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Camillo Golgi

Camillo Golgi, 1906
Born July 7, 1843(1843-07-07)
Corteno, Italy
Died January 21, 1926 (aged 82)
Pavia, Italy
Nationality Italian
Fields Neuroscience
Notable awards Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (1906)

Camillo Golgi (July 7, 1843 – January 21, 1926) was an Italian physician, pathologist, scientist, and Nobel laureate.

Contents

Biography

Camillo Golgi was born in Corteno (Val Camonica). His father was a physician and district medical officer. Golgi studied at the University of Pavia, where he worked in the experimental pathology laboratory under Giulio Bizzozero, who elucidated the properties of bone marrow. He graduated in 1865. He spent much of his career studying the central nervous system. Tissue staining techniques in the latter half of the 19th century were inadequate for studying nervous tissue. While working as chief medical officer in a psychiatric hospital, he experimented with metal impregnation of nervous tissue, using mainly silver (silver staining). He discovered a method of staining nervous tissue which would stain a limited number of cells at random, in their entirety. This enabled him to view the paths of nerve cells in the brain for the first time. He called his discovery the "black reaction" (in Italian, reazione nera), which later received his name (Golgi's method) or Golgi stain. The reason for the random staining is still not understood.

The black reaction consisted in fixing silver chromate particles to the neurilemma (the neuron membrane) by reacting silver nitrate with potassium dichromate. This resulted in a stark black deposit on the soma as well as on the axon and all dendrites, providing an exceedingly clear and well contrasted picture of neuron against a yellow background. The ability to visualize separate neurons led to the eventual acceptance of the neuron doctrine.[1]

In addition to this discovery, Golgi discovered a tendon sensory organ that bears his name (Golgi receptor). He studied the life cycle of [[Plasmodium] and related the timing of tertian and quartan fevers seen in malaria with the life cycle of the organisms now named Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium malariae, respectively[2]. Using his staining technique, Golgi identified the intracellular reticular apparatus in 1898 which bears his name, the Golgi apparatus.

In renal physiology Golgi is renowned for being the first to show that the distal tubulus of the nephron returns to its originating glomerulus (nerve ending of the Bombula) a finding that he published in 1889 ("Annotazioni intorno all'Istologia dei reni dell'uomo e di altri mammifieri e sull'istogenesi dei canalicoli oriniferi". Rendiconti R. Acad. Lincei 5: 545–557, 1889.).

Golgi, together with Santiago Ramón y Cajal, received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1906 for his studies of the structure of the nervous system.

Golgi died in Pavia, Italy, in January 1926.

Drawing by Camillo Golgi of a hippocampus stained with the silver nitrate method.

Monuments in Pavia

In Pavia several landmarks stand as Golgi’s memory.

  • A marble statue, in a yard of the old buildings of the University of Pavia, at N.65 of the central “Strada Nuova”. On the basament, there is the following inscription in Italian language: "Camillo Golgi / patologo sommo / della scienza istologica / antesignano e maestro / la segreta struttura / del tessuto nervoso / con intenta vigilia / sorprese e descrisse / qui operò / qui vive / guida e luce ai venturi / MDCCCXLIII – MCMXXVI" (Camillo Golgi / outstanding pathologist / of histological science / precursor and master / the secret structure / of the nervous tissue / with strenuous effort / discovered and described / here he worked / here he lives / here he guides and enlightens future scholars / 1843 – 1926).
  • "Golgi’s home", also in Strada Nuova, at N.77, a few hundreds meters away from the University, just in front to the historical “Teatro Fraschini”. It is the home in which Golgi spent the most of his family life, with his wife Lina.
  • Golgi’s tomb is in the Monumental Cemetery of Pavia (viale San Giovannino), along the central lane, just before the big monument to the fallen of the First World War. It is a very simple granite grave, with a bronze medallion representing the scientist’s profile. Near Golgi’s tomb, apart from his wife, two other important Italian medical scientists are buried: Bartolomeo Panizza and Adelchi Negri.

Eponyms

References

  1. ^ The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences (1999) The MIT Press Bradford book, by Kathleen S. Rockland p 353
  2. ^ Golgi C. "On the cycle of development of malarial parasites in tertian fever: differential diagnosis between the intracellular parasites of tertian and quartant fever. Archivio per le Scienza Mediche. 13: 1730196. 1889. Title translated from the Italian
  • Paolo Mazzarello (2010). Golgi: A Biography of the Founder of Modern Neuroscience. Translated by Aldo Badiani and Henry A. Buchtel. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 970195337846. 
  • De Carlos, Juan A; Borrell, José (2007), "A historical reflection of the contributions of Cajal and Golgi to the foundations of neuroscience.", Brain research reviews 55 (1): 8–16, 2007 August, doi:10.1016/j.brainresrev.2007.03.010, PMID 17490748 
  • Muscatello, Umberto (2007), "Golgi's contribution to medicine.", Brain research reviews 55 (1): 3–7, 2007 August, doi:10.1016/j.brainresrev.2007.03.007, PMID 17462742 
  • Kruger, Lawrence (2007), "The sensory neuron and the triumph of Camillo Golgi.", Brain research reviews 55 (2): 406–10, 2007 October, doi:10.1016/j.brainresrev.2007.01.008, PMID 17408565 
  • Dröscher, A (1998), "The history of the Golgi apparatus in neurones from its discovery in 1898 to electron microscopy.", Brain Res. Bull. 47 (3): 199–203, 1998 October, doi:10.1016/S0361-9230(98)00080-X, PMID 9865850 
  • Fabene, P F; Bentivoglio, M (1998), "1898–1998: Camillo Golgi and "the Golgi": one hundred years of terminological clones.", Brain Res. Bull. 47 (3): 195–8, 1998 October, PMID 9865849 
  • Mironov, A A; Komissarchik, Ia Iu; Mironov, A A; Snigirevskaia, E S (1998), "[Current concept of structure and function of the Golgi apparatus. On the 100-anniversary of the discovery by Camillo Golgi]", Tsitologiia 40 (6): 483–96, PMID 9778732 
  • Farquhar, M G; Palade, G E (1998), "The Golgi apparatus: 100 years of progress and controversy.", Trends Cell Biol. 8 (1): 2–10, 1998 January, doi:10.1016/S0962-8924(97)01187-2, PMID 9695800 
  • Bentivoglio, M (1998), "1898: the Golgi apparatus emerges from nerve cells.", Trends Neurosci. 21 (5): 195–200, 1998 May, doi:10.1016/S0166-2236(98)01229-6, PMID 9610881 

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Simple English

Camillo Golgi
File:Camillo Golgi (Nobel 1906).png
Camillo Golgi
BornJuly 7, 1843
Corteno near Brescia, Italy
DiedJanuary 21, 1926
Pavia, Italy
ResidenceItaly
EthnicityItalian
FieldMedicine
InstitutionsPavia University, Pavia, Italy
Alma materUniversity of Pavia
Notable prizesNobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (1906)

Camillo Golgi (July 7, 1843 - January 21, 1926) was an Italian doctor.[1] He won the 1906 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, along with Santiago Ramón y Cajal, for their work on the parts of the nervous system.[2]

References


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