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Campylobacter
Campylobacter bacteria
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Epsilon Proteobacteria
Order: Campylobacterales
Family: Campylobacteraceae
Genus: Campylobacter
Sebald and Véron 1963
Species

C. coli
C. concisus
C. curvus
C. fetus
C. gracilis
C. helveticus
C. hominis
C. hyointestinalis
C. insulaenigrae
C. jejuni
C. lanienae
C. lari
C. mucosalis
C. rectus
C. showae
C. sputorum
C. upsaliensis

The genus Campylobacter, (meaning 'twisted bacteria') first discovered in 1963[1], describes Gram-negative, spiral, microaerophilic bacteria. Motile, with either uni- or bi-polar flagella, the organisms have a characteristic spiral/corkscrew appearance (see photo) and are oxidase-positive.[2]Campylobacter jejuni is now recognized as one of the main causes of bacterial foodborne disease in many developed countries.[3] At least a dozen species of Campylobacter have been implicated in human disease, with C. jejuni and C. coli the most common.[2] C. fetus is a cause of spontaneous abortions in cattle and sheep, as well as an opportunistic pathogen in humans.[4]

Contents

Genome

The genomes of several Campylobacter spec have been sequenced, providing insights into their mechanisms of pathogenesis.[5] The first Campylobacter genome to be sequenced was C. jejuni, in 2000.[6]

Campylobacter species contain two flagellin genes in tandem for motility, flaA and flaB. These genes undergo intergenic recombination, further contributing to their virulence. [7] Non-motile mutants do not colonize.

Pathogenesis

Campylobacteriosis is an infection by campylobacter.[8] The common routes of transmission are fecal-oral, person-to-person sexual contact, ingestion of contaminated food or water, and the eating of raw meat. It produces an inflammatory, sometimes bloody, diarrhea, periodontitis[9] or dysentery syndrome, mostly including cramps, fever and pain. The infection is usually self-limiting and in most cases, symptomatic treatment by reposition of liquid and electrolyte replacement is enough in human infections. The use of antibiotics, on the other hand, is controversial.

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Cause

The sites of tissue injury include the jejunum, the ileum, and the colon. Most strains of C jejuni produce a toxin (cytolethal distending toxin) that hinders the cells from dividing and activating the immune system. This helps the bacteria to evade the immune system and survive for a limited time in the cells. It was thought that a cholera-like enterotoxin was also made, but this appears not to be the case. The organism produces diffuse, bloody, edematous, and exudative enteritis. In a small number of cases, the infection may be associated with hemolytic uremic syndrome and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura through a poorly understood mechanism.

History

The symptoms of campylobacter infections were describe in 1886 in infants by Theodor Escherish.[10] These infections were named cholera infantum,[10] or summer complaint.[11] The organism was not isolated however until 1972.[10]

References

  1. ^ Nachmankin I; Szymanski CM; Blaser J (editors) (2008). Campylobacter (3rd ed.). ASM Press. pp. 3–25. ISBN 9781555814373. 
  2. ^ a b Ryan KJ; Ray CG (editors) (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). McGraw Hill. pp. 378–80. ISBN 0838585299. 
  3. ^ Moore JE, et al. (2005). "Campylobacter". Vet Res 36 (3): 351–82. doi:10.1051/vetres:2005012. PMID 15845230. 
  4. ^ Sauerwein R, Bisseling J, Horrevorts A (1993). "Septic abortion associated with Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus infection: case report and review of the literature". Infection 21 (5): 331–3. doi:10.1007/BF01712458. PMID 8300253. 
  5. ^ Fouts DE et al. (2005). "Major structural differences and novel potential virulence mechanisms from the genomes of multiple Campylobacter species". PLoS Biol 3 (1): e15. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0030015. PMID 15660156. 
  6. ^ Parkhill et al.; Wren, BW; Mungall, K; Ketley, JM; Churcher, C; Basham, D; Chillingworth, T; Davies, RM et al. (2000). "The genome sequence of the food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni reveals hypervariable sequences.". Nature 403 (6770): 665–668. doi:10.1038/35001088. PMID 10688204. 
  7. ^ Grant C, Konkel M, Cieplak W, Tompkins L (1993). "Role of flagella in adherence, internalization, and translocation of Campylobacter jejuni in nonpolarized and polarized epithelial cell cultures". Infect Immun 61 (5): 1764–71. PMID 8478066. 
  8. ^ cdc.gov
  9. ^ Humphrey, Tom et al.; O'Brien, S; Madsen, M (2007). "Campylobacters as zoonotic pathogens: A food production perspective <internet>". International Journal of Food Microbiology 117 (3): 237. doi:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2007.01.006. PMID 17368847. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T7K-4N0PPRG-1&_user=10&_coverDate=07%2F15%2F2007&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=74b7c07635a1873ca815b3139b56d2e0. 
  10. ^ a b c Samie A, Obi CL, Barrett LJ, Powell SM, Guerrant RL (June 2007). "Prevalence of Campylobacter species, Helicobacter pylori and Arcobacter species in stool samples from the Venda region, Limpopo, South Africa: studies using molecular diagnostic methods". J. Infect. 54 (6): 558–66. doi:10.1016/j.jinf.2006.10.047. PMID 17145081. 
  11. ^ "Defining and Managing Infant Mortality: A Case Study of Philadelphia, 1870-1920 -- Condran and Murphy 32 (4): 473 -- Social Science History". http://ssh.dukejournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/32/4/473. 

See also

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also campylobacter

Translingual

Proper noun

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Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Campylobacter

  1. a taxonomic genus, within family Campylobacteraceae - the campylobacter bacteria
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Wikispecies

See also

  • See Wikipedia for species

Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Taxonavigation

Taxonavigation

Main Page
Superregnum: Bacteria
Regnum: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Classis: Epsilon Proteobacteria
Ordo: Campylobacterales
Familia: Campylobacteraceae
Genus: Campylobacter
Species: C. concisus - C. curvus - C. fetus - C. hominis - C. jejuni


Simple English

Campylobacter
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Epsilon Proteobacteria
Order: Campylobacterales
Family: Campylobacteraceae
Genus: Campylobacter
Sebald and Véron 1963
Species

C. coli
C. concisus
C. curvus
C. fetus
C. gracilis
C. helveticus
C. hominis
C. hyointestinalis
C. insulaenigrae
C. jejuni
C. lanienae
C. lari
C. mucosalis
C. rectus
C. showae
C. sputorum
C. upsaliensis

Campylobacter is a bacterium. It is found in the intestines of many types of animals. Campylobacter is the most common bacterial cause of diarrhoeal illness. Campylobacteriosis has been found to be more common during the summer months. It also appears to be more common in males than females. It also causes bloody diarrhea and reactive arthritis. It is usually found after eating poultry. Campylobactor jejuni was also thought to be associated with peptic ulcer syndrome.


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