Campeonato Brasileiro Série A: Wikis

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Campeonato Brasileiro Série A
Brasileirão
Countries Brazil Brasil
Confederation CONMEBOL
Founded 1971
Number of teams 20
Relegation to Série B
Levels on pyramid 1
Domestic cup(s) Copa do Brasil
International cup(s) Copa Libertadores
Copa Sudamericana
Current champions Flamengo (2009)
Most championships São Paulo (6)
TV partners Rede Globo
Rede Bandeirantes
SporTV
Website http://www.cbf.com.br/seriea
2010 Campeonato Brasileiro Série A

The Campeonato Brasileiro da Série A (popularly known as Brasileirão) is the highest division of Brazilian football. It is composed of 20 teams; currently, the bottom four teams in Série A are relegated and the top four teams in Série B are promoted. São Paulo has been the most successful team in the competition, having won it on six occasions.

Due to historical peculiarities and the large geographical size of the country, Brazil has a relatively short history of nation-wide football competitions. The modern Campeonato Brasileiro only started in 1971, supported by the military regime of the time and made easier by the advancements in civil aviation and air transport. Before the establishment of a national league the most prestigious football competitions in Brazil were the state leagues, notably the Campeonato Paulista and Campeonato Carioca state championships of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro states. Most state competitions have a much longer history than the national competition and, consequently, the various state leagues were considered more prestigious than the national league until recently.

Controversies aside, the CBF does not officially recognize the national tournaments from 1959 to 1970 as national titles, even though they were organized by the Brazilian Sports Confederation (CBD), CBF's predecessor from 1919 to 1979. This includes the Taça Brasil, which featured clubs from all regions of Brazil and Torneio Roberto Gomes Pedrosa, popularly known as "Robertão", which featured clubs from the most representative regions of Brazil.

Contents

Controversial history

In 1979, all big clubs from São Paulo, except Palmeiras, withdrew from competition. They protested against the odd system of tier qualification which made their rivals, Palmeiras and Guarani, enter only in the final phase (due to them being previous-year finalists) and also asking for the same privileges. Indeed oddly enough, Guarani finished in the top 12 playing only 3 games and Palmeiras finished third despite playing only 5 games in a tournament with 96 entrants.

In 1984, Juventus, a small club from São Paulo, managed to qualify for the Série A. Participants of that year could be promoted from and relegated to Série B in the middle of the tournament. Juventus thus started the tournament in the premiership, was relegated in the middle of the tournament but eventually managed to clinch the Série B title. Despite this the team was not promoted to Série A in the following year and failed to qualify to it from the state championship.

In 1999, an averaging relegation system similar to the one used in the Primera División Argentina was adopted. The two clubs with the worst point results in the first stage of the two previous seasons were to be relegated. However, this system only lasted for a single season.

In 2005, each team played 42 games, 21 home and 21 away, for a total of 462 games. The champion and runner-up automatically qualified for the 2006 Copa Libertadores. The third and fourth placed teams may also represent Brazil in the Libertadores by defeating foreign clubs to be determined by CONMEBOL in pre-tournament trials. The champion and 5th through 11th placed teams also win the right to represent Brazil in the Copa Sudamericana, another South American championship of lower stature. The four lowest ranked teams (19th, 20th, 21st and 22nd) were relegated to the following year's Série B.

Eleven matches of the 2005 competition were annulled due to a match-fixing scandal and had to be replayed.

The seasons with the largest number of entrants of the competition were: 2000 (116 entrants), 1979 (94 entrants) and 1986 (80 entrants).

Format and competition rules

Since 2003, the Série A has been contested in a double round-robin format and the team with most points is declared champion. There is no final match, which is a very controversial subject. Prior to 2003, the Brazilian championship had traditionally been decided with some type of playoff format (most commonly the "Octagonal", where the top 8 regular season teams comprise a single elimination tournament), rather than the European model of points accumulation over a season. Although some purists complain that this system lacks the dramatic scenes of playoffs and finals, the competition has so far shown to be well balanced, without a small number of clubs dominating the league, a phenomenon often found in many European leagues.

For the 2006 season, the number of contestants was reduced to 20 and CBF claims it to be the "definitive" format. In 2006, a limit on the number of foreign players was set, such that no team can have more than three foreign players on the field or on the bench in a single match.

Before 2003, the format of Série A changed almost every year; for specifics, see Campeonato Brasileiro tournament scheduling.

Statistics

The only club to win a championship undefeated was Internacional, in 1979, with 15 wins and 7 draws. Also, in a match between Goiás and Cruzeiro, in the same year, 14 players were sent off.

In 1977 Atlético-MG had ended undefeated, but they lost to São Paulo in penalties.

Roberto Dinamite is the player with most goals scored in Campeonato Brasileiro history. Dinamite scored 190 in 20 seasons (1971–1989).

As of 2009, only Cruzeiro, Flamengo and Internacional have participated in all editions of the Série A.

In 2003 Cruzeiro won their first title with the best campaign in the history of Campeonato Brasileiro, finishing with 100 points and 106 goals at the end of the year.

Awards and trophies

Prêmio Craque do Brasileirão is the league's official award. Placar magazine's Bola de Ouro is the oldest award, while the Troféu Osmar Santos and the Troféu João Saldanha are awards given by the newspaper Lance!.

Teams currently playing Série A

There are 20 teams qualified to play in 2010:

Champions of Série A

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Official champions

Below is the table of Campeonato Brasileiro Série A champions according to the Brazilian Football Confederation:[1]

Year Winner Runner-up Comments Entrants
1971
Details
Atlético Mineiro
 MG
São Paulo
 SP
Three-team final stage. Botafogo eventually finished third. 20
Year Winner Score Runner-up Comments Entrants
1972
Details
Palmeiras
 SP
0 - 0 Botafogo
 RJ
Palmeiras declared champions due to better season record 26
Year Winner Runner-up Comments Entrants
1973
Details
Palmeiras
 SP
São Paulo
 SP
Four-team final stage. Palmeiras drew with São Paulo by 0X0 on last stage match 40
Year Winner Score Runner-up Comments Entrants
1974
Details
Vasco
 RJ
2 - 1 Cruzeiro
 MG
Four-team final stage. Extra tie-break match 40
1975
Details
Internacional
 RS
1 - 0 Cruzeiro
 MG
46
1976
Details
Internacional
 RS
2 - 0 Corinthians
 SP
54
1977
Details
São Paulo
 SP
0 - 0 Atlético Mineiro
 MG
São Paulo won 3-2 on penalties. 60
1978
Details
Guarani
 SP
1 - 0
1 - 0
Palmeiras
 SP
74
1979
Details
Internacional
 RS
2 - 0
2 - 1
Vasco
 RJ
Internacional became champions without losing one single game, a deed yet unmatched. 96
1980
Details
Flamengo
 RJ
0 - 1
3 - 2
Atlético Mineiro
 MG
104
1981
Details
Grêmio
 RS
2 - 1
1 - 0
São Paulo
 SP
88
1982
Details
Flamengo
 RJ
1 - 1
0 - 0
1 - 0
Grêmio
 RS
88
1983
Details
Flamengo
 RJ
1 - 2
3 - 0
Santos
 SP
88
1984
Details
Fluminense
 RJ
1 - 0
0 - 0
Vasco
 RJ
72
1985
Details
Coritiba
 PR
1 - 1
Bangu
 RJ
Coritiba won 6-5 on penalties. 40
1986
Details
São Paulo
 SP
1 - 1
3 - 3
Guarani
 SP
São Paulo won 4-3 on penalties. 80
1987(1)
Details
Sport
 PE
1 - 1
1 - 0
Guarani
 SP
Four-team final stage turned home-and-away playoff 32
1988
Details
Bahia
 BA
2 - 1
0 - 0
Internacional
 RS
24
1989
Details
Vasco
 RJ
1 - 0 São Paulo
 SP
Second final-series match unnecessary as Vasco had a better season record and won the away match 22
1990
Details
Corinthians
 SP
1 - 0
1 - 0
São Paulo
 SP
20
1991
Details
São Paulo
 SP
1 - 0
0 - 0
Bragantino
 SP
20
1992
Details
Flamengo
 RJ
3 - 0
2 - 2
Botafogo
 RJ
20
1993
Details
Palmeiras
 SP
1 - 0
2 - 0
Vitória
 BA
32
1994
Details
Palmeiras
 SP
3 - 1
1 - 1
Corinthians
 SP
24
1995
Details
Botafogo
 RJ
2 - 1
1 - 1
Santos
 SP
24
1996
Details
Grêmio
 RS
0 - 2
2 - 0
Portuguesa
 SP
Grêmio declared champions due to better season record. 24
1997
Details
Vasco
 RJ
0 - 0
0 - 0
Palmeiras
 SP
Vasco da Gama declared champions due to better season record 26
1998
Details
Corinthians
 SP
2 - 2
1 - 1
2 - 0
Cruzeiro
 MG
24
1999
Details
Corinthians
 SP
2 - 3
2 - 0
0 - 0
Atlético Mineiro
 MG
22
2000(2)
Details
Vasco
 RJ
1 - 1
3 - 1
São Caetano
 SP
Organized by Clube dos 13 on CBF's behalf, and dubbed Copa João Havelange 116
2001
Details
Atlético Paranaense
 PR
4 - 2
1 - 0
São Caetano
 SP
28
2002
Details
Santos
 SP
2 - 0
3 - 2
Corinthians
 SP
26
Year Winner Runner-up Comments Entrants
2003
Details
Cruzeiro
 MG
100 pts / 46 matches
Santos
 SP
87 pts / 46 matches
From 2003 onwards, the regular season group play followed by play-offs was replaced by a double round-robin system. The team with the most points at the end of the season is declared the champion. 24
2004
Details
Santos
 SP
89 pts / 46 matches
Atlético Paranaense
 PR
86 pts / 46 matches
24
2005
Details
Corinthians
 SP
81 pts / 42 matches
Internacional
 RS
78 pts / 42 matches
A refereeing scandal led to a controversial refixturing of 11 matches, the original outcome changing in the majority of games 22
2006
Details
São Paulo
 SP
78 pts / 38 matches
Internacional
 RS
69 pts / 38 matches
20
2007
Details
São Paulo
 SP
77 pts / 38 matches
Santos
 SP
62 pts / 38 matches
São Paulo becomes the first team to officially win five Brazilian championships. 20
2008
Details
São Paulo
 SP
75 pts / 38 matches
Grêmio
 RS
72 pts / 38 matches
São Paulo becomes the first team to be officially recognized by Brazilian Football Confederation as having won 6 Brazilian championships as well as winning it 3 times in a row. 20
2009
Details
Flamengo
 RJ
67 pts / 38 matches
Internacional
 RS
65 pts / 38 matches
20

Unofficial champions

At odds with the Brazilian Football Confederation (CBF), which could not come up with a formula for the national championship, the thirteen most popular clubs in Brazil created a league, known as the Clube dos 13, to organize a tournament of their own. This championship was called Copa União and was run by the 16 clubs that took part in it (Santa Cruz, Coritiba and Goiás were invited to join), completely free from CBF authority (a move not unlike the creation of club-administered football leagues all over Europe).

Left to organize a championship without the big thirteen, which would have been a huge fiasco, the CBF came up with a formula that would force the champions and the runner-ups of the Copa União to face the best two teams of the tournament the CBF itself had promoted, also called Módulo Amarelo (Yellow Module). The move, however, was never approved by the Clube dos 13, which rejected any play-off between their own champions and those of the CBF tournament.

Consequently, Flamengo and Internacional, winners and runner-ups of the Copa União, refused to face Sport and Guarani, which had shared the Yellow Module title after deciding to interrupt a penalty shoot-out. Since Flamengo and Internacional did not show up, the CBF championship finals consisted only of a rematch of the Yellow Module finals. In the first game, in Campinas, both teams tied 1-1. On February 7, 1988, Sport beat Guarani 1-0 and became the first Northeastern team to win the national title (a feat only matched by Bahia in the 1988 championship).

Clube dos 13 and the Sports National Council, the competent judicial body to settle the issue at the time, both ruled in favour of Flamengo and Internacional, thus declaring Flamengo as the 1987 Brazilian Champions. The CBF, however, regardless of the CND decision, declared Sport to be the national champions, and the club, along with Guarani, represented Brazil in the 1988 Copa Libertadores de América.

Despite not being recognized by the CBF, several sources list Flamengo and Internacional as respectively the 1987's winners and runner-ups together or instead of the official ones:[2]

Year Winner Score Runner-up Comments Entrants
1987(1)
Details
Flamengo
 RJ
1 - 1
1 - 0
Internacional
 RS
Organized by Clube dos 13, dubbed Copa União, not recognized by CBF, but recognized by the Clube dos 13, and CND[3] 16

Titles by team

Below are the titles by team, according to the Brazilian Football Confederation, thus excluding the 1987 Copa União, won by Flamengo:

Club State Titles
São Paulo  São Paulo 6 titles
Flamengo(1)  Rio de Janeiro 5 titles
Corinthians  São Paulo 4 titles
Palmeiras  São Paulo 4 titles
Vasco(2)  Rio de Janeiro 4 titles
Internacional  Rio Grande do Sul 3 titles
Grêmio  Rio Grande do Sul 2 titles
Santos  São Paulo 2 titles
Atlético-MG  Minas Gerais 1 title
Guarani  São Paulo 1 title
Fluminense  Rio de Janeiro 1 title
Coritiba  Paraná 1 title
Sport(1)  Pernambuco 1 title
Bahia  Bahia 1 title
Botafogo  Rio de Janeiro 1 title
Atlético-PR  Paraná 1 title
Cruzeiro  Minas Gerais 1 title

Titles by state

Below are the titles by state, according to the Brazilian Football Confederation, thus excluding the 1987 Copa União, won by Flamengo (from Rio de Janeiro state):

State Titles
 São Paulo 17 titles
 Rio de Janeiro 11 titles(1)
 Rio Grande do Sul 5 titles
 Minas Gerais 2 titles
 Paraná 2 titles
 Bahia 1 title
 Pernambuco 1 title(1)

Titles by decade


1970s

Team
3
Internacional
2
Palmeiras
1
Atlético-MG, Guarani, São Paulo, Vasco da Gama

1980s

Team
3(1)
Flamengo(1)
1
Bahia, Coritiba, Fluminense, Grêmio, São Paulo, Sport(1), Vasco da Gama

1990s

Team
3
Corinthians
2
Palmeiras
1
Botafogo, Flamengo, Grêmio, São Paulo, Vasco da Gama

2000s

Team
3
São Paulo
2
Santos
1
Atlético-PR, Flamengo, Corinthians, Cruzeiro, Vasco da Gama(2)


1The championship of 1987 was controversial as CBF faced scission from Clube dos 13 which decided to organize the 1987 premiership on its own. The latter, dubbed Copa União, had Flamengo and Internacional as champion and runner-up. Despite signing an agreement with CBF in order avoid being banned by FIFA, both teams backed by Clube dos 13 decided not to match their title with CBF's tournament winners in order to unify the title. As a result, the CBF disqualified the two teams from the finals and awarded the title to Sport, who had won the yellow module, organized by the confederation.


2 The championship was not organised by CBF because Gama, in the 1999 championship, contested and won in a common justice court and reverted its relegation. CBF was thus legally impeached of organizing it without including Gama and asked Clube dos 13 to act as a proxy while backing the competition. The rules reproduced roughly previous tournaments with a regular season and play-offs, though all teams legally had to be able to dispute, thus 1999 clubs were not relegated. Due to another justice decision, Gama was included in the championship. The competition was officially recognized by the Brazilian Football Confederation.[1]

Top scorers

Below is a list of the last ten years Campeonato Brasileiro Série A top scorers:

Year Player Club State Goals
2000 Dill Goiás  Goiás 20
Magno Alves Fluminense  Rio de Janeiro 20
Romário Vasco da Gama  Rio de Janeiro 20
2001 Romário Vasco da Gama  Rio de Janeiro 21
2002 Luís Fabiano São Paulo  São Paulo 19
Rodrigo Fabri Grêmio  Rio Grande do Sul 19
2003 Dimba Goiás  Goiás 30
2004 Washington Atlético Paranaense  Paraná 34
2005 Romário Vasco da Gama  Rio de Janeiro 22
2006 Souza Goiás  Goiás 17
2007 Josiel Paraná  Paraná 20
2008 Washington Fluminense  Rio de Janeiro 21
Keirrison Coritiba  Paraná 21
Kléber Pereira Santos  São Paulo 21
2009 Adriano Flamengo  Rio de Janeiro 19
Diego Tardelli Atlético Mineiro  Minas Gerais 19

See also

References

External links


Simple English

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