20 years for a person convicted of trafficking in persons under 15 years of age; the penalty is 10 to 15 years for trafficking persons age 15 or older.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ On April 12, an appeals court hearing upheld the Phnom Penh Municipal Court decision sentencing them to 20 years each in prison, despite new exculpatory evidence.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.2008 April - US court convicts Cambodian-born Cambodian Freedom Fighters leader Chhun Yasith of masterminding 2000 attack.^ On April 12, the appeals court had upheld 20‑year sentences each for Born Samnang and Sok Sam Oeun.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.2008 July - PM Hun Sen's ruling Cambodian People's Party (CPP) claims victory in parliamentary elections.^ Following national elections in 2003, the Cambodian People's Party (CPP), led by Prime Minister Hun Sen, and the National United Front for a Neutral, Peaceful, Cooperative, and Independent Cambodia (FUNCINPEC), led by Prince Norodom Ranariddh, formed a coalition government in 2004.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

EU monitors say the vote fell short of international standards. .2008 July - Cambodia and Thailand move troops to disputed land near ancient Preah Vihear temple after decision to list it as UN World Heritage Site fans nationalist emotions on both sides.^ Maps showing the locations of mine/UXO incidents reveal a concentration near the K5 belt in the Cambodia/Thailand border area, in the provinces of Banteay Meanchey, Battambang, Krong Pailin, Oddar Meanchey, Preah Vihear and Pursat.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Officials from both states start talks to resolve standoff. (BBC News 2008)
.This part would focus on the Khmer Rouge, because it has affected the educational system in Cambodia.^ Mine contamination occurred after Vietnam invaded Cambodia in 1978, ousting Pol Pot’s Khmer Rouge regime and driving its forces to the Thai-Cambodian border.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Children were affected adversely by an inadequate educational system.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.On 17 April 1975, after five years of civil war, Cambodia’s capital Phnom Penh fell to the forces of the Communist Party of Kampuchea (CPK), popularly known as the Khmer Rouge (Linton).^ Mine contamination occurred after Vietnam invaded Cambodia in 1978, ousting Pol Pot’s Khmer Rouge regime and driving its forces to the Thai-Cambodian border.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At year's end there were 467 Montagnards in UNHCR protection sites in Phnom Penh, which included 101 Montagnards who arrived in previous years.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Landmine Monitor Questionnaire by Mary Scott, Cambodia Trust, Phnom Penh, 13 March 2006.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Pol Pot was the leader of the Khmer Rouge.^ Mine contamination occurred after Vietnam invaded Cambodia in 1978, ousting Pol Pot’s Khmer Rouge regime and driving its forces to the Thai-Cambodian border.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

“The country was cut off from the outside world, its cities emptied, its economy militarized, and its Buddhist and folk cultures destroyed. .The leadership’s ‘vision’ of a better Cambodia led to extraordinary horrors on Cambodian people, who had to endure the forced movement of their urban populations, starvation, unlawful killings, forced labor, torture, and cruel, inhumane and degrading treatment and persecution on a massive scale”(Linton).^ Jesuit Service Cambodia also provided a Khmer translation of the Cambodian plans and objectives for victim assistance in order to encourage the involvement of people with disabilities and service providers.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hy Vuthy was a member of the country's largest union, the Free Trade Union of Workers in the Kingdom of Cambodia (FTUWKC), which alleged that he might have been killed because of his labor work.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment .
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Mao-think that Pol Pot studied in China, the ethnocentric policy, and anti-Vietnam policy became the theoretical support which created the regime of terror by the Khmer Rouge (Miyamoto).^ Mine contamination occurred after Vietnam invaded Cambodia in 1978, ousting Pol Pot’s Khmer Rouge regime and driving its forces to the Thai-Cambodian border.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Pol Pot sanctioned the use of massive violence because he believed it was the only “practical” way to achieve and protect his utopian vision for a better society in Cambodia (Valentino).^ Mine contamination occurred after Vietnam invaded Cambodia in 1978, ousting Pol Pot’s Khmer Rouge regime and driving its forces to the Thai-Cambodian border.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In practice the government provided some protection against refoulement, the return of persons to a country where there is reason to believe they feared persecution.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.By the hands of the Khmer Rouge, mainly educated people (such as teachers and respected local leaders and so on) had been killed, since they were likely to be rebel groups.^ In February two major daily Khmer newspapers refused to print advertisements demanding justice for the two men imprisoned for the killing of union leader Chea Vichea.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Membership in the Khmer Rouge, which ruled the country from 1975 to 1979 and after its overthrow conducted an armed insurgency against the government, is illegal, as is membership in an armed group.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The LIS data remains the primary indicator to government planners of the need for mine clearance and as such desperately needs to be updated to include the efforts of local people.” [75] .
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Furthermore, the Khmer Rouge had denied the value of education at all points. .Therefore, it can be said that Cambodia had experienced a systematic destruction of education by the Khmer Rouge, until Heng Samrin robbed the Khmer Rouge of its power in 1979. According to Linton, an estimated 20% of the 1975’s population of 7.7million people lost their lives.^ Mine contamination occurred after Vietnam invaded Cambodia in 1978, ousting Pol Pot’s Khmer Rouge regime and driving its forces to the Thai-Cambodian border.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Membership in the Khmer Rouge, which ruled the country from 1975 to 1979 and after its overthrow conducted an armed insurgency against the government, is illegal, as is membership in an armed group.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Jesuit Service Cambodia works with 250 people with a disability in Siem Reap province, in 13 villages in Battambang and Banteay Meanchey provinces, in 229 villages in Oddar Meanchey and in the old Khmer Rouge areas of Kandal.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After the Khmer Rouge was over, the United Nations peacekeeping force, the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC), began monitoring Cambodia in 1992. “The goal of UNTAC was disarmament of the troops, and national elections for a constituent assembly which took place in 1993. (…) Contrary to the fears of many, the elections were peaceful.^ Mine contamination occurred after Vietnam invaded Cambodia in 1978, ousting Pol Pot’s Khmer Rouge regime and driving its forces to the Thai-Cambodian border.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prior to enactment of this code, the maximum length of pretrial detention for an adult person was six months under the UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) code, although the government sometimes held pretrial detainees for longer periods.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Following national elections in 2003, the Cambodian People's Party (CPP), led by Prime Minister Hun Sen, and the National United Front for a Neutral, Peaceful, Cooperative, and Independent Cambodia (FUNCINPEC), led by Prince Norodom Ranariddh, formed a coalition government in 2004.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

Over 90 percent of the registered voters went to the polls in Cambodian freest, fairest, and most secret election since the colonial era. .(…) For the first time in Cambodian history, a majority of Cambodians had voted against an armed government such as the Khmer Rouge” (Chandler).^ Mine contamination occurred after Vietnam invaded Cambodia in 1978, ousting Pol Pot’s Khmer Rouge regime and driving its forces to the Thai-Cambodian border.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CMAA embarked on fully (as distinct from temporarily) accrediting all operators for the first time in 2006 with firm support from the government.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For the first time, the Cambodian armed forces sent deminers to join a UN peacekeeping mission.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Therefore it can be said: Cambodia was able to gradually recover from many years of violence by the Khmer Rouge regime, in the wake of those elections, although not all problems were solved.^ Mine contamination occurred after Vietnam invaded Cambodia in 1978, ousting Pol Pot’s Khmer Rouge regime and driving its forces to the Thai-Cambodian border.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On June 12, the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC) adopted its internal rules to begin prosecuting egregious crimes of the 1975‑79 Khmer Rouge regime.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Although the courts prosecuted some members of the security forces for human rights abuses, impunity for most of those who committed abuses remained a problem.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]


Educational development strategy and challenge in Cambodia

.Although all educational systems of Cambodia were abolished under the regime of terror by the Khmer Rouge, according to the World Bank, there have been significant improvements in the past five years in the education sector in Cambodia, particularly in terms of primary net enrollment gains (it’s because the government of Cambodia has put more efforts on the primary education, according to Komai), the introduction of program based-budgeting and the development of a sound pro-poor policy framework.^ Mine contamination occurred after Vietnam invaded Cambodia in 1978, ousting Pol Pot’s Khmer Rouge regime and driving its forces to the Thai-Cambodian border.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There were an estimated 20 Khmer‑language newspapers published regularly; more than half were considered pro‑CPP, and at least two newspapers were considered to support each of the other main political parties--FUNCINPEC, the SRP, and the NRP. Although the three largest circulation newspapers were considered pro‑CPP, most newspapers criticized the government, particularly on corruption and land grabbing.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Cambodia has data available from a number of partial surveys, the Landmine Impact Survey completed in 2002 and extensive technical surveying undertaken by demining operators in the past 14 years.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

But in Cambodia, several challenges remain. .For example, most Cambodian children attend some schooling, but a large share complete only a few grades-with 85 percent of 15 to 19 year olds completing just grade 1, while only 27 percent complete grade 7 (The World Bank).^ During the year there were 19 collective bargaining agreements registered with the MOLVT. Most were conciliation agreements that did not meet international collective bargaining standards.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ In 2005 the Ministry of Education reported that 91 percent of eligible children were enrolled in primary school, but this number did not reflect attendance.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The law permits children between 12 and 15 to engage in "light work" that is not hazardous to their health and does not affect school attendance.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.It is partly because parents (especially those in rural areas) are blind to the importance of education.^ In rural areas schools often provided only a few years of education.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Societal discrimination against those infected with HIV/AIDS remained a problem in rural areas; however, discrimination was moderated by HIV/AIDS awareness programs.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

There are also disparities in education participation rates by different regions. .Moreover, inefficiency and poor quality in education service delivery at primary, secondary and tertiary levels are other major challenges.^ A lack of resources, low salaries, and poor training contributed to a high level of corruption and inefficiency in the judicial branch, and the government did not ensure due process.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

For instance, the number and the quality of teachers in Cambodia are insufficient. .It is because almost all of experienced old teachers had been killed under the regime of the Khmer Rouge.^ Mine contamination occurred after Vietnam invaded Cambodia in 1978, ousting Pol Pot’s Khmer Rouge regime and driving its forces to the Thai-Cambodian border.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In fact, one thirds of teachers in the primary school have not finished even lower secondary education (Komai).^ In 2005 the Ministry of Education reported that 91 percent of eligible children were enrolled in primary school, but this number did not reflect attendance.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ In 2005, about 3,500 teachers provided presentations in 996 schools within the most affected communities to about 275,000 primary school pupils.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From 1 February to 30 March 2006, 3,118 primary school teachers were trained in child-focused approaches to MRE and 4,000 trainee teachers received MRE training.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

And the budget for education is extremely restricted, compared to neighboring nations (Komai). .Thus, the salary of teachers is too low, which causes teachers’ corrupt practices.^ Meager salaries contributed to "survival corruption" among low‑level public servants, while a culture of impunity enabled corruption to flourish among senior officials.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ A lack of resources, low salaries, and poor training contributed to a high level of corruption and inefficiency in the judicial branch, and the government did not ensure due process.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

And the time for studying in the school is 15 hours per week, which is extremely insufficient, too (Komai). Another challenge is related to child prostitution. “In Cambodia, child prostitution has become a worsening problem since 1990’s. .Many Cambodian children have been deceived by words that there are “good” sources of employment in urban areas and have left their home, and have been forced to work in the house of prostitution.^ The constitution prohibits prostitution; however, there is no specific legislation against working as a prostitute.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The law prohibits forced or compulsory labor, including by children, but there were reports that such practices occurred, almost exclusively in the informal sector.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Many children left school to help their families in subsistence agriculture, began school at a late age, or did not attend school at all.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.In Cambodia, there are more than 8.000~15.000 children who had been damaged by child prostitution” (Social Ecoo).^ On March 15, more than 500 Jarai indigenous families in Ratanakiri Province demanded the removal of local officials who they alleged were involved in the fraudulent sale of more than 3,000 acres of their communal land.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ According to CMAA, there are more than 30 organizations working to rehabilitate mine survivors and other people with disabilities in Cambodia.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ MRE in Cambodia has reached more than four million people since 1993.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Furthermore, expanding of child prostitution causes spread of HIV/AIDS among Cambodian children.^ Sexual intercourse with a person under age 15 is illegal; however, child prostitution and trafficking in children occurred.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The government relied on international aid to fund most child social welfare programs, resulting in only modest funds for problems that affect children.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

.HIV/AIDS is one of educational challenge, since children who are infected with the HIV virus cannot get an education well.^ The children of mine/UXO survivors or people who have died in a mine/UXO incident often cannot go to school because the education cost is too high for the family.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Societal discrimination against those infected with HIV/AIDS remained a problem in rural areas; however, discrimination was moderated by HIV/AIDS awareness programs.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ There was no official discrimination against those infected with HIV/AIDS. There were no reported cases of sexual orientation discrimination in employment, housing, statelessness, or access to education or health care.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

The external actor involved in Cambodian educational development

.Cambodia has been aided by a number of more developed nations like France, West-Germany, Canada, Australia, the United States, and Japan.^ Maximum stay in Cambodia: 30 days Group discounts Submit Cambodia business visa application Add Cambodia to Selection, and apply for more visas Cambodia visa for citizens of United States is required for more information please contact the nearest Cambodia embassy .
  • Cambodia Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Cambodian Visas Online. 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cambodia.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cambodia entry visa is not required for citizens of United States.
  • Cambodia Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Cambodian Visas Online. 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cambodia.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cambodia’s national mine action strategy (updated in March 2005) aimed to strengthen MRE in order to substantially reduce the number of casualties by the end of 2006.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The United States has contributed up to $5 million through international relief agencies to children within Cambodia (Sutter).^ Cambodia entry visa is not required for citizens of United States.
  • Cambodia Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Cambodian Visas Online. 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cambodia.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Funding reported for mine action in Cambodia in 2005 totaled some $25.6 million including government contributions.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cambodia visa requirements: 1-800-345-6541 Cambodia visa for citizens of United States .
  • Cambodia Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Cambodian Visas Online. 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cambodia.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

As for Japan, many Japanese organizations such as JICA have supported Cambodian educational development. .For example JICA has tried to revive Cambodian educational system, by forming projects including “the project for improvement of science and mathematics education (2000-2004)”, which is aimed to enable teachers engaged in science and mathematics education to acquire skills more than cheap tricks.^ The Cambodian Red Cross community-based landmine risk education project, established in 2000, provided MRE to 16,408 people and 2,668 students in 183 communes in six provinces in 2005.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 2000, estimates were reported that informal village deminers had cleared 45 percent of all land cleared in Cambodia in 1993-1999, more than any other demining agency.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The project aims to develop a system for safe removal of high-cost explosives from antivehicle mines, bombs and large-caliber artillery shells.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition, The World Bank, UNICEF, UNESCO, Asian Development Bank (ADB), and some NGOs (such as World Vision in the United States, Save the Children in the UK, and so on) have also supported educational development in Cambodia.^ Disability Development Services Pursat, a Khmer NGO established in 2003, provides physical rehabilitation services, psychosocial support, facilitates access to education for children and vocational training, and raises awareness on disability issues, in six villages in remote areas of the province of Pursat.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cambodia business visa fees for citizens of United States .
  • Cambodia Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Cambodian Visas Online. 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cambodia.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cambodia entry visa is not required for citizens of United States.
  • Cambodia Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Cambodian Visas Online. 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cambodia.visahq.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Among interesting projects formed by those organizations is the World Bank’s “Education Quality Improvement Project (1999 - 2004)”. .This project aimed to develop and put into practice a participatory approach to school quality improvement and performance-based resource management.^ The MOSAVY worked with the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF) and local NGOs to manage community‑based networks aimed at preventing trafficking.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The project aims to develop a system for safe removal of high-cost explosives from antivehicle mines, bombs and large-caliber artillery shells.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The goal was to have participating schools eventually show improvements in student enrollment, attendance and achievement (The World Bank). .The result was that Students in more than 1,000 participating schools in Cambodia achieved higher test scores in literacy, had lower drop-out and higher promotion rates.^ On July 31, Sihanoukville City Hall issued an eviction notice ordering more than 100 families out of the city's Mittapheap District.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ A domestic NGO estimated that more than 1,200 street children in Phnom Penh had no relationship with their families and more than 10,000 children worked on the streets but returned to families in the evenings.
  • Cambodia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ MRE in Cambodia has reached more than four million people since 1993.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition, this project could show that health and vocational training was the important factor in reducing student drop-out, and in improving promotion rates.^ In addition, 28,000 trained students delivered MRE to 85,212 out-of-school children and their parents.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]


Works Cited

“Cambodian Information Center”. 2008. <http://www.cambodia.org/>
Chandler, David. 2008. “A History of Cambodia”. Westview Press: Colorado, America.
“Japan International Cooperation Agency”. 1995. <http://www.jica.go.jp/Index-j.html>
Kennsuke, Miyamoto. 1993. “Tounan Asia no Gennzai”. 〔The Present of Southeast Asia〕. Horupu Publication: Tokyo, Japan.
Komai, Hiroshi. 2001. “Shinnsei Cambodia”. 〔New Birth of Cambodia〕. Akashi Publication: Tokyo, Japan.
Linton, Suzannah. 2004. “Reconciliation in Cambodia”. .Documentation Center of Cambodia: Phnom Penh, Cambodia.^ Veterans International Cambodia operated three rehabilitation centers, in Phnom Penh, Kratie and Prey Veng, and also provided community-based rehabilitation, outreach teams and referrals to other services.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Landmine Monitor Questionnaire by Mary Scott, Cambodia Trust, Phnom Penh, 13 March 2006.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Robert Griffin and Robert Keeley, “Joint Evaluation of Mine Action in Cambodia for the Donor Working Group on Mine Action,” Volume I, Phnom Penh, 4 December 2004.
  • Landmine Monitor (LM): Landmine Monitor 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lm.icbl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Sutter, Robert G. 1991. “The Cambodian Crisis and U.S. Policy Dilemmas”. Westview Press: Colorado, America.
The World Bank Group. 2008. “The World Bank”. <http://www.worldbank.org/>
Valentino, Benjamin A. 2004. “Final Solutions: Mass Killing and Genocide in the Twentieth Century”. Cornell University Press: New York, America.

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
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From LoveToKnow 1911

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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Wikipedia has an article on:

Contents

English

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Wikipedia has an article on:

Etymology

Ultimately from Sanskrit Kamboja; Middle Khmer, Kambuja (Modern Khmer, Kampuchea); French, Cambodge and Portuguese, Camboja

Proper noun

Singular
Cambodia
Plural
-
Cambodia
.
  1. A country in Southeast Asia.^ The country is dominated by the Tonle Sap lake, Southeast Asia 's largest lake, which during the rainy season can swell to double its normal size.
    • Cambodia@Everything2.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Other Countries in Southeast Asia: Brunei .
    • Cambodia - Kingdom of Cambodia - Country Profile - Kampuchea - South East Asia - Cambodia Tourism 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.nationsonline.org [Source type: News]

    ^ Highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) continues to cause outbreaks in domestic and wild bird populations and has caused human cases in several countries in Southeast Asia.
    • Health Information for Cambodia | CDC Travelers' Health 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC wwwnc.cdc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Official name: Kingdom of Cambodia.^ Cambodia is now officially the Kingdom of Cambodia.
    • US-ASEAN Business Council 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.us-asean.org [Source type: News]

    ^ OFFICIAL NAME: Kingdom of Cambodia CAPITAL: Phnom Penh SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT: Constitutional Monarchy AREA: 181,035 Sq Km (69,898 Sq Mi) ESTIMATED 2000 POPULATION 10,766,700 .
    • Cambodia - Atlapedia Online 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.atlapedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Full Name: Kingdom of Cambodia (Kampuchea) Area: 181,035sq km Language: Khmer (a derivative of Sanskrit) Population: approx.
    • Golf in Cambodia, Golf Holidays in Cambodia, Cambodia Golf 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.asia-adventures.com [Source type: General]
    • Holidays in Cambodia (Angkor Wat), Cambodia Tours, Cambodia Travel 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.asia-adventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Former name: Kampuchea

Translations

See also


Simple English

Kingdom of Cambodia

Preăh Réachéanachâkr Kâmpŭchea

File:Flag of File:Royal Arms of
Official flag Coat of Arms
National information
National motto: Nation, Religion, King
National anthem: "Nokoreach"
About the people
Official languages: Khmer
Population: (# of people)
  - Total: 13,607,069 (ranked 65)
  - Density: 74 per km²
Geography / Places
[[Image:|250px|none|country map]] Here is the country on a map.
Capital city: Phnom Penh
Largest city: Phnom Penh
Area
  - Total: 181,040 (ranked 87)
  - Water:n/a km² (2.5%)
Politics / Government
Established: 1949
Leaders: King: Norodom Sihamoni
Prime Minister: Hun Sen
Economy / Money
Currency:
(Name of money)
Riel (KHR)
International information
Time zone: +7
Telephone dialing code: +855
Internet domain: .kh

Cambodia or Kampuchea is a country in Southeast Asia. It is near Vietnam, Laos, and Thailand. About 13 million people live in Cambodia. The people of Cambodia are called Cambodians or Kampucheans. Khmer is the official language. The country has recently emerged from a long civil war and the Khmer Rouge Years. The current leader, Hun Sen, has been accused by the international community of moving the country towards a dictatorship.[needs proof] It is part of ASEAN, Association of South East Asian Nations.

Contents

History

The ancestors of Cambodia had an empire called Angkor centered in the northwest of present day Cambodia. The Angkor civilization is the world's largest pre-industrial civilization. One of the buildings from Angkor is a Hindu/Buddhist temple called Angkor Wat which is the world's largest religious structure. This empire was later destroyed due to ecological and environmental problems as well as failing infrastructure. Theravada Buddhism came to the country in the 13th century via monks from Sri Lanka. Since, then Buddhism has been the official religion.

Sports

In Cambodia, people play many sports. Some sports that are enjoyed that come from the West include golf, rugby and soccer. Traditional Cambodian sports are buffalo racing, dragon boat racing and a kickboxing martial art known as pradal serey. Cambodia attended its first Olympic Games in 1956 and participated in two more before warfare and civil strife interrupted its attendance. The country returned to regular participation with the 1996 Summer Games. Cambodia managed fourth in soccer in the 1972 Southeast Asian games.

Culture

The culture of Cambodia has been influenced by India and China. Cambodian culture has also influence Thai and Laos culture. Today in Cambodia most people practice Buddhism. A lot of their customs revolve around Buddhism.

The food of Cambodia includes tropical fruits, rice, noodles and various soups. Cambodians like to eat a rice noodle soup called 'kah-tieu' in the morning. Cambodians are famous for a type of 'kah-tieu' called 'kah-tieu Phnom Penh' which has shrimp, beef balls, fried garlic, pork broth and chicken. Cambodians also eat a red curry noodle soup with rice vermiclle noodles. Curry is also eaten with rice or French bread in Cambodia. Cambodian food is similar to Chinese, Vietnamese and Thai food.

Cambodia also has a mystical tattoo called a yantra tattoo that is popular with soldiers. A yantra tattoo has ancient Khmer and Pali(An ancient Indian language) writing. A yantra tattoo is usually done by a religious person or monk. The tattoo artist guarantees that the person cannot receive any physical harm as long as they follow certain conditions. A person is suppose to not talk to anyone for three days and three nights. Another alternative is to follow the five Buddhist percepts. Movie star actress Angelina Jolie is known to have a yantra tattoo.

Cambodians celebrate the Cambodian New Years in April. It is based on Theravada Buddhism. The dates depends on astrological signs but are usually are on April 13-15 or April 14-16.

Flag

The Cambodian includes a three-towered temple called Angkor Wat. It is the famous monument in the country. Many tourists visit the temple. The Cambodian flag has three horizontal bands. There are two blue bands on the top and the bottom. There is a red band that is twice the height of each blue band. The red band represents the nation. The temple represents the structure of the universe. [1]

Transportation

People in Cambodia use many different type of transportation. Transportation in Cambodia include: train, boat, car, motorcycle, elephant, train and airplane.

Economy

The Cambodian economy has been growing rapidly in recent years. Cambodia is set to build its first skyscraper, Gold Tower 42. Cambodia is also building a satellite city next to Phnom Penh which is called Camko City. Camko City is being constructed by Korean companies to modernize Phnom Penh so as to make it appealing to foreign investors and businesses. Cambodia is also one of the most corrupted nations in the world and has been pressured by international communities to fix it.

Foreign relations

Cambodia has foreign relations with most nations. It is part of ASEAN. Cambodia has border issues with Vietnam and Thailand over lost territories. Cambodia is one of a few nations with good relations with both Koreas. South Korean president Lee Myung Bak was an economic advisor to Cambodian prime minister Hun Sen and former Cambodian King Norodom Sihanouk was a good friend with former North Korean leader Kim Il-sung.

Ethnic groups

The Khmer (Cambodians) account for the vast majority of the population. Ethnic minorities include Chinese, Vietnamese, Muslim Cham-Malays, Laotians, and various native peoples of the rural highlands.

Land

Although much of Cambodia is heavily forested, the central lowland region is covered with rice paddies, fields of dry crops such as corn (maize) and tobacco, tracts of tall grass and reeds, and thinly wooded areas. Savanna grassland occur in the plains, with the grasses reaching a height of 5 feet (1.5 metres). In the eastern highlands the high plateaus are covered with grasses and deciduous forests. Broad-leaved evergreen forests grow in the mountainous areas to the north, with trees 100 feet (30 metres) high emerging from thick undergrowths of vines, rattans, palms, bamboos, and assorted woody and herbaceous ground plants. In the southwestern highlands, open forests of pines are found at the higher elevations, while the rain-drenched seaward slopes are blanketed with virgin rainforests growing to heights of 150 feet (45 metres) or more. Vegetation along the coastal strip ranges from evergreen forests to nearly impenetrable mangroves.

  1. National Flag of Cambodia. Retrieved from http://www.worldflags101.com/c/cambodia-flag.aspx on the 16 September 2010

Links

Ta Chen's mentor Duch found guilty of crimes against humanity, war crimes, genocide, first khmer rogue trial

khmer rogue war crimes trials, cruel interrogator war criminal Ta Chen still free

khmer rogue overdue trials, ta chen still wanted man


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 11, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Cambodia, which are similar to those in the above article.