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Cambridge, Massachusetts
—  City  —
Cambridge City Hall

Seal
Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts
Coordinates: 42°22′25″N 71°06′38″W / 42.37361°N 71.11056°W / 42.37361; -71.11056Coordinates: 42°22′25″N 71°06′38″W / 42.37361°N 71.11056°W / 42.37361; -71.11056
Country United States
State Massachusetts
County Middlesex
Settled 1630
Incorporated 1636
Government
 - Type Council-City Manager
 - Mayor David P. Maher
 - City Manager Robert W. Healy
Area
 - Total 7.13 sq mi (18.47 km2)
 - Land 6.43 sq mi (16.65 km2)
 - Water 0.70 sq mi (1.81 km2)
Elevation 40 ft (12 m)
Population (2007)
 - Total 105,594 (est'd.)
 Density 15,767.96/sq mi (6,089.37/km2)
 - Demonym Cantabrigian
Time zone Eastern (UTC-5)
 - Summer (DST) Eastern (UTC-4)
ZIP code 02138, 02139, 02140, 02141, 02142
Area code(s) 617 / 857
FIPS code 25-11000
GNIS feature ID 0617365
Website www.cambridgema.gov

Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States, in the Greater Boston area. It was named in honor of the University of Cambridge in England, a nexus of the Puritan theology embraced by the town's founders.[1] Notably, Cambridge is home to two internationally prominent universities, Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. As of 2008 the city population was 105,594.[2] It is the fourth most populous city in the state, behind Boston, Worcester, and Springfield. Cambridge is one of the two county seats of Middlesex County (Lowell is the other).

Contents

History

The site for what would become Cambridge was chosen in December 1630, because it was located safely up river from Boston Harbor, which made it easily defensible from attacks by enemy ships. Also, the water from the local spring was so good that the local Natives believed it had medicinal properties.[citation needed] The first houses were built in the spring of 1631. The settlement was initially referred to as "the newe towne".[3] Official Massachusetts records show the name capitalized as Newe Towne by 1632.[4] Located at the first convenient Charles River crossing west of Boston, Newe Towne was one of a number of towns (including Boston, Dorchester, Watertown, and Weymouth) founded by the 700 original Puritan colonists of the Massachusetts Bay Colony under governor John Winthrop. The original village site is in the heart of today's Harvard Square. The marketplace where farmers brought in crops from surrounding towns to sell survives today as the small park at the corner of John F. Kennedy (J.F.K.) and Winthrop Streets, then at the edge of a salt marsh, since filled. The town included a much larger area than the present city, with various outlying parts becoming independent towns over the years: Newton (originally Cambridge Village, then Newtown) in 1688,[5] Lexington (Cambridge Farms) in 1712, and both West Cambridge (originally Menotomy) and Brighton (Little Cambridge) in 1807. West Cambridge was later renamed Arlington, in 1867, and Brighton was later annexed by Boston, in 1874.

In 1636 Harvard College was founded by the colony to train ministers and the new town was chosen for its site by Thomas Dudley. By 1638 the name "Newe Towne" had "compacted by usage into 'Newtowne'."[3] In May 1638[6][7] the name was changed to Cambridge in honor of the university in Cambridge, England.[8] The first president (Henry Dunster), the first benefactor (John Harvard), and the first schoolmaster (Nathaniel Eaton) of Harvard were all Cambridge University alumni, as was the then ruling (and first) governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, John Winthrop. In 1629, Winthrop had led the signing of the founding document of the city of Boston, which was known as the Cambridge Agreement, after the university.[9] It was Governor Thomas Dudley who in 1650 signed the charter creating the corporation which still governs Harvard College.[10][11]

Cambridge grew slowly as an agricultural village eight miles (13 km) by road from Boston, the capital of the colony. By the American Revolution, most residents lived near the Common and Harvard College, with farms and estates comprising most of the town. Most of the inhabitants were descendants of the original Puritan colonists, but there was also a small elite of Anglican "worthies" who were not involved in village life, who made their livings from estates, investments, and trade, and lived in mansions along "the Road to Watertown" (today's Brattle Street, still known as Tory Row). In 1775, George Washington came up from Virginia to take command of fledgling volunteer American soldiers camped on the Cambridge Common — today called the birthplace of the U.S. Army. (The name of today's nearby Sheraton Commander Hotel refers to that event.) Most of the Tory estates were confiscated after the Revolution. On January 24, 1776, Henry Knox arrived with artillery captured from Fort Ticonderoga, which enabled Washington to drive the British army out of Boston.

A map of Cambridge from 1873.

Between 1790 and 1840, Cambridge began to grow rapidly, with the construction of the West Boston Bridge in 1792, that connected Cambridge directly to Boston, making it no longer necessary to travel eight miles (13 km) through the Boston Neck, Roxbury, and Brookline to cross the Charles River. A second bridge, the Canal Bridge, opened in 1809 alongside the new Middlesex Canal. The new bridges and roads made what were formerly estates and marshland into prime industrial and residential districts.

In the mid-1800’s, Cambridge was the center of a literary revolution when it gave the country a new identity through poetry and literature. Cambridge was home to the famous Fireside Poets—so called because their poems would often be read aloud by families in front of their evening fires. In their day, the Fireside Poets—Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, James Russell Lowell, and Oliver Wendell Holmes—were as popular and influential as rock stars are today.[citation needed]

Soon after, turnpikes were built: the Cambridge and Concord Turnpike (today's Broadway and Concord Ave.), the Middlesex Turnpike (Hampshire St. and Massachusetts Ave. northwest of Porter Square), and what are today's Cambridge, Main, and Harvard Streets were roads to connect various areas of Cambridge to the bridges. In addition, railroads crisscrossed the town during the same era, leading to the development of Porter Square as well as the creation of neighboring town Somerville from the formerly rural parts of Charlestown.

1852 Map of Boston area showing Cambridge and rail lines.

Cambridge was incorporated as a city in 1846. Its commercial center also began to shift from Harvard Square to Central Square, which became the downtown of the city. Between 1850 and 1900, Cambridge took on much of its present character — streetcar suburban development along the turnpikes, with working-class and industrial neighborhoods focused on East Cambridge, comfortable middle-class housing being built on old estates in Cambridgeport and Mid-Cambridge, and upper-class enclaves near Harvard University and on the minor hills of the city. The coming of the railroad to North Cambridge and Northwest Cambridge then led to three major changes in the city: the development of massive brickyards and brickworks between Massachusetts Ave., Concord Ave. and Alewife Brook; the ice-cutting industry launched by Frederic Tudor on Fresh Pond; and the carving up of the last estates into residential subdivisions to provide housing to the thousands of immigrants that arrived to work in the new industries.

For many years, the city's largest employer was the New England Glass Company, founded in 1818. By the middle of the 19th century it was the largest and most modern glassworks in the world. In 1888, all production was moved, by Edmund Drummond Libbey, to Toledo, Ohio, where it continues today under the name Owens Illinois. Flint glassware with heavy lead content, produced by that company, is prized by antique glass collectors. There is none on public display in Cambridge, but there is a large collection in the Toledo Museum of Art.

Among the largest businesses located in Cambridge was the firm of Carter's Ink Company, whose neon sign long adorned the Charles River and which was for many years the largest manufacturer of ink in the world.

By 1920, Cambridge was one of the main industrial cities of New England, with nearly 120,000 residents. As industry in New England began to decline during the Great Depression and after World War II, Cambridge lost much of its industrial base. It also began the transition to being an intellectual, rather than an industrial, center. Harvard University had always been important in the city (both as a landowner and as an institution), but it began to play a more dominant role in the city's life and culture. Also, the move of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology from Boston in 1912 ensured Cambridge's status as an intellectual center of the United States.

After the 1950s, the city's population began to decline slowly, as families tended to be replaced by single people and young couples. The 1980s brought a wave of high technology start-ups, creating software such as Visicalc and Lotus 1-2-3, and advanced computers, but many of these companies fell into decline with the fall of the minicomputer and DOS-based systems. However, the city continues to be home to many startups as well as a thriving biotech industry. By the end of the twentieth century, Cambridge had one of the most expensive housing markets in the Northeastern United States.

While maintaining much diversity in class, race, and age, it became harder and harder for those who grew up in the city to be able to afford to stay. The end of rent control in 1994 prompted many Cambridge renters to move to housing that was more affordable, in Somerville and other communities. In 2005, a reassessment of residential property values resulted in a disproportionate number of houses owned by non-affluent people jumping in value relative to other houses, with hundreds having their property tax increased by over 100%; this forced many homeowners in Cambridge to move elsewhere.[12]

As of 2006, Cambridge's mix of amenities and proximity to Boston has kept housing prices relatively stable.

Geography

Cambridge is located at 42°22′25″N 71°6′38″W / 42.37361°N 71.11056°W / 42.37361; -71.11056.[13]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 7.1 square miles (18.5 km²), of which 6.4 square miles (16.7 km²) of it is land and 0.7 square miles (1.8 km²) of it (9.82%) is water.

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Adjacent towns

Cambridge is located in eastern Massachusetts, bordered by:

The border between Cambridge and the neighboring city of Somerville passes through densely populated neighborhoods which are connected by the MBTA Red Line. Some of the main squares, Inman, Porter, and to a lesser extent, Harvard, are very close to the city line, as are Somerville's Union and Davis Squares.

Squares

Harvard Square

Cambridge has been called the "City of Squares" by some, as most of its commercial districts are major street intersections known as squares. Each of the squares acts as something of a neighborhood center. These include:

  • Kendall Square, formed by the junction of Broadway, Main Street, and Third Street, is also know as "Technology Square," a name shared with an office and laboratory building cluster in the neighborhood. Just over the Longfellow Bridge from Boston, at the eastern end of the MIT campus, it is served by an MBTA Red Line station. Most of Cambridge's large office towers are located here, giving the area somewhat of an office park feel. A flourishing biotech industry has grown up around this area. The "One Kendall Square" complex is nearby, but—confusingly—not actually in Kendall Square.
  • Central Square, formed by the junction of Massachusetts Avenue, Prospect Street, and Western Avenue and is well-known for its wide variety of ethnic restaurants. Even as recently as the late 1990s it was rather run-down; it underwent a controversial gentrification in recent years (in conjunction with the development of the nearby University Park at MIT), and continues to grow more expensive. It is served by a Red Line station. Lafayette Square, formed by the junction of Massachusetts Avenue, Columbia Street, Sidney Street, and Main Street, is considered a part of the Central Square area. Cambridgeport is south of Central Square along Magazine Street and Brookline Street.
  • Harvard Square, formed by the junction of Massachusetts Avenue, Brattle Street, and JFK Street. This is the primary site of Harvard University, the oldest college in the United States, and is a major Cambridge shopping area (although not as exclusively so as in years past). It is served by a Red Line station. Harvard Square was originally the northwestern terminus of the Red Line and a major transfer point to streetcars that also operated in a short tunnel – which is still a major bus terminal, although the area under the Square was reconfigured dramatically in the 1980s when the Red Line was extended. The Harvard Square area includes Brattle Square and Eliot Square. A short distance away from the square lies the Cambridge Common, while the neighborhood north of Harvard and east of Massachusetts Avenue is known as Agassiz in honor of the famed scientist Louis Agassiz.
  • Porter Square, about a mile north on Massachusetts Avenue from Harvard Square, is formed by the junction of Massachusetts and Somerville Avenues, and includes part of the city of Somerville. It is served by the Porter Square station, a complex housing a Red Line stop and a Fitchburg Line commuter rail stop. Lesley University's University Hall and Porter campus are located at Porter Square.
  • Inman Square, at the junction of Cambridge and Hampshire streets in Mid-Cambridge. Inman Square is home to many diverse restaurants, bars and boutiques. The funky street scene still holds some urban flair, but was dressed up recently with Victorian streetlights, benches and bus stops. A new community park was installed and is a favorite place to enjoy some takeout food from the nearby restaurants and ice cream parlor.
  • Lechmere Square, at the junction of Cambridge and First streets, adjacent to the CambridgeSide Galleria shopping mall. Perhaps best known as the northern terminus of the MBTA Green Line subway.

Neighborhoods

The residential neighborhoods (map) in Cambridge border, but are not defined by the squares. These include:

  • East Cambridge (Area 1) is bordered on the north by the Somerville border, on the east by the Charles River, on the south by Broadway and Main Street, and on the west by the Grand Junction Railroad tracks. It includes the NorthPoint development.
  • MIT Campus (Area 2) is bordered on the north by Broadway, on the south and east by the Charles River, and on the west by the Grand Junction Railroad tracks.
  • Wellington-Harrington (Area 3) is bordered on the north by the Somerville border, on the south and west by Hampshire Street, and on the east by the Grand Junction Railroad tracks.
  • Area 4 is bordered on the north by Hampshire Street, on the south by Massachusetts Avenue, on the west by Prospect Street, and on the east by the Grand Junction Railroad tracks. Residents of Area 4 often refer to their neighborhood simply as "The Port", and refer to the area of Cambridgeport and Riverside as "The Coast".
  • Cambridgeport (Area 5) is bordered on the north by Massachusetts Avenue, on the south by the Charles River, on the west by River Street, and on the east by the Grand Junction Railroad tracks.
  • Mid-Cambridge (Area 6) is bordered on the north by Kirkland and Hampshire Streets and the Somerville border, on the south by Massachusetts Avenue, on the west by Peabody Street, and on the east by Prospect Street.
  • Riverside (Area 7), an area sometimes referred to as "The Coast", is bordered on the north by Massachusetts Avenue, on the south by the Charles River, on the west by JFK Street, and on the east by River Street.
  • Agassiz (Harvard North) (Area 8) is bordered on the north by the Somerville border, on the south and east by Kirkland Street, and on the west by Massachusetts Avenue.
  • Peabody (Area 9) is bordered on the north by railroad tracks, on the south by Concord Avenue, on the west by railroad tracks, and on the east by Massachusetts Avenue. The Avon Hill sub-neighborhood consists of the higher elevations bounded by Upland Road, Raymond Street, Linnaean Street and Massachusetts Avenue.
  • Brattle area/West Cambridge (Area 10) is bordered on the north by Concord Avenue and Garden Street, on the south by the Charles River and the Watertown border, on the west by Fresh Pond and the Collins Branch Library, and on the east by JFK Street. It includes the sub-neighborhoods of Brattle Street and Huron Village.
  • North Cambridge (Area 11) is bordered on the north by the Arlington and Somerville borders, on the south by railroad tracks, on the west by the Belmont border, and on the east by the Somerville border.
  • Cambridge Highlands (Area 12) is bordered on the north and east by railroad tracks, on the south by Fresh Pond, and on the west by the Belmont border.
  • Strawberry Hill, also known as West Cambridge (Area 13), is bordered on the north by Fresh Pond, on the south by the Watertown border, on the west by the Belmont border, and on the east by railroad tracks.

At the western edge of Cambridge, Mount Auburn Cemetery is well known as the first garden cemetery, for its distinguished inhabitants, for its superb landscaping (the oldest planned landscape in the country), and as a first-rate arboretum. Although known as a Cambridge landmark, much of the cemetery lies within the bounds of Watertown. It is also a significant Important Bird Area (IBA) in the Greater Boston area.

Demographics

Census Pop.  %±
1790 2,115
1800 2,453 16.0%
1810 2,323 −5.3%
1820 3,295 41.8%
1830 6,072 84.3%
1840 8,409 38.5%
1850 15,215 80.9%
1860 26,060 71.3%
1870 39,634 52.1%
1880 52,669 32.9%
1890 70,028 33.0%
1900 91,886 31.2%
1910 104,839 14.1%
1920 109,694 4.6%
1930 113,643 3.6%
1940 110,879 −2.4%
1950 120,740 8.9%
1960 107,716 −10.8%
1970 100,361 −6.8%
1980 95,322 −5.0%
1990 95,802 0.5%
2000 101,355 5.8%
Est. 2008 105,594 4.2%

As of the census[14] of 2000, there were 101,355 people, 42,615 households, and 17,599 families residing in the city. The population density was 15,766.1 people per square mile (6,086.1/km²), making Cambridge the fifth most densely populated city in the U.S.[15] and the second most densely populated city in Massachusetts behind neighboring Somerville.[16] There were 44,725 housing units at an average density of 6,957.1/sq mi (2,685.6/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 68.10% White, 11.92% Black or African American, 0.29% Native American, 11.88% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 3.19% from other races, and 4.56% from two or more races. 7.36% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. This rather closely parallels the average racial demographics of the United States as a whole, although Cambridge has significantly more Asians than the average, and fewer Hispanics and Caucasians. 11.0% were of Irish, 7.2% English, 6.9% Italian, 5.5% West Indian and 5.3% German ancestry according to Census 2000. 69.4% spoke English, 6.9% Spanish, 3.2% Chinese or Mandarin, 3.0% Portuguese, 2.9% French Creole, 2.3% French, 1.5% Korean and 1.0% Italian as their first language.

There were 42,615 households out of which 17.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 29.1% were married couples living together, 9.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 58.7% were non-families. 41.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.03 and the average family size was 2.83.

In the city the population was spread out with 13.3% under the age of 18, 21.2% from 18 to 24, 38.6% from 25 to 44, 17.8% from 45 to 64, and 9.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females there were 96.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.7 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $47,979, and the median income for a family was $59,423 (these figures had risen to $58,457 and $79,533 respectively as of a 2007 estimate[17]). Males had a median income of $43,825 versus $38,489 for females. The per capita income for the city was $31,156. About 8.7% of families and 12.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.1% of those under age 18 and 12.9% of those age 65 or over.

Cambridge was ranked as one of the most liberal cities in America.[18] Its residents jokingly refer to it as "The People's Republic of Cambridge."[19] Its FY 2007 residential property tax rate, $7.48 per $1000 of assessed valuation, is one of the lowest in Massachusetts. Cambridge enjoys the highest possible bond credit rating, AAA, with all three Wall Street rating agencies.[20]

Cambridge is noted for its diverse population, both racially and economically. Residents, known as Cantabrigians, range from affluent MIT and Harvard professors to working-class families to immigrants. The first legal applications in America for same-sex marriage licenses were issued at Cambridge's City Hall.[21]

Cambridge is also the birthplace of Thai king Bhumibol Adulyadej (Rama IX), who is the world's longest reigning monarch at age 80 as well as the longest reigning monarch in Thai history. He is also the first king of a foreign country to be born in the United States.

Government

Federally, Cambridge is part of Massachusetts's 8th congressional district, represented by Democrat Mike Capuano, elected in 1998.

The state's senior member of the United States Senate is Democrat John Kerry, elected in 1984. The state's junior member of the United States Senate is Republican Scott Brown, elected in 2010 to fill the vacancy caused by the death of long-time Democrat Senator Ted Kennedy. The Governor of Massachusetts is Democrat Deval Patrick, elected in 2006; he is up for re-election in 2010.

On the state level, Cambridge is represented in six districts in the Massachusetts House of Representatives: the Twenty-fourth Middlesex (which includes parts of Belmont and Arlington), the Twenty-fifth and Twenty-sixth Middlesex (the latter which includes a portion of Somerville), the Twenty-ninth Middlesex (which includes a small part of Watertown), and the Eighth and Ninth Suffolk (both including parts of the City of Boston). The city is represented in the Massachusetts Senate as a part of the "First Suffolk and Middlesex" district (this contains parts of Boston, Revere and Winthrop each in Suffolk County); the "Middlesex, Suffolk and Essex" district, which includes Everett and Somerville, with Boston, Chelsea, and Revere of Suffolk, and Saugus in Essex; and the "Second Suffolk and Middlesex" district, containing parts of the City of Boston in Suffolk county, and Cambridge, Belmont and Watertown in Middlesex county.[22] In addition to the Cambridge Police Department the city is patrolled by the Fifth (Brighton) Barracks of Troop H of the Massachusetts State Police[23] Due however to close proximity, the city also practices functional cooperation with the Fourth (Boston) Barracks of Troop H also.[24]

Cambridge City Hall in the 1980s

Cambridge has a city government led by a Mayor and nine-member City Council. There is also a six-member School Committee which functions along side the Superintendent of public schools. The councilors and school committee members are elected every two years using the single transferable vote (STV) system.[25] Since the disbanding of the New York City Community School Boards in 2002, Cambridge's Council is now unusual in being the only governing body in the United States to still use STV.[26] Once a laborious process that took several days to complete by hand, ballot sorting and calculations to determine the outcome of elections are now quickly performed by computer, after the ballots have been optically scanned.

The mayor is elected by the city councilors from amongst themselves, and serves as the chair of City Council meetings. The mayor also sits on the School Committee. However, the Mayor is not the Chief Executive of the City. Rather, the City Manager, who is appointed by the City Council, serves in that capacity.

Under the City's Plan E form of government the city council does not have the power to appoint or remove city officials who are under direction of the city manager. The city council and its individual members are also forbidden from giving orders to any subordinate of the city manager.[27]

CambridgeNeedsReform.org believes that residents have no representation in the management of their own city.[28]

Currently, Robert W. Healy is the City Manager; he has served in the position since 1981. The city council consists of:[29]

City Council

Fire department

Gerald R. Reardon is the chief of the Cambridge Fire Department. John J. Gelinas, the chief of operations, is in charge of day to day operation of the department. The Cambridge Fire Department is rated as a class 1 fire department by the Insurance Services Office (ISO), and is one of only 32 fire departments so rated, out of 37,000 departments in the United States. The other class 1 departments in New England are in Hartford, Connecticut and Milford, Connecticut. Class 1 signifies the highest level of fire protection according to various criteria.

The Cambridge Fire Department is a professional fire department which protects the city of Cambridge 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. It operates out of eight city-wide firehouses in two divisions (downtown and uptown), and has a frontline fire apparatus fleet of 11 engine companies (two of which are reserve engines), five ladder companies (one of which is a reserve ladder), a tactical rescue unit, a "hazmat" unit, a dive rescue unit, two marine units, and two non-transporting paramedic ambulances.

County government

Cambridge is a county seat of Middlesex County, Massachusetts, along with Lowell. Though the county government was abolished in 1997, the county still exists as a geographical and political region. The employees of Middlesex County courts, jails, registries, and other county agencies now work directly for the state. At present the county's registrars of Deeds and Probate remain in Cambridge, however the Superior Court and District Attorney have had their base of operations transferred to Woburn. Third District court has shifted operations to Medford, and the Sheriff's office for the county is still awaiting a near-term relocation.[31][32]

Education

Public education

The Cambridge Public School District encompasses twelve elementary schools that follow a variety of different educational systems and philosophies. All but one of the elementary schools extend up to the junior high school grades as well. The twelve elementary schools are:

  • Amigos School
  • Baldwin School
  • Cambridgeport School
  • Fletcher-Maynard Academy
  • Graham and Parks Alternative School
  • Haggerty School
  • Kennedy-Longfellow School
  • King Open School
  • Martin Luther King, Jr. School
  • Morse School (a Core Knowledge school)
  • Peabody School
  • Tobin School (a Montessori school)

The sole public high school in the Cambridge Public School District is the Cambridge Rindge and Latin School.[33]

In recent years the school system has struggled to increase its performance. In 2003 the high school came close to losing its educational accreditation when it was placed on probation by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges.[34]

Then in 2005, the public school system's then Superintendent Thomas Fowler-Finn stated that the Cambridge school system ranked 311th out of the 373 Massachusetts school districts, on the statewide MCAS exams required for high school student graduation.[35] Despite these setbacks the high school was taken off academic probation.[34]

Outside of the main public schools are charter Schools including: Benjamin Banneker Charter School,[36], The Community Charter School of Cambridge located in East Cambridge, and Prospect Hill Academy, a charter school whose upper school is in Central Square, though it is not a part of the Cambridge Public School District.

Private education

There are also many private schools in the city including:

Higher education

A view from Boston of Harvard's Weld Boathouse and Cambridge. The Charles River is in the foreground.

At least 129 of the world's total 780 Nobel Prize winners have been, at some point in their careers, affiliated with universities in Cambridge.

Cambridge is also home to the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy.

Economy

Manufacturing was an important part of the economy in the late 19th and early 20th century, but educational institutions are the city's biggest employers today. Both Harvard and MIT together employ about 20,000.[37] As a cradle of technological innovation, Cambridge was home to such legendary technology firms as Analog Devices, Akamai, General Radio (later GenRad), Lotus Development Corporation (now part of IBM), Polaroid, Thinking Machines, and VMware.[citation needed]

Over the years, these tech companies either have grown and moved away or declined and closed their businesses; see this list for more information. In 1996, Polaroid, Arthur D. Little, and Lotus were all top employers with over 1,000 employees in Cambridge, but declined or disappeared a few years later. In 2005, alongside Harvard and MIT, health care and biotechnology firms such as Genzyme, Biogen Idec, and Novartis dominate the city economy. Biotech firms are located around Kendall Square and East Cambridge, which decades ago were the center of manufacturing. A number of biotechnology companies are also located in University Park at MIT, a new development in another former manufacturing area. None of the high technology firms that once dominated the economy was among the 25 largest employers in 2005, but by 2008 Akamai and ITA Software had grown to be among the largest employers. Many smaller start-ups and IT companies nonetheless remain as important employers.[citation needed]

Google maintains an office in Cambridge,[38], as does Microsoft Research. Video game developer Harmonix Music Systems is based in Central Square. The city is also the New England headquarters for Miramax Films and Time Warner Cable.

Transportation

Road

Several major roads lead to Cambridge, including Route 2, Route 16 and the McGrath Highway (Route 28). The Massachusetts Turnpike does not pass through Cambridge, but provides access by an exit in nearby Allston. Both U.S. Route 1 and I-93 (MA) also provide additional access on the eastern end of Cambridge at Leverett Circle in Boston. Route 2A runs the length of the city, chiefly along Massachusetts Avenue. The Charles River forms the southern border of Cambridge and is crossed by eleven bridges connecting Cambridge to Boston, eight of which are open to motorized road traffic.

Cambridge has an irregular street network because many of the roads date from the colonial era. Contrary to popular belief, the road system did not evolve from longstanding cow-paths. Roads connected various village settlements with each other and nearby towns, and were shaped by geographic features, most notably streams, hills, and swampy areas. Today, the major "squares" are typically connected by long, mostly straight roads, such as Massachusetts Avenue between Harvard Square and Central Square, or Hampshire Street between Kendall Square and Inman Square.

Mass transit

Cambridge has the Porter stop on the regional Commuter Rail, the Lechmere stop on the Green Line, and five stops on the Red Line. Alewife Station, the current terminus of the Red Line, has a large multi-story parking garage (at a rate of $7 per day as of 2009).[39] The Harvard Bus Tunnel, under the Square, reduces traffic congestion on the surface, and connects to the Red Line underground. This tunnel was originally opened for streetcars in 1912, and served trackless trolleys and buses as the routes were converted. The tunnel was partially reconfigured when the Red Line was extended to Alewife in the early 1980s.

Cycling

Cambridge has several bike paths, including one along the Charles River,[40] the Minuteman Bikeway and the Linear Park connecting Alewife and the Somerville Community Path. Bike parking is common and there are bike lanes on many streets, although concerns have been expressed regarding the suitability of many of the lanes. On several central MIT streets, bike lanes transfer onto the sidewalk. From time to time, police target their traffic enforcement efforts towards bicyclists who do not follow the Rules of the Road for vehicles, especially going through red lights, failure to stop for pedestrians at unsignalized crosswalks, riding on the wrong side of the street or the wrong way on a one-way street, and riding without a headlight at night.[citation needed] In addition, Cambridge bans cycling on certain sections of sidewalk where pedestrian traffic is heavy.[41][42]

While Bicycling Magazine has rated Boston as one of the worst cities in the nation for bicycling (In their words, for "lousy roads, scarce and unconnected bike lanes and bike-friendly gestures from City Hall that go nowhere – such as hiring a bike coordinator in 2001, only to cut the position two years later"),[43] it has listed Cambridge as an honorable mention as one of the best[44] and was called by the magazine "Boston's Great Hope." Cambridge has an active, official bicycle committee.

Walking

Walking is a popular activity in Cambridge. Per year 2000 data, of the communities in the U.S. with more than 100,000 residents, Cambridge has the highest percentage of commuters who walk to work.[45] Cambridge receives a "Walk Score" of 100 out of 100 possible points.[46] Cambridge's major historic squares have been recently changed into a modern walking landscape, which has sparked a traffic calming program based on the needs of pedestrians rather than of motorists.

Intercity

Intercity transport is found in Boston, which is adjacent to Cambridge. Intercity buses and Amtrak stop at South Station in Boston, while Logan International Airport is located in East Boston across Boston Harbor from the downtown area. The MBTA also has numerous subway stations in Cambridge and nearby cities and towns that are shared with the regional commuter rail lines it operates.

Points of interest

The Longfellow National Historic Site, also known as the Vassall-Craigie-Longfellow House

Buildings

Museums

Harvard museums

MIT museums

Nature and outdoors

Houses of worship

Public art

Cambridge has a large and varied collection of permanent public art, both on city property (managed by the Cambridge Arts Council),[48] and on the campuses of Harvard[49] and MIT.[50] Temporary public artworks are displayed as part of the annual Cambridge River Festival on the banks of the Charles River, during winter celebrations in Harvard and Central Squares, and at university campus sites. An active tradition of street musicians and other performers in Harvard Square entertains an audience of tourists and local residents during the warmer months of the year. The performances are coordinated through a public process that has been developed collaboratively by the performers, city administrators, private organizations and business groups.[51]

Other

Sister cities

Cambridge has nine sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International:

Zip codes

  • 02138—Harvard Square/West Cambridge
  • 02139—Central Square/Inman Square/MIT
  • 02140—Porter Square/North Cambridge
  • 02141—East Cambridge
  • 02142—Kendall Square

Footnotes

  1. ^ Degler, Carl Neumann (1984). Out of Our Pasts: The Forces That Shaped Modern America. New York: HarperCollins. http://books.google.com/books?id=NebLe1ueuGQC&pg=PA18&lpg=PA18&dq=cambridge+university+puritans+newtowne&source=bl&ots=bnhxWkIF8_&sig=U3ooR_zIrlh7AgG_cpzFnk0HeY0&hl=en&ei=E02oSrutLoSuswO6iby7BQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2#v=onepage&q=&f=false. Retrieved 2009-09-09. 
  2. ^ {{"Table 5: Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Minor Civil Divisions in Massachusetts, Listed Alphabetically Within County: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2008" (Microsoft XLS). U.S. Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/popest/cities/tables/SUB-EST2008-05-25.xls. Retrieved 2009-07-16.}}
  3. ^ a b Drake, Samuel Adams (1880). History of Middlesex County, Massachusetts. 1. Boston: Estes and Lauriat. pp. 305–16. http://books.google.com/books?id=QGolOAyd9RMC&pg=PA316&lpg=PA305&dq=newetowne&source=bl&ots=bWCYe4Smmz&sig=SqBiih-2JOSzUBFnLaYU72oUmBI&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=6&ct=result#PPA305,M1. Retrieved 2008-12-26. 
  4. ^ Report on the Custody and Condition of the Public Records of Parishes. Boston: Massachusetts Secretary of the Commonwealth. 1889. p. 12. http://books.google.com/books?id=IyYWAAAAYAAJ&pg=RA1-PA298&lpg=RA1-PA298&dq=%22Ordered+That+Newtowne+shall+henceforward+be+called%22&source=bl&ots=N6PaGaOGde&sig=BFD1ofKIt1kxt5c9Lf3v-UYlcGU&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=6&ct=result. Retrieved 2008-12-24. 
  5. ^ Ritter, Priscilla R.; Thelma Fleishman (1982). Newton, Massachusetts 1679-1779: A Biographical Directory. New England Historic Genealogical Society. 
  6. ^ Arthur Gilman, ed., ed (1896). The Cambridge of Eighteen Hundred and Ninety-six. Cambridge: Committee on the Memorial Volume. p. 8. 
  7. ^ Harvard Gazette historical calendar giving May 12, 1638 as date of name change; certain other sources say May 2, 1638 or late 1637
  8. ^ Hannah Winthrop Chapter, D.A.R. (1907). Historic Guide to Cambridge (Second ed.). Cambridge, Mass.: Hannah Winthrop Chapter, D.A.R.. pp. 20–21. "On October 15, 1637, the Great and General Court passed a vote that: "The college is ordered to bee at Newetowne." In this same year the name of Newetowne was changed to Cambridge, ("It is ordered that Newetowne shall henceforward be called Cambridge") in honor of the university in Cambridge, England, where many of the early settlers were educated." 
  9. ^ "Descendants of the Great Migration". The Winthrop Society. http://www.winthropsociety.org/doc_cambr.php. Retrieved 2008-09-08. 
  10. ^ Harvard Charter of 1650, Harvard University Archives, Harvard University, harvard.edu
  11. ^ "Chapter V: The University at Cambridge, and encouragement of literature, etc." Constitution of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts The General Court of Massachusetts 1779-09-01 http://www.mass.gov/legis/const.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-13 
  12. ^ Cambridge Chronicle, October 6, 13, 20, 27, 2005
  13. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2000 and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2005-05-03. http://www.census.gov/geo/www/gazetteer/gazette.html. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  14. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  15. ^ County and City Data Book: 2000. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. Table C-1.
  16. ^ Highest Population Density, The Boston Globe accessed on July 13, 2008
  17. ^ U.S. Census, 2000
  18. ^ Study Ranks America’s Most Liberal and Conservative Cities
  19. ^ Wicked Good Guide to Boston English Accessed 2009-02-02
  20. ^ http://www.cambridgema.gov/CityOfCambridge_Content/documents/Understanding_Your_Taxes_2007.pdf
  21. ^ Free to Marry, The Boston Globe. Accessed November 25, 2006.
  22. ^ Index of Legislative Representation by City and Town, from Mass.gov
  23. ^ Station H-5, SP Brighton
  24. ^ Station H-4, SP Boston
  25. ^ Proportional Representation Voting in Cambridge
  26. ^ http://ccrc.wustl.edu/~lorracks/projects/techreport/subsection3_4_4.html
  27. ^ http://www.cambridgema.gov/CityOfCambridge_Content/documents/planE.pdf
  28. ^ Cambridge Needs Reform site, discussion of Plan E Accessed 2008-07-27
  29. ^ [1]
  30. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leland_Cheung
  31. ^ Moskowitz, Eric (2008-02-14). "Court move a hassle for commuters". The Boston Globe. http://www.boston.com/news/local/massachusetts/articles/2008/02/14/court_move_a_hassle_for_commuters/. Retrieved 2009-07-25. "In a little more than a month, Middlesex Superior Court will open in Woburn after nearly four decades at the Edward J. Sullivan Courthouse in Cambridge. With it, the court will bring the roughly 500 people who pass through its doors each day — the clerical staff, lawyers, judges, jurors, plaintiffs, defendants, and others who use or work in the system." 
  32. ^ Breitrose, Charlie (2009-07-07). "Cambridge's Middlesex Jail, courts may be shuttered for good". Wicked Local News: Cambridge. http://www.wickedlocal.com/cambridge/homepage/x135741754/Cambridges-Middlesex-Jail-courts-may-be-shuttered-for-good. Retrieved 2009-07-25. "The courts moved out of the building to allow workers to remove asbestos. Superior Court moved to Woburn in March 2008, and in February, the Third District Court moved to Medford." 
  33. ^ "Cambridge Public Schools at a Glance" (PDF). http://www.cpsd.us/Web/PubInfo/SchoolsAtAGlance06-07.pdf. 
  34. ^ a b "School Fights Achievement Gap". The Harvard Crimson. http://www.thecrimson.com/article.aspx?ref=512061. Retrieved 2009-05-14. 
  35. ^ "Charter School Stirs Controversy". The Harvard Crimson. http://www.thecrimson.com/article.aspx?ref=506483. Retrieved 2009-05-14. 
  36. ^ The Benjamin Banneker Charter Public School
  37. ^ Top 25 Cambridge Employers: 2008, City of Cambridge
  38. ^ "Google Offices." Google. Retrieved on July 12, 2009.
  39. ^ http://www.mbta.com/schedules_and_maps/subway/lines/stations/?stopId=10029
  40. ^ http://www.mass.gov/dcr/parks/metroboston/maps/bikepaths_dudley.gif
  41. ^ Sidewalk Bicycling Banned Areas - Cambridge Massachusetts
  42. ^ Traffic Regulations for Cyclists - Cambridge Massachusetts
  43. ^ Urban Treasures - bicycling.com
  44. ^ Urban Treasures - bicycling.com
  45. ^ The Carfree Census Database: Result of search for communities in any state with population over 100,000, sorted in descending order by % Pedestrian Commuters
  46. ^ Walk Score site Accessed 2009-07-28
  47. ^ a b c Bloom, Jonathan. (February 2, 2003) Boston Globe Existing by the Thinnest of Margins. A Concord Avenue Landmark Gives New Meaning to Cozy. Section: City Weekly; Page 11. Location: 260 Concord Ave, Cambridge, MA 02138.
  48. ^ CAC Public Art Program
  49. ^ Office for the Arts at Harvard: Public Art
  50. ^ MIT Public Art Collection Map
  51. ^ Street Arts and Buskers Advocates

General references

  • History of Middlesex County, Massachusetts, Volume 1 (A-H), Volume 2 (L-W) compiled by Samuel Adams Drake, published 1879-1880.
  • Survey of Architectural History in Cambridge: Mid Cambridge, 1967, Cambridge Historical Commission, Cambridge, Mass. [ISBN needed]
  • Survey of Architectural History in Cambridge: Cambridgeport, 1971 ISBN 0-262-53013-9, Cambridge Historical Commission, Cambridge, Mass.
  • Survey of Architectural History in Cambridge: Old Cambridge, 1973 ISBN 0-262-53014-7, Cambridge Historical Commission, Cambridge, Mass.
  • Survey of Architectural History in Cambridge: Northwest Cambridge, 1977 ISBN 0-262-53032-5, Cambridge Historical Commission, Cambridge, Mass.
  • Survey of Architectural History in Cambridge: East Cambridge, 1988 (revised) ISBN 0-262-53078-3, Cambridge Historical Commission, Cambridge, Mass.
  • Sinclair, Jill (April 2009). Fresh Pond: The History of a Cambridge Landscape. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-19591-1. 

External links

Maps


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

CAMBRIDGE, a city and one of the county-seats of Middlesex county, Massachusetts, U.S.A., situated on the Charles river, in the outskirts of Boston, of which it is in effect a part, although under separate government. Pop. (1880) 52,669; (1890) 70,028; (1900) 91,886; (estimated, 1906) 98,554. Of the total population in 1900, 3 0, 44 6 were foreign-born, including 11,235 Irish, 9613 English Canadians, 1944 English, 1483 French Canadians and 1584 Swedish; and 54,200 were of foreign parentage (both parents foreign-born), including 24,961 of Irish parentage, 9829 of English-Canadian parentage, 2587 of English parentage, and 2 288 of French-Canadian parentage. Cambridge is entered directly by only one railway, the Boston & Maine. The township, now practically built over by the city, contained originally several separate villages, the names of which are still used as a convenience in designating corresponding sections of the municipality: Old Cambridge, North Cambridge, Cambridgeport and East Cambridge, the last two being manufacturing and commercial centres.

Old Cambridge is noted as the seat of Harvard University and as a literary and scientific centre. Radcliffe College (1879), for women, practically a part of Harvard; an Episcopal Theological School (1867), and the New Church (Swedenborgian or New Jerusalem) Theological School (1866) are other educational institutions of importance. To Cambridge also, in 1908, was removed Andover Theological Seminary, a Congregational institution chartered in 1807, opened in Andover, Massachusetts, in 1808 (re-incorporated under separate trustees in 1907). This seminary is one of the oldest and most famous theological institutions in the United States; it grew out of the theological teaching previously given in Phillips Academy, and was founded by the widow of Lt.-Governor Samuel Phillips, her son John Phillips and Samuel Abbot (1732-1812). The instruction was strongly Calvinistic in the earlier period, but the seminary has always been "equally open to Protestants of every denomination." Very liberal aid is given to students, and there is no charge for tuition. The Bibliotheca Sacra, founded in 1843 by Edward Robinson and in 1844 taken over by Professors Bela B. Edwards and Edwards A. Park, and the Andover Review (1884-1893), have been the organs of the seminary. In 1886 some of its professors published Progressive Orthodoxy, a book which made a great stir by its liberal tone, its opposition to supernaturalism and its evident trend toward the methods of German "higher criticism." Legal proceedings for the removal of five professors, after the publication of this book, failed; and their successful defence helped to secure greater freedom in thought and in instruction in American Presbyterian and Congregational theological seminaries. The seminary is now affiliated with Harvard University, though it remains independent and autonomous.

Cambridge is a typical New England city, built up in detached residences, with irregular streets pleasantly shaded, and a considerable wealth of historic and literary associations. There are many reminders of the long history of Harvard, and of the War of Independence. Cambridge was the site of the camp of the first American army, at the outbreak of the war, and from it went the detachment which intrenched on Bunker's Hill. Here are the Apthorp House (built in 1760), in which General Burgoyne and his officers were lodged as prisoners of war in 1777; the elm under which, according to tradition, Washington took command of the Continental Army on the 3rd of July 1775; the old Vassall or Craigie House (1759), where Washington lived in 1775-1776, and which was later the home of Edward Everett, Joseph E. Worcester, Jared Sparks and (1837-1882) Henry W. Longfellow. Elbridge Gerry lived and James Russell Lowell was born, lived and died in "Elmwood" (built in 1767); Oliver Wendell Holmes was born in Cambridge also; John Fiske, the historian, lived here; and there are many other literary associations, attractive and important for those interested in American letters. In Mt Auburn Cemetery are buried many artists, poets, scholars and other men and women of fame. Cambridge is one of the few American cities possessing a crematorium (1900). The municipal water-works are excellent. A handsome bridge joining Cambridgeport to Boston (cost about $2,250,000) was opened late in 1906. Four other bridges span the Charles river between the two cities. A dam between East Cambridge and Boston, traversed by a roadway 150 ft. wide, was in the process of construction in 1907; and an extension of the Boston subway into Cambridge to the grounds of Harvard University, a distance of about 3 m., was projected. The city government is administered almost entirely under the state civil-service laws, Cambridge having been a leader in the adoption of its provisions. A non-partisan association for political reform did excellent work from 1890 to 1900, when it was superseded by a nonpartisan party. Since 1887 the city has declared yearly by increasing majorities for prohibition of the liquor traffic. The high schools enjoy a notable reputation. A handsome city hall (cost $235,000) and public library (as well as a manual training school) were given to the city by Frederick H. Rindge, a onetime resident, whose benefactions to Cambridge aggregated in value $650,000. Cambridge has many manufacturing establishments, and in 1905 the city's factory products were valued t $42,407,064, an increase of 45.8% over their value in 1900. The principal manufactures are slaughtering and meat-packing products, foundry and machine-shop products, rubber boots and shoes, rubber belting and hose, printing and publishing products, carpentering, pianos and organs, confectionery and furniture. Cambridge is one of the chief publishing centres of the country. The tax valuation of property in 1906 ($105,153,235) was more than $loon per inhabitant.

Cambridge is "one of the few American towns that may be said to have owed their very name and existence to the pursuit of letters" (T. W. Higginson). Its site was selected in 1630 by Governor Winthrop and others as suitable for fortifications and defence, and it was intended to make it the capital of the Massachusetts Bay Colony; but as Boston's peninsular position gave it the advantage in commerce and in defence against the Indians, the plan fell through, although up to 1638 various sessions of the general court and particular courts were held here. The township records (published) are continuous since 1632. A direct tax for the wooden "pallysadoe" about Cambridge led the township of Watertown in 1632 to make the first protest in America against taxation without representation. The settlement was first known as the "New Towne," but in 1638 was named Cambridge in honour of the English Cambridge, where several score of the first immigrants to the colony were educated. The oldest college in America (Harvard) was founded here in 1636. In 1639 there was set up in Cambridge the first printing press of British North America (Boston having none until 1676). Other notable dates in history are 1637 and 1647, when general synods of New England churches met at Cambridge to settle disputed doctrine and define orthodoxy; the departure for Connecticut of Thomas Hooker's congregation in 1636; the meeting of the convention that framed the present constitution of the commonwealth, 1779-1780; the separation of the Congregationalists and Unitarians of the first parish church, in 1829; and the grant of a city charter in 1846. The original township of Cambridge was very large, and there have been successively detached from it, Newton (1691), Lexington (1713), Brighton (1837) and Arlington (1867).

See Lucius R. Page, History of Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1630-1877 (Boston, New York, 1877); T. W. Higginson, Old Cambridge (New York, 1899); Arthur Gilman (ed.), The Cambridge of Eighteen Hundred and Ninety-Six (Cambridge, 1896); and Historic Guide to Cambridge (Cambridge, 1907.)


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Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

Cambridge, Massachusetts
File:Cambridge Skyline.jpg
File:Sealofcambridgema.gif
Seal
File:Cambridge ma highlight.png
Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts
Coordinates: 42°22′25″N, 71°06′38″WLatitude: 42°22′25″N
Longitude: 71°6′38″W
Country United States
State Massachusetts
County Middlesex
History  
Settled 1630
Incorporated 1636
Government  
 - Mayor E. Denise Simmons
 - City Manager Robert W. Healy
Population  
 - City (2000) 101355
Time zone Eastern (UTC-5)
 - Summer (DST) Eastern (UTC-4)
ZIP code 02138, 02139, 02140, 02141, 02142
Website: www.cambridgema.gov

Cambridge, Massachusetts is a city in the Greater Boston area of Massachusetts, United States. It was named in honor of the University of Cambridge in England. Cambridge is most famous for the two prominent universities that call it home: Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. As of the 2000 census, the city population was 101,355. It is the fifth most populous city in the state.

Cambridge is a county seat of Middlesex County, Massachusetts, along with Lowell. Though the county government was abolished in 1997, the county still exists as a geographical and political region. The employees of Middlesex County courts, jails, registries, and other county agencies now work directly for the state.

Contents

History

Cambridge was established in 1630 as the town of Newetowne (written in some accounts as Newe Towne). Located at the first convenient Charles River crossing west of Boston, Newetowne was one of a number of towns (including Boston, Dorchester, Watertown, and Weymouth) founded by the 700 original Puritan colonists of the Massachusetts Bay Colony under governor John Winthrop. The original village site is in the heart of today's Harvard Square. The marketplace where farmers brought in crops to sell from surrounding towns survives today as the small park at the corner of J.F.K. and Winthrop Streets, then at the edge of a salt marsh, since filled. The town included a much larger area than the present city, with various outlying parts becoming independent towns over the years: Newton (originally Cambridge Village, then Newtown) in 1688,[1] Lexington (Cambridge Farms) in 1712, and both Arlington (originally Menotomy) and Brighton (Little Cambridge) in 1807. Brighton was later annexed by Boston.

In 1636 Harvard College was founded by the colony to train ministers and Newetowne was chosen for its site by Thomas Dudley. In May 1638[2] the name was changed to Cambridge in honor of the university in Cambridge, England.[3]

Cambridge grew slowly as an agricultural village eight miles (13 km) by road from Boston, the capital of the colony. By the American Revolution, most residents lived near the Common and Harvard College, with farms and estates comprising most of the town. Most of the inhabitants were descendants of the original Puritan colonists, but there was also a small elite of Anglican "worthies" who were not involved in village life, who made their livings from estates, investments, and trade, and lived in mansions along "the Road to Watertown" (today's Brattle Street, still known as Tory Row). In 1775, George Washington came up from Virginia to take command of fledgling volunteer American soldiers camped on the Cambridge Common — today called the birthplace of the U.S. Army. (The name of today's nearby Sheraton Commander Hotel refers to that event.) Most of the Tory estates were confiscated after the Revolution. On January 24, 1776, Henry Knox arrived with artillery captured from Fort Ticonderoga, which enabled Washington to drive the British army out of Boston.

File:Cambridge 1873 WardMap.jpg
A map of Cambridge from 1873.

Between 1790 and 1840, Cambridge began to grow rapidly, with the construction of the West Boston Bridge in 1792, that connected Cambridge directly to Boston, making it no longer necessary to travel eight miles (13 km) through the Boston Neck, Roxbury, and Brookline to cross the Charles River. A second bridge, the Canal Bridge, opened in 1809 alongside the new Middlesex Canal. The new bridges and roads made what were formerly estates and marshland into prime industrial and residential districts. Soon after, turnpikes were built: the Cambridge and Concord Turnpike (today's Broadway and Concord Ave.), the Middlesex Turnpike (Hampshire St. and Massachusetts Ave. northwest of Porter Square), and what are today's Cambridge, Main, and Harvard Streets were roads to connect various areas of Cambridge to the bridges. In addition, railroads crisscrossed the town during the same era, leading to the development of Porter Square as well as the creation of neighboring town Somerville from the formerly rural parts of Charlestown.

File:Middlesex Canal (Massachusetts) map, 1852.jpg
1852 Map of Boston area showing Cambridge and Rail lines.

Cambridge was incorporated as a city in 1846. Its commercial center also began to shift from Harvard Square to Central Square, which became the downtown of the city. Between 1850 and 1900, Cambridge took on much of its present character — streetcar suburban development along the turnpikes, with working-class and industrial neighborhoods focused on East Cambridge, comfortable middle-class housing being built on old estates in Cambridgeport and Mid-Cambridge, and upper-class enclaves near Harvard University and on the minor hills of the city. The coming of the railroad to North Cambridge and Northwest Cambridge then led to three major changes in the city: the development of massive brickyards and brickworks between Massachusetts Ave., Concord Ave. and Alewife Brook; the ice-cutting industry launched by Frederic Tudor on Fresh Pond; and the carving up of the last estates into residential subdivisions to provide housing to the thousands of immigrants that moved to work in the new industries.

For many years, the city's largest employer was the New England Glass Company, founded in 1818. By the middle of the 19th century it was the largest and most modern glassworks in the world. In 1888, all production was moved, by Edmund Drummond Libbey, to Toledo, Ohio, where it continues today under the name Owens Illinois. Flint glassware with heavy lead content, produced by that company, is prized by antique glass collectors. There is none on public display in Cambridge, but there is a large collection in the Toledo Museum of Art.

By 1920, Cambridge was one of the main industrial cities of New England, with nearly 120,000 residents. As industry in New England began to decline during the Great Depression and after World War II, Cambridge lost much of its industrial base. It also began the transition to being an intellectual, rather than an industrial, center. Harvard University had always been important in the city (both as a landowner and as an institution), but it began to play a more dominant role in the city's life and culture. Also, the move of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology from Boston in 1912 ensured Cambridge's status as an intellectual center of the United States.

After the 1950s, the city population began to decline slowly, as families tended to be replaced by single people and young couples, and by the end of the twentieth century, Cambridge had one of the most expensive housing markets in the Northeastern United States. The 1980s brought a wave of high technology start-ups, creating software such as Visicalc and Lotus 1-2-3, and advanced computers, but many of these companies fell into decline with the fall of the minicomputer and DOS-based systems.

While maintaining much diversity in class, race, and age, it became harder and harder for those who grew up in the city to be able to afford to stay. As of 2006, its mix of amenities and proximity to Boston have kept housing prices relatively stable.

Demographics

As of the censusGR2 of 2000, there were 101,355 people, 42,615 households, and 17,599 families residing in the city. The population density was 15,766.1 people per square mile (6,086.1/km²), making Cambridge the fifth most densely populated city in the U.S.[4] and the second most densely populated city in Massachusetts behind neighboring Somerville.[5] There were 44,725 housing units at an average density of 6,957.1/sq mi (2,685.6/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 68.10% White, 11.92% Black or African American, 0.29% Native American, 11.88% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 3.19% from other races, and 4.56% from two or more races. 7.36% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. This rather closely parallels the average racial demographics of the United States as a whole, although Cambridge has significantly more Asians than the average, and fewer Hispanics and Caucasians. 11.0% were of Irish, 7.2% English, 6.9% Italian, 5.5% West Indian and 5.3% German ancestry according to Census 2000. 69.4% spoke English, 6.9% Spanish, 3.2% Chinese or Mandarin, 3.0% Portuguese, 2.9% French Creole, 2.3% French, 1.5% Korean and 1.0% Italian as their first language.

There were 42,615 households out of which 17.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 29.1% were married couples living together, 9.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 58.7% were non-families. 41.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.03 and the average family size was 2.83.

In the city the population was spread out with 13.3% under the age of 18, 21.2% from 18 to 24, 38.6% from 25 to 44, 17.8% from 45 to 64, and 9.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females there were 96.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.7 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $47,979, and the median income for a family was $59,423. Males had a median income of $43,825 versus $38,489 for females. The per capita income for the city was $31,156. About 8.7% of families and 12.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.1% of those under age 18 and 12.9% of those age 65 or over.

Cambridge was ranked as one of the most liberal cities in America.[6] Its FY 2007 residential property tax rate, $7.48 per $1000 of assessed valuation, is one of the lowest in Massachusetts. Cambridge enjoys the highest possible bond credit rating, AAA, with all three Wall Street rating agencies.[7]

Cambridge is noted for its diverse population, both racially and economically. Residents, known as Cantabrigians, range from affluent MIT and Harvard professors to working-class families to immigrants. The first legal applications in America for same-sex marriage licenses were issued at Cambridge's City Hall.[8]

Cambridge is also the birthplace of Thai king Bhumibol Adulyadej (Rama IX), who is the world's longest reigning monarch at age 80 as well as the longest reigning monarch in Thai history. He is also the first king of a foreign country to be born in the United States.

Geography

Cambridge is located at 42°22′25″N, 71°6′38″W.GR1

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 7.1 square miles (18.5 km²), of which 6.4 square miles (16.7 km²) is land and 0.7 square miles (1.8 km²) (9.82%) is water.

Adjacent towns

Cambridge is located in Eastern Massachusetts, bordered by:

  • the city of Boston on its south (across the Charles River) and east
  • the city of Somerville and
  • the town of Arlington to its north
  • the city of Watertown and
  • the town of Belmont to its west

The border between Cambridge and the neighboring city of Somerville passes through densely populated neighborhoods which are connected by the MBTA Red Line. Some of the main squares, Inman, Porter, and to a lesser extent, Harvard, are very close to the city line, as are Somerville's Union and Davis Squares.

The end of rent control in the late 1990s prompted many Cambridge renters to move to housing that was more affordable, in Somerville and other communities.

The two cities, in addition to proximity, have a number of other similarities:

  • Densely populated urban/commercial/residential - they are two of the top ten highest population density cities in the country.
  • Rapid turnover - in each city, people who have been living there for less than ten years make up a solid majority of total residents.
  • Both primarily served by the MBTA Red Line subway. A planned extension of the Green Line from its current terminus at the eastern edge of Cambridge into east Somerville will further link the two cities.
  • College students and recent graduates make up a remarkably high percentage of the residents (owing at least partially to the presence of Harvard, MIT and Tufts), even for the Boston area.
  • Politically liberal, even by Massachusetts standards
  • Both cities have also joined together in forming the Cambridge Somerville Alliance

Squares

File:Harvard Square.JPG
Harvard Square

Cambridge has also been called the "City of Squares" by some, as most of its commercial districts are major street intersections known as squares. Each of the squares acts as something of a neighborhood center. These include:

  • Kendall Square, formed by the junction of Broadway, Main Street, and Third Street. Just over the Longfellow Bridge from Boston, at the eastern end of the MIT campus, it is served by an MBTA Red Line station. Most of Cambridge's large office towers are located here, giving the area somewhat of an office park feel. A flourishing biotech industry has grown up around this area. The "One Kendall Square" complex is nearby, but—confusingly—not actually in Kendall Square.
  • Central Square, formed by the junction of Massachusetts Avenue, Prospect Street, and Western Avenue. This is perhaps the closest thing Cambridge has to a downtown, and is well-known for its wide variety of ethnic restaurants. Even as recently as the late 1990s it was rather run-down; it underwent a controversial gentrification in recent years (in conjunction with the development of the nearby University Park at MIT), and continues to grow more expensive. It is served by a Red Line station. Lafayette Square, formed by the junction of Massachusetts Avenue, Columbia Street, Sidney Street, and Main Street, is considered a part of the Central Square area. Cambridgeport is south of Central Square along Magazine Street and Brookline Street.
  • Harvard Square, formed by the junction of Massachusetts Avenue, Brattle Street, and JFK Street. This is the primary site of Harvard University, the oldest university in the United States, and is a major Cambridge shopping area (although not as exclusively so as in years past). It is served by a Red Line station. Harvard Square was originally the northwestern terminus of the Red Line and a major transfer point to streetcars that also operated in a short tunnel – which is still a major bus terminal, although the area under the Square was reconfigured dramatically in the 1980s when the Red Line was extended. The Harvard Square area includes Brattle Square and Eliot Square. A short distance away from the square lies the Cambridge Common, while the neighborhood north of Harvard and east of Massachusetts Avenue is known as Agassiz in honor of the famed scientist Louis Agassiz.
  • Porter Square, about a mile north on Massachusetts Avenue from Harvard Square, is formed by the junction of Massachusetts and Somerville Avenues, and includes part of the city of Somerville. It is served by the Porter Square station, a complex housing a Red Line stop and a Fitchburg Line commuter rail stop.
  • Inman Square, at the junction of Cambridge and Hampshire streets in Mid-Cambridge. Inman Square is home to many diverse restaurants, bars and boutiques. Ryles Jazz Club and the S&S Restaurant are two legends of Inman Square. The funky street scene still holds some urban flair, but was dressed up recently with Victorian streetlights, benches and bus stops. A new community park was installed and is a favorite place to enjoy some takeout food from the nearby restaurants and ice cream parlor.
  • Lechmere Square, at the junction of Cambridge and First streets, adjacent to the CambridgeSide Galleria shopping mall. Perhaps best known as the northern terminus of the MBTA Green Line subway.

Neighborhoods

The residential neighborhoods (map) in Cambridge border, but are not defined by the squares. These include:

  • East Cambridge (Area 1) is bordered on the north by the Somerville border, on the east by the Charles River, on the south by Broadway and Main Street, and on the west by railroad tracks.
  • MIT Campus (Area 2) is bordered on the north by Broadway, on the south and east by the Charles River, and on the west by railroad tracks.
  • Wellington-Harrington (Area 3) is bordered on the north by the Somerville border, on the south and west by Hampshire Street, and on the east by railroad tracks. Also known as "Mid-Block"
  • Area 4 is bordered on the north by Hampshire Street, on the south by Massachusetts Avenue, on the west by Prospect Street, and on the east by railroad tracks. Residents of Area 4 often refer to their neighborhood simply as "The Port", and refer to the area of Cambridgeport and Riverside as "The Coast".
  • Cambridgeport (Area 5) is bordered on the north by Massachusetts Avenue, on the south by the Charles River, on the west by River Street, and on the east by railroad tracks.
  • Mid Cambridge (Area 6) is bordered on the north by Kirkland and Hampshire Streets and the Somerville border, on the south by Massachusetts Avenue, on the west by Peabody Street, and on the east by Prospect Street.
  • Riverside (Area 7), an area sometimes referred to as "The Coast", is bordered on the north by Massachusetts Avenue, on the south by the Charles River, on the west by JFK Street, and on the east by River Street.
  • Agassiz (Harvard North) (Area 8) is bordered on the north by the Somerville border, on the south and east by Kirkland Street, and on the west by Massachusetts Avenue.
  • Radcliffe/Avon Hill/Neighborhood 9 (Area 9) is bordered on the north by railroad tracks, on the south by Concord Avenue, on the west by railroad tracks, and on the east by Massachusetts Avenue. The Avon Hill sub-neighborhood consists of the higher elevations bounded by Upland Road, Raymond Street, Linnaean Street and Massachusetts Avenue.
  • Brattle area/West Cambridge (Area 10) is bordered on the north by Concord Avenue and Garden Street, on the south by the Charles River and the Watertown border, on the west by Fresh Pond and the Collins Branch Library, and on the east by JFK Street. It includes the sub-neighborhoods of Brattle Street and Huron Village.
  • North Cambridge (Area 11) is bordered on the north by the Arlington border and partially the Somerville border, on the south by railroad tracks, on the west by the Belmont border, and on the east by the Somerville border.
  • Cambridge Highlands (Area 12) is bordered on the north and east by railroad tracks, on the south by Fresh Pond, and on the west by the Belmont border.
  • Strawberry Hill, also known as West Cambridge (Area 13), is bordered on the north by Fresh Pond, on the south by the Watertown border, on the west by the Belmont border, and on the east by railroad tracks.

At the western edge of Cambridge, Mount Auburn Cemetery is well known as the first garden cemetery, for its distinguished inhabitants, for its superb landscaping (the oldest planned landscape in the country), and as a first-rate arboretum.

Government

See also: List of mayors of Cambridge, Massachusetts
File:CambridgeMACityHall2.jpg
Cambridge City Hall

Cambridge has a 9-member City Council, and a 6-member School Committee.

Currently, Robert W. Healy is the City Manager; he has served in the position since 1981. The mayor is E. Denise Simmons. The city council consists of:[9]

City Council
  • E. Denise Simmons, the current mayor
  • Brian Murphy, the current vice mayor
  • Henrietta Davis
  • Marjorie C. Decker
  • Craig A. Kelley
  • David Maher
  • Kenneth Reeves
  • Sam Seidel
  • Timothy J. Toomey, Jr.

Education

Higher education

File:Charles River Cambridge USA.jpg
A view from Boston of Harvard's Weld Boathouse and Cambridge. The Charles River is in the foreground.
  • Cambridge College
  • Episcopal Divinity School
  • Harvard University
  • Hult International Business School
  • Lesley University
  • Longy School of Music
  • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  • Weston Jesuit School of Theology

At least 129 of the world's total 780 Nobel Prize winners have been, at some point in their careers, affiliated with universities in Cambridge.

Schools

The public school system of the Cambridge Public School District encompasses twelve elementary schools, all but one of which extend up to the junior high school grades as well; the elementary schools follow a variety of different educational systems and philosophies, including one Montessori school and one Core Knowledge school.[10] The one high school of the Cambridge school system is the Cambridge Rindge and Latin school.

Prospect Hill Academy, a charter school whose upper school is in Central Square, is also a public school, though not a part of the Cambridge Public School District.

There are many private schools in the city, serving a variety of needs of both parents and students, including:

  • Boston Archdiocesan Choir School (BACS)
  • Buckingham Browne & Nichols (BB&N)
  • Cambridge Montessori School
  • Cambridge Friends School. Thomas Waring served as the founding headmaster of the school.
  • Fayerweather Street School (FSS)
  • German International School Boston (GISBOS)
  • International School of Boston (ISB, formerly École Bilingue)
  • Matignon High School
  • North Cambridge Catholic High School
  • Shady Hill School
  • St. Peter School

Cambridge is also home to the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy.

Economy

Although manufacturing was an important part of the late 19th and early 20th-century Cambridge economy, today long-established educational institutions are its biggest employers; Harvard employs over 10,000 people and MIT over 9,500. As a famous cradle of technological innovation, Cambridge is also home to legendary technology firms, including Analog Devices, VMware, Akamai, BBN, Lotus Development Corporation (now part of IBM), Polaroid, Thinking Machines, and Google.

Over the years, as companies have grown, prospered, and then either moved away or gone out of business (see this list of employers for more information), Cambridge's large-scale employment has shifted tremendously. In 1996, Polaroid, Arthur D. Little, and Lotus were all top employers with over 1,000 people in Cambridge, and all declined or disappeared a few years later. As of 2005, alongside Harvard and MIT, health care and biotechnology dominate the Cambridge economy, with Genzyme, Biogen Idec, and Novartis the biggest players. Biotech's geographical locus is Kendall Square and East Cambridge, the center of much of the city's manufacturing a century before. A number of biotechnology companies are also located in University Park at MIT, a new development in another former manufacturing area. None of the computer-industry firms that once dominated the Cambridge economy are top-20 employers as of 2005. However, many smaller start-ups and entrepreneurial companies remain an important part of the Cambridge employment scene.

Transportation

See also: Boston transportation

Road

Several major roads lead to Cambridge, including Route 2, Route 16 and the McGrath Highway (Route 28). The Massachusetts Turnpike does not pass through Cambridge, but provides access by an exit in nearby Allston. Route 2A runs the length of the city, chiefly along Massachusetts Avenue. The Charles River forms the southern border of Cambridge and is crossed by eleven bridges connecting Cambridge to Boston, eight of which are open to motorized road traffic.

Cambridge has an irregular street network because many of the roads date from the colonial era. Contrary to popular belief, the road system did not evolve from longstanding cow-paths. Roads connected various village settlements with each other and nearby towns, and were shaped by geographic features, most notably streams, hills, and swampy areas. Today, the major "squares" are typically connected by long, mostly straight roads, such as Massachusetts Avenue between Harvard Square and Central Square, or Hampshire Street between Kendall Square and Inman Square.

Mass transit

Cambridge has one stop on the regional Commuter Rail, one on the Green Line, and five stops on the Red Line. Alewife Station, the current terminus of the Red Line, has a large multi-story parking garage (at a rate of $5 per day as of 2008). The Harvard Bus Tunnel, under the Square, reduces traffic congestion on the surface, and connects to the Red Line underground. This tunnel was originally opened for streetcars in 1912, and served trackless trolleys and buses as the routes were converted. The tunnel was partially reconfigured when the Red Line was extended to Alewife in the early 1980s.

Intercity

Intercity transport is found in adjacent Boston. Intercity buses and Amtrak stop at South Station in Boston, as is Logan International Airport. The MBTA also has numerous commuter rail lines.

Points of interest

See also: List of Registered Historic Places in Cambridge, Massachusetts
File:Cambridge Public Library, Cambridge, Massachusetts.JPG
Cambridge Public Library, funded by Frederick Hastings Rindge in 1887.
File:Longfellow National Historic Site, Cambridge, Massachusetts.JPG
The Longfellow National Historic Site, also known as the Vassall-Craigie-Longfellow House, in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Buildings

  • City Hall
  • Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts
  • Cooper-Frost-Austin House
  • Elmwood House
  • Asa Gray House
  • Hooper-Lee-Nichols House
  • Longfellow National Historic Site
  • Middlesex County Courthouse
  • O'Reilly Spite House. In 1908, Francis O'Reilly owned an investment parcel of land in West Cambridge and approached his abutting land neighbor to sell the land for a gain.[11] After the neighbor refused to buy the land, O'Reilly built a 308 square foot building, measuring thirty-seven feet long and only eight feet wide, to spite the neighbor.[11] The O'Reilly Spite House still is standing and is occupied by The Real Estate Cafe.[11]

Museums

Harvard Museums

  • Harvard Art Museum, including the Busch-Reisinger Museum, the Fogg Art Museum, and the Arthur M. Sackler Museum
  • Harvard Museum of Natural History, including the Glass Flowers collection
  • Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology

MIT Museums

  • MIT Museum
  • List Visual Arts Center

Nature and outdoors

  • Alewife Brook Reservation
  • Charles River
  • Cambridge Common
  • Fresh Pond
  • Harvard Bridge
  • Longfellow Bridge
  • Mount Auburn Cemetery

Churches

  • Christ Church, Cambridge
  • Harvard-Epworth United Methodist Church
  • Plymouth Brethren meet at The Gospel Room on Norfolk Street.

Other

  • Café Pamplona
  • Club Passim
  • Harvard Book Store
  • The Garment District, a vintage clothing store that sells clothes for $1.50 a pound
  • Schoenhof's Foreign Books

Sister cities

Template:SisterCities

  • Template:Country data GBR Cambridge, England, UK
  • Template:Country data PRT Coimbra, Portugal
  • Template:Country data CUB Cienfuegos, Cuba
  • Template:Country data ITA Gaeta, Italy
  • Template:Country data IRL Galway, Ireland
  • Template:Country data ARM Yerevan, Armenia
  • Template:Country data SLV San José Las Flores, El Salvador
  • Template:Country data JPN Tsukuba Science City, Japan

Zip codes

  • 02138 -- Harvard Square/West Cambridge
  • 02139 -- Central Square/Inman Square/MIT
  • 02140 -- Porter Square/North Cambridge
  • 02141 -- East Cambridge
  • 02142 -- Kendall Square

References

  1. ^ Ritter, Priscilla R.; Thelma Fleishman (1982). Newton, Massachusetts 1679-1779: A Biographical Directory. New England Historic Genealogical Society. 
  2. ^ Harvard Gazette historical calendar giving May 12, 1638 as date of name change; certain other sources say May 2, 1638 or late 1637
  3. ^ Hannah Winthrop Chapter, DAR. (1907). Historic Guide to Cambridge, Second Edition, Cambridge, Mass.: Hannah Winthrop Chapter, DAR., pages 20-21. “On October 15, 1637, the Great and General Court passed a vote that: "The college is ordered to bee at Newetowne." In this same year the name of Newetowne was changed to Cambridge, ("It is ordered that Newetowne shall henceforward be called Cambridge") in honor of the university in Cambridge, England, where many of the early settlers were educated.” 
  4. ^ County and City Data Book: 2000. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. Table C-1.
  5. ^ Highest Population Density, The Boston Globe accessed on July 13, 2008
  6. ^ Study Ranks America’s Most Liberal and Conservative Cities
  7. ^ http://www.cambridgema.gov/CityOfCambridge_Content/documents/Understanding_Your_Taxes_2007.pdf
  8. ^ Free to Marry, The Boston Globe. Accessed November 25, 2006.
  9. ^ City of Cambridge --City Council
  10. ^ Cambridge Public Schools at a Glance.
  11. ^ a b c Bloom, Jonathan. (February 2, 2003) Boston Globe Existing by the Thinnest of Margins. A Concord Avenue Landmark Gives New Meaning to Cozy. Section: City Weekly; Page 11. Location: 260 Concord Ave, Cambridge, MA 02138.

Further reading

  • Survey of Architectural History in Cambridge: Mid Cambridge, 1967, Cambridge Historical Commission, Cambridge, Mass.[ISBN needed]
  • Survey of Architectural History in Cambridge: Cambridgeport, 1971 ISBN 0-262-53013-9, Cambridge Historical Commission, Cambridge, Mass.
  • Survey of Architectural History in Cambridge: Old Cambridge, 1973 ISBN 0-262-53014-7, Cambridge Historical Commission, Cambridge, Mass.
  • Survey of Architectural History in Cambridge: Northwest Cambridge, 1977 ISBN 0-262-53032-5, Cambridge Historical Commission, Cambridge, Mass.
  • Survey of Architectural History in Cambridge: East Cambridge, 1988 (revised) ISBN 0-262-53078-3, Cambridge Historical Commission, Cambridge, Mass.

External links

Maps

CoordinatesImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: 42.373611° N 71.110556° W

Template:Middlesex County, Massachusetts

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Localities of nation United States  +
Localities of nation-subdivision1 Massachusetts  +
Localities of nation-subdivision2 Middlesex County, Massachusetts  +
Short name Cambridge, Massachusetts  +

This article uses material from the "Cambridge, Massachusetts" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

Cambridge, Massachusetts
—  City  —
Coordinates: 42°22′25″N 71°06′38″W / 42.37361°N 71.11056°W / 42.37361; -71.11056
Country United States
State Massachusetts
County Middlesex
Settled 1630
Incorporated 1636
Government
 - Type Council-City Manager
 - Mayor E. Denise Simmons
 - City Manager Robert W. Healy
Area
 - Total 7.1 sq mi (18.5 km2)
 - Land 6.4 sq mi (16.7 km2)
 - Water 0.7 sq mi (1.8 km2)
Elevation 40 ft (12 m)
Population (2000)
 - Total 101,354
 Density 15,766.1/sq mi (6,087.3/km2)
Time zone Eastern (UTC-5)
 - Summer (DST) Eastern (UTC-4)
ZIP code 02138, 02139, 02140, 02141, 02142
Area code(s) 617 / 857
FIPS code 25-11000
GNIS feature ID 0617365
Website www.cambridgema.gov

Cambridge is a city in the U.S. state of Massachusetts, just outside of Boston. It is the home of Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Wikimania

The second Wikimania was hosted in this city in 2006.


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