Cambridge Antibody Technology: Wikis

Advertisements
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Cambridge Antibody Technology
Former type Public (LSE: CATNASDAQCATG)
Fate Acquired by AstraZeneca 2006, Merged with MedImmune 2007
Successor AstraZeneca
Founded Daly Laboratories, Babraham
Founder(s) David Chiswell, Sir Greg Winter, Medical Research Council
Defunct 2007 (2007)
Headquarters Granta Park, Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom
Area served Worldwide
Key people David Chiswell (Founder, CEO 1996-2002), Sir Greg Winter (Founder), Medical Research Council, Peter Chambré (CEO 2003-2006)
Industry Biopharmaceutical
Products Adalimumab, discovery of
Services Therapeutic monoclonal antibody discovery and development
Revenue £172.50m (6 months ending 31 March 2006*)
Operating income £147.25m (6 months ending 31 March 2006*)
Net income £25.25m (6 months ending 31 March 2006*)
Total assets £215.98m (6 months ending 31 March 2006*)
Total equity £180.97m (6 months ending 31 March 2006*)
Owner(s) AstraZeneca
Employees >300 (2006)
Parent Cambridge Antibody Technology Group Plc
Website www.cambridgeantibody.com
*Financials as of 6 month period prior to acquisition by AstraZeneca are distorted compared to previous years by the settlement for royalties payable on Adalimumab sales

Cambridge Antibody Technology, or CAT, was the UK biotechnology group of companies whose success was based mainly on its ability to generate antibody therapeutics, primarily using phage display, and the subsequently acquired ribosome display, technology.

The technology developed by CAT was used to create adalimumab, the pharmaceutical industry's first fully human antibody blockbuster drug. HUMIRA, the brand name of adalimumab, is an anti-TNF antibody discovered by CAT as D2E7, then developed in the clinic and marketed by Abbott Laboratories.

Formed in 1989, CAT was acquired by Astrazeneca in 2006 for £702m [1], who subsequently purchased MedImmune LLC [2], and merged the two together to create a new global biologics arm under the name MedImmune, whose Cambridge, UK operations conduct business as MedImmune Limited[3].

CAT was recognised as the jewel in the crown of the British biotechnology industry [4] and, during the latter years of its existence, was subject to acquisition speculation.

Contents

Operations

CAT was founded in 1989 by, amongst others, Dr. David Chiswell, Dr. Greg Winter and the Medical Research Council (UK) (MRC). Subsequently, in January 1990 operations began at the MRC laboratories in Cambridge. In May of that year, operations moved to the Daly Research Laboratories at Babraham Institute, Cambridge [5].

In 1992, CAT moved to Beech House on the Melbourn Science Park to occupy units B1 and B2. In 1993 the company expanded into unit B3, into B4 into 1995, and in 1998 into units B5, B6, B8 and B9. CAT completed the occupation of Beech House by finally occupying B7 by the late 1990s.

In 1999, CAT expanded into a second location in Melbourn called Cambridge House [6]. After leaving Melbourn, CAT sold this location on to housing developers in early 2006[7].

In 2000, CAT decided to move out of Melbourn to a science park called Granta Park, roughly 10 miles away[8][9]. Of the buildings on the park, the first to be occupied was the Franklin Building followed, in late 2002, by a move to a new corporate headquarters at the Milstein Building.

The Franklin Building, named after Rosalind Franklin, was formally opened in 2001 by David Sainsbury, Baron Sainsbury of Turville[10]. The Milstein Building was named after César Milstein, and had a modular design with separate laboratory (46,000 sq ft) and administration blocks (21,000 sq ft)[11].

When AstraZeneca acquired CAT in June 2006, plans were announced to occupy a new building on Granta Park, GP15, offering a further 92,000 sq ft. Refurbishment of this building took approximately 18 months and the building was officially opened, in November 2008, with the name Aaron Klug Building[12][13].

Science and technology

Scientists at CAT pioneered the use of phage display such that variable antibody domains could be expressed on filamentous phage antibodies, as reported in a key Nature publication[14].

Other key publications include:

  • Marks, JD; Hoogenboom; Bonnert; Mccafferty; Griffiths; Winter (1991). "By-passing immunization. Human antibodies from V-gene libraries displayed on phage". Journal of molecular biology 222 (3): 581–97. PMID 1748994.  
  • Vaughan, TJ; Williams; Pritchard; Osbourn; Pope; Earnshaw; Mccafferty; Hodits et al. (1996). "Human antibodies with sub-nanomolar affinities isolated from a large non-immunized phage display library". Nature biotechnology 14 (3): 309–14. doi:10.1038/nbt0396-309. PMID 9630891.  
  • Carmen, S; Jermutus (2002). "Concepts in antibody phage display". Briefings in functional genomics & proteomics 1 (2): 189–203. PMID 15239904.  
  • Edwards, BM; Barash; Main; Choi; Minter; Ullrich; Williams; Du Fou et al. (2003). "The remarkable flexibility of the human antibody repertoire; isolation of over one thousand different antibodies to a single protein, BLyS". Journal of molecular biology 334 (1): 103–18. PMID 14596803.  
  • Baker, KP; Edwards; Main; Choi; Wager; Halpern; Lappin; Riccobene et al. (2003). "Generation and characterization of LymphoStat-B, a human monoclonal antibody that antagonizes the bioactivities of B lymphocyte stimulator". Arthritis and rheumatism 48 (11): 3253–65. doi:10.1002/art.11299. PMID 14613291.  

CAT developed their display technologies further into several, patented antibody discovery/functional genomics tools which were named ProximolTM[15] and ProAbTM. ProAb was announced in December 1997[16] and involved highthroughput screening of antibody libraries against diseased and non-diseased tissue, whilst Proximol used a free radical enzymatic reaction to label molecules in proximity to a given protein[17][18].

In September 1999, it was announced that CAT's Library product and ProAb would each receive Millenium Products status[19]. Of the 4,000 products submitted to the Design Council for these awards, only 1,012 were chosen and, to attain Millenium Product status, products had to: open up new opportunities, challenge existing conventions, be environmentally responsible, demonstrate the application of new or existing technology, solve a key problem and show clear user benefits[20].

Products

CAT had a number of significant products in the pipeline. These included:

  • D2E7 — a human monoclonal antibody to Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF alpha). This went on to be developed and marketed by Abbott Laboratories as HUMIRA. The royalties payable on Adalimumab sales were subject to a dispute between the two companies.
  • ABT-874 — a human monoclonal antibody to IL-12 and IL-23. This went on to be developed by Abbott Laboratories for treatment of psoriasis[21] and Crohn's disease.
  • CAT-192 and GC1008 — are human monoclonal antibodies to Transforming Growth Factor beta 1. CAT-192 was named metelimumab and initial trials targeted the skin condition scleroderma[22] but, after some unsuccessful clinical trial results, the product was dropped in favour of GC1008[23], which is currently being developed by Genzyme[24].
  • CAT-152 — a human monoclonal antibody to TGF beta 2 [25], this product was initially developed to combat fibrotic scarring that results from glaucoma drainage surgery.[26] CAT-152 was named lerdelimumab, then branded Trabio, and development was stop in late 2005 after unsuccessful trial results[27].
  • CAT-213 — a human monoclonal antibody to eotaxin 1, which was formally named Bertilimumab.[28] In January 2007, CAT licensed the drug for treatment of allergy disorders to iCo Therapeutics Inc. who renamed it from CAT-213 to iCo-008[29].
  • CAM-3001 — a human monoclonal igG4 antibody to the alpha chain of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF Receptor)[30]. In 2007, some elements of the local press suggested this product could be the next HUMIRA[31]. CAM-3001 is currently being developed by MedImmune in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis[32][33], and mentioned in the rheumatology section of AstraZeneca's pipeline in their 2008 Annual Report[34]. The first clinical trial was initiated by MedImmune in late 2007[35].
  • CAT-354 — human monoclonal antibody (IgG4) that potently and specifically neutralizes interleukin 13, a T-lymphocyte-derived cytokine that plays a key role in the development and maintenance of the human asthmatic phenotype. CAT-354 was CAT's first antibody to be discovered using ribosome display[36], and is being developed by MedImmune[37].
  • CAT-3888 and CAT-8015 - CAT-3888 (formerly GCR-3888 and BL22) and CAT-8015 (formerly GCR-8015 and HA22) are both anti-CD22 immunotoxins comprising a modified Pseudomonas exotoxin and an anti-CD22 antibody fragment[38]. CAT acquired these two oncology product candidates in November 2005 from Genencor, a subsidiary of Danisco[39]. CAT-8015 is being developed by MedImmune[40].
  • CAT-5001 (formerly SS1P) - is a Pseudomonas exotoxin immunotoxin that targets mesothelin, which is a cell surface glycoprotein present on normal mesothelial cells that is overexpressed in numerous cancers including mesothelioma, ovarian cancer and pancreatic cancer[38]. CAT-5001 was acquired from Enzon Pharmaceuticals in May 2006[41].

IP History

CAT pioneered the application of Phage Display and Ribosome Display technology for the design and development of human monoclonal antibody therapeutics and which was reflected in the breadth of the company's patent portfolio. The Cambridge patent portfolio includes about 40 families of patents, covering both technologies and products.

Three main families of major patents cover Cambridge antibody library and Phage Display technology:

'Winter II' and 'Winter/Huse/Lerner' patents cover Medimmune's processes for generating the collections of human antibody genes that comprise MedImmune Cambridge libraries. MedImmune has patents issued in Europe, South Korea, Japan, Australia and the US and a patent application is pending in Canada. These patents are co-owned by the MRC, The Scripps Research Institute and Stratagene and MedImmune currently has exclusive commercial exploitation rights, subject to certain rights held by the Medical Research Council (MRC), Scripps and Stratagene and their pre-existing licensees.

'McCafferty' covers the process by which human antibodies are displayed on phage (Phage Display) and methods of selecting antibodies to desired targets from libraries. MedImmune has patents issued in Europe, Australia, South Korea and Japan and a patent application is pending in Canada. These patents are co-owned by MedImmune and the MRC.

'Griffiths' covers the use of Phage Display technology to isolate human anti-self' antibodies that specifically bind to molecules found in the human body. We have patents issued in Australia, Europe and the US and patent applications are pending in Canada and Japan. This patent is co-owned by MedImmune Cambridge and the MRC.

Advertisements

List of Patents

Winter II Winter/Huse/Lerner McCafferty Griffiths Kawasaki
PCT Publication Number WO90/05144[42] WO90/14424[43] WO90/14430[44] WO92/01047[45] WO93/11236[46] WO91/05058[47]
US US6,248,516, US6,545,142 US6,291,158, US6,291,159 US6,291,160, US6,291,161, US6,680,192 US5,969,108, US6,172,197, US6,806,079 US5,885,793, US6,521,404 ,US6,544,731, US6,555,313, US6,593,081, US6,582,915 US5,643,768, US5,658,754
Europe EP0368684 EP0472638 EP0425661, EP1026239 (pending as of July 2009) EP0589877, EP0774511, EP0844306 (pending as of July 2009) EP0616640, EP1024191 (pending as of July 2009) EP0494955
Australia AU0634186 AU651065 AU643948 AU0664155 AU0665221 AU038762
Japan JP02919890 JP3321159 2-508759 JP03176917 5-509967 (pending as of July 2009) JP03127158, 2000-240298 (pending as of July 2009)
Canada 2002868 (pending as of July 2009) CA2016841 2016842 2086936 (pending as of July 2009) 2124460 (pending as of July 2009) CA2067194
South Korea KR0184860 - - KR0222326 - KR0185192, KR0204359, KR0204360
Denmark DK175392 - - - - -

Patent Dispute with MorphoSys

The German biotechnology company MorphoSys generates human antibodies using its phage display-based 'HuCal' (Human Combinatorial Antibody Library)technology[48]. In the late 1990s both companies found themselves jockeying for strong IP position in the area of therapeutic human antibody generation by way of a specific dispute (details on MorphoSys page).

The long, and protracted, dispute resulted which was eventually settled in late 2002 when some argued the settlement was enforced by an industry cash crunch. The 'delighted' CEO at the time, Peter Chambré, reflected that the deal put an end to the distraction to both parties caused by the litigation[49].

Management and Key People

CAT was founded by David Chiswell and Greg Winter, with major scientific contributions from John McCafferty.

Dave Chiswell was responsible for operational management of CAT from 1990 to 2002, including time as chief executive officer from 1996 to 2002. Chiswell announced he was standing down from CAT in November 2001 and, during his time at CAT, had established himself as a significant character in the biotechnology business[50]. In 2003, Chiswell became chairman of the BioIndustry Association[51], and in June 2006 was awarded an MBE for UK Bioscience Industry in the UK Overseas[52].

Since leaving CAT, Chiswell focussed on the development of early stage biotechnology companies and held a number of positions including;

  • April 2005, Non-executive Chairman of Sosei Ltd [53][54]
  • May 2002, Deputy Chairman Arrow Therapeutics Ltd[55]
  • January 2005, Non-executive Chairman Daniolabs Ltd[56]
  • Director of Arakis Ltd
  • Executive Chairman of Albireo Ltd[57]
  • Advisor to Nomura Phase IV ventures
  • March 2009, CEO of Nabriva[58]

CAT was governed by a board and, latterly, a Scientific Advisory Board, both of which contained some eminent scientists and business people. These include:

Peter Chambré replaced Dave Chiswell as CEO in early 2002[64]. Chambré had been the CEO of Bespak PLC since May 1994[65] and, in July 2000, became the chief operating officer of the genomics company Celera[66]. After CAT, Chambré went on to hold a number of positions including Chairman of ApaTech Ltd.[67], in September 2006 appointed non-executive director of BTG plc [68] and Spectrics pls and also advisor to 3i Group plc[69].

John McCafferty developed much of the phage display technology used by CAT and has many publications to his name. McCafferty left CAT to start a group at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute where, as part of the ATLAS project, his group demonstrated the potential for large-scale high-throughput generation and validation of monoclonal antibodies[70]. This work built on CAT's ProAbTM technology. McCafferty currently runs the Cell Interaction Group in the Department of Biochemistry at Cambridge University[71].

Kevin Johnson joined CAT in 1990, contributed to the discovery of D2E7, played a key role in CAT's Initial Public Offering (IPO) and, by July 1997, was appointed to the Board as Research Director. In 2000, Kevin became Chief Technology Officer responsible for exploitation and development of CAT's technology platforms. In November 2002, CAT announced its intention to seek independent financing for its development of the application of antibodies on microarrays for personalised medicine, as this fell outside CAT's focus on therapeutic antibodies and Johnson positively spearheaded this push[72]. In the event it was not possible to procure finance for this activity and, as a result, all development activity at CAT was terminated[73].

Johnson left CAT and has since taken up several positions:

  • CEO of PanGenetics[74]
  • General Partner at Ash Biotech[75]
  • Advisor at Index Ventures contributing to PanGenetics and Aegerion Pharmaceuticals[76]
  • Representative of Index Ventures on the board of directors of Aegerion Pharmaceuticals[77]
  • Independent member of the Technology Transfer Challenge Committee of the Wellcome Trust[78]

Collaborations

CAT has entered many collaborations with technology and pharmaceutical companies. These include:

  • Searle, 1999 - CAT signed, what was at the time, their biggest deal with Searle, the pharmaceutical arm of Monsanto[79]. In 2000, Pharmacia & Upjohn merged with Monsanto and Searle[80] to create Pharmacia Corporation. In 2003, Pfizer acquired Pharmacia[81]. It is unsure as to whether the deal with Searle generated any clinical candidates.
  • Human Genome Sciences, 2000 [82][83]. This deal generated, amongst others;
    • An anti-BLyS antibody — registered by HGSI as LymphoStat-B, also known as belimumab, and subsequently branded as BENLYSTA[84].
    • An anthrax therapeutic antibody — registered by HGSI as ABthrax, also known as raxibacumab[85].
    • Two anti-TRAIL receptor antibodies — HGS-ETR1 (mapatumumab) and HGS-ETR2 (lexatumumab)[86]. Early work by CAT and HGS scientists showed that HGS-ETR1 induces cell death in certain tumour types [87]. Following this data, HGS exercised an option to enter into an exclusive development partnership for the antibody[88].
  • Genzyme, 2000[89]. CAT held significant strength in the area of TGF beta with two products already — CAT-152 and CAT-192. The deal with Genzyme was "a broad strategic alliance to develop and commercialise human monoclonal antibodies directed against TGF-beta." All clinical indications, with the exception of ophthalmic uses, were covered by the agreement.[90][91].
    • The deal resulted in GC1008, a pan-neutralizing IgG4 human antibody directed against all three isoforms of TGF beta, which had the "potential for treating a variety of diseases"[92]. In particular Genzyme are currently using GC1008 in trials involcing immunogenic tumours[24].
    • The takeover of CAT by AstraZeneca initiated a change of control clause in the 2008 agreement that gives Genzyme the right to buy out rights to a jointly developed experimental lung drug[93].
  • Immunex Corp, 2000[94]. CAT's proprietary antibody phage display library for the discovery, development and potential commercialization of human monoclonal antibodies was licensed to Immunex, in return for a licence fee. This deal was expanded in May 2001 where CAT shared more of the risk of drug development — a so-called "profit-sharing" deal[95][96]. In 2002 Immunex was acquired by Amgen[97] and in December 2003 CAT entered into a new, restructured agreement with Amgen, reportedly focussing in skin disease [98]. It was also reported that, under the terms of the agreement, Amgen had taken responsibility for the further development and marketing of the therapeutic antibody candidates isolated by CAT against two targets on which the parties agreed to collaborate and would bear all the associated costs. In return, CAT received from Amgen an initial fee and potential milestone payments and royalties on future sales. As of February 2004, one candidate had been delivered by CAT to Amgen. A second candidate was the subject of a continuing research program funded by Amgen and conducted by CAT and was to be delivered to Amgen in due course[99].
    • Amgen acquired the transgenic mouse company Abgenix[100] meaning that they had access to two different methods of human monoclonal antibody production. As of July 2009, it is not know from which technology any of their monoclonal antibody products in clinical trials have been derived[101].
  • AMRAD, 2001[30]. AMRAD subsequently changed its name to Zenyth Therapeutics[102] and, in mid 2006, Zenyth was acquired by CSL Limited[103]. CAT and AMRAD had gone 50:50 with the original deal over the development of an anti-GMCSF-R antibody, which became CAM-3001. After all this corporate manoeuvring, "CSL decided to license its 50% share in the project to MedImmune...MedImmune commenced Phase I clinical trials in December 2007"[104].

Acquisitions

Aptein Inc.

On the 15 July 1998, CAT completed the acquisition of Aptein Inc[6]. This acquisition "...further strengthened its world leading position in antibody display technology...giving CAT controlling patents in the field of polysome display. Polysome display involves the use of polysomes, a type of molecule responsible for protein synthesis within the human body, to display functional antibody proteins in vitro.". Three years later David Glover, CAT's Chief Medical Officer at the time, summarised the acquisition as one which essentially acquired Aptein's patent estate[105](See also CAT IP History)

"Under the terms of the agreement CAT purchased the issued share capital and outstanding share options and warrants of Aptein for a total consideration of up to $11 million satisfied by the issue of up to 2.366 million CAT shares (an implied CAT share price of 278p.) $6 million of the consideration was satisfied by the issue of 1.290 million CAT shares on closing. The balance of the consideration of up to $5 million will be satisfied by the issue of up to 1.076 million CAT shares after Aptein’s European patents have been sustained through opposition or appeal.In accordance with accounting standards the cost of acquiring this new technology has been capitalised and will be written off over the lives of the patents concerned."[106].

Aptein was founded by Glenn Kawasaki, who is currently, amongst other positions, CEO at Accium BioSciences[107].

According to an article published in Nature in 2002, that focused on the automation of proteomics,..."Normally, an mRNA molecule passes through the ribosome like ticker-tape and is released, along with the newly synthesized protein molecule, when a sequence of three bases known as a 'stop codon' is reached. In Aptein's technology, stop codons are eliminated so that the completed antibody and its mRNA remain bound together on the ribosome. The system, which CAT is now optimizing, is entirely cell-free and so is more amenable to automation. This should make it possible to construct libraries that are orders of magnitude larger than those created using phage display."[108].

CAT published on their optimisation work with Ribosome Display, including:

  • "An improved method for an efficient and easily accessible eukaryotic ribosome display technology"; Protein Engineering Design and Selection: Volume 19, Number 2, Pages 85–90[36].
  • "Harnessing phage and ribosome display for antibody optimisation"; Trends in Biotechnology: Volume 24, Issue 11, November 2006, Pages 523-529[109].
  • "Applications of ribosome display to antibody drug discovery"; Maria AT Groves and Jane K Osbourn‌; Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy January 2005, Vol. 5, No. 1, Pages 125-135[110].

CAT used ribosome display to discover their anti-IL-13 monoclonal antibody, CAT-354[36], which is being developed by MedImmune[37].

Drug Royalty Corporation Inc.

In 1994, CAT signed a royalty deal with Drug Royalty Corporation Inc. (DRC) such that DRC would receive future royalty revenue from CAT's products.

In January 2002, CAT made a share-based offer to buy DRC for £55 million so that it could buy out this royalty obligation. CAT valued DRC at C$3.00 a share, and this offer was initially recommended by the board of directors of DRC. On 8 March 2002 the investment company Inwest made a competing offer valuing DRC at C$3.05 per share[111]. CAT's offer would see DRC shareholders receiving CAT shares whilst Inwest's offer would see the DRC shareholder receiving cash. DRC's board of directors changed their decision and recommended Inwest's offer. After a number of deadline extensions from CAT the offer from Inwest was accepted by the DRC shareholders. Inwest purchased DRC on the 2 May 2002.

As a result of this failure to purchase DRC, CAT's right to buy back royalty interest was triggered at a cost to CAT of C$14 million (£6.2 million) by way of 463,818 CAT shares[112].

Oxford Glycosciences

On 23 January 2003 CAT made a share-based offer for Oxford Glycosciences (OGS)[113] and at an Extraordinary General Meeting shareholders voted to approve the merger. In March of this year a decline in CAT's share price, coupled with initiating discussions regarding the applicability of the royalty offset provisions for HUMIRA with Abbott Laboratories, had a negative impact on the CAT share price depressing the value of CAT's offer[114][115].

On 26 February 2003 the British-based biotechnology group Celltech subsequently made a hostile £101 million cash offer for OGS[116] and began buying OGS shares. Some reported that this activity represented the UK biotechnology industry's first-ever bidding war[117]. Despite this improved offer from Celltech, OGS continued to recommend the CAT offer[118].

Celltech continued to buy OGS shares and the OGS board pressed CAT to improve the terms of its offer as the Celltech shareholding reached 10.55%[119]. OGS became alarmed that Celltech's share prurchase would prompt CAT to walk away because, under takeover rules, it would not be able to forcibly purchase the 10.55 per cent stake Celltech ownded. CAT failed to improve the terms of its bid forcing OGS to abandon the agreement[120].

Celltech continued buying shares and, as their stake reached 25%, so the board of OGS met to reluctantly recommend the Celltech offer. Celltech completed the purchase of OGS in April 2003[121]. Some newspapers reported that the failure of the bid by CAT would means that CAT would have to cut some of its workforce[122]. Celltech was itself purchased by the Belgian drugmaker UCB in mid 2004[123].

Genencor

On the 1 November 2005 CAT announced it was acquiring two anti-CD22 immunotoxin products from Genencor, namely GCR-3888 and GCR-8015[39]. Genencor is the biotechnology division of Danisco[124] and the acquisition meant CAT would hire certain former Genencor key employees to be responsible for the development of the programmes[125].

GCR-3888 and GCR-8015 were discovered and initially developed by the National Cancer Institute, which is part of the U.S. National Institutes of Health. Genencor licensed the candidates for hematological malignancies and entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with the NIH, which will now be continued by CAT. Under the original license agreement with the NIH, CAT gained the rights to a portfolio of intellectual property associated with the programs and would pay future royalties to the NIH.

CAT intended to file an Investigational New Drug (IND) application for GCR-8015 in various CD22 positive B-cell malignancies, including Non-Hodgkin lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia, following a period of manufacturing development which is expected to be complete by the end of 2006 and to support the NCI's ongoing development of GCR-3888 in Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) and pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (pALL)[39].

CAT-8015 exhibited a greater affinity for CD22 than its predecessor, CAT-3888[126] and CAT's language such as "CAT will support the NCI's ongoing development of CAT-3888..." suggested at the time that their focus was on the second generation candidate[127].

Shares and shareholding

CAT was listed on the London Stock Exchange in 1997, raising £43 million, and went through a second round of funding in 2000, raising over £90 million.

In 2000, after a succession of deals [128] that focussed on harnessing the exploitation of the human genome, CAT's share price peaked at over £50 per share.

In 2001, CAT listed on the NASDAQ.

Design and marketing

As a result of CAT's listing on the London Stock Exchange, the company was required to publish an annual report available to all shareholders. During the nine years of publication a variety of designs were issued:

Year 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
Design and production - Radley Yeldar Radley Yeldar Radley Yeldar Radley Yeldar Radley Yeldar Merchant Group with navyblue Merchant Group in collaboration with Ammunition Merchant Group in collaboration with Ammunition
Photography - - George Brooks and Edward Webb Craig Easton, Dr. N. Francis/Medipics and Wellcome Photo Library George Brooks, John Edwards, Edward Webb and the CAT Cellular Pathology Team George Brooks and John Edwards Stephen Bond, assisted by Adam Smyth Stephen Bond, assisted by Adam Smyth Stephen Bond, assisted by Adam Smyth
Basic Style and Influence notes Silver cover - CAT logo is usually silver Spots - antibodies as targeting agents Spots, first use of black and white photography Arrays of spots, individually coloured to reveal shapes Silhouette of people and scientific apparatus filled by stained, histological tissue sections People photography Dominated by the CAT corporate colours of pink and green Dominated by the CAT corporate colours of silver, pink and green Solely coloured with white and the CAT corporate colour of purple (and tints thereof)

Due to its size and limited income, CAT did not readily market itself until the early to mid-2000s. The following campaigns and branded materials were developed and published from 2003:

Year 2003 2003 2004 2005 2006 2006 2007 2007
Campaign Can't take your therapeutic antibody forward? Advertising The Closest Thing to Certainty The Closest Thing to Certainty The Values of Life Obsessed with Antibodies - Pioneering Therapeutics Together Obsessed with Antibodies - Pioneering Therapeutics Together Obsessed with Antibodies - Pioneering Therapeutics Together (recruitment)
Background Notes CAT's claimed ability to optimise targets with a 90% success rate First use of the "spotty" logo to raise CAT's profile in local, nationals and trade media Building on the 'success' of CAT's technology, the campaign suggested that executives could relax knowing their drug had a better chance of making it all the way through clinical trials to market using CAT's technology and experience. The model used is believed to be Marc Manklow, who appeared in the pilot episode then Season 1, Episode 3 of the reality TV show Who Rules the Roost? made by Ricochet and broadcast by the BBC.[129][130][131] Campaign updated with a new male model and photograph The first CAT 'brochure' which summarised the company's key facts, strategy, technologies and pipeline New campaign suggesting that CAT staff are obsessed with antibodies, implying hard work and dedication. Other collateral developed included mugs, T-shirts and 'I love antibodies' badges in the style of the famous 'I love NY' ones 'Obsessed' campaign collateral updated to reflect AstraZeneca's involvement with CAT 'Obsessed' campaign collateral updated with new tri-fold handout, designed for recruitment as it now features the 'Best Workplaces' logo
Agency - Ware Anthony Rust Ware Anthony Rust Ware Anthony Rust Merchant Group in collaboration with Ammunition Ware Anthony Rust Ware Anthony Rust Ware Anthony Rust
Creative - - Creative Director Richard Bland, photography by Stephen Bond Creative Director Richard Bland Merchant Group Creative Director Richard Bland, photography by Stephen Bond assisted by Adam Smyth Creative Director Richard Bland, photography by Stephen Bond assisted by Adam Smyth Creative Director Richard Bland, photography by Stephen Bond assisted by Adam Smyth

Awards

CAT's most significant award was the Prix Galien[132], awarded for outstanding achievement in product and technology development, in recognition of its creativity in the development of novel human monoclonal antibody therapeutics especially in relation to its product CAT-152, which was used to treat fibrotic scarring in certain ophthalmology conditions[133].

References

  1. ^ http://www.astrazeneca.com/media/latest-press-releases/2006/5266?itemId=3891617
  2. ^ http://www.astrazeneca.com/media/latest-press-releases/2007/5336?itemId=3891476
  3. ^ http://www.ukdata.com/numbers/02451177.html
  4. ^ http://www.independent.co.uk/news/business/analysis-and-features/investment-the-drugs-dont-work-905463.html
  5. ^ http://www.babraham.ac.uk/news2006/sep-5.html
  6. ^ a b http://www.cambridgeantibody.com/__data/assets/pdf_file/5246/catannualreport1998.pdf
  7. ^ http://www.cambridge-news.co.uk/cn_news_cambridge/displayarticle.asp?id=272893
  8. ^ http://www.mepc.com/grantapark/AboutUs/History/Background.aspx
  9. ^ http://www.ukbusinesspark.co.uk/county/cambridg.htm
  10. ^ http://www.mepc.com/grantapark/AboutUs/History/DevelopmentTimeline.aspx
  11. ^ http://www.constructingexcellence.org.uk//resources/demonstrationprojects/view.jsp?id=418
  12. ^ http://www.pharmafocus.com/cda/focusH/1,2109,21-0-0-NOV_2008-focus_news_detail-0-492282,00.html
  13. ^ http://www.mepc.com/grantapark/News/Latestnews/New100,000sqftbuildinglaunchedatGrantaPark.aspx
  14. ^ http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v348/n6301/abs/348552a0.html
  15. ^ Osbourn, JK (2002). "Proximity-guided (ProxiMol) antibody selection" (Free full text). Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 178: 201–5. PMID 11968489. http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/search/r?dbs+hsdb:@term+@rn+58-85-5.  
  16. ^ http://www.ukbusinesspark.co.uk/cay92125.htm
  17. ^ http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T76-3WBNNJS-6&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_searchStrId=960781456&_rerunOrigin=google&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=eacedcd4604792172fc18143a590a454
  18. ^ http://www.chidb.com/newsarticles/issue3_1.ASP
  19. ^ http://www.prnewswire.ae/cgi/news/release?id=54703
  20. ^ http://www.designcouncil.org.uk/Design-Council/1/What-we-do/Our-history/Millennium-Products/
  21. ^ http://www.abbott.com/static/content/microsite/annual_report/2007/pharmaceuticals.html
  22. ^ http://www.genzymeoncology.com/onc/clinical/trialdetailresults.asp?nct=NCT00043706
  23. ^ http://www.independent.co.uk/news/business/news/cat-may-abandon-skin-drug-after-trial-results-disappoint-569445.html
  24. ^ a b http://www.genzymeoncology.com/onc/research/onc_p_research.asp
  25. ^ http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/adis/rdd/2002/00000003/00000002/art00006
  26. ^ Cordeiro, MF (2003). "Technology evaluation: lerdelimumab, Cambridge Antibody Technology" (Free full text). Current opinion in molecular therapeutics 5 (2): 199–203. PMID 12772512. http://www.scholaruniverse.com/ncbi-linkout?id=12772512.  
  27. ^ http://goliath.ecnext.com/coms2/gi_0199-3895591/CAT-abandons-Trabio-after-second.html
  28. ^ Ding, C; Li; Zhang (2004). "Bertilimumab Cambridge Antibody Technology Group". Current opinion in investigational drugs (London, England : 2000) 5 (11): 1213–8. PMID 15573873.  
  29. ^ http://www.icotherapeutics.com/site/investor-relations/cambridge_antibody_tech_licenses_monoclonal_antibody_treatment_allergy/
  30. ^ a b http://www.allbusiness.com/technology/832908-1.html
  31. ^ http://www.cambridge-news.co.uk/cn_business/displayarticle.asp?id=237603
  32. ^ http://www.medimmune.com/pipeline/pipeline_phase1_detail.asp
  33. ^ http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00771420
  34. ^ http://www.astrazeneca-annualreports.com/2008/directors_report/therapy_area_review/resp_and_inflamm/rheumatology.html
  35. ^ http://www.medimmune.com/press/fullstory.asp?reqid=1080894&yr=2007
  36. ^ a b c http://peds.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/19/2/85
  37. ^ a b http://www.medimmune.com/pipeline/pipeline_phase2_detail.asp
  38. ^ a b http://www.cambridgeantibody.com/__data/assets/pdf_file/10857/CAT-3888,_CAT-8015_and_CAT-5001_Nov06.pdf
  39. ^ a b c http://www.prnewswire.com/cgi-bin/stories.pl?ACCT=104&STORY=/www/story/11-01-2005/0004204747&EDATE=
  40. ^ http://www.medimmune.com/pipeline/cambridge/product.asp?t=CAT-8015
  41. ^ http://www.mesotheliomaweb.org/cat5001.htm
  42. ^ http://v3.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/biblio?DB=EPODOC&adjacent=true&locale=en_EP&FT=D&date=19900517&CC=WO&NR=9005144A1&KC=A1
  43. ^ http://v3.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/biblio?DB=EPODOC&adjacent=true&locale=en_EP&FT=D&date=19901129&CC=WO&NR=9014424A1&KC=A1
  44. ^ http://v3.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/biblio?DB=EPODOC&adjacent=true&locale=en_EP&FT=D&date=19901129&CC=WO&NR=9014430A1&KC=A1
  45. ^ http://v3.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/biblio?DB=EPODOC&adjacent=true&locale=en_EP&FT=D&date=19920123&CC=WO&NR=9201047A1&KC=A1
  46. ^ http://v3.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/biblio?DB=EPODOC&adjacent=true&locale=en_EP&FT=D&date=19930610&CC=WO&NR=9311236A1&KC=A1
  47. ^ http://v3.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/biblio?DB=EPODOC&adjacent=true&locale=en_EP&FT=D&date=19910418&CC=WO&NR=9105058A1&KC=A1
  48. ^ http://www.morphosys.com/en/technologies/advantages_of_human_antibodies-130.html
  49. ^ http://www.nature.com/nbt/journal/v21/n2/full/nbt0203-114.html
  50. ^ http://www.independent.co.uk/news/business/analysis-and-features/trust-me-im-the-cat-doctor-719821.html
  51. ^ http://www.bioindustry.org/cgi-bin/contents_view.pl
  52. ^ http://www.london-gazette.co.uk/issues/58014/supplements/9/page.pdf
  53. ^ http://www.cambridgegateway.com/news/2005/archive_dan_chiswell.htm
  54. ^ http://www.sosei.com/en/news/pdf/PR_20050316-e.pdf
  55. ^ http://www.arrowt.co.uk/live/News12.asp
  56. ^ http://home.btconnect.com/DanioLabs/documents/ChiswellApril05.doc
  57. ^ http://www.albireopharma.com/Content.aspx?PageID=17795&PageTypeID=3
  58. ^ http://www.nabriva.com/company/management-team/george-golumbeski/
  59. ^ http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1984/milstein-autobio.html
  60. ^ http://www.cambridgeantibody.com/home/company_profile/people/scientific_advisory_board
  61. ^ http://www.ucl.ac.uk/about-ucl/fellows/#g
  62. ^ http://www.bioportfolio.com/news/cat_17.htm
  63. ^ http://www.siliconfenbusiness.com/articles/CAT-recommends-AstraZenecas-702m-bid-major-RD-centre-in-Cambridge-planned/139
  64. ^ http://www.independent.co.uk/news/business/news/genome-chief-chambre-hired-to-turn-cambridge-into-profit-662131.html
  65. ^ http://www.independent.co.uk/news/business/the-investment-column-bespak-investors-can-breathe-easy-1282218.html
  66. ^ http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-63100858.html
  67. ^ http://www.axellia.com/pages/getpage.aspx?id=93879992-9d2a-4bd8-b353-82df9e1ace14
  68. ^ http://www.btgplc.com/view.aspx?ID=204&year=2006&linkID=1833
  69. ^ http://www.3i.com/about3i/peter-chambre.html
  70. ^ http://www.sanger.ac.uk/Info/News-releases/2007/071129.shtml
  71. ^ http://www.bioc.cam.ac.uk/uto/mccafferty.html
  72. ^ http://www.nature.com/nbt/journal/v20/n3/full/nbt0302-225.html
  73. ^ http://www.cambridgeantibody.com/__data/assets/pdf_file/5247/interim_report_2003.pdf| page 4 of CAT's Interim report
  74. ^ http://www.pangenetics.com/management.html
  75. ^ http://www.ashbiotech.com/board.shtml
  76. ^ http://www.indexventures.com/team#profile_id_14
  77. ^ http://www.aegerion.com/newsroom/news_061306.htm
  78. ^ http://www.wellcome.ac.uk/Funding/Technology-transfer/Awards/Translation-Awards/WTD003538.htm#johnson
  79. ^ http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0DED/is_6_20/ai_59120039/
  80. ^ http://www2.prnewswire.com/cgi-bin/stories.pl?ACCT=104&STORY=/www/story/12-19-1999/0001100095&EDATE=
  81. ^ http://www.pfizer.com/about/history/pfizer_pharmacia.jsp
  82. ^ http://www.hgsi.com/technology-collaborations.html
  83. ^ http://www.cambridgeantibody.com/home/business_development/technology_transfer/hgsi
  84. ^ http://www.hgsi.com/belimumab.html
  85. ^ http://www.hgsi.com/raxibacumab.html
  86. ^ http://www.hgsi.com/trail-receptor-antibodies-5.html
  87. ^ http://www.nature.com/bjc/journal/v92/n8/abs/6602487a.html
  88. ^ http://www.trailr2mab.com/news/press/02-01-08_trail_cat.html
  89. ^ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/4466827/CAT-leaps-on-tie-up-deal-with-Genzyme.html
  90. ^ http://www.drugdiscoveryonline.com/article.mvc/Cambridge-Antibody-Genzyme-to-collaborate-on-0001?VNETCOOKIE=NO
  91. ^ http://prnwire.com/cgi-bin/stories.pl?ACCT=104&STORY=/www/story/09-28-2000/0001324438&EDATE=
  92. ^ http://www.genzyme.com/research/technology/tech_home.asp
  93. ^ http://www.biospace.com/news_story.aspx?NewsEntityId=18581
  94. ^ http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-67466274.html
  95. ^ http://www.drugdiscoveryonline.com/article.mvc/Cambridge-Antibody-Technology-Immunex-to-co-d-0001
  96. ^ http://www.independent.co.uk/news/business/news/cat-signs-deal-with-immunex-to-share-rampd-costs-685629.html
  97. ^ http://www.amgen.com/media/media_pr_detail.jsp?year=2002&releaseID=515163
  98. ^ http://www.independent.co.uk/news/business/news/cat-ties-up-skin-treatments-deal-with-amgen-577698.html
  99. ^ http://www.thefreelibrary.com/CAMBRIDGE+ANTIBODY+TECHNOLOGY%2FAMGEN+RESTRUCTURE+AGREEMENT-a0112229752
  100. ^ http://wwwext.amgen.com/media/media_pr_detail.jsp?year=2006&releaseID=837754
  101. ^ http://www.amgen.com/science/pipe.jsp
  102. ^ http://www.biomelbourne.org/640.0.html
  103. ^ http://www.csl.com.au/s1/cs/auhq/1196562649899/news/1196562740571/prdetail.htm
  104. ^ http://www.csl.com.au/docs/2/52/FY08%20ASX%20release%20FINAL.pdf
  105. ^ http://pharmalicensing.com/public/articles/view/1026049468_3d2845bc71f7b/interview-with-cambridge-antibody-technology-medical-director-david-glover
  106. ^ http://www.cambridgeantibody.com/__data/assets/pdf_file/5246/catannualreport1998.pdf| page 29 of the CAT Annual Report 1998
  107. ^ http://www.acciumbio.com/Management.htm
  108. ^ http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v415/n6868/full/415112a.html
  109. ^ http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6TCW-4M04DT9-1&_user=2562006&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_searchStrId=970172084&_rerunOrigin=google&_acct=C000057845&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=2562006&md5=005833dba8330eb0efde221ba580e986
  110. ^ http://www.informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1517/14712598.5.1.125
  111. ^ http://www.inwest-investments.com/pr/user/story.php?id=6&me=6
  112. ^ http://www.cambridgeantibody.com/__data/assets/pdf_file/5248/interim_report_2002.pdf| page 5 of CAT's 2002 Interim Report
  113. ^ http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Cambridge+Antibody+to+merge+with+Oxford+Glycosciences-a097428680
  114. ^ http://www.independent.co.uk/news/business/news/cats-bid-hopes-floored-by-royalties-dispute-592495.html
  115. ^ http://www.cambridgeantibody.com/__data/assets/pdf_file/5247/interim_report_2003.pdf| page 4 of CAT's 2003 Interim Report
  116. ^ http://ir.ucb-group.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=137495&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=844879&highlight=
  117. ^ http://www.nature.com/drugdisc/news/articles/nbt0403-343.html
  118. ^ http://www.independent.co.uk/news/business/news/oxford-glyco-turns-down-higher-bid-to-stick-with-cat-598901.html
  119. ^ http://www.independent.co.uk/news/business/news/ogs-presses-cat-to-improve-offer-592135.html
  120. ^ http://www.independent.co.uk/news/business/news/oxford-glyco-seeks-bidders-as-cat-offers-value-falls-600642.html
  121. ^ http://www.independent.co.uk/news/business/news/celltech-wins-bid-battle-for-oxford-glycosciences-594211.html
  122. ^ http://www.independent.co.uk/news/business/news/cat-forced-to-cut-back-research-after-oxford-glyco-bid-fails-538748.html
  123. ^ http://ir.ucb-group.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=137495&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=619894&highlight=
  124. ^ http://www.danisco.com/cms/connect/corporate/about+danisco/organisation/divisions/genencor/genencor_en.htm
  125. ^ http://www.danisco.com/cms/connect/corporate/media%20relations/news/archive/2005/november/investor_182_en.htm
  126. ^ http://press.nci.nih.gov/Templates/drugdictionary.aspx?CdrID=540032
  127. ^ http://goliath.ecnext.com/coms2/gi_0199-4981435/Cambridge-Antibody-Technology-Announces-Preliminary.html
  128. ^ http://www.independent.co.uk/news/business/news/cambridge-antibody-shares-soar-58-as-investors-applaud-move-to-exploit-genes-722311.html
  129. ^ http://www.ricochet.co.uk/html/progs/progs-whorulestheroost.htm
  130. ^ http://uktv.co.uk/really/item/aid/533336
  131. ^ http://www.locatetv.com/tv/who-rules-the-roost-now/season-1/2025393
  132. ^ Prix Galien information.
  133. ^ CAT Prix Galien news release.

Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message