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Camp Fire USA
Camp Fire USA
Camp Fire USA logo
Headquarters Kansas City, Missouri
Country United States
Founded March 17, 1910
Founders Luther Gulick, M.D.
Charlotte Gulick
Membership 750,000
Nation Board Chair Gwen Whitson
Nation Board Vice Chair Glenn Cravez
President/CEO Pamela Wilcox
Scouting portal
For the rock band, see Campfire Girls (band).

Camp Fire USA, originally Camp Fire Girls of America, is a nationwide American youth organization that began in 1910. The organization has been co-ed since 1975 and welcomes youth from pre-kindergarten through age 21. Camp Fire was the first nonsectarian, multicultural organization for girls in America.[1] Its programs emphasize camping and other outdoor activities for youth.

It was founded on March 17, 1910, in Thetford, Vermont, by Luther Gulick M.D. and his wife Charlotte Vedder Gulick.[2] Camp Fire Girls, as it was known at the time, was created as the sister organization to the Boy Scouts of America.[3] The organization changed its name in 1975 to Camp Fire Boys and Girls when membership eligibility was expanded to include boys. In 2001, the current name, Camp Fire USA, was adopted.[4]

Camp Fire's programs, including small group experiences, after-school programs, camping and environmental education, child care and service learning, build confidence in younger children and provide hands-on, youth driven leadership experiences for older youth.



Camp Fire Stamp

In 1910, young girls in Thetford, Vermont, watched their brothers, friends, and schoolmates – all Boy Scouts – practice their parts in the community's 150th anniversary, which would be celebrated the following summer. The pageant's organizer, William Chauncey Langdon, promised the girls that they, too, would have an organized role in the pageant, although no organization such as Boy Scouts existed then for girls. Langdon consulted with Mrs. Charles Farnsworth, preceptress of Horace Mann School near Thetford, Vermont. Both approached Luther Halsey Gulick M.D.[5] about creating a national organization for girls. Gulick introduced the idea to friends, among them G. Stanley Hall, Ernest Thompson Seton, and James West, executive secretary of the Boy Scouts.[6] After many discussions and help from Gulick and his wife Charlotte, Langdon named the group of Thetford girls the Camp Fire Girls.[7]

On March 22, 1911 Dr. Gulick organized a meeting "To consider ways and means of doing for the girls what the Boy Scout movement is designed to do for the boys". On April 10, 1911 James E. West issued a press release from Boy Scouts of America headquarters announcing that with the success of the Boy Scout movement a group of preminent New York men and women were organizing a group to provide outdoor acitivites for girls, similar to those in the Boy Scout movement.

Camp Fire Girls of America was incorporated in Washington, D.C, as a national agency in 1912.

By December 1913, Camp Fire Girls' membership was an estimated 60,000, many of whom began attending affiliated summer camps.[6] The Bluebird program was introduced that year for younger girls, offering exploration of ideas and creative play built around family and community.[8] In 1989 the Bluebirds became Starflight.

The first official Camp Fire handbook was published in 1914.[9] During World War I Camp Fire Girls helped to sell over one million dollars in Liberty Bonds and over $900,000 in Thrift Stamps; 55,000 girls helped to support French and Belgian orphans, and an estimated 68,000 girls earned honors by conservation of food.[10]

The first local Camp Fire council was formed in 1918 in Kansas City, Mo. Later in 1977 Kansas City would become the national headquarters for Camp Fire.

Camp Fire celebrated its 50th anniversary in 1960 with the "She Cares ... Do You?" program. During the project, Camp Fire planted more than two million trees, built 13,000 bird houses, and completed several other conservation-oriented tasks. To commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Camp Fire Girls, in connection with their Golden Jubilee Convention celebration, a stamp designed by H. Edward Oliver was issued featuring the Camp Fire Girls insignia.[11] A new program, Junior Hi, wherein twelve- and thirteen-year-old girls explore new interests as a group and as individuals was created in 1962. This program name changed later to Discovery.[12] That same year, the WoHeLo medallion became Camp Fire's highest achievement and honor.

In 1969, Camp Fire Girls were allowed to be "Participants" in BSA's Explorer Posts (for boys 14 and older). This arrangement ended in 1971, when the BSA made Explorers a co-ed program. Membership was at 274,000 by 1974 in 1,300 communities of the United States.[13] Camp Fire expanded its horizons in 1975, welcoming boys to participate in all Camp Fire activities.[14] While boys were invited to Camp Fire Girls Horizon Conferences in the late 1960s and early 1970s, official membership was not offered them until 1975, when the organization became coeducational. Camp Fire decided boys and girls should be together in one organization, so they learn to play and work alongside each other and appreciate their similarities and differences in positive ways. Thus they understand that people from either gender can be their teachers, coworkers, supervisors, confidantes, coaches, and friends.[15]

In 1977, Camp Fire's head office moved to Kansas City from New York,[16] where it is still located today. Teens in Action was introduced in 1988 as a one-time social issue campaign to energize the older teen program. Today Teens in Action, Camp Fire USA's service–learning program for teens, serves over 60,000 teens.

The first Absolutely Incredible Kid Day, a call to action for all adults to communicate through letters their love and commitment to children, took place in 1997. In 2003 to further its commitment and inclusiveness, Camp Fire USA began translating its curricula to Spanish. As a way to excite and educate children in Pre-K, the Little Stars program was introduced in 2005. Designated for ages 3–5 Little Stars builds confidence and a sense of belonging in children.

Motto and symbols



"Camp Fire USA builds caring, confident youth and future leaders."

Camp Fire USA achieves this mission using 12 core values and identified outcomes for healthy children and youth. Chief among Camp Fire USA’s core values are: Small group experiences where children and youth are actively involved in their own learning; coeducation that provides opportunities for children and families to develop together; an inclusive environment that welcomes all children, youth, adults, and families; leadership opportunities engaging youth to give, serve, and make decisions.[15]

There are five essential elements that form the Camp Fire philosophy, all derived from the Camp Fire mission.
1. We are youth-centered. Whether it is determining the program content or activities Camp Fire youth take an active role in programs, enabling them to become better leaders.
2. We engage the entire family in fun and outcome-rich activities. Since youth live in families and the larger communities Camp Fire USA's programs are designed to include the whole family in whatever form the family takes. This makes Camp Fire unique, because it offers an opportunity for the entire family to belong and join together in fun and enrichment.
3. We are welcoming and inclusive. Regardless of race, religion, socioeconomic status, disability, sexual orientation or other aspect of diversity, any child, youth or adult may join Camp Fire.
4. We build youth and adult partnerships. Camp Fire USA programs are about doing "with" youth, not about delivering "to" youth, forming a partnership between youth and adults.
5. We provide service to others. From the time of the Gulicks Camp Fire USA has been known as a service organization, which is still true today. Councils provide programs that are responsive to the needs of their community.


The Camp Fire slogan "Give service",[17] indicates the importance placed upon helping in the family, club, community, council and country. Founders Dr. Luther Gulick and wife Charlotte Vetter Gulick endorsed the idea that constructive work created the roots of true service to humanity and a genuine joy of living, thus establishing Camp Fire's slogan to give service.[18]

The primary purpose of Camp Fire is to promote service to others, team work, and opportunities for a well rounded life—a vivid, intense life of joy and service. Dr. Luther Halsey Gulick[19]

Camp Fire youth are taught to give service in their families, in their clubs, in their Councils, in their neighborhoods, and in their larger communities. Giving service is taught as something worthy of being done for a whole lifetime, wherever the person is.

Camp Fire Law

In the Camp Fire USA Law, which dates from the first few years of Camp Fire, "Give Service" was originally the first line of the law.[20] In 1942 the words "Worship God" were explicitly given as the first term of the law. Camp Fire has clarified that, "At no time in the organization's history has a Camp Fire member been asked to take any oath or make any promise. The Camp Fire law is a desire or a goal, not an oath."

Luther Gulick said of the law: “The power of the law is within you. It is not law that other people can demand you obey; that is, it is not law from without—it is law from the heart. It commands only those who seek to follow. It is opportunity, not obligation. It is an open road leading to the beautiful country where you live, rather than chains which would bind or limit your freedom.”[15]

  • Worship God – Respect all people, places and things as gifts of love. Share friendship and warmth as gifts to be given to others.
  • Seek Beauty – Look for the good in all people, places, things and nature.
  • Give Service – Show you care. Be a helper at home, at school, in your neighborhood, in your community, for your world.
  • Pursue Knowledge – Try new things. Experiment with a new skill. Learn more about something you already know.
  • Be Trustworthy – Be honest, truthful and do the things you say you will do. Be worthy of responsibilities others give you.
  • Hold onto Health – Exercise, get lots of sleep, eat healthy foods, and keep your body neat and clean. A healthy person feels good and is happy.
  • Glorify Work – Do the best you can with everything you do. Be proud of your work. Finish what you start.
  • Be Happy – Enjoy life. Be cheerful even if things don't always go your way. Be positive. Help others to be happy. Have fun.

Singing the Camp Fire Law
Most Camp Fire youth learn the Camp Fire Law by singing it. The Law seldom is spoken; it is most often sung. The music is the old Scottish folk melody "Flow Gently Sweet Afton." The music was written by Alexander Hume; the words of "Flow Gently" were written by Robert Burns in 1786. The Afton is a river in Scotland, and the song has a man asking the river to flow gently because the woman he loves is sleeping next to the river.[17]


The traditional symbol is two crossed logs and a three-tipped flame; the current symbol has been modernized and stylized, but the flame remains.[17]

Smokey Bear with members of the Boy Scouts of America and the Camp Fire Girls celebrating the 50th anniversary of their founding in 1910

Charlotte Gulick explained the symbolism of fire a short time after the organization's founding. “Fire symbolized the home, the place of comfort and cheer. Around the fire centers the home and its activities. Friends gather and the family gathers around it.”[15]

Colors Red, white and blue.


The word WoHeLo was coined by Camp Fire co-founder Charlotte Gulick in 1910,[21] while introducing innovative programs for girls at the family's camp. It is a combination of the first two letters of the words "Work", "Health" and "Love".[22] The thoughts in these three words represent the joy and worth of life. The word WoHeLo is often used as a greeting or password or may also be used in correspondence.


Camp Fire USA has five nationally developed youth development programs that are delivered through 145 local and statewide councils and community partners across the nation. Programs are specific to community need and some may not be available in all communities. The five outcome based program areas include: Small-Group Clubs and Mentoring Opportunities; Leadership Development; Camping and Environmental Education; Child Care; and Self- Reliance and Service–Learning Classes.[23]

Small-group clubs

Boys and girls usually meet once a week for an hour, learning to work and play together through service projects.[24] Camp Fire USA has numerous youth-development programs that are delivered through 145 local and statewide councils and community partners. With Small-Group Clubs and Mentoring Opportunities, boys and girls usually meet once a week for an hour, learning to work and play together through service projects.

The program levels are:

  • Little Stars is for children ages three through five and provides parents and preschool youth with a quality, program-driven playgroup that gives them the opportunity to learn, grow and play.
  • STARflight program is for boys and girls in kindergarten through second grade. The children meet regularly in adult supervised clubs. Meeting activities can focus on the areas of outdoors, creativity, service, acquiring new skills, learning more about themselves and getting along with others. STAR is an acronym for "Service To Another Rewards".
  • Adventure Program is for boys and girls in third through fifth grade Adventure members earn Action Crafts beads for all the new things they do and for the good habits they learn. At this level youth begin to accept more responsibility for choosing and planning their club activities.
  • Discovery is for sixth through eighth grades. It gives young people an opportunity to explore new interesting fields. Club members do much of their own planning and decision making, with the adult leader functioning more as an advisor than a supervisor. This is also when Camp Fire youth are eligible to make and wear ceremonial attire, often gowns or tunics, which are worn only at Camp Fire ceremonials.
  • Horizon is for high school age youth in grades nine through twelve. These young people participate in self-guided programs geared toward preparing them for adult responsibilities and community service. Members may earn the WoHeLo Award.


Recognition is an important part of all Camp Fire USA programs. It helps children and adults build self-esteem and pride in their accomplishments. Official national recognition items are one of the features that make Camp Fire USA unique and special. For their participation, growth and achievements, youth receive distinctive items such as beads, emblems, pins and certificates. At the early levels, Camp Fire leaders help youth choose activities and guide them in earning the recognition items. As teens, members select their own activities and develop their own action plans for earning recognition items. For adults, recognition items signify outstanding achievement or the number of years they have been adult Camp Fire USA members. Adults in programming or board positions are also recognized on the local level for their important roles in Camp Fire.

Youth are able to earn beads, while completing projects on the “Camp Fire Trails," as well as emblems. (In the past, once the participant earned ten of one type of bead, he or she was awarded a larger one of the same type to represent the ten smaller ones.) By 2006, there was one bead for each of the Camp Fire Trails.

Bead Colors

  • Red – Sports, Games & Science – Trail to the Future
  • Brown – Outdoors & Environment – Trail to Environment
  • Green – Creativity –
  • Yellow – Business & Home – Trail to Family and Community
  • Red, White & Blue – Citizenship – Trail to knowing me
  • Purple – Special Projects
  • Lime Green – Discovery level[25]
Wendy the Good Little Witch with members of the Camp Fire Girls

Wohelo Award
Established in 1962, and later renamed, the medallion is named for Camp Fire's watchword "WoHeLo". Each year approximately 200 Camp Fire youth throughout the nation receive the prestigious Wohelo Award. A youth may apply for the award after completing four major, specified, long-term projects called Reflections, and three self-selected projects, called Advocacies, dealing an area of concern of the youth member's choosing; one of which must be to Camp Fire USA, and one cannot be to Camp Fire.[4] The third can be in either Camp Fire or outside of Camp Fire USA. Each of the three Advocacies must involve leading, teaching, serving, and speaking out. The third area of work for a Camp Fire Wohelo Award is to know Camp Fire USA. Each youth is required to read the History of Camp Fire, tour the office in their council, or other approved method of understanding the services Camp Fire provides.[17]

In 2004, The Wohelo Award was expanded to Teens in Action members, allowing all high-school aged Camp Fire USA members to work toward Camp Fire’s highest achievement and honor.[15]


Service Learning has always been a large part of the Camp Fire curriculum. In 2008-2009 Camp Fire councils engaged a total of 2,864 older youth in service learning projects, which totaled over 108,852 hours of work with 116 community partners. Working with Learn and Server America 27 Camp Fire councils were able to get 1,731 teens to help over 70,300 youth and family members from low income houseing understand emergency preparedness. The Gift of Giving program, for grades K–8th is currently the nation's only organized and measurable introduction to service-learning. To date over 100,000 children have participated in this program.

Teens in Action

The Teens in Action program is built on Camp Fire USA's long tradition of recognizing youth as part of the solution to, and not the problem with, today’s social challenges. Working together with young people, Teens in Action strives to improve the communities where youth live, to challenge youth to learn new skills and provide leadership in areas they never thought possible. Programs of this nature inspire and honor community responsibility, contribute to the future of American volunteerism and encourage a sense of caring for others.[26]

The principles of Teens in Action are based on youth–adult partnerships and learning through empowering experiences. Its intent is to build strong ties between the teens and their families, schools and communities, and put a spotlight on issues of concern to youth. This program is based on the concept that young people are the key to the future and are making a difference in the world.[27]

Hold on To Health

A Camp Fire USA program that helps to teach children about making healthy discussions abotue exercise and eating. It also encourages children to get their families and other youth involved in becomeing healthy.

Camp and environmental education

Since Camp Fire's inception it has been about camping, and getting girls out in the wilderness to learn. The Gulick family had formed Camp WoHeLo before they had the idea to start the Camp Fire Organization. Currently Camp Fire Usa is the largest coeducational nonsectarian camp provider. Operating over 130 day and resident camps through out the USA., and annually serving over 61,000 school ages youth. Outdoor experiences help children work in groups, make friends and build self-esteem while learning about ecology, conservation and the interrelationships of all living things. The Camp Fire camping and environmental education experience is similar to that of with a family, teaching youth to work in teams, make friends, all while building self-esteem and good decision making skills.[15] A common Camp Fire USA approach is to let the youth decide on their activities, this way they are able to feel a sense of ownership with their camp schedule, helping them to become more proactive. It is Camp Fire's belief that any program activities that the group does together are not as important or lasting as the effects of being with a group of peers and a supportive adult in an environment where they are able to share feeling sand learn from experience.

"The organization shall endeavor to aid in the formation of habits making for health and vigor, the out-of-door habit, and the out-of-door spirit." Luther Gulick[28]

Counselor in Training

The Counselor in Training program is available to all youth over 16 who have an interest in some day becoming a counselor. The Cit program provides youth with leader skills, self confidence, good decision making skills and camping basics, all skills that qualifies camp counselors possess. Camp Fire's Cit program and manual are some of the most frequently used by not only Camp Fire but other organizations, and is approved by the American Camping Association.

Community Family Club

Community Family Club is a new program designed by Camp Fire USA to provide developmental programs for the whole family. It is designed for the whole family, regardless of the make-up of that family. The goal is to include at least one adult family member or a supporting adult from the community with every child who attends. Siblings of all ages, infants through teens, are included.[29] Community Family clubs also provide opportunities to create strong partnerships with corporations, schools, faith-based communities, child care settings and other community organizations to advance the needs of children, youth and families across the country. Families come together once a month to share a meal and participate in a recognition ceremony designed to recognize both individual and group accomplishments. The club then breaks into age-level groups for an activity session led by a team of parents who volunteer for the short-term assignment for that month. This program offers parents and guardians the ability to find a community support group for raising their families, and also provides positive family interaction base on structed, educational and fun experiences and activities.

Candy sales

Every year Camp Fire councils sell Almond Roca, Mint Patties and Almond Caramel Clusters. Money made from these sales goes to benefit Camp Fire groups, Camp Fire members, camps and programs.

Absolutely Incredible Kid Day

Started in 1997, AIKD is a national, annual letter-writing campaign in which adults write letters of love and support to the children in their lives. This event is held the third Thursday of March, to correspond to the founding date of Camp Fire.

In previous years, Absolutely Incredible Kid Day has garnered national recognition and acclaim, winning endorsements from child and family experts and advocates. Absolutely Incredible Kid Day has developed an incredible following, including athletes, entertainers and celebrities who have championed the cause by writing letters to America’s youth. In addition, more than half of the nation’s Fortune 100 companies have used Absolutely Incredible Kid Day to build morale by encouraging employees to reach out to a child, and more than 75 malls nationwide have supported the program by creating letter-writing booths and distributing information via merchants.[15]

Past programs

Blue Birds, Sparks and Starflight Through the years, many names have been used within Camp Fire to identify different age groups. Camp Fire's youngest members in elementary school were known as Blue Birds for many years.

In 1983, a club program for kindergartners was introduced. It was called Sparks. In 1989, these two age groups were combined. A new program level for kindergarten, first and second graders called Starflight was created. The tradition of Blue Birds has been preserved as a Camp Fire mascot for all ages to enjoy.[30]

Native American influence

Native American culture has long been a source of inspiration in Camp Fire USA's traditional council activities. Native American culture has served as the inspiration for ceremonial activities and attire, camp and council names, respect for nature and the environment, and the use of symbols by many councils. For Camp Fire USA, Native American symbolism was a natural outgrowth of an appreciation for differences and cultural inclusiveness. The theory was that such symbolism enabled – and even encouraged – self-reflection and personal growth.

Names Each Camp Fire member between third and sixth grade is encouraged to choose a name that best reflects their personality and aspirations.[31] At this time they are also encouraged to choose a symbol or "symbolgram".[32] Clubs are also encouraged to choose a Native American name.[33]

Ceremonial attire The Camp Fire ceremonial gown is based on the pattern for the Native American women's gowns. Due to its simple pattern that can be becoming to all girls, it is an inexpensive design that makes all girls equal, and it is easy to adjust as the owner grows older.[34] Now a youth may choose any style of ceremonial attire, particularly if it honors the ethnic background to which the youth can trace his or her background or toward which he or she has an affinity. This attire can include tunics, kimonos, Scandinavian skirts/aprons, etc. The ceremonial attire is decorated with honor beads, earned emblems, and other personal items the youth chooses. Sometimes the youth's symbolgram is used on the gown/tunic. The symbolgram is a symbol created by the youth to represent him/herself. By 1946 the ceremonial gown was optional.[35]

Camp Fire today

Camp Fire USA is inclusive, open to all youth of any race, creed, religion, gender, national origin, economic status, and sexual orientation.[36]

Currently there are 85 Councils in Camp Fire USA.

Camp Fire USA in Fiction

Through out the years Camp Fire USA has appeared in many novels written for youth. Irene Ellion Benson wrote one of the first books to incorporate Camp Fire called How Ethel Hollister Became a Campfire Girl, published in 1912. Between 1912 and 1918 Irene Benson published six books with Camp Fire in them. In 1913 Margaret Vandercook, in 1913 started a series of Camp Fire Girls books which portrayed many activities, rituals, and ceremonies of Camp Fire, including their summer camps. In the 1980s Camp Fire was featured in the Carolyn Keene and Franklin Dixon's Nancy Drew and The Hardy Boys Camp Fire Stories British writers have even used Camp Fire and their rituals in British children Fiction. Author Elsie J. Oxenham often mentioned Camp Fire in her series the "Abbey".[37].
Other writers who used Camp Fire in their writing include:
·Amy E. Blanchard
·Edward M Carney
·Margaret Christian
·Marion Davidson, under the pen name Howard Roger Garis
·Julianne deVries
·Stella M. Francis
·Hildegard G Frey
·Helen Hart
·Isabel Hornibrook
·Margaret Penrose

Notable members

See also


  1. ^ "Cultural Appropriation and the Crafting of Racialized Selves in American Youth Organizations: Toward an Ethnographic Approach". Dec 18, 2008. 
  2. ^ "Girls Take Up the Boy Scout Idea and Band Together". New York Times. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  3. ^ Paris, Leslie (2008). Children's Nature. NYU Press. p. 51.,M1. Retrieved 1-29-2009. 
  4. ^ a b "All About Us". Camp Fire USA. 2005. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  5. ^ "Moscow District Camp Fire Girls – Historical Background". University of Idaho. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  6. ^ a b Paris, Leslie. Children's Nature. NYU Press.,M1. Retrieved 2009-01-30. >
  7. ^ "Scout Like Organizations". Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  8. ^ McFarland, John Thomas. Giving a worldwide view of the History and Progress of the Sunday School and the Development of Religious Education.... T. Nelson & Sons. p. 194. Retrieved 1-30-09. 
  9. ^ The Book of Camp Fire Girls. George H. Doran Company.,M1. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  10. ^ The New International Year Book. Dodd, Mead and Company. Retrieved 2009-01-30. 
  11. ^ "Camp Fire Girls Issue". Smithsonian National Postal Museum. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  12. ^ "Camp Fire Girls, Salt Creek Council". Northern Illinois University Library. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  13. ^ Harley, Dudley Lee. Time on Their Hands Wrenn. Ayer Publishing. p. 114. Retrieved 2009-01-30. 
  14. ^ Encyclopedia
  15. ^ a b c d e f g "Information Resource Book". Camp Fire USA. p. 21. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  16. ^ "Camp Fire Girls Move". New York Times. Retrieved 1-29-09. 
  17. ^ a b c d Beard, Alice Marie. "Historical Origins of Camp Fire". Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  18. ^ "History". Camp Fire USA. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  19. ^ "Luther & Charlotte Gulick". The Extra Mile—Points of Light Volunteer Pathway. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  20. ^ Addresses and Proceedings—National Education Association of the United states. Harvard University. pp. 320–321.,M1. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  21. ^ Rodgers, Ethel (1915). Sebago–Wohelo Camp Fire Girls. Good Health Publishing Company. pp. 16–17.,M1. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  22. ^ "Wo-He-Lo Camp Fire Girls". Cemeteries and Cemetery Symbols. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  23. ^ "Camp Fire USA Fact Sheet". Alpha Phi Omega. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  24. ^ "NPO Spotlight – News". Philanthropy News Digest. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  25. ^ Beard, Alice Marie. "For One Camp Fire Bead". Retrieved 1-30-09. 
  26. ^ "Teen FAQ". Camp Fire USA. Retrieved 2009-01-30. 
  27. ^ "Teens In Action". Camp Fire USA Patuxent Area Council. p. 5. Retrieved 2009-01-30. 
  28. ^ Curtis, Henry Stoddard. the Play Movement and Its Significance. p. 272. Retrieved 2009-01-30. 
  29. ^ "Camp Fire's Family Club Builds Partnerships }last= Ashby". p. 8. Retrieved 2009-01-30. 
  30. ^ "About Us". Camp Fire USA Big River Council. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  31. ^ Forman-Brunell, Miriam. Girlhood in America. ABC-CILO. pp. 85–87.,M1. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  32. ^ Beard, Alice Marie. "Camp Fire Names and Symbolgrams". Retrieved 2009-01-30. 
  33. ^ Poast, Florence M. Indian Names Facts & Games. Thomsen—Bryan—Ellis Company.,M1. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  34. ^ Gulick, Charlotte Emily Vetter Gulick. The Shul U Tam NA of the Camp fire Girls. Camp Fire Outfitting Co.,M1. Retrieved 2009-01-31. 
  35. ^ "Camp Fire Girls—Ceremonial Gowns". Vintage Kids Stuff. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  36. ^ Camp Fire USA "Core Values". Camp Fire USA. Camp Fire USA. 
  37. ^ Beard, Alice Marie. "Camp Fire in Children's Fiction". Retrieved 12-2-09. 
  38. ^ New York Times Books, "Marian Anderson A Singer's Journey" By ALLAN KEILER (subscription access)
  39. ^ "Lauren Graham on Bonnie Hunt Show". Retrieved 2009-01-29. 

External links

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

"'CAMP FIRE GIRLS:' see BOY Scouts.

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