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Campania
—  Region of Italy  —

Flag
Country Italy
Capital Naples
Government
 - President Antonio Bassolino (Democratic Party (Italy))
Area
 - Total 13,595 km2 (5,249.1 sq mi)
Population (2008-03-30)
 - Total 5,812,649
 Density 427.6/km2 (1,107.4/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
GDP/ Nominal € 94.3 billion (2006)
GDP per capita € 16,294 (2006)
NUTS Region ITF
Website www.regione.campania.it

Campania (Italian pronunciation: [kamˈpanja]) is a region of southern Italy in Europe. The region has a population of around 5.8 million people, making it the second-most-populous region of Italy; its total area of 13,595 km² makes it the most densely populated region in the country.[1] Located on the Italian Peninsula, with the Tyrrhenian Sea to the west, the small Flegrean Islands and Capri are also administratively part of the region.

Throughout much of its history Campania has been at the centre of Western Civilisation's most significant entities. The area was colonised by Ancient Greeks and was within Magna Græcia, until the Roman Republic began to dominate. During the Roman era the area was highly respected as a place of culture by the emperors, where it balanced Greco-Roman culture. The area had many duchies and principalities during the Middle Ages, in the hands of the Byzantine Empire and some Lombards.

It was under the Normans that the smaller independent states were brought together as part of a sizable European kingdom, known as the Kingdom of Sicily, before the mainland broke away to form the Kingdom of Naples. It was during this period that especially elements of Spanish, French and Aragonese culture touched Campania. Later the area became the central part of the Two Sicilies under the Bourbons, until the Italian unification of 1860 when it became part of the new state Italy.

The capital city of Campania is Naples. Campania is rich in culture, especially in regards to gastronomy, music, architecture, archeological and ancient sites such as Pompeii, Herculaneum and Paestum. The name of Campania itself is derived from Latin, as the Romans knew the region as Campania felix, which translates into English as "fertile countryside". The rich natural sights of Campania make it highly important in the tourism industry, especially along the Amalfi Coast, Mount Vesuvius and the island of Capri.[2]

Contents

Geography

Campania has an area of 13,595 sq km and a coastline of 350 km on the Tyrrhenian Sea. Campania is famous for its gulfs (Naples, Salerno and Policastro) as well as for three islands (Capri, Ischia and Procida).

Four other regions border Campania; Lazio to the northwest, Molise to the north, Apulia (Puglia) to the northeast and Basilicata to the east.

The mountainous area is fragmentised in separate massifs, rarely reaching 2,000 metres (Miltetto of 2,050 m), whereas close to the coast there are volcanic massifs: Vesuvio (1,277 m) and Campi Flegrei.

The climate is typically Mediterranean along the coast, whereas in the inner zones it is more continental, with low temperatures in winter. 51% of the total area is hilly, 34% mountainous and the remaining 15% is made up of plains. There is a high 'seismic' risk in the area of the region.

History

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Ancient tribes and Samnite Wars

Temple of Hera, Paestum, built 550 BC.

The original inhabitants of Campania were three defined groups of the Ancient peoples of Italy, who all spoke the Oscan language which is part of the Italic family; their names were the Osci, the Aurunci and the Ausones.[3] During the 8th century BC, people from Euboea in Greece known as Cumaeans began to establish colonies in the area roughly around the modern day province of Naples.[4] Another Oscan tribe, the Samnites, had moved from central Italy down into Campania. Since the Samnites were more warlike than the civilised Campanians, they easily took over the cities of Capua and Cumae, in the area which was one of the most prosperous and fertile in the Italian Peninsula at the time.[5] During the 340s BC, the Samnites were engaging in warfare with the Roman Republic in a dispute known as the Samnite Wars, with the Romans securing rich pastures of northern Campania during the First Samnite War.[6]

The major remaining independent Greek settlement was Neapolis, and when the town was eventually caputured by the Samnites, the Neapolitans were in need of help. However, Philip II of Macedon (father of Alexander the Great), the major Greek leader of the time, was busy fighting further east, so the Neapolitans could not look to the Greeks for assistance.[5] This left them with no other option than to call on the Romans, with whom they established an alliance, setting off the Second Samnite War.[5] The Roman consul Quinto Publilio Filone recaptured Neapolis by 326 BC and allowed it to remain a Greek city with some autonomy as a civitas foederata while strongly aligned with Rome.[7] The Second Samnite War ended with the Romans controlling southern Campania and additional regions further to the south.[6]

Roman period

Campania was a full-fledged part of the Roman Republic by the end of the 4th century BC. It was highly valued for its useful pastures and rich countryside. Its Greek language and customs made it a centre of Hellenistic civilization, creating the first traces of Greco-Roman culture.[8] The Romans had established power on the entire Italian Peninsula. However, the Pyrrhic War and the rebellion of the major Magna Græcia cities under Pyrrhus of Epirus in the south brought unrest. A battle took place in Campania at Maleventum in which the Romans, led by consul Curius Dentatus, were victorious. They renamed the city Beneventum (modern day Benevento), which grew in stature until it was second only to Capua in southern Italy.[9] During the Second Punic War in 216 BC, Capua saw an opportunity to levy for more power. The city demanded complete equality of power with the Romans. When that demand was rejected, Capua allied with Carthage against Rome.[10] The rebellious Capuans were isolated from the rest of Campania, which remained loyal allies of Rome. Naples, for example, forced Hannibal to flee without ever having set foot in the city due to the imposing walls.[8] Capua was eventually starved into submission in the Roman retaking of 211 BC, and the Romans were victorious in the overall wars.[10]

The Last Day of PompeiiBriullov.

The rest of Campania, with the exception of Naples, adopted the Latin language as official and was Romanised.[11] As part of the Roman Empire, it was a comfortable period for Campania who, with Latium, formed the most important region of the Augustan divisions of Italia; Campania was one of the main areas for grainery.[11] The powerful Roman Emperors chose Campania as an ideal holiday destination, amongst them Claudius and Tiberius, the latter of whom is infamously linked to the island of Capri.[8] It was also during this period that Christianity came to Campania. Two of the apostles, St. Peter and St. Paul, are said to have preached in the city of Naples, and there were also several martyrs during this time.[12] Unfortunately, the period of relative calm was violently interrupted by the epic eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 which wiped the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum from the face of the earth.[13] With the Decline of the Roman Empire, its last emperor, Romulus Augustus, was put in a manor house prison near Castel dell'Ovo, Naples, in 467, ushering in the beginning of the Dark Ages and a period of uncertainty in regards to the future of the area.[8]

Feudalism in the Middle Ages

The Kingdom

Norman to Angevin

Early kings ruled from Castel Nuovo.

After a period as a Norman kingdom, the Kingdom of Sicily was passed on to the Hohenstaufens who were a highly powerful Germanic royal house of Swabian origins.[14] The University of Naples Federico II was founded by Frederick II in the city, the oldest state university in the world, making Naples the intellectual centre of the kingdom.[15] Conflict between the Hohenstaufen house and the Papacy, led in 1266 to Pope Innocent IV crowning Angevin Dynasty duke Charles I as the king of the kingdom:[16] Charles officially moved the capital from Palermo to Naples where he resided at the Castel Nuovo.[17] During this period much Gothic architecture sprang up around Naples, including the Naples Cathedral, which is the main church of the city.[18]

In 1281, with the advent of the Sicilian Vespers, the kingdom split in half. The Angevin Kingdom of Naples included the southern part of the Italian peninsula, while the island of Sicily became the Aragonese Kingdom of Sicily.[16] The wars continued until the peace of Caltabellotta in 1302, which saw Frederick III recognised as king of the Isle of Sicily, while Charles II was recognised as the king of Naples by Pope Boniface VIII.[16] Despite the split, Naples grew in importance, attracting Pisan and Genoese merchants,[19] Tuscan bankers, and with them some of the most championed Renaissance artists of the time, such as Boccaccio, Petrarch and Giotto.[20] Alfonso I conquered Naples after his victory against the last Angevin king, René, Naples was unified for a brief period with Sicily again.[21]

Aragonese to Bourbon

Revolutionary Masaniello.

Sicily and Naples were separated in 1458 but remained as dependencies of Aragon under Ferrante.[22] The new dynasty enhanced Naples' commerce by establishing relations with the Iberian peninsula. Naples also became a centre of the Renaissance, with artists such as Laurana, da Messina, Sannazzaro and Poliziano arriving in the city.[23] During 1501 Naples became under direct rule from France at the time of Louis XII, as Neapolitan king Frederick was taken as a prisoner to France; this lasted only four years.[24] Spain won Naples at the Battle of Garigliano and, as a result, Naples became under direct rule as part of the Spanish Empire throughout the entire Habsburg Spain period.[24] The Spanish sent viceroys to Naples to directly deal with local issues: the most important of which was Pedro Álvarez de Toledo, who was responsible for considerable social, economic and urban progress in the city; he also supported the Inquisition.[25]

Caserta Palace, inside.

During this period Naples became Europe's second largest city after only Paris.[26] It was a cultural powerhouse during the Baroque era as home to artists including Caravaggio, Rosa and Bernini, philosophers such as Telesio, Bruno, Campanella and Vico, and writers such as Battista Marino. A revolution led by local fisherman Masaniello saw the creation of a brief independent Neapolitan Republic, though this last only a few months before Spanish rule was regained.[24] Finally, by 1714, the Spanish ceased to rule Naples as a result of the War of the Spanish Succession; it was the Austrian Charles VI who ruled from Vienna, similarly with viceroys.[27] However, the War of the Polish Succession saw the Spanish regain Sicily and Naples as part of a personal union, which in the Treaty of Vienna were recognised as independent under a cadet branch of the Spanish Bourbons in 1738 under Charles VII.[28]

Ferdinand, Bourbon king.

During the time of Ferdinand IV, the French Revolution made its way to Naples: Horatio Nelson, an ally of the Bourbons, even arrived in the city in 1798 to warn against it. However, Ferdinand was forced to retreat and fled to Palermo, where he was protected by a British fleet.[29] Naples' lower classes (the lazzaroni) were pious and Royalist, favouring the Bourbons; in the mêlée that followed, they fought the Neapolitan pro-Republican aristocracy, causing a civil war.[29] The Republicans conquered Castel Sant'Elmo and proclaimed a Parthenopaean Republic, secured by the French Army.[29] A counter-revolutionary religious army of lazzaroni under Fabrizio Ruffo was raised; they had great success and the French surrendered the Neapolitan castles and were allowed to sail back to Toulon.[29]

Ferdinand IV was restored as king; however, after only seven years Napoleon conquered the kingdom and instated Bonapartist kings including his brother Joseph Bonaparte.[30] With the help of the Austrian Empire and allies, the Bonapartists were defeated in the Neapolitan War and Bourbon Ferdinand IV once again regained the throne and the kingdom.[30] The Congress of Vienna in 1815 saw the kingdoms of Naples and Sicily combined to form the Two Sicilies,[30] with Naples as the capital city. Naples became the first city on the Italian peninsula to have a railway in 1839,[31] there were many factories throughout the kingdom making it a highly important trade centre.[32]

Economy

The agro-food industry is one of the main pillars of industry of Campania. The organisation of the sector is improving and leading to higher levels of quality and salaries. Campania mainly produces fruit and vegetables, but has also expanded its production of flowers grown in greenhouse, becoming one of the leading regions of the sector in Italy. The value added of this sector represents around 6.5% of the total value added of the region, equalling 213.7 million EUR . Campania produces, furthermore, over 50% of Italy's nuts and is also the leader in the production of tomatoes, which reaches 1.5 million tonnes a year. A weak point however for the region's agriculture is the very reduced size of farms, equal to 3.53 hectares. Animal breeding is widespread (it was done in 70,278 farms in 2000) and the milk produced is used to process typical products such as mozzarella. Olive trees cover over 74,604 hectares of the agricultural land and contribute by 620.6 million EUR to the value added of agriculture, together with the production of fruit. Wine production has increased, together with the quality of the wine.[33]

The region has a dense network of road and motorways, a system of maritime connections and an airport (Naples Airport), which connect it rapidly to the rest of the Country. Campania has a series of historical problems and internal contrasts, although they are improving. The regional capital, Naples, one of the most populated and interesting cities in Italy, rich in history and natural beauty, both artistic and archaeological, still represents the centre of regional life. The port connects the region with the whole Mediterranean basin, and brings tourists, as well as to the archaeological sites, to the cities of art (Naples and Caserta), to the beautiful coastal areas and to the islands. The services sector makes up for 78% of the region's gross domestic product.[33]

Demographics

Historical populations
Year Pop.  %±
1861 2,402,000
1871 2,520,000 4.9%
1881 2,660,000 5.6%
1901 2,914,000 9.5%
1911 3,102,000 6.5%
1921 3,343,000 7.8%
1931 3,509,000 5.0%
1936 3,697,000 5.4%
1951 4,346,000 17.6%
1961 4,761,000 9.5%
1971 5,059,000 6.3%
1981 5,463,000 8.0%
1991 5,630,000 3.1%
2001 5,702,000 1.3%
2008 (Est.) 5,813,000 1.9%
Source: ISTAT 2001

The region, with a population of over 5.8 million inhabitants, is divided in five provinces: Naples, Benevento, Avellino, Caserta and Salerno. Over half of the population is resident in the province of Naples, where there is a population density of 2,626 inhabitants per km2. Within the province, the highest density can be found along the coast, where it reaches 13,000 inhabitants per km2 in the city of Portici, one of the most densely populated cities on the planet. The region, which was characterised until recently by an acute contrast between internal and coastal areas also under the economic aspect, in the last decade has shown an improvement thanks to the development of the provinces of Benevento and Avellino. At the same time, the provinces of Naples, Caserta and in part Salerno, have developed a variety of activities connected to advanced types of services.[34]

Unlike central and northern Italy, in the last decade the region of Campania has not attracted large numbers of immigrants. The Italian national institute of statistics ISTAT estimated in January 2007 that 98,052 foreign-born immigrants live in Campania, equal to only 1.7% of the total regional population.[35] Part of the reason for this is in recent times, there have been more employment opportunities in northern regions than in the Southern Italian regions.

Government and politics

The Politics of Campania, takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democracy, whereby the President of Regional Government is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the Regional Government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Regional Council.

The Regional Council of Campania (Consiglio Regionale della Campania) is composed of 60 members, of which 47 are elected in provincial constituencies with proportional representation, 12 from the so-called "regional list" of the elected President and the last one is for the candidate for President who comes second, who usually becomes the leader of the opposition in the Council. If a coalition wins more than 55% of the vote, only 6 candidates from the "regional list" will be elected and the number of those elected in provincial constituencies will be 53.[36]

Administrative divisions

Campania is divided into five provinces:

Province Campania.png

Province Area (km²) Population Density (inh./km²)
Province of Avellino 2,792 439,662 157.5
Province of Benevento 2,071 289,091 139.6
Province of Caserta 2,639 903,285 342.3
Province of Naples 1,171 3,075,010 2,625.9
Province of Salerno 4,923 1,105,601 224.5

Culture

Cuisine

The cuisine of Campania is reflective of the many regional cuisines of Italy. Campania's dishes have evolved and matured much like the people that live there. The pizza in its modern aspect and taste was conceived in Naples. Historical and original pizzas from Naples are pizza fritta (fried pizza); Calzone (literally "trouser leg"), which is pizza fritta stuffed with ricotta cheese; pizza Marinara (pizza seamans' style), with just olive oil, tomato sauce and garlic; and pizza Margherita, with olive oil, tomato sauce, mozzarella cheese and basil leaves. Spaghetti is also a well-known dish from southern Italy and Campania. Neapolitans were among the first Europeans to use tomatoes not only as ornamental plant, but also as food and garnish.

An authentic Neapolitan pizza

Campania produces wines and is likewise known for its cheeses, including Lacryma Christi, Fiano, Aglianico, Greco di Tufo, Pere 'e palomma, Ischitano, Taburno, Solopaca, and Taurasi. The cheeses of Campania consist of Mozzarella di Bufala (buffalo mozzarella) (mozzarella made from buffalo milk), fiordilatte ("flower of milk") a mozzarella made from cow's milk, ricotta from sheep or buffalo milk, provolone from cow milk, and caciotta made from goat milk. Buffalo are bred in Salerno and Caserta.

Several different cakes and pies are made in Campania. Pastiera pie is made during Easter. Casatiello and tortano are Easter bread-cakes made by adding lard or oil and various types of cheese to bread dough and garnishing it with slices of salami. Babà cake is a well known Neapolitan delicacy, best served with Rum or limoncello (a liqueur invented in the Sorrento peninsula). It is an old Austrian cake which arrived in Campania during Austrian domination of the Kingdom of Naples and was modified there to became a "walking cake" for citizens always in a hurry for work and other pursuits. Sfogliatella is another cake from the Amalfi Coast, which is beginning to be known worldwide, as is Zeppole, which is traditionally eaten on Saint Joseph's day. Struffoli, little balls fried dough dipped in honey, are enjoyed during the Christmas holidays.

Another well-known Campanian dish is the so-called Russian salad (which is based on similar dishes from France), made of potatoes in mayonnaise garnished with shrimp and vegetables in vinegar. Russians call this same dish Olivier Salad, and Germans call it Italian salad. Another French-derived dish is "gattò" or "gateau di patate" (oven-baked pie made of boiled potatoes). As with the Russian salad, Campania is home to other seafood-based dishes, such as "insalata di mare" (seafood salad), "zuppa di polpo" (octopus soup), and "zuppa di cozze" (mussel soup), are popular. Other regional seafood dishes include "frittelle di mare" (fritters with seaweed), made with edible poseidonia algae, "triglie al cartoccio" (red mullet in the bag), and "alici marinate" (fresh anchovies in olive oil). The island of Ischia is famous for its fish dishes, as well as for cooked rabbit.

Campania is home to the beautiful and tasty lemons of Sorrento, which were much loved by German writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe:

"Kennst du das Land, wo die Zitronen blühn?" ("Do you know the land where the lemon-trees bloom?), Goethe, Mignon.

Rapini (or Broccoli rabe), known locally as friarielli, is often used in Campanian cooking. Campania also produces many nuts, especially in the area of Salerno and Benevento.

Campanian cuisine varies within the region. While Neapolitan dishes center around seafood, Casertan and Aversana rely more on fresh vegetables and cheeses. The cuisine from Sorrento combines the culinary traditions from both Naples and Salerno.

Arts

The grand gardens of the baroque Palace of Caserta.

The region of Campania is rich with ancient history.

From the Greek colony of Elea, now Velia, in Campania came the philosophers of the Pre-Socratic philosophy school, Parmenides and Zeno of Elea, who came to prominence around 490 - 480 B.C. Zeno was famous for his paradoxes and called by Aristotle the inventor of the dialectic.

Latin poet Virgilius (70 BC – 19 BC) loved Campania so much that he decided to settle in Naples. Many parts of his epic poem and immortal masterpiece Aeneid are located in Campania.

Ancient scientist Plinius Pliny the elder who wrote a "Naturalis Historia" ("Pliny's History of the Nature") studied the Mount Vesuvius and was poisoned and killed by gas emitted from the volcano during the famous eruption in 79 A.D.

His nephew Pliny the younger described the eruption and the death of his uncle in a famous letter to one of his friends.

In Naples in 476 AD, Romulus Augustus, the last emperor of the Western Roman Empire, died as a prisoner of the German general Odoacer.

In the Middle Ages, the artist Giotto made some frescoes in Castel Nuovo. These works of art were destroyed by an earthquake.

At the end of the Middle Ages, the medical school of Salerno, which combined ancient Roman and Greek medicine with Arab medicine, was known throughout Europe and its methods adopted across the continent. Some have suggested that this may have been one of the first universities in Europe.

Boccaccio, the Tuscan poet, visited Naples on various occasions, and in the Decameron described it as a dissolute city. He also wrote a love story involving a noble woman close to the King of Naples.

Pulcinella with a guitar.

In 1570, the famous writer Cervantes, who wrote the romance novel "Don Quixote", served as a Spanish soldier for a period in Naples and said that it was the most beautiful city he had ever visited.

Poet Torquato Tasso author of the epic poem la "Gerusalemme Liberata" was born in Sorrento in 1575.

The first modern description and studies of the "camera obscura" ("dark chamber"), are firmly established in Italy with the availability of Giovanni Battista della Porta in its masterpiece Magiae Naturalis, ("Natural Magic") in 1558 . These studies then led to the first photo cameras in 1850 circa by French scientists Niepce and Daguerre.

Philosopher Giordano Bruno was born in Nola. He was the first to theorize infinite suns and infinite worlds in the universe. He was burnt in Rome by the Spanish Inquisition in 1600.

In 1606 ca. the famous painter Caravaggio established his studio in Naples.

Famous Italian architect Cosimo Fanzago from Bergamo decided to live his life in Naples.

In the 18th century Naples was the last city to be visited by philosophers who created the "Grand Tour" which was the big touring voyage to visit all the important cultural sites of the European continent.

Italian architect Luigi Vanvitelli son of Dutch architect Kaspar van Wittel build the Kingdom Palace in Caserta in 1750 circa. He contributed to the construction of many neoclassic-style palaces in which the nobles of Naples spent their holidays. These palaces are now known worldwide as "Ville Vesuviane".

Raimondo di Sangro, prince of Sansevero, was a scientist and one of the last alchemists.

German writer Goethe visited Campania and Naples in 1786 and was amazed by the beauty of it.

German archaeologist Johann Joachim Winckelmann also visited Naples, Paestum, Herculaneum and Pompeii in 1748 and later, studying how where conducted acheological surveys in kingdom of Naples. He was one of the first to study drawings, statues, stones, and ancient burned scrolls made of papyrus found in the excavations of city of Herculaneum. His masterpiece, the "Geschichte der Kunst des Alterthums" ("History of Ancient Art"), published in 1764, was soon recognized as a significant contribution to European literature.

Archaeological excavations in Pompeii were initiated by King Charles III of Naples in 1748. He issued the first modern laws in Europe to protect, defend and preserve archaeological sites.

Famous Neapolitan musicians of that period are Niccolò Antonio Zingarelli and Giovanni Paisiello.

Musician Rossini lived many years in Naples, where he wrote numerous compositions.

Italian poet and writer Giacomo Leopardi established his home in Naples and Torre del Greco lived there at the end of his young brief life. It was there that he wrote the Ode to the Ginestra flower. He died in Naples in 1837 .

The first volcano observatory, the Vesuvius Observatory, was founded in Naples in 1841.

Geologist Giuseppe Mercalli, born in Milan in 1850, was one of the most famous directors of Vesuvius Observatory.[citation needed] British statesman William Ewart Gladstone (1809–98), exposed in newspaper articles the horrors of the prison system of the Kingdom of Naples in the mid-nineteenth century. His pamphlets gave enormous help to the cause of re-unification of Italy in 1861 and increase notheworthy his reputation in homeland, as representative of the British Parliament to be then elected as Prime Minister. It was later discovered that he never visited any neapolitan prison, neither investigated upon that jail system. He simply reported voices and wannabe testimoniances. These articles, containing a long list of absurd lies and propagandistic inventions, and probably were made to support invasion and annexion of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies by the Kingdom of Sardinia (Piedmont), with the following foundation of modern Italy.

French writer Alexandre Dumas, père was directly involved in the process of re-unification of Italy, and sojourned two or three years in Naples, where he wrote many historical novels regarding that city. He was also a known newspaper correspondent.

Francesco de Sanctis, writer, literate, politician and two times Minister of Instructions after re-unification of Italy in 1861, was born in Morra De Sanctis near Benevento.

German scientist Anton Dohrn founded in Naples the first public aquarium in the world and laboratory of study of the sea known as Maritime Zoological Station.

Also famous is Astronomic Observatory of Capodimonte founded by King Gioacchino Murat general of French emperor Napoleon in 1816. The observatory it is now the site hosts the Italian Laboratory of Astrophisics.

Doctors and surgeons Antonio Cardarelli, and Giuseppe Moscati were ensign representatives of the medicine studies in Naples. Their life was an example for all city and the entire nation.

Famous worldwide are the schools of sightseeing pictures known as "School of Posillipo" and "School of Resina" out of period from 1800–1900 circa. There were famous painters like Giacinto Gigante, Raffaele Carelli, Teodoro Duclère, Achille Vianelli, Vincenzo Franceschini, Alessandro La Volpe, Giuseppe Bonolis, Giuseppe Fagnani, Salvatore Fergola, Emile-Jean-HoraceVernet, Gonsalvo Carelli, Achille Carelli, Giuseppe Carelli, Filippo Palizzi, Nicola Palizzi, Federico Cortese, Simone Campanile, Domenico Morelli, Saverio Altamura, Giuseppe De Nittis, Francesco Sogliano, Michele Cammarano, Eduardo Dalbono, Vincenzo Gemito, Antonio Mancini, Gennaro della Monica, Raffaello Pagliaccetti, Teofilo Patini, Francesco Paolo Michetti, Costantino Barbella, Pasquale Celommi, Gaetano Esposito, Giuseppe Casciaro, Federico Maldarelli, Giuseppe De Simone.

Amongst the painters who inspired directly these schools, we remember Salvator Rosa, Pierre Jacques-Antoine Volaire who became famous for his gouaches, Anton Sminck van Pitloo who preferred to live his remaining life in Naples.

The world renowned opera singer Enrico Caruso was also a native of Naples.

In Capri lived for a certain time the Russian revolutionary leader Vladimir I. Lenin.

From Naples came the mathematician Renato Caccioppoli, nephew of Russian anarchic revolutionary Michael Bakunin. Born in 1904 he committed suicide in 1959. His life was represented in a movie "Morte di un matematico napoletano" ("Death of a neapolitan mathematician") by Mario Martone in 1992.

The first President of the Italian Republic in 1946 (with a pro-tempore mandate of six months) was lawyer Enrico De Nicola from the city of Torre del Greco. He was famous for his studies regarding the Constitutions.

Campania gave two other Presidents to Italy: Giovanni Leone was various times Prime Minister and then became elected the 6th President of the Republic; and the actual 11th President Giorgio Napolitano.

The 20th century's best known philosopher and literate in Naples was Benedetto Croce, famous for his studies in aesthetics, ethics, logic, economy, history, politics.

Famous Neapolitan artists, actors, playwrights, and showmen were Eduardo De Filippo worldwide known for its theatre works such as "Filumena Marturano" (filumena), and "Questi fantasmi" (a.k.a. "Souls of Naples)", Peppino De Filippo and their sister Titina De Filippo.

The prince Antonio de Curtis was one of the most important comedians in Naples in the 20th century. Known around the world by his art nickname of Totò he worked with Pier Paolo Pasolini in the movie "Uccellacci e uccellini". He is also known for the song "Malafemmena".

Pop artist Andy Warhol created two famous paintings of Irpinia Earthquake of 1980: Fate presto and Vesuvius. Both originals are hosted in the exhibit Terrae Motus in King's Palace of Caserta.

The Academy Award–winning actress Sophia Loren grew up in Pozzuoli.

The famous cinema producer Dino De Laurentiis (grandfather of Food Network star Giada De Laurentiis) was born in Torre Annunziata.

Recent Campanian writers are Curzio Malaparte and Domenico Rea.

Recent Campanian actors and directors are Francesco Rosi, Iaia Forte, Pappi Corsicato, Teresa De Sio, Lello Arena, Award winning actor Massimo Troisi, Award winning director Gabriele Salvatores.

Recent and modern Italian singers and musicians from Campania are Peppino di Capri, Renato Carosone, Edoardo Bennato, Eugenio Bennato Mario Merola, Sergio Bruni, Aurelio Fierro, Roberto Murolo, E.A. Mario, Eugenio Bennato Tony Tammaro, Teresa De Sio, Eduardo De Crescenzo, Alan Sorrenti, Jenni Sorrenti, Toni Esposito, Tullio De Piscopo, Gigi Finizio, Massimo Ranieri, Pino Daniele, James Senese and his group Napoli Centrale, Enzo Avitabile, Enzo Gragnaniello, Maria Nazionale, Nino D'Angelo, Gigi D'Alessio, the music groups of 99 Posse, Almamegretta, Bisca, 24 Grana la "Nuova Compagnia di Canto Popolare".

Well known and deservers its place in the history of music it is the music genre called neapolitan song. Famous worldwide are O sole mio (a.k.a. "It's Now or Never"), Funiculì, Funiculà, O Surdato nnamurato, Torna a Surriento, Guapparia, Santa Lucia Reginella, Marechiaro, Spingule Francese.

Even singers and music directors who do not have Campanian origins wrote Neapolitan songs Paolo Conte, Lucio Dalla, or adapted it to English, like Elvis Presley or Bryan Adams. There are some who perhaps just played neapolitan songs, such as for example Mia Martini or Domenico Modugno. Lyric artists Luciano Pavarotti, Placido Domingo and Andrea Bocelli performed it various times.

There are also famous film artists who directed movies about Naples or actors who played famous movies in Campania, or even interpreted famous Neapolitans on-screen, including directors and actors Vittorio De Sica, Nanni Loi, Domenico Modugno, Renzo Arbore, Lina Wertmüller, Mario Lanza as "Caruso", Clark Gable in "It Started in Naples", Jack Lemmon in the movies "Avanti!" and "Maccheroni" (a.k.a."Macaroni") played together with Marcello Mastroianni.

Sports

Campania is very famous in Italy for its football teams, water polo, volleyball, and more recently for basketball and tennis.

The school of swords in Naples is the oldest in the country and the only in Italy in which a swordsman could acquire the title of "master of swords" and then teach the art of fence. The sail clubs in Naples "Circolo Savoia" and "Canottieri Napoli" are both very ancient in Italy and famous for their regattas, and are also home for the main water polo teams.

Many sailors from Naples and Campania participate as crew to "America's Cup" sailing championship.

In Castellammare di Stabia were born the Giuseppe Abbagnale and Carmine Abbagnale brothers four times rowing world champions and Olympic gold medalists.

References

Notes

  1. ^ "Campania". Encyclopædia Britannica. 7 October 2007. http://library.eb.co.uk/eb/article-9019840. 
  2. ^ "Campania: Gateway to Southern Italy". LifeInItaly.com. 7 October 2007. http://www.lifeinitaly.com/tourism/campania/. Retrieved 2009-07-22. 
  3. ^ "Italia Antiqua - XV, Campania". InStoria.it. 7 October 2007. http://www.instoria.it/home/italia_antiqua_XV.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-22. 
  4. ^ "Campania: History". Interteam.it. 7 October 2007. Archived from the original on 2005-05-05. http://web.archive.org/web/20050505081832/http://www.iterteam.it/eng/campania/storia.html. 
  5. ^ a b c "The Samnite Wars". UNRV.com. 7 October 2007. http://www.unrv.com/empire/samnite-wars.php. Retrieved 2009-07-22. 
  6. ^ a b "Ancient Times - 1st millennium B.C.". Michael Vigorita. 7 October 2007. http://pirate.shu.edu/~vigorimi/genealogy/first_millenium_BC.html. Retrieved 2009-07-22. 
  7. ^ "Roman Naples". Faculty.ed.umuc.du. 7 October 2007. http://faculty.ed.umuc.edu/~jmatthew/naples/Roman_Naples.html. Retrieved 2009-07-22. 
  8. ^ a b c d "Antic Naples". Naples.Rome-in-Italy.com. 8 January 2008. http://naples.rome-in-italy.com/history_naples_1.html. Retrieved 2009-07-22. 
  9. ^ Oakley, Stephen P. A Commentary on Livy, Books VI-X. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0199271437. http://books.google.com/books?id=JqsqlajAPCoC&pg=PA43&lpg=PA43&dq=in+verrem+cicero+verres&source=web&ots=myCxg3IJhT&sig=7mcMkg8q0_lvM9cbu9P66pbktoQ. Retrieved 2009-07-22. 
  10. ^ a b "Second Punic War: Second Period, From The Revolt Of Capua To The Battle Of The Metaurus - b.C. 215-207". Roman-Empire.info. 8 January 2008. http://roman-empire.info/roman-empire/13/. Retrieved 2009-07-22. 
  11. ^ a b "Campania: A Little History". Emmeti.it. 8 January 2008. http://www.emmeti.it/Cucina/Campania/Storia/Campania.ART.95.uk.html. Retrieved 2009-07-22. 
  12. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg "Naples" in the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia.
  13. ^ "Secrets of the Dead: Pompeii and Herculaneum". Channel4.com. 8 January 2008. http://www.channel4.com/history/microsites/P/pompeii/index.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-22. 
  14. ^ "Swabian Naples". Faculty.ed.umuc.edu. 7 October 2007. http://faculty.ed.umuc.edu/~jmatthew/naples/swabian.html. Retrieved 2009-07-22. 
  15. ^ "Italy: PhD Scholarships in Various Fields at University of Naples-Federico II". ScholarshipNet.info. 7 October 2007. http://www.scholarshipnet.info/postgraduate/italy-phd-scholarships-in-various-fields-at-university-of-naples-federico-ii/. Retrieved 2009-07-22. 
  16. ^ a b c "Sicilian History". Dieli.net. 7 October 2007. http://www.dieli.net/SicilyPage/History/SicilianHist.html. Retrieved 2009-07-22. 
  17. ^ "Naples - Castel Nuovo". PlanetWare.com. 7 October 2007. http://www.planetware.com/naples/castel-nuovo-i-cm-ncn.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-22. 
  18. ^ Bruzelius, Caroline. "ad modum franciae": Charles of Anjou and Gothic Architecture in the Kingdom of Sicily. The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0037-9808(199112)50%3A4%3C402%3A%22MFCOA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-G. 
  19. ^ Constable, Olivia Remie. Housing the Stranger in the Mediterranean World: Lodging, Trade, and Travel. Humana Press. ISBN 1588291715. http://books.google.com/books?id=y9H7mfxqs7UC&pg=PA209&lpg=PA209&dq=%22genoese+merchants%22+naples&source=web&ots=Bx7dcQgxoz&sig=C6KlY6JRfpvkQv3kbqYWU-yW6DM. Retrieved 2009-07-22. 
  20. ^ "Angioino Castle, Naples". Naples-City.info. 7 October 2007. http://www.naples-city.info/napoli/angioinoeng.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-22. 
  21. ^ "Aragonese Overseas Expansion, 1282–1479". Zum.de. 7 October 2007. http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/spain/aragonexp.html. Retrieved 2009-07-22. 
  22. ^ "Ferrante of Naples: the statecraft of a Renaissance prince". Questia.com. 7 October 2007. http://www.questia.com/googleScholar.qst;jsessionid=HGLTkBTylpyyN6nRHvHhh1ChNGN38XWmr4HZhn5HLhnkkhWHHhXn!602093125?docId=5000263626. Retrieved 2009-07-22. 
  23. ^ "Naples Middle-Ages". Naples.Rome-in-Italy.com. 7 October 2007. http://naples.rome-in-italy.com/history_naples_2.html. Retrieved 2009-07-22. 
  24. ^ a b c "Spanish acquisition of Naples". Britannica.com. 7 October 2007. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-27691/Italy. 
  25. ^ "Don Pedro de Toledo". Faculty.ed.umuc.edu. 7 October 2007. http://faculty.ed.umuc.edu/~jmatthew/naples/toledo.html. Retrieved 2009-07-22. 
  26. ^ "Naples Through the Ages". Fodors.com. 7 October 2007. http://www.fodors.com/world/europe/italy/naples%20&%3B%20pompeii/feature_30006.html. Retrieved 2009-07-22. 
  27. ^ "Charles VI, Holy Roman emperor". Bartleby.com. 7 October 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-12-18. http://web.archive.org/web/20071218115624/http://www.bartleby.com/65/ch/Charles6HRE.html. 
  28. ^ "Charles of Bourbon - the restorer of the Kingdom of Naples". RealCasaDiBorbone.it. 7 October 2007. http://www.realcasadiborbone.it/uk/archiviostorico/cs_04.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-22. 
  29. ^ a b c d "The Parthenopean Republic". Faculty.ed.umuc.edu. 7 October 2007. http://faculty.ed.umuc.edu/~jmatthew/naples/Parthenopean_Republic.html. Retrieved 2009-07-22. 
  30. ^ a b c "Austria Naples - Neapolitan War 1815". Onwar.com. 7 October 2007. http://www.onwar.com/aced/data/november/neapolitan1815.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-22. 
  31. ^ "La dolce vita? Italy by rail, 1839–1914". Questia.com. 7 October 2007. http://www.questia.com/googleScholar.qst;jsessionid=HFrVrf1TjfQLz1blXyCDqSvFywZQx4Xvx2hbqJH3pFdT6mQhPSs2!2097620639?docId=5001632992. Retrieved 2009-07-22. 
  32. ^ "Why Neo-Bourbons". NeoBorbonici.it. 7 October 2007. http://www.neoborbonici.it/portal/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=227&Itemid=137. Retrieved 2009-07-22. 
  33. ^ a b "Eurostat". Circa.europa.eu. http://circa.europa.eu/irc/dsis/regportraits/info/data/en/itf3_eco.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  34. ^ "Eurostat". Circa.europa.eu. http://circa.europa.eu/irc/dsis/regportraits/info/data/en/itf3_geo.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  35. ^ "Statistiche demografiche ISTAT". Demo.istat.it. http://www.demo.istat.it/strasa2007/index.html. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  36. ^ http://www.consiglio.regione.lombardia.it/c/portal/layout?p_l_id=PRI.1046.1&p_p_id=20&p_p_action=1&p_p_state=exclusive&p_p_col_id=null&p_p_col_pos=2&p_p_col_count=3&_20_struts_action=%2Fdocument_library%2Fget_file&_20_folderId=69&_20_name=l+cost+199_PDF.pdf

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Europe : Italy : Southern Italy : Campania
noborder

Campania is a region in South-Western Italy.

Two buses passing
Two buses passing

Within Campania the public transport has a unified ticket system called Campania Unico. [1] Tickets are organised in zones which means that with one ticket you can travel within one or more zones. The zones radiate out from the centre of Napoli, and allow you to travel within a zone or between zones, with a maximum time limit for the journey. The idea is that you can purchase a single ticket to travel from a zone outside Napoli to the centre, or vice-versa. Included in this system are generally national trains (also to Paestum, the underground in Naples, the Funicolare in Naples, Sita buses along the Amalfi Coast, the Funicolare on Capri, Bus of Ischia the Circumvesuviana that goes also past Pompeii and Herculaneum but NOT ferries. The advantage is not only that you can get tickets for different kind of vehicles, but you could also buy tickets in advance for areas where it is difficult to find a ticket office such as Paestum, as the tickets start to be valid once you stamped them. You should stamp the tickets each time you change vehicle, but be aware that the tickets are only valid for one train, Metro or Funicolare journey. It is possibly also cheaper to buy a bunch of 'one zone' tickets than each time a new one. But careful: some tickets are locally bound (only in Naples, for example). If in doubt, ask when you buy your tickets.

Comment: I have been using these tickets for several years now, and have not detected the zones mentioned above. My tickets have always been time-tickets. Also, some restrictions have recently been issued on the use of these tickets by tourists, restrictions which I have not been able to get to the bottom of. But it appears that on the Amalfi coats tourists have to buy a full-day ticket.

By train

National train lines go from Naples to Salerno and further east and southwards. The Circumvesuviana [2] is a local private train link serving the area around the Mount Vesuvius from Naples to Sorrento. The service has the appeal of typical metropolitan trains connecting to local suburbs (including the odd graffiti and cut open seat/window). For tourists this train service is particularly interesting because it is the only reasonable public transport link to Pompeii, Herculaneum and Vesuvius. Note: there are several different lines but ONLY THE BLUE LINE goes to Pompeii, Herculaneum and Vesuvius. Pompeii is in Zone 3 of Campania, and an all-day ticket to (and from) "Zone 3" is €4.50. You can use this ticket to get to Pompeii and to get back to Naples. When going to visit the ruins of Pompeii, get off the train at the Pompei Scavio stop. It's about a 40 minute ride from Naples. The entrance is approximately 50m from the station.

By bus

Buses run generally pretty efficiently, but can become full and a bit uncomfortable. Tickets are part of the Unico Campania system, which must be bought in advance. Once exception is the AliBus, which travels from the airport to the centre of town, where you can buy the tickets on the bus.

Along the Amalfi coastline, buses are the only option, with the exception of ferries. The roads are narrow and winding, but the drivers are exceptionally skilled, only usually being slowed down by the less experienced tour bus drivers.

By car

The Amalfi-Sorrento-Salerno road is narrow and full of hairpin turns. Cars passes fast and close. Take care.

See

The Statue of Liberty in Central Naples. A great statue, an Italian original.

Do

The ocean is one of the biggest lures to visitors of the Campania region.

The Amalfi coasts presents a series of mountainside towns that seem to tumble into the sea. Also, not far from Naples are some of the most beautiful islands in the world: Ischia, Capri and Procida.

Visit an ancient village called Calitri, located in the centre of Italy - halfway between the ruins of Pompeii and the Amalfi coast to the west and Magna Graecia to the east. The area around Calitri is sprinkled with castles, aristocratic palazzos and delightful locations soaked in history and tradition, ridged with hills and valleys and marked by the ancient trails along which Hannibal and his legions marched when setting off to attack ancient Rome 2,000 years ago.

Eat

Perhaps the Campania product most widely known is Mozzarella di Bufala, with DOP awarded by the European Union. Due to vast market demand and the scarce number of water buffalo, it is also however a product at risk of a ”bufala“ (also Italian for scam). To avoid this, each wrapper carries the symbol of the protection consortium to guarantee its authenticity and geographic origin. The origin of the mozzarella – so called from the verb ”mozzare“ to cut – probably goes back to the 12th century, while the buffalo was already part of the Campanian landscape in the 7th century. The true characteristic of this fresh cheese with a delicate taste is its consistency, which should be firm, slightly elastic and chewy. When cut, the centre of a true mozzarella di bufala 'weeps': an interior still be slightly serous, protected by a thin skin and it should be smooth, but not viscous. It should be preserved in its liquid for no more than 48 hours, preferably not in the refrigerator but in a cool and airy place. As well as the characteristic round form it is produced in braids, knots, nuts and cherries and there is also a smoked version.

It is not possible to talk about Campania’s gastronomy without mentioning the pizza. This palate’s delight was born in Naples, in honour of Queen Margaret. From simple baked product it became a fanciful, rich, surprising and always appreciated food.

Drink

Local Campanian beverages include limoncello and crema di limone, both lemon-based. Limoncello has the highest alcohol content, is very strong in flavor, and is a very bright translucent yellow color. Crema di limone, as the name suggests, is cream-based. It is less strong than limoncello and is an opaque off-white. Another beverage highly recommended for travelers to Italy is coffee - ask for caffe, espresso, cappucino, or caffe latte. Especially for US travellers, the quality of the coffee and the drink preparation is vastly better than at home, and a coffee at a small cafe is the perfect way to wind down while in Italy. Coffee or espresso are also staple after-dinner drinks in Italy, but Italians drink cappucino mainly as a morning drink, so you may get strange looks when ordering this after a meal. Local Italian beer includes Nastro Azzurro, Moretti, and Peroni - all mild-tasting lagers similar to Heineken. Beer is extremely locally available in the cafes and ristorantes in Campania, though wine is more the local drink of choice with a meal. True to Italy's image, wine is readily available in Campania (though at some stores it is less cheap than some travelers may be expecting). Prices in local groceries for a bottle of wine vary somewhere between EURO 4.50-100+. Some of the cities in Campania such as Positano, Sorrento, and cities on the islands of Capri and Ischia will be more expensive due to their high levels of tourism. One local wine of Campania is Lacryma Christi, or "Tears of Christ". This wine is produced on the lower slopes of Mount Vesuvius and is available at many groceries in Campania. For travelers going to the Mount Vesuvius National Park, this wine is available from some of the giftshops at the top at a deeply reduced rate compared with other stores in the area. Terraced land for grape cultivation is frequently visible in countryside of Campania, and many other local wines exist.

Get out

Campania is a good base for exploring other regions of southern Italy such as Basilicata, Calitri, Calabria and Apulia, as well as Sicily.

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Proper noun

Campania

  1. A region of southern Italy.

Translations


Italian

Pronunciation

  • IPA: [kamˈpaː.nja], /kamˈpanja/, SAMPA: /kam"panja/
  • Hyphenation: Cam‧pà‧nia

Proper noun

Campania f

  1. Campania

Derived terms


Simple English

Campania
Flag Coat of arms
File:Flag of [[Image:|75px|Coat of arms of Campania]]
Location
File:Italy Regions Campania
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Administration
Country Italy
NUTS Region ITF
Capital Naples
President Antonio Bassolino (Democratic Party)
Basic statistics
Area  13,595 km² (5,249 sq mi)
(Ranked 12th, 4.5 %)
Population 5,811,390 (12/2007)
(Ranked 2nd, 9.7 %)
 - Density 427 /km² (1,107 /sq mi)
Other information
GDP/ Nominal € 94.3 billion (2006)
Website www.regione.campania.it


Campania is a region of the south of Italy. The capital is Napoli. The population in 2004 was about 5,701,931.

Provinces

Other websites


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