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City of Cambridge, Maryland
—  City  —

Seal
Location of Cambridge, Maryland
Coordinates: 38°33′59″N 76°4′37″W / 38.56639°N 76.07694°W / 38.56639; -76.07694
Country United States
State Maryland
County Dorchester
Area
 - Total 900.0 sq mi (2,300.3 km2)
 - Land 60.7 sq mi (17.4 km2)
 - Water 20.3 sq mi (5.8 km2)
Elevation 20 ft (6 m)
Population (2000)
 - Total 10,911
 Density 1,622.3/sq mi (6,260.4/km2)
Time zone Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)
 - Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
ZIP code 21613
Area code(s) 410
FIPS code 24-12400
GNIS feature ID 0589879

Cambridge is a city in Dorchester County, Maryland, United States. The population was 10,911 at the 2000 census and 11,752 according to current July 2008 census estimates.[1] It is the county seat of Dorchester County and the county's largest municipality. Cambridge is the fourth most populous city in Maryland's Eastern Shore region, after Salisbury, Elkton and Easton.[1][2]

Contents

History

As was the case with most of the waterway areas, this was first settled by indigenous peoples. By the time of English colonization, the Algonquian-speaking Choptank Indians lived along the river of the same name.

Cambridge Municipal Building

Settled by English colonists in 1684, Cambridge is one of the oldest colonial cities in Maryland.[3] During the colonial years, the English colonists developed farming on the Eastern Shore. The largest plantations were devoted first to tobacco, and then mixed farming. Planters employed many enslaved Africans for tobacco but needed less labor for mixed farming. The town was a trading center for the area. It was incorporated officially in 1793. It occupies part of the former Choptank Indian Reservation.[4]

Cambridge developed food processing industries in the late 19th century, canning oysters, tomatoes and sweet potatoes in a business owned by the Phillips family. The company won contracts with the Department of Defense during the First and Second World wars that aided its growth. At its peak, it employed up to 10,000 people in the area.[5] These provided employment as agricultural mechanization reduced the need for farm laborers.

When changing tastes caused a decline in business and Phillips closed in the early 1960s, it had a huge impact in the area, adding to social problems.[6] African Americans, who were one-third of the population, had long been kept out of better jobs and housing, and struggled to survive in the segregated city. African Americans were restricted in jobs, housing, schools, and access to health care, among other issues. They had to travel two hours to Baltimore for treatment at a hospital. After the Phillips closing, they suffered 29% unemployment, more than three times that of whites in the city. The Eastern Shore counties were historically more conservative and segregated than some other parts of Maryland.[7]

During the period from 1962 until 1967, Cambridge was a center of Civil Rights Movement protests as blacks sought access to work and housing. They also wanted to end racial segregation of schools and other public facilities during the Civil Rights Movement. During the 1960s, race-related violence erupted on more than one occasion as civil rights protesters were attacked by white mobs. Because of the economic issues, the civil rights movement provoked what was in essence a class war, as the aspirations of "lower class whites" were also frustrated by contemporary conditions.[8] Forces of the Maryland National Guard were assigned to the city for peace-keeping after repeated violence of white mobs against blacks.[9] With the passage of the Civil Rights Act in 1964, public segregation ended, but economic opportunity for all residents in the relatively isolated area has been difficult to achieve.

After 2000 the city's economy was boosted by jobs associated with the opening of a 400-room Hyatt resort in August 2002. This resort includes a golf course, spa, and marina. The resort was the site of the 2007 US House Republican Conference, during which speeches were given by U.S. President George W. Bush[10].

Cambridge was designated a Maryland Main Street community on July 1, 2003. Cambridge Main Street is a comprehensive downtown revitalization process created by the Maryland Department of Housing and Community Development. It plans to strengthen the economic potential of select cities around the state. The initiative has led to enhancements of its heritage tourism attractions. Together with other cities on the Eastern Shore, Cambridge is attracting more tourists. It has revitalized its downtown business district, part of which was designated a historical district in 1990.[11]

Four different teams in the old Eastern Shore Baseball League — the Canners, Cardinals, Clippers, and Dodgers — were located in Cambridge.

Geography

Cambridge is located at 38°33′59″N 76°4′37″W / 38.56639°N 76.07694°W / 38.56639; -76.07694Coordinates: 38°33′59″N 76°4′37″W / 38.56639°N 76.07694°W / 38.56639; -76.07694 [12].

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 9.0 square miles (23.3 km²), of which, 6.7 square miles (17.4 km²) of it is land and 2.2 square miles (5.8 km²) of it (25.06%) is water.

Cambridge is on the southern bank of the Choptank River.

Demographics

As of the census[13] of 2000, there were 10,911 people, 4,629 households, and 2,697 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,622.3 people per square mile (626.0/km²). There were 4,629 housing units at an average density of 777.6/sq mi (300.0/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 47.75% White, 49.9% Black, 0.16% Native American, 0.65% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.61% from other races, and 0.87% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.44% of the population.

There were 4,629 households out of which 27.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 30.7% were married couples living together, 23.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 41.7% were non-families. 36.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.23 and the average family size was 2.88.

In the city the population was spread out with 24.4% under the age of 18, 7.9% from 18 to 24, 26.6% from 25 to 44, 22.3% from 45 to 64, and 18.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 84.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 78.9 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $25,967, and the median income for a family was $32,118. Males had a median income of $25,705 versus $21,221 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,647. About 17.2% of families and 20.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.0% of those under age 18 and 18.6% of those age 65 or over.

Media

WCEM broadcasts AM and FM radio from Cambridge.

Transportation

U.S. Route 50, a major east-west route of the U.S. Highway System, bisects Cambridge on its 3,011 mile (4,846 km)journey from Ocean City, Maryland to Sacramento, California. U.S. 50 is locally known as "Ocean Gateway" and alternatively "Sunburst Highway".

The Cambridge-Dorchester Airport (FAA Identifier: CGE) is a county owned, public use airport located just southeast of the city of Cambridge. The airport is a gereral aviation facility with a lighted 4,477 foot asphalt runway.

The Maryland & Delaware Railroad (MDDE), a shortline railroad, provides freight rail service to Cambridge. The city is the western terminus of the railroad's Seaford line. The Maryland & Delaware interchanges with Norfolk Southern Railway at Seaford, Delaware to provide access to the vast North American rail network.

Notable residents and natives

References

  1. ^ a b Table 4: Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places in Maryland, Listed Alphabetically: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2008, U.S. Census Bureau. Accessed 2009-07-01.
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. http://www.naco.org/Template.cfm?Section=Find_a_County&Template=/cffiles/counties/usamap.cfm. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  3. ^ History Of Dorchester County, Maryland. Williams & Wilkins. p. 60. http://books.google.com/books?id=A8cBAAAAMAAJ. 
  4. ^ "Cambridge". <http://www.mdmunicipal.org/cities/index.cfm?townname=cambridge> Cited 6 April 2009.
  5. ^ John R. Wennersten (2006-08-14). "The Phillips Packing Company". in Beatriz B. Hardy. Maryland Online Encyclopedia (MdOE) (concept demonstration ed.). Maryland Historical Society, Maryland Humanities Council, Enoch Pratt Free Library, and Maryland State Department of Education. http://www.mdoe.org/phillipspackingco.html. Retrieved 2008-01-21. 
  6. ^ John R. Wennersten (2006-08-14). "The Phillips Packing Company". in Beatriz B. Hardy. Maryland Online Encyclopedia (MdOE) (concept demonstration ed.). jointly by Maryland Historical Society, Maryland Humanities Council, Enoch Pratt Free Library, and Maryland State Department of Education. http://www.mdoe.org/phillipspackingco.html. Retrieved 2008-01-21. "When the Phillips Company ceased its operations in the 1960s, an era had passed.". 
  7. ^ Cambridge MD — 1962; Cambridge, MD - 1963 ~ Civil Rights Movement Veterans, accessed 18 Mar 2010
  8. ^ [ John B. Wiseman, "Review" of Civil War on Race Street: The Civil Rights Movement in Cambridge, Maryland], Journal of Southern History, Vol. 71, 2005, accessed 18 Mar 2010
  9. ^ Cambridge MD — 1962; Cambridge, MD - 1963 ~ Civil Rights Movement Veterans, accessed 18 Mar 2010
  10. ^ http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2007/01/20070126-3.html
  11. ^ "Cambridge Historic District, Wards I & III". Maryland's National Register Database. Maryland Historical Trust. http://www.marylandhistoricaltrust.net/NR/NRDBDetail.aspx?HDID=1068. Retrieved 2008-01-21. "Wards I and III of the Cambridge Historic District are a large residential, commercial, and governmental area in the northwest section of the city." 
  12. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2000 and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2005-05-03. http://www.census.gov/geo/www/gazetteer/gazette.html. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  13. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 

Further reading

  • Peter B. Levy, Civil War on Race Street: The Civil Rights Movement in Cambridge, Maryland, Gainesville, FL: University of Florida Press, 2003
  • John R. Wennersten, Maryland's Eastern Shore: A Journey in Time and Place, Centreville, Md.: Tidewater Publishers, 1992.

External links

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

CAMBRIDGE, a city and the county-seat of Dorchester county, Maryland, U.S.A., on the Choptank river, near Chesapeake Bay, about 60 m. S.E. of Baltimore. Pop. (1890) 4192; (1900) 5747, of whom 1958 were negroes. It is served by the Cambridge branch of the Philadelphia, Baltimore & Washington railway (Pennsylvania railway), which connects with the main line at Seaford, 30 m. distant, and with the Baltimore, Chesapeake & Atlantic at Hurlock, 16 m. distant; and by steamers of the Baltimore, Chesapeake & Atlantic railway company. It is a business centre for the prosperous farming region by which it is surrounded, and is a shipping point for oysters and fish; among its manufactures are canned fruits and vegetables, flour, hominy, phosphates, underwear and lumber. Cambridge was founded in 1684, received its present name in 1686, and was chartered as a city in 1900.


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