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Canada
Vertical triband (red, white, red) with a red maple leaf in the centre of the white A shield divided into four rectangles over a triangle. <a name=.The first rectangle contains three lions passant guardant in gold on a red background; the second, a red lion rampant on a gold background; the third, a gold harp on a blue background; the fourth, three gold fleurs-de-lis on a blue background.^ Pavel Datsyuk stole a bad pass from Ryane Clowe and turned it into the first of three goals for Detroit in the second period, and the Red Wings went on to beat the San Jose Sharks 4-1 Saturday night.
  • Alltop - Top Canada News 10 February 2010 12:55 UTC canada.alltop.com [Source type: General]

The triangle contains three red maple leaves on one stem over a white background. A gold helmet with a veil of red and white maple leaves sits on top of the shield, upon which stands a crowned lion holding a red maple leaf, with a larger crown over its head. On the right is a lion rampant flying the Union Flag. On the left is a unicorn wearing a gold chain from a crown collar, flying a blue flag with three fleurs-de-lis. Both animals hold a red ribbon that goes around the shield, which says "desiderantes meliorem patriam". Below the animals and shield is a blue scroll inscribed with the motto "A mari usque ad mare", which sits on a wreath of flowers." src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/00/4/1/2/4789760684478593.png" width="85" height="114" />
Flag Arms
MottoA Mari Usque Ad Mare  (Latin)
"From Sea to Sea"
Anthem"O Canada"
Royal anthem"God Save the Queen"
Projection of North America with Canada in green
Capital Ottawa
45°24′N 75°40′W / 45.4°N 75.667°W / 45.4; -75.667
Largest city Toronto
Official language(s) English and French
Recognised regional languages Inuktitut, Inuinnaqtun, Cree, Dëne Sųłiné, Gwich’in, Inuvialuktun, Slavey and Tłįchǫ Yatiì[1]
Demonym Canadian
Government Federal parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy[2]
 -  Monarch HM Queen Elizabeth II
 -  Governor General Michaëlle Jean
 -  Prime Minister Stephen Harper
Legislature Parliament
 -  Upper House Senate
 -  Lower House House of Commons
Establishment
 -  British North America Acts July 1, 1867 
 -  Statute of Westminster December 11, 1931 
 -  Canada Act April 17, 1982 
Area
 -  Total 9,984,670 km2 (2nd)
3,854,085 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 8.92 (891,163 km2/344,080 mi2)
Population
 -  2010 estimate 34,038,000 [3] (36th)
 -  2006 census 31,241,030[4] 
 -  Density 3.41/km2 (228th)
8.3/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $1.300 trillion[5] (14th)
 -  Per capita $39,098[5] (13th)
GDP (nominal) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $1.499 trillion[5] (9th)
 -  Per capita $45,085[5] (18th)
Gini  32.1 (2005)[6] 
HDI (2009) 0.966[7] (very high) (4th)
Currency Dollar ($) (CAD)
Time zone (UTC−3.5 to −8)
 -  Summer (DST)  (UTC−2.5 to −7)
Date formats dd-mm-yyyy, mm-dd-yyyy, and yyyy-mm-dd (CE)
Drives on the Right
Internet TLD .ca
Calling code +1
Canada portal
.Canada Pronunciation: /ˈkænədə/ is a country occupying most of northern North America, extending from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west and northward into the Arctic Ocean.^ The divide between the rivers flowing west and those flowing east and north is very sharp in the southern Rocky Mountains, but there are two lakes, the Committee's Punch Bowl and Fortress Lake, right astride of it, sending their waters both east and west; and there is a mountain somewhat south of Fortress Lake whose melting snows drain in three directions into tributaries of the Columbia, the Saskatchewan and the Athabasca, so that they are distributed between the Pacific, the Atlantic (Hudson Bay) and the Arctic Oceans.

^ The great central area of Canada is drained towards Hudson Bay, but its two largest rivers have separate watersheds, the Mackenzie flowing north-west to the Arctic Ocean and the St Lawrence north-east towards the Atlantic, the one to the south-west and the other to the south-east of the Archean protaxis.

^ It includes Labrador, Ungava and most of Quebec on the east, northern Ontario on the south; and the western boundary runs from Lake-of-the-Woods north-west to the Arctic Ocean near the mouth of Mackenzie river.

It is the world's second largest country by total area. .Canada's common border with the United States to the south and northwest is the longest in the world.^ Strengthening security and improving travel and trade across the Canada-United States border .
  • Alltop - Top Canada News 10 February 2010 12:55 UTC canada.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ The Columbia is the largest, but after flowing north-west and then south for about 400 m., it passes into the United States.

^ But it remained an irritant in relations between Canada and the United States, especially as the Canadian police have made fewer and fewer arrests for marijuana possession in recent years."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Canadian Drug Policy Reform 10 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

.The land occupied by Canada was inhabited for millennia by various groups of Aboriginal people.^ In her treatment of the aboriginal inhabitants of the country (numbering 93,318 in 1901) Canada has met with conspicuous success.

.Beginning in the late 15th century, British and French expeditions explored, and later settled along, the Atlantic coast.^ British Columbia has about 25,000, most of whom are along the coast, though one of the important tribes, the Shuswaps, is in the interior.

^ In reality the Pacific coast of Canada, rather than the Atlantic coast, should be compared with western Europe, the south-west corner of British Columbia, in lat.

^ La Salle's expedition had aroused the French to the importance of the Mississippi, and they soon had a bold plan to occupy it, to close in from the rear on the English on the Atlantic coast, seize their colonies and even deport the colonists.

.France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763 after the Seven Years' War.^ The British North America Act assigns to the different provinces, as to the central parliament, their spheres of control, but all residuary powers are given to the general government.

^ If France could link them by a chain of settlements and shut in the English to their narrow strip of Atlantic seaboard there was good promise that North America would be hers.

^ In the next year he was on the Bay of Fundy and had a share in founding the first permanent French colony in North America - that of Port Royal, now Annapolis , Nova Scotia.

.In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces.^ Canada will also host the North American Leaders’ Summit.
  • Alltop - Top Canada News 10 February 2010 12:55 UTC canada.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ In 1905 these four districts were formed into the two provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan, and Keewatin was placed directly under the federal government .

^ (G. M. W.) When federation was accomplished in 1867 the Dominion of Canada comprised only the four provinces of Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia.

[8][9] This began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. .This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament.^ The British North America Act assigns to the different provinces, as to the central parliament, their spheres of control, but all residuary powers are given to the general government.

^ The act linked the land-owning class in Canada and the church by ties of self-interest to the British cause.

^ The conference outlined a plan of federation which subsequently, with slight modifications, passed the imperial parliament as " The British North America Act," and on the ist of July 1867, the Dominion of Canada came into existence.

.A federation consisting of ten provinces and three territories, Canada is governed as a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state.^ In 1905 these four districts were formed into the two provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan, and Keewatin was placed directly under the federal government .

^ (G. M. W.) When federation was accomplished in 1867 the Dominion of Canada comprised only the four provinces of Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia.

^ After peace was concluded in 1763, Canada was governed under the authority of a royal proclamation , but sooner or later a constitution specially adapted to the needs of the country was inevitable.

.It is a bilingual nation with both English and French as official languages at the federal level.^ French is the language of the province of Quebec, though English is much spoken in the cities; both languages are officially recognized in that province, and in the federal courts and parliament.

.One of the world's highly developed countries, Canada has a diversified economy that is reliant upon its abundant natural resources and upon trade—particularly with the United States, with which Canada has had a long and complex relationship.^ 'It's not just Canada's relationship with the United States that would change; it's Canada's relationship with the world,' he said.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Canadian Drug Policy Reform 10 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ If the governments of the United States and Canada continue to allow the legal industries in their countries to destroy families and to separate fathers from their children, there will only be increased resistance by the people and a breakdown in the Rule of Law in both countries.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But it remained an irritant in relations between Canada and the United States, especially as the Canadian police have made fewer and fewer arrests for marijuana possession in recent years."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Canadian Drug Policy Reform 10 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

It is a member of the G8, G-20, NATO, OECD, WTO, Commonwealth, Francophonie, OAS, APEC, and UN.

Contents

Etymology

The name Canada comes from a St. Lawrence Iroquoian word, kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement". In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier towards the village of Stadacona.[10] Cartier later used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village, but also the entire area subject to Donnacona (the chief at Stadacona); by 1545, European books and maps had begun referring to this region as Canada.[10]
.From the early 17th century onwards, that part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River and the northern shores of the Great Lakes was named Canada.^ An ascetic, who practised the whole cycle of medieval austerities, he was determined that Canada should be ruled by the church, and he desired for New France a Puritanism as strict as that of New England.

^ As the St Lawrence invited the earliest settlers to Canada and gave the easiest communication with the Old World, it is not surprising to find the wealthiest and most populous part of the country on its shores and near the Great Lakes which it leads up to; and this early development was greatly helped by the flat and fertile plain which follows it inland for over 600 m.

^ At the beginning of the 17th century we find the first great name in Canadian history.

.The area was later split into two British colonies, Upper Canada and Lower Canada.^ A prevailingly French type of government was now no longer adequate in Canada, and in 1791 was passed by the British parliament the Constitutional Act, separating Canada at the Ottawa river into two parts, each with its own government; Lower Canada, chiefly French, retaining the old system of laws, with representative institutions now added, and Upper Canada, on the purely British model.

^ (For the history of Lower and Upper Canada, now Quebec and Ontario, the separate articles must be consulted.

^ To carry out Lord Durham's policy the British government passed in 1840 an Act of Union joining Upper and Lower Canada, and sent out as governor Charles Poulett Thompson, who was made Baron Sydenham and Toronto.

.They were re-unified as the Province of Canada in 1841.[11] Upon Confederation in 1867, the name Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country, and Dominion (a term from Psalm 72:8)[12] was conferred as the country's title.^ CulturedCare is launching the first ever Probiotic gum in Canada, and to celebrate they’re giving away 1000 packages on Twitter starting today!
  • Alltop - Top Canada News 10 February 2010 12:55 UTC canada.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ (G. M. W.) When federation was accomplished in 1867 the Dominion of Canada comprised only the four provinces of Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia.

^ Under his direction the great lines of policy which have governed the development of Canada as a confederated state within the empire were inaugurated and carried forward with great success, so that his name has become indissolubly connected with the history of the Dominion at its most critical stage.

Combined, the term Dominion of Canada was in common usage until the 1950s.[13] As Canada asserted its political autonomy from the United Kingdom, the federal government increasingly used simply Canada on state documents and treaties, a change that was reflected in the renaming of the national holiday from Dominion Day to Canada Day in 1982.[13]

History

Aboriginal peoples

.Aboriginal Canadian traditions maintain that the indigenous people have resided on their lands since the beginning of time.^ The boy has been a full time resident at the center since August of 2006.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

.Archaeological studies support a human presence in the northern Yukon from 26,500 years ago, and in southern Ontario from 9,500 years ago.^ Nova Scotia, British Columbia and the Yukon are still the most productive, but the northern parts of Ontario are proving rich in the precious metals.

^ The Ontario Court of Appeal ruled two years ago that it was legal for terminally ill people to use marijuana for pain relief.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Canadian Drug Policy Reform 10 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Court Watch has received a number of complaints about judges and court workers obstructing justice at the Brampton, Ontario court going back as long as 15 years ago.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

[14][15] The aboriginal population is estimated to have been between 200,000 and two million in the late 1400s. .Repeated outbreaks of European infectious diseases such as influenza, measles and smallpox, to which they had no natural immunity, combined with other effects of European contact, resulted in a possible eighty-five to ninety-five percent aboriginal population decrease post-contact.^ If you have an inquiry about a posting to this site that is no longer available on this website then please contact us directly at: info@canadacourtwatch.com .
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Providing sterile pipes and other items could help prevent the spread of diseases such as hepatitis C, according to David McKeown, the Medical Officer of Health."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Canadian Drug Policy Reform 10 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Any reader with a video they would like considered for posting on the Court Watch website should contact us.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

[16][17] .During the late 1630s, smallpox killed over half of the Huron, who controlled most of the early fur trade in what became Canada.^ From 1608 to his death in 1635 Champlain worked unceasingly to develop Canada as a colony, to promote the fur trade and to explore the interior.

^ During the next sixty years the fisheries and the fur trade received some attention, but no colonization was undertaken.

^ Protection still remains the trade policy of Canada, though modified by a preference accorded to imports from Great Britain and from most of the British colonies.

Reduced to fewer than 10,000 people, the Huron were attacked by the Iroquois, their traditional enemies.[18]

European colonization

A group of men in military uniforms crowded around a dying red-coated man. Three men crouch beside him, and a native man looks on. The background is large groups of men with guns
Benjamin West's The Death of General Wolfe (1771) dramatizes Wolfe's death during the Battle of the Plains of Abraham at Quebec in 1759. The battle was part of the Seven Years' War.
.Europeans first arrived when the Vikings settled briefly at L'Anse aux Meadows around AD 1000; after the failure of that colony, there was no known further attempt at Canadian exploration until 1497, when John Cabot explored Canada's Atlantic coast for England.^ John Cabot , sailing from Bristol , reached the shores of Canada in 1497.

^ There are no permanent ice sheets known on the mainland of north-eastern Canada, but some of the larger islands to the north of Hudson Bay and Straits are partially covered with glaciers on their higher points.

^ There is no established church in Canada, but in the province of Quebec certain rights have been allowed to the Roman Catholic church ever since the British conquest.

.In 1534 Jacques Cartier explored Canada for France.^ In 1534 a French expedition under Jacques Cartier , a seaman of St Malo, sent out by Francis I ., entered the Gulf of St Lawrence.

[19]
.French explorer Samuel de Champlain arrived in 1603 and established the first permanent European settlements at Port Royal in 1605 and Quebec City in 1608.[20] Among French colonists of New France, Canadiens extensively settled the Saint Lawrence River valley and Acadians settled the present-day Maritimes, while French fur traders and Catholic missionaries explored the Great Lakes, Hudson Bay, and the Mississippi watershed to Louisiana.^ In 1608 he began the settlement which was named Quebec.

^ In return the company was to take to New France 300 colonists a year; only French Catholics might go; and for each settlement the company was to provide three priests.

^ Already, in 1613, the English from Virginia had almost completely wiped out the French settlement at Port Royal, and when in 1629 a small English fleet appeared at Quebec, Champlain was forced to surrender.

.The French and Iroquois Wars broke out over control of the fur trade.^ But before this issue matured war broke out between Great Britain and the United States in 1812 from causes due chiefly to Napoleon's continental policy.

[21]
.The English established fishing outposts in Newfoundland around 1610 and established the Thirteen Colonies to the south.^ South Australia , as colonial members of the judicial committee still further established the position of that body as the final court of appeal for the British people.

[22] .A series of four Intercolonial Wars erupted between 1689 and 1763.[23] Mainland Nova Scotia came under British rule with the Treaty of Utrecht (1713); the Treaty of Paris (1763) ceded Canada and most of New France to Britain after the Seven Years' War.^ By the peace of Paris , 1763, the whole of New France was finally ceded to Great Britain.

^ Though the English, led by Sir Hovenden Walker, made in 1711 an effort to take Quebec which proved abortive, they seized Nova Scotia; and when the treaty of Utrecht was made in 1713, France admitted defeat in America by yielding to Britain her claims to Hudson Bay, Newfoundland and Nova Scotia.

^ An ascetic, who practised the whole cycle of medieval austerities, he was determined that Canada should be ruled by the church, and he desired for New France a Puritanism as strict as that of New England.

[24]
.The Royal Proclamation (1763) carved the Province of Quebec out of New France and annexed Cape Breton Island to Nova Scotia.^ In 1864 came the opportunity for change, when New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island were considering a federal union.

^ The principal fisheries are those on the Atlantic coast, carried on by the inhabitants of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, and the eastern section of Quebec.

^ Metalliferous ores of various kinds occur both in Nova Scotia and in this province, but with the exception of the gold already mentioned, have not yet become the objects of important industries.

[13] In 1769, St. John's Island (now Prince Edward Island) became a separate colony.[25] .To avert conflict in Quebec, the British passed the Quebec Act of 1774, expanding Quebec's territory to the Great Lakes and Ohio Valley.^ In 1774 this was provided by the Quebec Act passed by the Imperial parliament.

^ Since the opening of the 10th century, great progress has been made in the settlement and agricultural development of the western territories between the provinces of Manitoba and British Columbia.

^ In 1753 Virginia warned the French on the Ohio that they were encroaching on British territory.

.It re-established the French language, Catholic faith, and French civil law in Quebec.^ This vast territory was to be governed despotically from Quebec; the Roman Catholic church was given its old privileges in Canada; and the French civil law was established permanently side by side with the English criminal law .

^ There is no established church in Canada, but in the province of Quebec certain rights have been allowed to the Roman Catholic church ever since the British conquest.

^ A population largely Roman Catholic in creed, and partly French in origin and language, feared that an influx of new settlers would overthrow cherished traditions.

This angered many residents of the Thirteen Colonies and helped to fuel the American Revolution.[13]
.The Treaty of Paris (1783) recognized American independence and ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States.^ The most famous of the lakes are those of the St Lawrence system, which form part of the southern boundary of Canada and are shared with the United States; but many others have the right to be called " Great Lakes " from their magnitude.

^ Though the chief foreign commerce is with Great Britain and the United States, the Dominion has trade relations with all the chief countries of the world and maintains commercial agents among them.

^ But, owing largely to the unfriendly attitude of Great Britain to the northern side during the war, the United States cancelled the treaty, when its first term of ten years ended in 1865, and it has never been renewed.

.Approximately 50,000 United Empire Loyalists fled the United States to Canada.^ Strengthening security and improving travel and trade across the Canada-United States border .
  • Alltop - Top Canada News 10 February 2010 12:55 UTC canada.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ CANADA. The Dominion of Canada comprises the northern half of the continent of North America and its adjacent islands, excepting Alaska , which belongs to the United States , and Newfoundland , still a separate colony of the British empire .

^ But it remained an irritant in relations between Canada and the United States, especially as the Canadian police have made fewer and fewer arrests for marijuana possession in recent years."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Canadian Drug Policy Reform 10 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

[26] .New Brunswick was split from Nova Scotia as part of a reorganization of Loyalist settlements in the Maritimes.^ In 1867 the Dominion was formed by the union of the provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec (Lower Canada) and Ontario (Upper Canada).

^ In 1864 came the opportunity for change, when New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island were considering a federal union.

^ Nova Scotia, British Columbia and the Yukon are still the most productive, but the northern parts of Ontario are proving rich in the precious metals.

.To accommodate English-speaking Loyalists in Quebec, the Constitutional Act of 1791 divided the province into French-speaking Lower Canada (later the province of Quebec) and English-speaking Upper Canada (later Ontario), granting each its own elected Legislative Assembly.^ The population is composed mainly of Englishor French-speaking people, but there are German settlements of some extent in Ontario, and of late years there has been a large immigration into the western provinces and territories from other parts of Europe, including Russians, Galicians, Polish and Russian Jews , and Scandinavians.

^ A prevailingly French type of government was now no longer adequate in Canada, and in 1791 was passed by the British parliament the Constitutional Act, separating Canada at the Ottawa river into two parts, each with its own government; Lower Canada, chiefly French, retaining the old system of laws, with representative institutions now added, and Upper Canada, on the purely British model.

^ In Nova Scotia and Quebec the bicameral system of an upper and lower house is retained; in the other provinces legislation is left to a single representative assembly.

[27]
.Canada (Upper and Lower) was the main front in the War of 1812 between the United States and the British Empire.^ (For the history of Lower and Upper Canada, now Quebec and Ontario, the separate articles must be consulted.

^ But it remained an irritant in relations between Canada and the United States, especially as the Canadian police have made fewer and fewer arrests for marijuana possession in recent years."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Canadian Drug Policy Reform 10 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ It followed that the citizens of the United States lost the right which they had received under the treaty to share in the fisheries of Canada.

.Following the war, large-scale immigration to Canada from Britain and Ireland began in 1815.[28] From 1825 to 1846, 626,628 European immigrants landed at Canadian ports.^ Following a large increase in November, Canadian employment was unchanged in December .
  • Alltop - Top Canada News 10 February 2010 12:55 UTC canada.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ The Canadian Pacific railway controls large land areas in the two new provinces; and large tracts in these provinces are owned by land companies.

^ While immigrants flood to Canada, natural born Canadians flee Canada to escape the horror of taxpayer funded agencies which are tearing Canadian families apart.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

[29] .Between one-quarter and one-third of all Europeans who immigrated to Canada before 1891 died of infectious diseases.^ In the third quarter of Saturday’s game between the Sacramento Kings and Denver Nuggets, Kings star rookie Tyreke Evans shoots a three-pointers.
  • Alltop - Top Canada News 10 February 2010 12:55 UTC canada.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Lord Sydenham died in 1841 before his work was completed, and he left Canada still in a troubled condition.

^ First of all it is perfectly legal in Canada to record one's own communication with another person.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

[17] The timber industry surpassed the fur trade in economic importance in the early nineteenth century.
A group of formal older men in suits sit around a table, upon which there are several pieces of paper
Robert Harris's Fathers of Confederation[30] is an amalgamation of scenes from the Charlottetown and Quebec conferences.
The desire for responsible government resulted in the aborted Rebellions of 1837. .The Durham Report subsequently recommended responsible government and the assimilation of French Canadians into British culture.^ The Canadian federal government will not proceed with the prosecution of two men arrested in connection with the Toronto Compassion Centre , the Toronto Globe & Mail reported on Jan.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Canadian Drug Policy Reform 10 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Happening, as these revolts did, just at the time of Queen Victoria's accession, they attracted wide attention, and in 1838 the earl of Durham was sent to govern Canada and report on the affairs of British North America.

^ He recommended the union of the two Canadian provinces at once, the ultimate union of all British North America and the granting to this large state of full self-government.

[13] .The Act of Union 1840 merged The Canadas into a united Province of Canada.^ To carry out Lord Durham's policy the British government passed in 1840 an Act of Union joining Upper and Lower Canada, and sent out as governor Charles Poulett Thompson, who was made Baron Sydenham and Toronto.

^ The provinces in Canada were conceded less power than have the states in the American union; the federal government retaining the residuum of power not conceded.

^ Since that time any prospect of Canada's union to the United States has been very remote.

Responsible government was established for all British North American provinces by 1849.[31]
.The signing of the Oregon Treaty by Britain and the United States in 1846 ended the Oregon boundary dispute, extending the border westward along the 49th parallel.^ United States boundary.

^ Many of the students, especially in the departments of medicine and theology , complete their education in the United States, Britain or Europe.

^ Though the chief foreign commerce is with Great Britain and the United States, the Dominion has trade relations with all the chief countries of the world and maintains commercial agents among them.

.This paved the way for British colonies on Vancouver Island (1849) and in British Columbia (1858).^ In 1871 British Columbia and in 1873 Prince Edward Island joined the Dominion.

^ In Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Manitoba and British Columbia the public schools are strictly undenominational.

^ More information on the state of medical marijuana in Canada is also available from The Compassion Club of Vancouver, British Columbia , Canada's largest medical marijuana buyers' club.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Canadian Drug Policy Reform 10 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

[32] .Canada launched a series of western exploratory expeditions to claim Rupert's Land and the Arctic region.^ The wildfowl are, particularly in the west, in great numbers; their breeding-grounds extending from Manitoba and the western prairies up to Hudson Bay, the barren lands and Arctic coasts.

^ Under this act the western territory which France had claimed, extending as far as the Mississippi and south to the Ohio, was included with Canada in what was called the Province of Quebec.

Confederation and expansion

When Canada was formed in 1867 its provinces were a relatively narrow strip in the southeast, with vast territories in the interior. <a name=.It grew by adding British Columbia in 1871, P.E.I. in 1873, the British Arctic Islands in 1880, and Newfoundland in 1949, Its provinces grew both in size and number at the expense of its territories."^ In 1871 British Columbia and in 1873 Prince Edward Island joined the Dominion.

^ One cannot even describe the climate of a single province, like Ontario or British Columbia, as a unit, as it varies so greatly in different parts.

^ In Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Manitoba and British Columbia the public schools are strictly undenominational.

src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/01/2/5/1/80319652183757147.gif" width="260" height="225" class="thumbimage" />
.Following several constitutional conferences, the Constitution Act, 1867 brought about Confederation, creating "one Dominion under the name of Canada" on July 1, 1867, with four provinces: Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick.^ In 1867 the Dominion was formed by the union of the provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec (Lower Canada) and Ontario (Upper Canada).

^ (G. M. W.) When federation was accomplished in 1867 the Dominion of Canada comprised only the four provinces of Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia.

^ Manitoba was the first to be constituted; in 1871 British Columbia, New which had hitherto held aloof, determined, under the persuasion of a sympathetic governor, Mr (later Sir) Antony Musgrave, to throw in its lot with the Dominion.

[8][33] .Canada assumed control of Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory to form the Northwest Territories, where the Métis' grievances ignited the Red River Rebellion and the creation of the province of Manitoba in July 1870.[34] British Columbia and Vancouver Island (which had united in 1866) and the colony of Prince Edward Island joined the Confederation in 1871 and 1873, respectively.^ In 1871 British Columbia and in 1873 Prince Edward Island joined the Dominion.

^ Manitoba was the first to be constituted; in 1871 British Columbia, New which had hitherto held aloof, determined, under the persuasion of a sympathetic governor, Mr (later Sir) Antony Musgrave, to throw in its lot with the Dominion.

^ The larger animals of Canada are the musk ox and the caribou of the barren lands, both having their habitat in the far north; the caribou of the woods, found in all the provinces except in Price Edward Island; the moose, with an equally wide range in the wooded country; the Virginia deer, in one or other of its varietal forms, common to all the southern parts; the black-tailed deer or mule deer and allied forms, on the western edge of the plains and in British Columbia; the pronghorn antelope on the plains, and a small remnant of the once plentiful bison found in northern Alberta and Mackenzie, now called " wood buffalo ."

[35] .Prime Minister John A. Macdonald's Conservative government established a national policy of tariffs to protect nascent Canadian manufacturing industries.^ In these circumstances Sir J. Macdonald brought forward a proposal to adopt what was called a " national policy," or, in other words, a system of protection for Canadian industries.

^ The general election of 1882 turned chiefly upon endorsement of the national policy of protection; in that of 1887 the electoral test was again applied to the same issue, while Sir John Macdonald also asked for approval of the government's action in exacting from Riel the full penalty of his guilt.

^ The prime minister of the Dominion, Sir John Macdonald, was asked to act as one of the imperial commissioners in carrying on these negotiations.

[36]
.To open the West, the government sponsored construction of three trans-continental railways (most notably the Canadian Pacific Railway), opened the prairies to settlement with the Dominion Lands Act, and established the North-West Mounted Police to assert its authority over this territory.^ Thoroughbred and pure bred hackney stallions are maintained in private studs and by agricultural associations throughout the Dominion, and animals for cavalry and mounted infantry remounts are produced in all the provinces including those of the North-West.

^ In anticipation of the formal transfer to the Dominion an act was passed by the Canadian parliament in the same month providing for the temporary government of Rupert's Land and the North-West Territories.

^ With the completion of the Grand Trunk Pacific (planned for 191 1) and the Canadian Northern, the country would possess three trans-continental railways, and be free from the reproach, so long hurled at it, of possessing length without breadth.

[37][38] .In 1898, after the Klondike Gold Rush in the Northwest Territories, the Canadian government created the Yukon territory.^ In 1898, owing to the influx of miners, the Yukon territory was constituted and granted a limited measure of self-government.

^ In anticipation of the formal transfer to the Dominion an act was passed by the Canadian parliament in the same month providing for the temporary government of Rupert's Land and the North-West Territories.

Under Liberal Prime Minister Wilfrid Laurier, continental European immigrants settled the prairies, and Alberta and Saskatchewan became provinces in 1905.[35]

Early 20th century

Britain's declaration of war in 1914 automatically entered Canada into World War I.[39] Volunteers sent to the Western Front later became part of the Canadian Corps.[39] .The Corps played a substantial role in the Battle of Vimy Ridge and other major battles of the war.^ The article states that "Canada has grown to be the most important producer of MDMA for North America" and also plays a major role in supplying the drug to Japan and Australia.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Canadian Drug Policy Reform 10 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

[39] .Out of approximately 625,000 who served, about 60,000 were killed and another 173,000 were wounded.^ Canadian father speaks about court transcripts altered by court officials (May 7, 2009) H ear testimony from yet another Canadian father who claims that his court transcripts were significantly altered by court officials.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ With only about 60,000 French in Canada at the time of the conquest it might have seemed as if this population would soon be absorbed by the incoming British.

^ Many good judges know what is going on but do nothing to speak out about their fellow judges who break the law and violate the rights and freedoms of the citizens of Canada.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

[40] The Conscription Crisis of 1917 erupted when conservative Prime Minister Robert Borden brought in compulsory military service over the objection of French-speaking Quebecers.[39] In 1919, Canada joined the League of Nations independently of Britain[39] and in 1931, the Statute of Westminster affirmed Canada's independence.[41]
A group of soldiers with guns march on uneven ground past a wrecked tank and the body of another soldier
Canadian soldiers won the Battle of Vimy Ridge in 1917.
The Great Depression brought economic hardship to all of Canada. .In response, the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) in Alberta and Saskatchewan enacted many measures of a welfare state as pioneered by Tommy Douglas in the 1940s and 1950s.^ In 1905 these four districts were formed into the two provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan, and Keewatin was placed directly under the federal government .

^ Alberta and Saskatchewan, particularly the ranching districts, are chiefly peopled by English immigrants, though since 1900 there has also been a large influx from the United States.

[42] .Canada declared war on Germany independently during World War II under Liberal Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King, three days after Britain.^ The peace of Ryswick proved but a truce, and when in 1701, on the death of the exiled James II., Louis XIV. flouted the claims of William III. to the throne of England by proclaiming as king James's son, renewed war was inevitable.

^ There should be no doubt that the actions of Justice Perkins in this case are a threat to freedom and democracy in Canada as it is tantamount to the state taking children away from their parents by force such as was done in Nazi Germany during the Second World War.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But it was symbolically important coming on the first day that the new Parliament convened and only days after Mr. Harper's first meeting as prime minister with President Bush, at a summit meeting in Mexico.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Canadian Drug Policy Reform 10 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

The first Canadian Army units arrived in Britain in December 1939.[39]
.Canadian troops played important roles in the Battle of the Atlantic, the failed 1942 Dieppe Raid in France, the Allied invasion of Italy, the D-Day landings, the Battle of Normandy, and the Battle of the Scheldt in 1944.[39] Canada provided asylum and protection for the monarchy of the Netherlands while that country was occupied, and is credited by the Netherlands for leadership and major contribution to the liberation of the Netherlands from Nazi Germany.^ Just as fathers in Canada fought in the great wars to protect our freedom, we need fathers more such fathers to join in the fight on our own soil to defeat the forces of evil which are at work to destroy the important role that fathers play in Canadian society today.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It's time for our judges and all those in the court system to just do their jobs honestly and with integrity and to realize that each and every one of them play an important role in protecting democracy and freedom in Canada for the future of all of our children.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In spite of these restrictions of its natural coast line on both the Atlantic and the Pacific, Canada is admirably provided with harbours on both oceans.

[43] .The Canadian economy boomed as industry manufactured military materiel for Canada, Britain, China, and the Soviet Union.^ The investment is part of federal efforts to support innovation in Canada’s forest industry and expand overseas markets for Canadian forest products.
  • Alltop - Top Canada News 10 February 2010 12:55 UTC canada.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ The factories of the United States, unduly developed by an extreme system of protection, sought in Canada a slaughter market for their surplus products, to the detriment or destruction of Canadian industries.

.Despite another Conscription Crisis in Quebec, Canada finished the war with one of the largest armed forces in the world.^ This affords the largest stretch of arable land in eastern Canada, including the southern parts of Ontario and Quebec with an area of some 38,000 sq.

^ Canada is clearly destined to rank as one of the most important grain-producing countries of the world.

[44] .In 1945, during the war, Canada became one of the founding members of the United Nations.^ The United Nations drug control agency warned in March that Canada is flouting international drug control treaties by enabling illicit drug use at the safe injection site in Vancouver."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Canadian Drug Policy Reform 10 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ The war seemed to furnish a renewed opportunity to annex Canada to the American Union, and Canada became the chief theatre of conflict.

^ We are not supposed to forget the sacrifice that many fathers made during the great wars to protect freedom, democracy and justice in Canada.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

[39]

Modern times

.The Dominion of Newfoundland (now Newfoundland and Labrador), at the time equivalent in status to Canada and Australia as a Dominion, joined Canada in 1949. Canada's growth, combined with the policies of successive Liberal governments, led to the emergence of a new Canadian identity, marked by the adoption of the current Maple Leaf Flag in 1965,[45] the implementation of official bilingualism (English and French) in 1969,[46] and official multiculturalism in 1971.[47] There was also the founding of socially democratic programmes, such as universal health care, the Canada Pension Plan, and Canada Student Loans, though provincial governments, particularly Quebec and Alberta, opposed many of these as incursions into their jurisdictions.^ As the Canadian health ministry, Health Canada, wrote in its news release of Feb.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Canadian Drug Policy Reform 10 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Though the English, led by Sir Hovenden Walker, made in 1711 an effort to take Quebec which proved abortive, they seized Nova Scotia; and when the treaty of Utrecht was made in 1713, France admitted defeat in America by yielding to Britain her claims to Hudson Bay, Newfoundland and Nova Scotia.

^ 'Heroin addiction afflicts an estimated 60 to 90,000 Canadians and the costs associated with it--in terms of human misery, public health, social problems and crime--are staggering,' said Dr. Alan Bernstein, President of CIHR. 'Canada, and many other countries, therefore, need studies such as NAOMI to investigate new approaches to reducing the harm caused by heroin addiction.'"
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Canadian Drug Policy Reform 10 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

[48] .Finally, another series of constitutional conferences resulted in the patriation of Canada's constitution from the United Kingdom, concurrent with the creation of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms.^ The protection and security of the person as guaranteed under the Charter of Rights and Freedoms comes first.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Supreme Court of Canada, that the right of the public to open courts is an important constitutional rule, that the right of an individual to privacy is a fundamental value, and that the right to open courts generally outweighs the right to privacy."
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This article published in the times in the UK seems to reflect the same problems which the lawyers, the judges and the child protection workers have created right here in Canada.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

[49]
.At the same time, Quebec was undergoing profound social and economic changes through the Quiet Revolution, giving birth to a nationalist movement in the province and the more radical Front de libération du Québec (FLQ), whose actions ignited the October Crisis in 1970.[50] A decade later, an unsuccessful referendum on sovereignty-association was held in 1980,[50] after which attempts at constitutional amendment failed in 1990. A second referendum followed in 1995, in which sovereignty was rejected by a slimmer margin of just 50.6% to 49.4%.^ Prime Minister Stephen Harper today announced that the second and final phase of Canada’s Economic Action plan will be launched following the Olympic Games with a new Throne Speech on March 3 and a federal Budget on March 4.
  • Alltop - Top Canada News 10 February 2010 12:55 UTC canada.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ The justice system is failing to protect Canadian citizens from abuse while at the same time protecting those who commit the abuse.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The basis adopted in the British North America Act is that Quebec shall always have 65 representatives, and each of the other provinces such a number as will give the same proportion of members to its population as the number 65 bears to the population of Quebec at each census.

[51] .In 1997, the Supreme Court ruled that unilateral secession by a province would be unconstitutional, and the Clarity Act was passed by parliament, outlining the terms of a negotiated departure from Confederation.^ "Supreme Court Upholds Marijuana Law" ), "The highest court has rejected the appeal of three B.C. men who argued it is unconstitutional to use the law to punish a harmless activity.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Canadian Drug Policy Reform 10 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ The last two objects are secured by act of the Dominion parliament passed in 1905.

^ Experts debated whether such a move would be constitutional, especially since Parliament last year passed a bill setting fixed election dates.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Canadian Drug Policy Reform 10 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

[51]

Government and politics

Canada has a parliamentary government with strong democratic traditions. .Parliament is composed of The Crown, an elected House of Commons, and an appointed Senate.^ The upper house, or Senate, is composed of members who hold office for life and are nominated by the governor-general in council.

^ The Citizen noted that "Earlier, government House Leader Peter Van Loan warned there would be a "clear impasse" between the two chambers of Parliament if the Commons approved the motion, but the Senate doesn't pass the bill.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Canadian Drug Policy Reform 10 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ The House of Commons consists of representatives elected directly by the people.

.Each Member of Parliament in the House of Commons is elected by simple plurality in an electoral district or riding.^ Members of the Senate and of the House of Commons receive an annual indemnity of $250o, with a travelling allowance .

^ Each province has a lieutenant-governor and a single legislative chamber, with a representation of four members in the Senate and five in the House of Commons of the Dominion parliament.

^ It was not till 1873 that an act was passed making members of the local legislatures ineligible for seats in the House of Commons.

.General elections must be called by the prime minister within five years of the previous election, or may be triggered by the government losing a confidence vote in the House.^ If that happens, the prime minister could ask the Governor General to dissolve Parliament, thus triggering an election, on the grounds the Senate is preventing the government from carrying out its agenda.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Canadian Drug Policy Reform 10 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ The Canadian Prime Minister, Jean Chretien, expressed his support for decriminalization of marijuana in late April 2003, at the same time specifying that he is not calling for its legalization.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Canadian Drug Policy Reform 10 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ The government has declared it a confidence motion, meaning an election could be triggered if the measure is defeated."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Canadian Drug Policy Reform 10 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

[52]
.Members of the Senate, whose seats are apportioned on a regional basis, are chosen by the prime minister and formally appointed by the Governor General and serve until age 75.[53] Four parties had representatives elected to the federal parliament in the 2008 elections: the Conservative Party of Canada (governing party), the Liberal Party of Canada (the Official Opposition), the New Democratic Party (NDP), and the Bloc Québécois.^ If that happens, the prime minister could ask the Governor General to dissolve Parliament, thus triggering an election, on the grounds the Senate is preventing the government from carrying out its agenda.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Canadian Drug Policy Reform 10 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Prime Minister Stephen Harper, Liberal Party Members of Parliament (MPs) joined Monday with Harper's Conservatives" to approve the measure after an unsuccessful filibuster attempt by opposing NDP and Bloc MPs.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Canadian Drug Policy Reform 10 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ The new system was laid before parliament in 1879 by the finance minister, Sir Leonard Tilley ; and the tariff then agreed upon, although it received considerable modification from time to time, remained, under both Conservative and Liberal administrations, the basis of Canadian finance, and, as Canadians generally believed, the bulwark of their industry.

The list of historical parties with elected representation is substantial.
.Canada's federal structure divides government responsibilities between the federal government and the ten provinces.^ In 1905 these four districts were formed into the two provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan, and Keewatin was placed directly under the federal government .

^ (G. M. W.) When federation was accomplished in 1867 the Dominion of Canada comprised only the four provinces of Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia.

^ The provinces in Canada were conceded less power than have the states in the American union; the federal government retaining the residuum of power not conceded.

.Provincial legislatures are unicameral and operate in parliamentary fashion similar to the House of Commons.^ It was not till 1873 that an act was passed making members of the local legislatures ineligible for seats in the House of Commons.

[54] .Canada's three territories also have legislatures, but with fewer constitutional responsibilities than the provinces and with some structural differences (for example, the legislative assemblies of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut have no parties and operate on consensus).^ The balance of power between parties in parliament was held by the province of Quebec, and there racial and religious feeling evoked no slight sympathy for Riel.

^ Indeed, no department of national life has caused more continual trouble between the two peoples than the fisheries, owing to different laws regarding fish protection, and the constant invasion by each of the territorial waters of the other.

^ The provinces in Canada were conceded less power than have the states in the American union; the federal government retaining the residuum of power not conceded.

[55][56][57]
Canada is also a constitutional monarchy, with The Crown acting as a symbolic or ceremonial executive. .The Crown consists of Queen Elizabeth II (legal head of state) and her appointed viceroys, the governor general (acting head of state), and provincial lieutenant-governors, who perform most of the monarch's ceremonial roles.^ The upper house, or Senate, is composed of members who hold office for life and are nominated by the governor-general in council.

^ The article states that "Canada has grown to be the most important producer of MDMA for North America" and also plays a major role in supplying the drug to Japan and Australia.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Canadian Drug Policy Reform 10 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Lord Monck was appointed the first governor-general, and at his request the Hon.

[58] .The political executive consists of the prime minister (head of government) and the Cabinet and carries out the day-to-day decisions of government.^ The prime minister of the Dominion, Sir John Macdonald, was asked to act as one of the imperial commissioners in carrying on these negotiations.

^ But it was symbolically important coming on the first day that the new Parliament convened and only days after Mr. Harper's first meeting as prime minister with President Bush, at a summit meeting in Mexico.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Canadian Drug Policy Reform 10 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Sir Wilfrid Laurier became prime minister, and strengthened the cabinet which he formed by drawing into.

.The Cabinet is made up of ministers usually selected from the House of Commons and headed by the prime minister, who is normally the leader of the party that holds the confidence of the House of Commons.^ Up here in Canada, judges who threaten citizens and violate the rights of citizens under the law are allowed to continue on with their dirty business as usual.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The highly organized school system of Ontario is directed by a minister of education, who is a member of the provincial cabinet.

^ Canadian Prime Minister Paul Martin renewed his party's commitment to marijuana decriminalization in summer 2004.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Canadian Drug Policy Reform 10 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

[59]
.The Prime Minister's Office (PMO) is one of the most powerful institutions in government, initiating most legislation for parliamentary approval and selecting, besides other Cabinet members, senators, federal court judges, heads of Crown corporations and government agencies, and the governor general.^ Also unknown to most educators is that CAS agencies are private corporations, not government agencies.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Each province has a lieutenant-governor and a single legislative chamber, with a representation of four members in the Senate and five in the House of Commons of the Dominion parliament.

^ In many cases, agencies such as police, support these government funded institutions in their acts to destroy families which in turn erodes the public's trust in police.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Crown formally approves parliamentary legislation and the prime minister's appointments.^ Legislation to decriminalize marijuana in Canada has been reintroduced by the nation's new prime minister.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Canadian Drug Policy Reform 10 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

[60] .The leader of the party with the second-most seats usually becomes the Leader of the Opposition, and is part of an adversarial parliamentary system intended to keep the government in check.^ An opposite plan was therefore adopted to that employed in the system of the United States, where the federal government.

Michaëlle Jean has served as Governor General since September 27, 2005;[61] Stephen Harper, leader of the Conservative Party, has been prime minister since February 6, 2006;[62] and Michael Ignatieff, leader of the Liberal Party, has been Leader of the Opposition since December 10, 2008.[63]

Law

A grey Art Deco-style building
The Supreme Court of Canada in Ottawa, west of Parliament Hill
.The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law of the country, and consists of written text and unwritten conventions.^ After peace was concluded in 1763, Canada was governed under the authority of a royal proclamation , but sooner or later a constitution specially adapted to the needs of the country was inevitable.

^ The British Columbia Supreme Court has effectively thrown out a key provision of Canada's drug law.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Canadian Drug Policy Reform 10 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Supreme Court of Canada, that the right of the public to open courts is an important constitutional rule, that the right of an individual to privacy is a fundamental value, and that the right to open courts generally outweighs the right to privacy."
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

[64] .The Constitution Act, 1867 (known as the British North America Act prior to 1982) affirmed governance based on parliamentary precedent "similar in principle to that of the United Kingdom" and divided powers between the federal and provincial governments; the Statute of Westminster, 1931 granted full autonomy; and the Constitution Act, 1982 added the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, which guarantees basic rights and freedoms that usually cannot be overridden by any level of government—though a notwithstanding clause allows the federal parliament and provincial legislatures to override certain sections of the Charter for a period of five years—and added a constitutional amending formula.^ The British North America Act assigns to the different provinces, as to the central parliament, their spheres of control, but all residuary powers are given to the general government.

^ It would seem that some officials may be too intimidated by forces higher up to respect those sections of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms which are supposed to guarantee Canadians the right to peaceful assembly and association.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The British North America Act imposes on the provincial legislatures the duty of legislating on educational matters, the privileges of the denominational and separate schools in Ontario and Quebec being specially safeguarded.

[64]
.Canada's judiciary plays an important role in interpreting laws and has the power to strike down laws that violate the Constitution.^ It's time for our judges and all those in the court system to just do their jobs honestly and with integrity and to realize that each and every one of them play an important role in protecting democracy and freedom in Canada for the future of all of our children.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Judge Pitfield said the current law governing illicit substances puts "unfettered discretion in the hands of the Minister" and violates the Constitution."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Canadian Drug Policy Reform 10 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Many good judges know what is going on but do nothing to speak out about their fellow judges who break the law and violate the rights and freedoms of the citizens of Canada.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Supreme Court of Canada is the highest court and final arbiter and has been led by the Right Honourable Madam Chief Justice Beverley McLachlin, P.C. (the first female Chief Justice) since 2000.[65] Its nine members are appointed by the governor general on the advice of the Prime Minister and Minister of Justice.^ Lord Monck was appointed the first governor-general, and at his request the Hon.

^ Justice Zuker is the judge who was caught altering court transcripts in violation of the Criminal Code of Canada as it relates to the obstruction of justice and breach of the public trust.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It also appears that Madame Justice Waldman is of the opinion that if one party makes allegations of abuse that this should have a bearing whether to allow audio recording in the court.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

All judges at the superior and appellate levels are appointed after consultation with nongovernmental legal bodies. .The federal cabinet also appoints justices to superior courts at the provincial and territorial levels.^ Judges like Justice Lydia Olah order the Ontario Provincial Police to illegally padlock her court to keep people out.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (July 16, 2009) Lawsuits for one hundred million dollars have been recently filed in the Federal Court by Mr. Jack Hepworth (aka Justice Jack}.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One such case of a Canadian Judge acting outside of the law recently was the case involving Madame Justice Lydia Olah of the Ontario Superior Court of Justice in Barrie, Ontario.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

.Judicial posts at the lower provincial and territorial levels are filled by their respective governments.^ The grave questions of respective jurisdiction which have from time to time arisen between the federal and provincial governments have for the most part been settled by appeal to one or both of these judicial bodies.

^ The federal and provincial/territorial governments have made important acknowledgements and commitments.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Canadian Drug Policy Reform 10 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

[66]
Common law prevails everywhere except in Quebec, where civil law predominates.[67] Criminal law is solely a federal responsibility and is uniform throughout Canada.[67] .Law enforcement, including criminal courts, is a provincial responsibility, but in rural areas of all provinces except Ontario and Quebec, policing is contracted to the federal Royal Canadian Mounted Police.^ Thoroughbred and pure bred hackney stallions are maintained in private studs and by agricultural associations throughout the Dominion, and animals for cavalry and mounted infantry remounts are produced in all the provinces including those of the North-West.

^ These percentages have gradually risen ever since federation, especially in the province of Quebec, which was long in a backward state.

^ Many Canadians would agree with Ms. Kopyto and would support a law making it illegal for anyone, including a judge, to interfere with the process of preparing official court transcripts.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

[68]

Foreign relations and military

An airborne fighter jet
A Canadian CF-18 Hornet in Bagotville, Quebec. CF-18s have supported NORAD air sovereignty patrols and participated in combat during the Gulf War of 1991 and Kosovo and Bosnia in the late 1990s.
.Canada and the United States share the world's longest undefended border, co-operate on military campaigns and exercises, and are each other's largest trading partner.^ But it remained an irritant in relations between Canada and the United States, especially as the Canadian police have made fewer and fewer arrests for marijuana possession in recent years."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Canadian Drug Policy Reform 10 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ Though the chief foreign commerce is with Great Britain and the United States, the Dominion has trade relations with all the chief countries of the world and maintains commercial agents among them.

^ It followed that the citizens of the United States lost the right which they had received under the treaty to share in the fisheries of Canada.

[69] .Canada nevertheless has an independent foreign policy, most notably maintaining full relations with Cuba and declining to participate in the Iraq War.^ Though the chief foreign commerce is with Great Britain and the United States, the Dominion has trade relations with all the chief countries of the world and maintains commercial agents among them.

^ Protection still remains the trade policy of Canada, though modified by a preference accorded to imports from Great Britain and from most of the British colonies.

.Canada also maintains historic ties to the United Kingdom and France and to other former British and French colonies through Canada's membership in the Commonwealth of Nations and the Francophonie.^ The United Nations drug control agency warned in March that Canada is flouting international drug control treaties by enabling illicit drug use at the safe injection site in Vancouver."
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Canadian Drug Policy Reform 10 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ CANADA. The Dominion of Canada comprises the northern half of the continent of North America and its adjacent islands, excepting Alaska , which belongs to the United States , and Newfoundland , still a separate colony of the British empire .

^ With only about 60,000 French in Canada at the time of the conquest it might have seemed as if this population would soon be absorbed by the incoming British.

[70] .Canada is noted for having a strong and positive relationship with the Netherlands (which Canada helped liberate during World War II), and the Dutch government traditionally gives tulips, a symbol of the Netherlands, to Canada each year in remembrance of Canada's contribution to its liberation.^ So great is their extent that, in spite of the immigration of recent years, the Dominion government gives a freehold of 160 acres to every bona fide settler, subject to certain conditions of residence and the erection of buildings during the first three years.

^ His testimony will soon be spread throughout the world how the legal profession together with the courts in Canada are helping to destroy their own citizens.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Greengate Power Corporate ("Greengate") announced today that it has signed a Contribution Agreement with the Government of Canada for funding of its Halkirk I Wind Project under the ecoENERGY for Renewable Power program.
  • Alltop - Top Canada News 10 February 2010 12:55 UTC canada.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[43]
.Canada currently employs a professional, volunteer military force of about 67,000 regular and 26,000 reserve personnel.^ An armed force, composed partly of British regulars and partly of Canadian volunteers , was made ready and placed under the command of Colonel Garnet Wolseley , afterwards Lord Wolseley.

^ With only about 60,000 French in Canada at the time of the conquest it might have seemed as if this population would soon be absorbed by the incoming British.

^ Members of the public and professionals from anywhere in Canada who have concerns about the current CAS risk assessment process and who are interested in being part of this initiative should contact Court Watch at info@canadacourtwatch.com .
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

[71] The unified Canadian Forces (CF) comprise the army, navy, and air force. Major CF equipment holdings include 1,400 armoured fighting vehicles, 33 combat vessels, and 861 aircraft.[72]
.Strong attachment to the British Empire and Commonwealth in English Canada led to major participation in British military efforts in the Second Boer War, the First World War, and the Second World War.^ The right of appeal from the supreme court, thus constituted, to the judicial committee of the privy council marks, in questions judicial, Canada's place as a part of the British empire.

^ Canada led the charge towards the finals on Saturday at the 2010 LG Snowboard FIS World Cup.
  • Alltop - Top Canada News 10 February 2010 12:55 UTC canada.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.Since then, Canada has been an advocate for multilateralism, making efforts to resolve global issues in collaboration with other nations.^ 'Canada's decision about how it handles this or other issues of regulated substance is its decision.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Canadian Drug Policy Reform 10 February 2010 12:51 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: News]

^ The actions of some judges are making a mockery of Justice in Canada and making Canada the laughing stock of other nations.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

[73][74] .Canada was a founding member of the United Nations in 1945 and of NATO in 1949. During the Cold War, Canada was a major contributor to UN forces in the Korean War and founded the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) in cooperation with the United States to defend against potential aerial attacks from the Soviet Union.^ These foreign elements have been assimilated more slowly than in the United States, but the process is being hastened by the growth of a national consciousness.

^ Canada will also host the North American Leaders’ Summit.
  • Alltop - Top Canada News 10 February 2010 12:55 UTC canada.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ But, owing largely to the unfriendly attitude of Great Britain to the northern side during the war, the United States cancelled the treaty, when its first term of ten years ended in 1865, and it has never been renewed.

[75]
A harbour with two large grey warships side-by-side parallel to land, and two small black destroyers facing out to sea
Two warships of the Canadian Navy—the Halifax-class frigate HMCS Vancouver (FFH 331) (centre) and the Iroquois-class destroyer HMCS Algonquin (DDG 283)—at Pearl Harbor upon departing to participate in RIMPAC, the world's largest international maritime exercise
During the Suez Crisis of 1956, future Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson eased tensions by proposing the inception of the United Nations Peacekeeping Force, for which he was awarded the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize.[76] As this was the first UN peacekeeping mission, Pearson is often credited as the inventor of the concept. .Canada has since served in 50 peacekeeping missions, including every UN peacekeeping effort until 1989,[77] and has since maintained forces in international missions in Rwanda, the former Yugoslavia, and elsewhere.^ The fortified harbours of Halifax (N.S.) and Esquimalt (B.C.) were till 1905 maintained and garrisoned by the imperial government, but have since been taken over by Canada.

The number of Canadian military personnel participating in peacekeeping missions has decreased greatly in the past two decades. As of June 30, 2006, 133 Canadians served on United Nations peacekeeping missions worldwide, including 55 Canadian military personnel, compared with 1044 military personnel as of December 31, 1996.[78][79]
.Canada joined the Organization of American States (OAS) in 1990 and hosted the OAS General Assembly in Windsor, Ontario, in June 2000 and the third Summit of the Americas in Quebec City in April 2001.[80] Canada seeks to expand its ties to Pacific Rim economies through membership in the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum (APEC).^ Canada will also host the North American Leaders’ Summit.
  • Alltop - Top Canada News 10 February 2010 12:55 UTC canada.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Visit Ontario's Attorney General's personal discussion forum at http://canadianpoliticians.ca/forum/viewforum.php?f=131 to view this victim's letter.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From the city of Quebec westwards there is a constantly increasing ratio of southern forms, and when the mountain (so called) at Montreal is reached the representative Ontario flora begins.

[81]
Two tanks and five soldiers on uneven ground. The soldiers are crouching between the two tanks
Two Canadian LAV III at CFB Gagetown
.Since 2001, Canada has had troops deployed in Afghanistan as part of the U.S. stabilization force and the UN-authorized, NATO-commanded International Security Assistance Force.^ Three contingents of troops were despatched to the seat of war and took an active part in the events which finally secured the triumph of the British arms.

Canada has committed to withdraw from Kandahar Province by 2011,[82] by which time it will have spent an estimated total of $11.3 billion on the mission.[83]
.Canada and the U.S. continue to integrate state and provincial agencies to strengthen security along the Canada-United States border through the Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative.^ Strengthening security and improving travel and trade across the Canada-United States border .
  • Alltop - Top Canada News 10 February 2010 12:55 UTC canada.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ If the governments of the United States and Canada continue to allow the legal industries in their countries to destroy families and to separate fathers from their children, there will only be increased resistance by the people and a breakdown in the Rule of Law in both countries.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At numerous points along the frontier, connexion is made with the railways of the United States.

[84] Canada's Disaster Assistance Response Team (DART) has participated in three major relief efforts in recent years; the two-hundred-member team has been deployed in relief operations after the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake in South Asia, Hurricane Katrina in 2005, and the Kashmir earthquake in October 2005.
.In February 2007, Canada, Italy, Britain, Norway, and Russia announced their funding commitments to launch a $1.5 billion project to help develop vaccines they said could save millions of lives in poor nations, and called on others to join them.^ Men in Ontario live in virtual fear of being forced out of their homes and stripped away from their children if they dare to call police on their spouses.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Good information to help children learn about their rights and freedoms and to better understand the issues which affect where they live.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In these circumstances Sir J. Macdonald brought forward a proposal to adopt what was called a " national policy," or, in other words, a system of protection for Canadian industries.

[85] In August 2007, Canadian sovereignty in Arctic waters was challenged after a Russian expedition that planted a Russian flag at the seabed at the North Pole. Canada has considered that area to be sovereign territory since 1925.[86]

Provinces and territories

.Canada is a federation composed of ten provinces and three territories.^ (G. M. W.) When federation was accomplished in 1867 the Dominion of Canada comprised only the four provinces of Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia.

^ The provinces in Canada were conceded less power than have the states in the American union; the federal government retaining the residuum of power not conceded.

^ The census is taken every ten years, save in these three provinces, where it is taken every five.

.In turn, these may be grouped into regions: Western Canada, Central Canada, Atlantic Canada, and Northern Canada (the latter made up of the three territories Yukon, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut).^ It flows first to the north, then to the north-west, passing out of the Yukon territory into Alaska, and then south-west, ending in Bering Sea, the northward projection of the Pacific, 2000 m.

^ In the central southern regions the climate is arid enough to permit of " alkaline " ponds and lakes, which may completely dry up in summer, and where a supply of drinking-water is often hard to obtain, though the land itself is fertile.

^ In spite of these restrictions of its natural coast line on both the Atlantic and the Pacific, Canada is admirably provided with harbours on both oceans.

.Eastern Canada refers to Central Canada and Atlantic Canada together.^ A somewhat similar relationship cuts off Canada from the Atlantic on the east, the north-eastern coast of Labrador belonging to Newfoundland.

.Provinces have more autonomy than territories.^ The climate of the Cordilleran region presents even more variety than that of the other provinces because of the ranges of mountains which run parallel to the Pacific.

.The provinces are responsible for most of Canada's social programs (such as health care, education, and welfare) and together collect more revenue than the federal government, an almost unique structure among federations in the world.^ Greengate Power Corporate ("Greengate") announced today that it has signed a Contribution Agreement with the Government of Canada for funding of its Halkirk I Wind Project under the ecoENERGY for Renewable Power program.
  • Alltop - Top Canada News 10 February 2010 12:55 UTC canada.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Employment rose in health care and social assistance, as well [...
  • Alltop - Top Canada News 10 February 2010 12:55 UTC canada.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ In 1905 these four districts were formed into the two provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan, and Keewatin was placed directly under the federal government .

.Using its spending powers, the federal government can initiate national policies in provincial areas, such as the Canada Health Act; the provinces can opt out of these, but rarely do so in practice.^ These percentages have gradually risen ever since federation, especially in the province of Quebec, which was long in a backward state.

^ Pedigree certificates are certified as correct by an officer of the department of agriculture, so that in Canada there exist national registration and government authority for the accuracy of pedigree livestock certificates.

^ In all the provinces they are under the control of the federal government which acts as their trustee, investing the money which they derive chiefly from the sale of lands and timber, and making a large annual appropriation for the payment of their annuities, schools and other expenses.

.Equalization payments are made by the federal government to ensure that reasonably uniform standards of services and taxation are kept between the richer and poorer provinces.^ In 1905 these four districts were formed into the two provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan, and Keewatin was placed directly under the federal government .

^ In all the provinces they are under the control of the federal government which acts as their trustee, investing the money which they derive chiefly from the sale of lands and timber, and making a large annual appropriation for the payment of their annuities, schools and other expenses.

^ The provinces in Canada were conceded less power than have the states in the American union; the federal government retaining the residuum of power not conceded.

[87]
A clickable map of Canada exhibiting its ten provinces and three territories, and their capitals.
Victoria Whitehorse Edmonton Yellowknife Regina Winnipeg Iqaluit Toronto Ottawa Quebec City Fredericton Charlottetown Halifax St. John's Northwest Territories Saskatchewan Newfoundland and Labrador New Brunswick Victoria Yukon British Columbia Whitehorse Alberta Edmonton Regina Yellowknife Nunavut Winnipeg Manitoba Ontario Iqaluit Ottawa Quebec Toronto Quebec City Fredericton Charlottetown Nova Scotia Halifax Prince Edward Island St. John's A clickable map of Canada exhibiting its ten provinces and three territories, and their capitals.
About this image

Geography and climate

 Forests prevail on the rocky Canadian Shield. Ice and tundra are prominent in the Arctic. <a name=.Glaciers are visible in the Canadian Rockies and Coast Mountains.^ On the western slope of the mountains, that is, the Selkirk and Coast ranges as distinguished from the eastern or Rocky Mountains range, the flora differs, the climate being damp instead of dry.

The interior is mostly flat prairies. The Great Lakes feed the Saint Lawrence River in the southeast lowlands" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/01/1/4/9/75947693418266385.jpg" width="210" height="131" class="thumbimage" />
A satellite composite image of Canada.
.Canada occupies a major northern portion of North America, sharing land borders with the contiguous United States to the south and the U.S. state of Alaska to the northwest, stretching from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west; to the north lies the Arctic Ocean.^ The outer ranges in Alberta have usually the form of tilted blocks with a steep cliff towards the north-east and a gentler slope, corresponding to the dip of the beds, towards the south-west.

^ While the pennated grouse (called the prairie chicken in Canada) has always been plentiful, the prairie hen (or chicken) proper is a more recent arrival from Minnesota and Dakota, to which states it had come from Illinois and the south as settlement and accompanying wheatfields extended north.

^ The divide between the rivers flowing west and those flowing east and north is very sharp in the southern Rocky Mountains, but there are two lakes, the Committee's Punch Bowl and Fortress Lake, right astride of it, sending their waters both east and west; and there is a mountain somewhat south of Fortress Lake whose melting snows drain in three directions into tributaries of the Columbia, the Saskatchewan and the Athabasca, so that they are distributed between the Pacific, the Atlantic (Hudson Bay) and the Arctic Oceans.

.By total area (including its waters), Canada is the second-largest country in the world—after Russia—and the largest on the continent.^ In 1906 the total exports of cheese to all countries from Canada reached 215,834,543 lb of the value of $24,433,169.

^ This affords the largest stretch of arable land in eastern Canada, including the southern parts of Ontario and Quebec with an area of some 38,000 sq.

^ The three " North-West Provinces " (Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta) have a total area of 369,869,898 acres, of which 12,853,120 acres are water.

[6] .By land area, Canada ranks fourth (land area is total area minus the area of lakes and rivers).^ This affords the largest stretch of arable land in eastern Canada, including the southern parts of Ontario and Quebec with an area of some 38,000 sq.

[88]
Since 1925, Canada has claimed the portion of the Arctic between 60°W and 141°W longitude,[89] but this claim is not universally recognized. .The northernmost settlement in Canada (and in the world) is Canadian Forces Station Alert on the northern tip of Ellesmere Island—latitude 82.5°N—817 kilometres (450 nautical miles, 508 miles) from the North Pole.^ CANADA. The Dominion of Canada comprises the northern half of the continent of North America and its adjacent islands, excepting Alaska , which belongs to the United States , and Newfoundland , still a separate colony of the British empire .

[90] Much of the Canadian Arctic is covered by ice and permafrost. Canada also has the longest coastline in the world: 202,080 kilometres (125,570 mi).[6]
.The population density, 3.3 inhabitants per square kilometre (8.5/sq mi), is among the lowest in the world.^ The density of population is greatest in Prince Edward Island, where it is 51.6 to the sq.

.The most densely populated part of the country is the Quebec City – Windsor Corridor, (situated in Southern Quebec and Southern Ontario) along the Great Lakes and the Saint Lawrence River in the southeast.^ As the St Lawrence invited the earliest settlers to Canada and gave the easiest communication with the Old World, it is not surprising to find the wealthiest and most populous part of the country on its shores and near the Great Lakes which it leads up to; and this early development was greatly helped by the flat and fertile plain which follows it inland for over 600 m.

^ Numerous smaller canals bring Ottawa into connexion with Lake Champlain and the Hudson river via Montreal; by this route the logs and sawn lumber of Ontario, Quebec and New Brunswick find their destination.

^ The St Lawrence is far the most important Canadian river from the historic and economic points of view, since it provided the main artery of exploration in early days, and with its canals past rapids and between lakes still serves as a great highway of trade between the interior of the continent and the seaports of Montreal and Quebec.

[91]
A semi-circular waterfall between two outcrops of forested land
.
The Horseshoe Falls in Niagara Falls, Ontario is one of the world's most voluminous waterfalls.
^ Canada is clearly destined to rank as one of the most important grain-producing countries of the world.

[92] It is renowned for both its beauty and as a valuable source of hydroelectric power.
.Canada has an extensive coastline on its north, east, and west, and since the last glacial period it has consisted of eight distinct forest regions, including extensive boreal forest on the Canadian Shield.^ The investment is part of federal efforts to support innovation in Canada’s forest industry and expand overseas markets for Canadian forest products.
  • Alltop - Top Canada News 10 February 2010 12:55 UTC canada.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Austrian brome grass ( Bromus inermis ) and western rye grass ( Agropyrum tenerum ) are both extensively grown for hay in the North-West Provinces.

^ The flora of the forest belt of the North-West Territories differs little from that of northern Ontario.

[93] .The vastness and variety of Canada's geography, ecology, vegetation and landforms have given rise to a wide variety of climates throughout the country.^ Please–we’ve got to try to do something before Canada completely embarrasses itself and Harper is responsible for developed countries doing little to fight climate change.
  • Alltop - Top Canada News 10 February 2010 12:55 UTC canada.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ The golden eagle , bald-headed eagle, osprey and a large variety of hawks are common in Canada, as are the snowy owl , the horned owl and others inhabiting northern climates.

[94] .Because of its vast size, Canada has more lakes than any other country, containing much of the world's fresh water.^ The loss from this cause is also less than formerly, because any grain unfit for export is now readily purchased for the feeding of animals in Ontario and other parts of eastern Canada.

^ More, than once he drove from Canada governors who tried to thwart him.

^ There are nine others which have a length of more than Ioo m., and thirty-five which are more than 50 m.

[95] .There are also fresh-water glaciers in the Canadian Rockies and the Coast Mountains.^ On the western slope of the mountains, that is, the Selkirk and Coast ranges as distinguished from the eastern or Rocky Mountains range, the flora differs, the climate being damp instead of dry.

^ In the Cordilleran region on the other hand the lakes are long, narrow and deep, in reality sections of mountain valleys occupied by fresh water, just as the fjords of the adjoining coast are valleys occupied by the sea.

^ There are large districts lying eastward of the Great Lakes and westward of the Rocky Mountains, where apples of fine quality can be grown; and there are other smaller Potts.

.Average winter and summer high temperatures across Canada vary according to the location.^ South of the Gulf of St Lawrence, however, the maritime provinces have much more genial temperatures, averaging 40° F. for the year and over 60° for the summer months.

^ In the forest regions north of the lakes the vegetation on the shores of Lake Erie requires a high winter temperature, while the east and north shores of Lake Superior have a boreal vegetation that shows the summer temperature of this enormous water-stretch to be quite low.

^ The summers are warm, with an average temperature of 65° and an occasional rise to 90°.

.Winters can be harsh in many regions of the country, particularly in the interior and Prairie provinces, which experience a continental climate, where daily average temperatures are near −15 °C (5 °F) but can drop below −40 °C (−40.0 °F) with severe wind chills.^ Leaving out the maritime provinces, southern Ontario, southern Alberta and the Pacific coast region on the one hand, and the Arctic north, particularly near Hudson Bay, on the other, Canada has snowy and severe winters, a very short spring with a sudden rise of temperature, short warm summers, and a delightful autumn with its " Indian summer."

^ South of the Gulf of St Lawrence, however, the maritime provinces have much more genial temperatures, averaging 40° F. for the year and over 60° for the summer months.

^ The climate of the Cordilleran region presents even more variety than that of the other provinces because of the ranges of mountains which run parallel to the Pacific.

[96] .In noncoastal regions, snow can cover the ground almost six months of the year (more in the north).^ Mother and Daughter claim that they waited for almost a year to get a return call from the Children's Lawyer and still after more than 1 1/2 years absolutely nothing constructive has resulted!
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Readers will hear more about violence and cover-up of abuse of children in the care of the CAS in the months and years to come as the CAS bubble gets near to the bursting point.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ South of the Gulf of St Lawrence, however, the maritime provinces have much more genial temperatures, averaging 40° F. for the year and over 60° for the summer months.

.Coastal British Columbia enjoys a temperate climate, with a mild and rainy winter.^ One cannot even describe the climate of a single province, like Ontario or British Columbia, as a unit, as it varies so greatly in different parts.

^ So in various parts of the mountainous country of British Columbia, the flora varies according to climatic conditions.

^ Along the coast itself the climate is insular, with little frost in winter and mild heat in summer, and with a very heavy rainfall amounting to ioo in.

.On the east and west coasts, average high temperatures are generally in the low 20s °C (70s °F), while between the coasts, the average summer high temperature ranges from 25 to 30 °C (77 to 86 °F), with occasional extreme heat in some interior locations exceeding 40 °C (104 °F).^ The summers are warm, with an average temperature of 65° and an occasional rise to 90°.

^ South of the Gulf of St Lawrence, however, the maritime provinces have much more genial temperatures, averaging 40° F. for the year and over 60° for the summer months.

^ Along the coast itself the climate is insular, with little frost in winter and mild heat in summer, and with a very heavy rainfall amounting to ioo in.

[97]
.Canada is also geologically active, having many earthquakes and potentially active volcanoes, notably Mount Meager, Mount Garibaldi, Mount Cayley, and the Mount Edziza volcanic complex.^ Fathers in Canada are having their driver's licenses taken away, their passports seized and many put in jail because of the family court system.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

[98] .The volcanic eruption of Tseax Cone in 1775 caused a catastrophic disaster, killing 2,000 Nisga'a people and the destruction of their village in the Nass River valley of northern British Columbia; the eruption produced a 22.5-kilometre (14.0 mi) lava flow, and according to legend of the Nisga'a people, it blocked the flow of the Nass River.^ So in various parts of the mountainous country of British Columbia, the flora varies according to climatic conditions.

^ Northwards the valleys of the Peace and other rivers differ little from those of Quebec and the northern prairies.

^ British Columbia has about 25,000, most of whom are along the coast, though one of the important tribes, the Shuswaps, is in the interior.

[99]

Economy

Canada is one of the world's wealthiest nations, with a high per-capita income, and it is a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the G8. .It is one of the world's top ten trading nations.^ Archbishop Baxter has performed live on stages all around the globe and is considered as one of the world's top Elvis entertainers.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

[100] .Canada is a mixed market, ranking lower than the U.S. on the Heritage Foundation's index of economic freedom but higher than most western European nations.^ In reality the Pacific coast of Canada, rather than the Atlantic coast, should be compared with western Europe, the south-west corner of British Columbia, in lat.

^ Canada is clearly destined to rank as one of the most important grain-producing countries of the world.

^ While Mediocrity Is The Prevailing Characteristic Of Most Of What Passes For Poetry In Canada, A Few Writers Have Risen Ito A Higher Level.

[101][102] .The largest foreign importers of Canadian goods are the United States, the United Kingdom, and Japan.^ These foreign elements have been assimilated more slowly than in the United States, but the process is being hastened by the growth of a national consciousness.

^ The Columbia is the largest, but after flowing north-west and then south for about 400 m., it passes into the United States.

^ The great proportion of the foreign trade of the Dominion is with the United States and Great Britain.

[103] .In 2008, Canada's imported goods were worth over $442.9 billion, of which $280.8 billion was from the United States, $11.7 billion from Japan, and $11.3 billion from the United Kingdom.^ Strengthening security and improving travel and trade across the Canada-United States border .
  • Alltop - Top Canada News 10 February 2010 12:55 UTC canada.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ (February 9, 2008) A video clip from a speech given by the Archbishop Dorian A. Baxter in front of Queens Park on the state of Canada's court system.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The factories of the United States, unduly developed by an extreme system of protection, sought in Canada a slaughter market for their surplus products, to the detriment or destruction of Canadian industries.

[103]
As of October 2009, Canada's national unemployment rate was 8.6%. Provincial unemployment rates vary from a low of 5.8% in Manitoba to a high of 17% in Newfoundland and Labrador.[104] .For immigrants in the country five years or less, the unemployment rate reached 13.9% in October 2009.[105] Canada was home to 69 of the 2000 corporations in the 2008 Forbes Global 2000 compilation of the world's largest companies, ranking the nation 5th globally.^ (August 10, 2007) - Court Watch has received a call from an immigrant from Iran who indicated that shortly after coming to Canada, his wife took him to family court after less than three years of marriage.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It did little to colonize New France, and in 1660, after more than thirty years of its monopoly, there were not more than 2000 French in the whole country.

^ For this reason he was censured at home and he promptly resigned, after spending only five months in the country.

[106]
.As of 2008, Canada’s total government debt burden is the lowest among the G8. The OECD projects that Canada's debt-to-GDP ratio will decline to 19.5% in 2009, which is less than half of the projected average of 51.9% for all G8 countries.^ In 1906 the total exports of cheese to all countries from Canada reached 215,834,543 lb of the value of $24,433,169.

^ Greengate Power Corporate ("Greengate") announced today that it has signed a Contribution Agreement with the Government of Canada for funding of its Halkirk I Wind Project under the ecoENERGY for Renewable Power program.
  • Alltop - Top Canada News 10 February 2010 12:55 UTC canada.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Betrayed - How the Government of Canada has broken its promise and betrayed its own people (November 7, 2009) Canada's Prime Minister, Stephen Harper, has proclaimed to Canadians and to the rest of the world that Canada is a place that all Canadians are proud of.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

.According to these projections, Canada's debt burden will have fallen by more than 50 percentage points from its peak in 1995, when it was the second-highest in the G8.[107] In 2008–09, the federal debt increased by $6.1 billion to $463.7 billion.^ These foreign elements have been assimilated more slowly than in the United States, but the process is being hastened by the growth of a national consciousness.

^ Liberal aid is given by the federal, provincial and municipal governments to the construction of railways, amounting often to more than half the cost of the road.

^ Few of the manufacturers do more than compete with the foreigner for an increasing share of the home market.

[108] In the past century, the growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy to a more industrial and urban one. .Like other First World nations, the Canadian economy is dominated by the service industry, which employs about three quarters of Canadians.^ Got a comment about your MP or MPP THAT you would like to share with others in your community?
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Even before the Canadian Pacific railway was fully completed, it proved of great service in a national emergency which suddenly arose in the north-west.

^ (May 28 2008) A teen speaks up about her experience at Christmas along with three other foster kids.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

[109] .Canada is unusual among developed countries in the importance of its primary sector, in which the logging and petroleum industries are two of the most important.^ Farm products are the most important export, and with the extension of this industry in the north-west provinces and in northern Ontario will probably continue to be so.

^ The factories of the United States, unduly developed by an extreme system of protection, sought in Canada a slaughter market for their surplus products, to the detriment or destruction of Canadian industries.

^ With the rapid increase of population, production in Canada also greatly increased; exports, imports and revenue constantly expanded, and capital, finding abundant and profitable employment, began to flow freely into the country for further industrial development.

.Canada is one of the few developed nations that are net exporters of energy.^ The period of Sir Wilfrid Laurier's rule was one of striking progress in material growth, and a marked development of national feeling.

[110] .Atlantic Canada has vast offshore deposits of natural gas, and large oil and gas resources are centred in Alberta.^ In spite of these restrictions of its natural coast line on both the Atlantic and the Pacific, Canada is admirably provided with harbours on both oceans.

The immense Athabasca Oil Sands give Canada the world's second-largest oil reserves, behind Saudi Arabia.[111] .In Quebec, British Columbia, Newfoundland & Labrador, New Brunswick, Ontario, Manitoba, and Yukon, hydroelectricity is an inexpensive source of renewable energy when compared to other alternatives.^ Its cultivation promises to be successful in parts of Ontario, Quebec and British Columbia.

^ Manitoba was the first to be constituted; in 1871 British Columbia, New which had hitherto held aloof, determined, under the persuasion of a sympathetic governor, Mr (later Sir) Antony Musgrave, to throw in its lot with the Dominion.

^ The areas assigned to Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and British Columbia are exclusive of the territorial seas, that to Quebec' is exclusive of the Gulf of St Lawrence (though including the islands lying within it), and that to Ontario is exclusive of the Canadian portion of the Great Lakes.

[112]
.Canada is one of the world's most important suppliers of agricultural products, with the Canadian Prairies being one of the most important producers of wheat, canola, and other grains.^ Canada is clearly destined to rank as one of the most important grain-producing countries of the world.

^ There are several important agricultural colleges for the practical education of young men in farming, foremost amongst them being the Ontario Agricultural College at Guelph.

^ Manitoba and 13.35 for the other two prairie provinces, most of this, however, coming opportunely from May to August, the months when the growing grain most requires moisture.

[113] .Canada is the largest producer of zinc and uranium, and is an important global source of many other natural resources, such as gold, nickel, aluminium, and lead.^ Of the less important minerals, Canada is the world's chief producer of asbestos and corundum .

^ Between them are many other ranges shorter and less regular in trend, such as the Selkirk Mountains , the Gold Ranges and the Caribou Mountains.

^ Global Investigative Journalism Conference (April 17, 2007) - Investigative journalism and freedom of the press is one of the important safeguards to our freedom and democracy in Canada.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

[110] .Many towns in the northern part of the country, where agriculture is difficult, are sustainable because of nearby mines or sources of timber.^ The use of wood-pulp in the manufacture of paper.gave a greatly enhanced value to many millions of acres of northern forest country.

.Canada also has a sizable manufacturing sector centred in southern Ontario and Quebec, with automobiles and aeronautics representing particularly important industries.^ (For the history of Lower and Upper Canada, now Quebec and Ontario, the separate articles must be consulted.

^ (G. M. W.) When federation was accomplished in 1867 the Dominion of Canada comprised only the four provinces of Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia.

^ From the city of Quebec westwards there is a constantly increasing ratio of southern forms, and when the mountain (so called) at Montreal is reached the representative Ontario flora begins.

[114]
Two men and one women sit at a table and sign a piece of paper, while three men in suits stand behind them, in front of a set of limp flags
Representatives of the Canadian, Mexican, and United States governments sign the North American Free Trade Agreement in 1992.
.Economic integration with the United States has increased significantly since World War II. This has drawn the attention of Canadian nationalists, who are concerned about cultural and economic autonomy in an age of globalization, as American goods and media products have become ubiquitous.^ This video gives a good example of what Canadian family courts do to fathers who try to stand up to protect their children.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Canadian father speaks about court transcripts altered by court officials (May 7, 2009) H ear testimony from yet another Canadian father who claims that his court transcripts were significantly altered by court officials.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If you’re a wealthy U.S. citizen or a Canadian who owns property in the United States, 2010 may be the ideal year to die.
  • Alltop - Top Canada News 10 February 2010 12:55 UTC canada.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[115] The Automotive Products Trade Agreement of 1965 opened the borders to trade in the auto manufacturing industry. In the 1970s, concerns over energy self-sufficiency and foreign ownership in the manufacturing sectors prompted Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau's Liberal government to enact the National Energy Program (NEP) and the Foreign Investment Review Agency (FIRA).[116]
In the 1980s, Prime Minister Brian Mulroney's Progressive Conservatives abolished the NEP and changed the name of FIRA to "Investment Canada" in order to encourage foreign investment.[117] .The Canada – United States Free Trade Agreement (FTA) of 1988 eliminated tariffs between the two countries, while the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) expanded the free-trade zone to include Mexico in the 1990s.^ Strengthening security and improving travel and trade across the Canada-United States border .
  • Alltop - Top Canada News 10 February 2010 12:55 UTC canada.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ CANADA. The Dominion of Canada comprises the northern half of the continent of North America and its adjacent islands, excepting Alaska , which belongs to the United States , and Newfoundland , still a separate colony of the British empire .

^ If the governments of the United States and Canada continue to allow the legal industries in their countries to destroy families and to separate fathers from their children, there will only be increased resistance by the people and a breakdown in the Rule of Law in both countries.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

[113] In the mid-1990s, the Liberal government under Jean Chrétien began to post annual budgetary surpluses and steadily paid down the national debt.[118] The 2008 global financial crisis caused a recession, which could boost the country's unemployment rate to 10%.[119]

Demographics

Largest metropolitan areas in Canada by population (2006 Census)
Name Province Pop. Name Province Pop.
Toronto Ontario 5,113,149 Kitchener–Waterloo Ontario 451,235
Montreal Quebec 3,635,571 St. CatharinesNiagara Ontario 390,317
Vancouver British Columbia 2,116,581 Halifax Nova Scotia 372,858
OttawaGatineau Ontario–Quebec 1,130,761 Oshawa Ontario 330,594
Calgary Alberta 1,079,310 Victoria British Columbia 330,088
Edmonton Alberta 1,034,945 Windsor Ontario 323,342
Quebec City Quebec 715,515 Saskatoon Saskatchewan 233,923
Winnipeg Manitoba 694,668 Regina Saskatchewan 194,971
Hamilton Ontario 692,911 Sherbrooke Quebec 186,952
London Ontario 457,720 St. John's Newfoundland and Labrador 181,113
.Canada's 2006 census counted a total population of 31,612,897, an increase of 5.4% since 2001.[120] Population growth is from immigration and, to a lesser extent, natural growth.^ In spite of the growth of manufactures since 1878, there are few large cities, and the proportion of the urban population to the rural is small.

^ The total number of horses in the Dominion was estimated on the basis of census returns at 2,019,824 for the year 1907, an increase of 609,309 since 1901.

^ The total wheat acreage, which at the census of 1901 was 4,224,000, was over 6,200,000 in 1906, an increase of nearly two million acres in five years.

.About four-fifths of Canada's population lives within 150 kilometres (93 mi) of the United States border.^ In that province about 87% of the population belongs to this church, which is strong in the others also, embracing over two-fifths of the population of the Dominion.

^ Since 1901 the increase has been more rapid, and in 1 9 05 alone 1 4 4,621 emigrants entered Canada, of whom about two-fifths were from Great Britain and one-third from the United States.

^ With only about 60,000 French in Canada at the time of the conquest it might have seemed as if this population would soon be absorbed by the incoming British.

[121] .A similar proportion live in urban areas concentrated in the Quebec City – Windsor Corridor (notably the Greater Golden Horseshoe, including Toronto and area, Montreal, and Ottawa), the BC Lower Mainland (consisting of the region surrounding Vancouver), and the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor in Alberta.^ This affords the largest stretch of arable land in eastern Canada, including the southern parts of Ontario and Quebec with an area of some 38,000 sq.

^ In spite of the growth of manufactures since 1878, there are few large cities, and the proportion of the urban population to the rural is small.

^ From the city of Quebec westwards there is a constantly increasing ratio of southern forms, and when the mountain (so called) at Montreal is reached the representative Ontario flora begins.

[122]
.According to the 2006 census, the largest reported ethnic origin is English (21%), followed by French (15.8%), Scottish (15.2%), Irish (13.9%), German (10.2%), Italian (5%), Chinese (3.9%), Ukrainian (3.6%), and First Nations (3.5%).^ In addition, the Panel of Justice and the media [ Link to report on Attorney General's Website ] which was commissioned by the Attorney General of Ontario himself, in a report presented to the Attorney General in August of 2006, recommends the following: .
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ English, Irish and Scots and their descendants form the bulk of the population of Ontario, French-Canadians of Quebec, Scots of Nova Scotia, the Irish of a large proportion of New Brunswick.

^ French or Scottish) and Indian mothers-who originally formed the bulk of its inhabitants.

Approximately one third of respondents identified their ethnicity as "Canadian".[123]
Canada's aboriginal population is growing at almost twice the national rate, and 3.8% of Canada's population claimed aboriginal identity in 2006. Another 16.2% of the population belonged to non-aboriginal visible minorities.[124] The largest visible minority groups in Canada are South Asian (4%), Chinese (3.9%) and Black (2.5%).[125] .In 1961, less than 2% of Canada's population (about 300,000 people) could be classified as visible minority and less than 1% as aboriginal.^ With only about 60,000 French in Canada at the time of the conquest it might have seemed as if this population would soon be absorbed by the incoming British.

^ Citizens who do wish to obtain their own videotaped copy of this highly informative workshop at the Law Society can obtain their own copy direct from the Law Society of Upper Canada at a cost of about $300.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ About 80,000 persons find more or less permanent employment in the fishing industry, including the majority of the Indians of British Columbia.

[126][127] In 2006, 51.0% of Vancouver's population and 46.9% of Toronto's population were members of visible minority groups.[128][129] Between 2001 and 2006, the visible minority population rose by 27.2%.[125] .According to a 2005 forecast by Statistics Canada, the proportion of visible minorities in Canada could reach as much as 23% by 2017. As of 2007, almost one in five Canadians (19.8%) were foreign born.^ Honey is one of the minor food-products of Canada, and in many localities bees have abundance of pasturage.

^ While immigrants flood to Canada, natural born Canadians flee Canada to escape the horror of taxpayer funded agencies which are tearing Canadian families apart.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to Mr. Sava, "it appears that authorities in Canada could not care less about the relationship between a Canadian father and his children.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

[130] .Nearly 60% of new immigrants hail from Asia (including the Middle East).^ He intends to write to organizations in the Middle east and to warn other potential immigrants to stay away and to tell them that Canada is not the place for men to get married or to raise their children.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

[130]
Religion in Canada (2001 Census)[131]
Religion Percent
Christianity
  
77.1%
No religion
  
16.5%
Islam
  
2.0%
Judaism
  
1.1%
Buddhism
  
1.0%
Hinduism
  
1.0%
Sikhism
  
0.9%
.Canada has the highest per-capita immigration rate in the world, driven by economic policy and family reunification, and is aiming for between 240,000 and 265,000 new permanent residents in 2010.[132] Canada also accepts large numbers of refugees.^ This new video from Canada Court Watch is based on an interview with a former resident of an Ontario women's shelter.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

New immigrants settle mostly in major urban areas like Toronto and Vancouver.[133]
.In common with many other developed countries, Canada is experiencing a demographic shift towards an older population, with more retirees and fewer people of working age.^ The black bear is also common to most other parts of Canada; the polar bear everywhere along the Arctic littoral.

^ Many argue that the time has come for elections for judges so that the people of Canada can weed out those judges who work against the fundamental principles of justice.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Word is quickly spreading in many foreign countries that Canada is the place to stay away from because of Canada's oppressive and unjust family court system.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 2006, the average age of the population was 39.5 years.^ In 1901, 76% of the total population could read and write, and 86% of those over five years of age.

[134] .The census results also indicate that despite an increase in immigration since 2001 (which gave Canada a higher rate of population growth than in the previous intercensal period), the aging of Canada's population did not slow during the period.^ In spite of the growth of manufactures since 1878, there are few large cities, and the proportion of the urban population to the rural is small.

^ The total number of horses in the Dominion was estimated on the basis of census returns at 2,019,824 for the year 1907, an increase of 609,309 since 1901.

^ The Indian population numbers over ioo,000 and has slightly increased since 1881.

.Support for religious pluralism is an important part of Canada's political culture.^ The investment is part of federal efforts to support innovation in Canada’s forest industry and expand overseas markets for Canadian forest products.
  • Alltop - Top Canada News 10 February 2010 12:55 UTC canada.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.According to the 2001 census, 77.1% of Canadians identify as being Christians; of this, Catholics make up the largest group (43.6% of Canadians).^ It is known as flour from which bakers can make the best quality of bread , and also the largest quantity per barrel , the quantity of albuminoids being greater in Canadian flour than in the best brands of European.

^ Canadian children being robbed by the courts of a fundamental aspect of growing up - their dads!
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

[131] .The largest Protestant denomination is the United Church of Canada (9.5% of Canadians), followed by the Anglicans (6.8%), Baptists (2.4%), Lutherans (2%), and other Christians (4.4%).^ It followed that the citizens of the United States lost the right which they had received under the treaty to share in the fisheries of Canada.

^ The factories of the United States, unduly developed by an extreme system of protection, sought in Canada a slaughter market for their surplus products, to the detriment or destruction of Canadian industries.

^ The Fishery Commission, on the other hand, which sat in Halifax, awarded Canada $5,500,000 as the excess value of its fisheries for twelve years, and after much hesitation this sum was paid by the United States into the Canadian treasury.

[131] About 16.5% of Canadians declare no religious affiliation, and the remaining 6.3% are affiliated with non-Christian religions, the largest of which is Islam (2.0%), followed by Judaism (1.1%).[131]
Canadian provinces and territories are responsible for education. Each system is similar, while reflecting regional history, culture and geography.[135] The mandatory school age ranges between 5–7 to 16–18 years,[135] contributing to an adult literacy rate of 99%.[6] .Post-secondary education is also administered by provincial and territorial governments, which provide most of the funding; the federal government administers additional research grants, student loans, and scholarships.^ The various departments of the federal and the provincial governments publish annual reports and frequent special reports, such as the decennial report on the census, from which a vast quantity of information may be obtained.

^ Liberal aid is given by the federal, provincial and municipal governments to the construction of railways, amounting often to more than half the cost of the road.

^ The taxpayers of Ontario are literally getting hosed by this government funded agency which in many cases, is providing absolutely incompetent services to children.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

In 2002, 43% of Canadians aged 25 to 64 possessed a post-secondary education; for those aged 25 to 34, the rate of post-secondary education reached 51%.[136]

Culture

A colorful post of wood sculpted into animal faces stands in front of a wide lodge with a painted face on it
A Kwakwaka'wakw totem pole and traditional "big house" in Victoria, British Columbia
.Canadian culture has historically been influenced by British, French, and Aboriginal cultures and traditions.^ Folk Lore Has Always Been The Most Essentially French Of All Imaginative Influences In Canadian Life; And The Songs Are The Quintessence Of The Lore.

.It has also been heavily influenced by American culture because of its proximity and the high rate of migration between the two countries.^ Kim Kennett shares the sights, people and culture of these two less-travelled countries in Central America.January 22 – Author Reading:… .
  • Alltop - Top Canada News 10 February 2010 12:55 UTC canada.alltop.com [Source type: General]

The great majority of English-speaking immigrants to Canada between 1755 and 1815 were Americans from the Thirteen Colonies. .During and immediately after the War of Independence, 46,000 American Loyalists came to Canada.^ A heritage of differences and difficulties had been left to be settled between England, Canada and the American Union as the result of the Civil War.

^ It was born during the era of the American Civil War , and was planned to correct defects which time had revealed in the American federation.

^ The war seemed to furnish a renewed opportunity to annex Canada to the American Union, and Canada became the chief theatre of conflict.

[137] .Between 1785 and 1812, the Late Loyalists emigrated to Canada in response to promises of land.^ The control of the public lands is retained by the general government on the ground that it has been responsible for the development of the country by railway construction and emigration.

[138]
.American media and entertainment are popular, if not dominant, in English Canada; conversely, many Canadian cultural products and entertainers are successful in the United States and worldwide.^ The investment is part of federal efforts to support innovation in Canada’s forest industry and expand overseas markets for Canadian forest products.
  • Alltop - Top Canada News 10 February 2010 12:55 UTC canada.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ The most famous of the lakes are those of the St Lawrence system, which form part of the southern boundary of Canada and are shared with the United States; but many others have the right to be called " Great Lakes " from their magnitude.

^ Many of the students, especially in the departments of medicine and theology , complete their education in the United States, Britain or Europe.

[139] .Many cultural products are marketed toward a unified "North American" or global market.^ In 1854 Lord Elgin negotiated a reciprocity treaty with the United States which gave Canadian natural products free entrance to the American market.

.The creation and preservation of distinctly Canadian culture are supported by federal government programs, laws, and institutions such as the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), the National Film Board of Canada, and the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission.^ Pedigree certificates are certified as correct by an officer of the department of agriculture, so that in Canada there exist national registration and government authority for the accuracy of pedigree livestock certificates.

^ The investment is part of federal efforts to support innovation in Canada’s forest industry and expand overseas markets for Canadian forest products.
  • Alltop - Top Canada News 10 February 2010 12:55 UTC canada.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ In many cases, agencies such as police, support these government funded institutions in their acts to destroy families which in turn erodes the public's trust in police.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

[140]
Canada is a geographically vast and ethnically diverse country. .Canadian culture has also been greatly influenced by immigration from all over the world.^ He has proclaimed to his fellow Canadians and the world that he and the Canadian government have the "team" that will protect the savings and the opportunities of all Canadians.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

.Many Canadians value multiculturalism and see Canadian culture as being inherently multicultural.^ More and more Canadians are becoming ashamed of being Canadians because of what Canada's court system is doing to destroy many children and families.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nathan Green - Winner of RBC Canadian Open is probably just happy being in Hawaii I don't see him making any noise this week.
  • Alltop - Top Canada News 10 February 2010 12:55 UTC canada.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ But as many Canadians know, false allegations and perjury are used all the time in the courts with nothing being done against those who fabricate lies.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

[49] .Multicultural heritage is the basis of Section 27 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.^ This ruling by Justice Perkins is an insult to the rights and freedoms of Canadians and an assault on the principles of justice in Canada.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It would seem that some officials may be too intimidated by forces higher up to respect those sections of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms which are supposed to guarantee Canadians the right to peaceful assembly and association.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If the family courts and agencies such as the CAS continue their assault on families and continue to violate the rights and freedoms of Canadian children and their families, there will be grave consequences for Canada.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

A group of men skate on ice in two groups, each trying to hit a small rubber disc with curved sticks
A hockey game at McGill University in Montreal, Quebec (1901)
Canada's National symbols are influenced by natural, historical, and First Nations sources. The use of the maple leaf as a Canadian symbol dates to the early 18th century. The maple leaf is depicted on Canada's current and previous flags, on the penny, and on the Coat of Arms.[141] .Other prominent symbols include the beaver, Canada Goose, Common Loon, the Crown, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police,[141] and more recently, the totem pole and Inukshuk.^ Other police forces in Canada appear to have been successful in locating and returning children even when they have been abducted to other countries, yet York Regional Police seem unable to do what other police forces seem to be able to do under even more difficult circumstances.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

Canada's official national sports are hockey in the winter and lacrosse in the summer.[142] Hockey is a national pastime and the most popular spectator sport in the country. .It is also the sport most played by Canadians, with 1.65 million participants in 2004.[143] Canada's six largest metropolitan areas—Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Ottawa, Calgary, and Edmonton—have franchises in the National Hockey League (NHL), and there are more Canadian players in the NHL than from all other countries combined.^ This will be done in coordination with the other Canadian citizens who will participate in this initiative.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There's a lot more to this announcement than meets eye (and it has a major effect on how we're going to be doing marketing and communications… .
  • Alltop - Top Canada News 10 February 2010 12:55 UTC canada.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ If it is to the benefit of parents not to do things which may aggravate the other, then why do the courts and all the lawyers support the ADVERSARIAL family court system and force parents there in the first place.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

Other popular spectator sports include curling and football; the latter is played professionally in the Canadian Football League (CFL). Golf, baseball, skiing, soccer, volleyball, and basketball are widely played at youth and amateur levels,[143] but professional leagues and franchises are not widespread.
.Canada has hosted several high-profile international sporting events, including the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal, the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary, and the 2007 FIFA U-20 World Cup.^ Canada led the charge towards the finals on Saturday at the 2010 LG Snowboard FIS World Cup.
  • Alltop - Top Canada News 10 February 2010 12:55 UTC canada.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Prime Minister Stephen Harper today highlighted Canada’s upcoming leadership of major international events in 2010, including the Olympic and Paralympic Games as well as the G-8 and G-20 Summits.
  • Alltop - Top Canada News 10 February 2010 12:55 UTC canada.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ The world’s largest fleet of hydrogen-powered buses will debut at the Winter Olympics in Whistler, B.C., next month amid criticism that the move is environmental window dressing.
  • Alltop - Top Canada News 10 February 2010 12:55 UTC canada.alltop.com [Source type: General]

.Canada was the host nation for the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver and Whistler, British Columbia.^ The world’s largest fleet of hydrogen-powered buses will debut at the Winter Olympics in Whistler, B.C., next month amid criticism that the move is environmental window dressing.
  • Alltop - Top Canada News 10 February 2010 12:55 UTC canada.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[144]

Language

.
A cobblestone square with a statue, surrounded by old-fashioned stone buildings.</span><span class=^ Amount you intend to take with you * Please see adaptability section English language ability .
  • Canadian Immigration and Visas | Free Canada immigration assessment form for skilled workers. 10 February 2010 12:55 UTC www.workpermit.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Dec 22, 2006) Article published in the Canadian Family Forum about the financial implications of marriage in Canada by Peter Merrick, President of Merrick Wealth Management.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Another Canadian father left out in the cold (February 3, 2007) This article from the Edmonton Sun reinforces how fathers in Canada continue to get shafted by Canada's family courts.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

A group of people are being photographed in front of one of the buildings" src="http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/07/8/7/6/0902233578470862.jpg" width="250" height="188" class="thumbimage" />
Notre-Dame-des-Victoires in the historic Basse-Ville (Lower Town) of Quebec City, Quebec. The population is mainly French-speaking, with a small English-speaking minority.
Canada's two official languages are English and French. .Official bilingualism is defined in the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, the Official Languages Act, and Official Language Regulations; it is applied by the Commissioner of Official Languages.^ Archbishop Baxter will be sending out a letter to all elected officials in Canada to ask why the freedoms and rights of Canadians continued to be trampled up by court officials and why this fraud by the courts is being allowed to continue.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Madame Justice Waldman appears to have made up her own law which clearly contradict the meaning and spirit of the Courts of Justice Act and violates the rights of Canadians under the law.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This ruling by Justice Perkins is an insult to the rights and freedoms of Canadians and an assault on the principles of justice in Canada.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

English and French have equal status in federal courts, Parliament, and in all federal institutions. .Citizens have the right, where there is sufficient demand, to receive federal government services in either English or French, and official-language minorities are guaranteed their own schools in all provinces and territories.^ Many believe that time has come for the citizens of Ontario to take back their rights to use their own laws and that the laws are for the people, not the rich and influential lawyers.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All school officials are encouraged to view this video and to pass the link on to other teachers to help avoid becoming the subject of a lawsuit.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some of the most shocking human rights abuses and abuse by police services against the citizens are going on right here in Canada.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

[145]
English and French are the mother tongues of 59.7% and 23.2% of the population respectively,[146] and the languages most spoken at home by 68.3% and 22.3% of the population respectively.[147] 98.5% of Canadians speak English or French (67.5% speak English only, 13.3% speak French only, and 17.7% speak both).[148] English and French Official Language Communities, defined by First Official Language Spoken, constitute 73.0% and 23.6% of the population respectively.[148]
.Although more than 85% of French-speaking Canadians live in Quebec, there are substantial Francophone populations in Ontario, Alberta, and southern Manitoba.^ There's a lot more to this announcement than meets eye (and it has a major effect on how we're going to be doing marketing and communications… .
  • Alltop - Top Canada News 10 February 2010 12:55 UTC canada.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ Participants will be expected to deliver their petitions to their our local Member of Canadian Parliament (Federal) and additionally to their local member of Ontario Provincial Parliament if they live in the Province of Ontario.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And there is nothing that pleases us more than receiving practical and useful photography-related gifts.
  • Alltop - Top Canada News 10 February 2010 12:55 UTC canada.alltop.com [Source type: General]

[149] New Brunswick, the only officially bilingual province, has an Acadian population constituting 33% of the population.[150] There are also clusters of Acadians in southwestern Nova Scotia, on Cape Breton Island, and through central and western Prince Edward Island. Ontario has the largest French-speaking population outside Quebec. The Charter of the French Language makes French the official language in Quebec.[151]
.Other provinces have no official languages as such, but French is used as a language of instruction, in courts, and for other government services in addition to English.^ Parents in other provinces should push for legislation which will give them the right to record court hearings as is allowed under Ontario law.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Court Watch has videotaped complaints from other children complaining about the same professionals used in this case.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Court Watch manages to provide videotape service with no money coming from the taxpayers, so why can't Ms. Burns's agency do the same with the millions of tax dollars it receives every year from the Ontario government!
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

.Manitoba, Ontario, and Quebec allow for both English and French to be spoken in the provincial legislatures, and laws are enacted in both languages.^ Parents in other provinces should push for legislation which will give them the right to record court hearings as is allowed under Ontario law.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to the son-in-law, both Justice Zuker and Justice Brownstone obstructed Justice by refusing to allow the father to examine the contents of the videotape.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

In Ontario, French has some legal status but is not fully co-official.[152] Several aboriginal languages have official status in the Northwest Territories.[153] Inuktitut is the majority language in Nunavut, and one of three official languages in the territory.[154]
.Languages other than the two official languages are significant in Canada, with over six million people listing one as a first language.^ With the top scorers from two decades on the premises, it figured that one of them would play a significant role in the night’s outcome.
  • Alltop - Top Canada News 10 February 2010 12:55 UTC canada.alltop.com [Source type: General]

^ First of all it is perfectly legal in Canada to record one's own communication with another person.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

^ First interview—official documents An officer from the Canada Border Service Agency will greet you.
  • Alltop - Top Canada News 10 February 2010 12:55 UTC canada.alltop.com [Source type: General]

Some of the most common non-official first languages include Chinese (mainly Cantonese; 1,012,065 first-language speakers), Italian (455,040), German (450,570), Punjabi (367,505) and Spanish (345,345).[146]

International rankings

Organization Survey Ranking
State of World Liberty Project State of World Liberty Index[155] 3 out of 159
United Nations Development Programme Human Development Index[7] 4 out of 182
World Bank Ease of Doing Business 2009[156] 8 out of 181
The Economist The World in 2005 – Worldwide quality-of-life index, 2005[157] 14 out of 111
Yale University/Columbia University Environmental Sustainability Index, 2005[158] 6 out of 146
Reporters Without Borders Press Freedom Index 2009[159] 19 out of 175
Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 2009[160] 8 out of 180
Institute for Economics & Peace Global Peace Index[161] 8 out of 144
Fund for Peace Failed States Index, 2009[162] 166 out of 177[163]
World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report[164] 9 out of 133
The Economist Democracy Index[165] 11 out of 167

See also

References

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  132. ^ "Government of Canada Tables 2010 Immigration Plan". Canada News Centre. http://news.gc.ca/web/article-eng.do?m=/index&nid=492939. Retrieved 2010-01-24. 
  133. ^ "When immigration goes awry". Toronto Star. 2006-07-14. http://www.thestar.com/Canada2020/article/106702. Retrieved 2010-01-08. 
  134. ^ Martel, Laurent; Malenfant, Éric Caron (2009-09-22). "2006 Census: Portrait of the Canadian Population in 2006, by Age and Sex". Statistics Canada. http://www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/2006/as-sa/97-551/index-eng.cfm?CFID=3347169&CFTOKEN=19485112. Retrieved 2009-10-18. 
  135. ^ a b "Overview of Education in Canada". Council of Ministers of Education, Canada. http://www.educationau-incanada.ca/index.aspx?action=educationsystem-systemeeducation&lang=eng. Retrieved 2009-10-20. 
  136. ^ "Creating Opportunities for All Canadians". Department of Finance Canada. 2005-11-14. http://www.fin.gc.ca/ec2005/agenda/agc4-eng.asp. Retrieved 2006-05-22. 
  137. ^ Will Kaufman, Heidi Slettedahl MacPherson, ed (2005). "Settlement Policies". Britain and the Americas: culture, politics, and history. ABC-CLIO. p. 888. ISBN 1851094318. 
  138. ^ Dollinger, Stefan (2008). New-dialect formation in Canada: evidence from the English modal auxiliaries. John Benjamins. p. 66. ISBN 9027231087. 
  139. ^ Blackwell, John D (2005). "Culture High and Low". International Council for Canadian Studies World Wide Web Service. http://www.iccs-ciec.ca/blackwell.html#culture. Retrieved 2006-03-15. 
  140. ^ "Mandate of the National Film Board" (pdf). National Film Board of Canada. 2005. http://www.onf.ca/medias/download/documents/pdf/NFB_STRATEGIC_PLAN.pdf. Retrieved 2009-10-20. 
  141. ^ a b Canadian Heritage (2002). Symbols of Canada. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Government Publishing. ISBN 0-660-18615-2. 
  142. ^ Wieting, Stephen G (2001). Sport and memory in North America. Frank Cass. p. 4. ISBN 0714682055. 
  143. ^ a b Conference Board of Canada (December 2004). "Survey: Most Popular Sports, by Type of Participation, Adult Population". Strengthening Canada: The Socio-economic Benefits of Sport Participation in Canada—Report August 2005. Sport Canada. http://www.pch.gc.ca/progs/sc/pubs/socio-eco/tab2_tab_e.cfm. Retrieved 2006-07-01. 
  144. ^ "Vancouver 2010". The Vancouver Organizing Committee for the 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games. 2009. http://www.vancouver2010.com/. Retrieved 2009-10-20. 
  145. ^ "Federal Legislation on Official Languages". Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages. 2007. http://www.parl.gc.ca/information/library/prbpubs/938-e.htm. Retrieved 2009-10-20. 
  146. ^ a b "Population by mother tongue, by province and territory". Statistics Canada. 2005-01-27. http://www40.statcan.gc.ca/l01/cst01/demo11a-eng.htm. Retrieved 2010-01-19. 
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  152. ^ Arnopoulos, Sheila McLeod (1982). Voices from French Ontario. McGill-Queen's University Press. pp. 77–81. ISBN 0773504060. 
  153. ^ Fettes, Mark; Norton, Ruth (2001). "Voices of Winter: Aboriginal Languages and Public Policy in Canada". in Marlene Brant Castellano, Lynne Davis, Louise Lahache. Aboriginal education: fulfilling the promise. UBC Press. p. 39. ISBN 0774807830. 
  154. ^ Russell, Peter H (2005). "Indigineous Self-Determination: Is Canada as Good as it Gets?". in Barbara Hocking. Unfinished constitutional business?: rethinking indigenous self-determination. Aboriginal Studies Press. p. 180. ISBN 0855754664. 
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Further reading

History
  • Bumsted, JM (2004). History of the Canadian Peoples. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-541688-0. 
  • Conrad, Margaret; Finkel, Alvin (2003). Canada: A National History. Toronto: Longman. ISBN 0-201-73060-X. 
  • Stewart, Gordon T (1996). History of Canada Before 1867. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press. ISBN 0-87013-398-5. 
Government and law
  • Brooks, Stephen (2000). Canadian Democracy: An Introduction (3rd ed.). Don Mills, ON: Oxford University Press Canada. ISBN 0-19-541503-5. 
  • Dahlitz, Julie (2003). Secession and international law: conflict avoidance – regional appraisals. The Hague: T.M.C. Asser Press. ISBN 90-6704-142-4. 
Foreign relations and military
  • Fox, Annette Baker (1996). Canada in World Affairs. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press. ISBN 0-87013-391-8. 
  • Morton, Desmond; Granatstein, JL (1989). Marching to Armageddon: Canadians and the Great War 1914–1919. Toronto: Lester & Orpen Dennys. ISBN 0-88619-209-9. 
Geography and climate
  • Quentin H. Stanford, ed (2003). Canadian Oxford World Atlas (5th ed.). Toronto: Oxford University Press (Canada). ISBN 0-19-541897-2. 
Economy
  • Innis, Mary Quayle (1943). An Economic History of Canada. Toronto: Ryerson Press. ASIN B0007JFHBQ. ISBN 0802040292. 
  • Marr, William L; Paterson, Donald G (1980). Canada: An Economic History. Toronto: Gage. ISBN 0-7715-5684-5. 
  • Wallace, Iain (2002). A Geography of the Canadian Economy. Don Mills, ON: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-540773-3. 
Demography and statistics
  • Statistics Canada (2001). Canada Year Book. Ottawa: Queen of Canada. ISBN 0-660-18360-9. 
Language
  • "Annual Report – Special Edition". Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages. 2005. .http://www.ocol-clo.gc.ca/docs/e/2004_05_e.pdf.^ Link to Archbishop Baxter's speech on domestic terrorism by CAS agencies http://www.vimeo.com/2071544 .
    • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This story may be read at the link below: http://www.cbc.ca/canada/nova-scotia/story/2007/06/08/cb-childrensaid.html .
    • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A copy of the guide for school officials can be downloaded for review and comment at this link: http://www.canadacourtwatch.com/Studies/SchoolsAndCASGuide.pdf .
    • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

    Retrieved 2009-10-19
    .
     
Culture
  • Resnick, Philip (2005). The European Roots Of Canadian Identity. Peterborough, Ont.: Broadview Press. ISBN 1-55111-705-3. 

External links

.
This audio file was created from a revision dated 2008-01-04, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article.^ This article published in the times in the UK seems to reflect the same problems which the lawyers, the judges and the child protection workers have created right here in Canada.
  • Canada Court Watch Program - Main site index 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canadacourtwatch.com [Source type: Original source]

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Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

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This article is for quotes about Canada.

By Canadians

  • I am proud to be the first member of the Canadian Royal Family to be greeted in Canada's newest Territory.
  • I dedicate myself anew to the people and the nation I am proud to serve.
  • As we enter our centennial year we are still a young nation, very much in the formative stages. Our national condition is still flexible enough that we can make almost anything we wish of our nation. No other country is in a better position than Canada to go ahead with the evolution of a national purpose devoted to all that is good and noble and exellent in the human spirit.
  • Canada is a country whose main exports are hockey players and cold fronts. Our main imports are baseball players and acid rain.
  • We'll explain the appeal of curling to you if you explain the appeal of the National Rifle Association to us.
    • Andy Barrie
  • Canada is like an old cow. The West feeds it. Ontario and Quebec milk it. And you can well imagine what it's doing in the Maritimes.
  • Canadians are the people who learned to live without the bold accents of the natural ego-trippers of other lands.
  • I am so excited about Canadians ruling the world.
  • "If the national mental illness of the United States is megalomania, that of Canada is paranoid schizophrenia."
    • Margaret Atwood
  • "We French & English never lost our civil war/ endure it still/ a bloody civil bore."
    • Earle Birney, "Can. Lit."
  • "I was doing a gig in L.A. and this woman comes up to me and says, 'Are you really from Canada? Oh my God, I could never live there, it's so ... cold!' I'm like, 'Excuse me, is that your house I just saw slide down the cliff? I'll wear an extra sweater!'"
    • Maggie Cassella
  • "We are an ironic people; irony and some sourness is mixed in our nature. It is a matter of climate. We are a northern people."
  • "Canada, having few indigenous prejudices, has been compelled to import them from elsewhere, duty-free, and it is the rare Canadian who is not shaken, at some time in the year, by "old, unhappy, far-off things / And battles long ago", like Wordsworth's solitary reaper. We are a nation of immigrants, and not happy in our minds."
  • "A Canadian is someone who keeps asking the question, 'What is a Canadian?'"
  • "After all, in both languages we were dealing in large measure not with English and French, but with Scots and Irish, Bretons and Normans ... There could be no more eloquent illustration of the colonial mind-set than a bunch of Celts and Vikings in a distant northern territory insulting each other as les Anglais and the French as if they were the descendants of the people who had subjected and ruined them."
  • "Canada is either an idea or it does not exist. It is either an intellectual undertaking or it is little more than a resource-rich vacuum lying in the buffer zone just north of a great empire."
  • "The old cliché about having all your eggs in one basket takes on new meaning with Canada and the United States, because there is something even more wrong about having all your eggs in someone else's basket. It is worse still if that country is much larger than you and worst of all if they don't have all their eggs in your basket. This is not a relationship. It is a dependency. Canada's survival will depend largely on its ability to change that dependency back into a relationship. And one of the key factors in doing that will be the redistribution of our trade. But we can't do that if we have no politicians willing to take the lead."
  • "Canada is the only country in the world where you can buy a book on federal-provincial relations at an airport."
    • Michael Valpy
  • "As Canadian as possible under the circumstances."
    • Heather Scott, winner of a 1972 contest run by Peter Gzowski
  • "Canadians have an abiding interest in surprising those Americans who have historically made little effort to learn about their neighbour to the North."
  • "Canada is a country built against any common, geographic, historic or cultural sense."
  • Canadian nationalism is a subtle, easily misunderstood but powerful reality, expressed in a way that is not to state directed - something like a beer commercial or the death of a significant Canadian figure.
    • Paul Kopas
  • Our hopes are high. Our faith in the people is great. Our courage is strong. And our dreams for this beautiful country will never die.
  • Canada and Mexico, as the saying goes, have one common problem between them.
    • J.C.M. Ogelsby
  • The die is cast in Canada: there are two ethnic and linguistic groups; each is too strong and too deeply rooted in the past, too firmly bound to a mother culture, to be able to swamp the other. But if the two will collaborate inside of a truly pluralist state, Canada could become a privileged place where the federalist form of government, which is the government of tomorrow's world, will be perfected.
  • We shall be Canadians first, foremost, and always, and our policies will be decided in Canada and not dictated by any other country.
    • John G. Diefenbaker
  • Whether we live together in confidence and cohesion; with more faith and pride in ourselves and less self-doubt and hesitation; strong in the conviction that the destiny of Canada is to unite, not divide; sharing in cooperation, not in separation or in conflict; respecting our past and welcoming our future.
  • Canada could have enjoyed:
     English government,
      French culture,
       and American know-how.

    Instead it ended up with:
     English know-how,
      French government,
       and American culture.
  • John Robert Colombo, 1965. Cited in "The Bumper Book of Insults" by Nancy McPhee, Chancellor Press, 1993, p. 108.

By non-Canadians

  • "But if we [Americans] are the rugged individualists, why do we spend so much of our time trying to get everyone to march in lockstep? And if Canadians are so reserved and moderate, why are they so progressive about letting people do what they want to?"
    • Samantha Bennett
  • Canada is today the most successful pluralist society on the face of our globe, without any doubt in my mind.... That is something unique to Canada. It is an amazing global human asset.
  • "I don't even know what street Canada is on."
  • "If aliens invaded Quebec, the U.S. press would give it two inches in the entertainment section."
  • "In a world darkened by ethnic conflicts that tear nations apart, Canada stands as a model of how people of different cultures can live and work together in peace, prosperity, and mutual respect."
  • "Geography has made us (America and Canada) neighbors. History has made us friends. Economics has made us partners. And necessity has made us allies. Those whom nature hath so joined together, let no man put asunder."
  • I want to thank all the Canadians who came out today to wave to me - with all five fingers!
  • As always, Canada will now bury its war dead, just as the rest of the world, as always, will forget its sacrifice, just as it always forgets nearly everything Canada ever does. It seems that Canada's historic mission is to come to the selfless aid both of its friends and of complete strangers, and then, once the crisis is over, to be well and truly ignored. Canada is the perpetual wallflower that stands on the edge of the hall, waiting for someone to come and ask her for a dance.
    • Kevin Myers (The Daily Telegraph, London)
  • Canada is like a loft apartment over a really great party. "Keep it down, eh?"
  • I've been to Canada, and I've always gotten the impression that I could take the country over in about two days.
  • I love this country (Canada). We could not have a better friend and ally"
French: A few acres of snow.
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Up to date as of January 14, 2010