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Canadair CL-41 Tutor: Wikis

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CL-41 Tutor
Snowbirds flying the Canadair Tutor c.2005
Role Trainer, Ground-attack aircraft
Manufacturer Canadair
First flight 13 September 1960
Retired 2000 as Canadian Forces trainer but small numbers are currently in flying condition for testing and aerobatic demonstration
Primary users Canadian Forces
Royal Canadian Air Force
Royal Malaysian Air Force
Produced 1963–1966
Number built 212

The Canadair CL-41, designated the CT-114 Tutor in Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) and later unified Canadian Forces use, is a jet trainer aircraft designed and built by Canadair. Ordered in September 1961, the aircraft went on to serve as the Canadian Forces primary jet trainer until 2000, when it was replaced by the CT-155 Hawk and CT-156 Harvard II. The CL-41G supplied to Malaysia was built as a ground-attack aircraft.

The Tutor is perhaps best recognized as the aircraft used by the Snowbirds airshow team.

Contents

Design and development

The CL-41 design was the product of the Canadair Preliminary Design department led by Roy Dishlevoy, Joe Knapp, Fred Philips, Bob Ross and Bob Werett.[1] The design incorporated a turbojet-powered, low wing monoplane with a tricycle undercarriage and a T-type tail assembly. The flying controls are manual with spring tabs. The cabin, closed by a bubble-type canopy, can be pressurised to a differential of 3 psi (20 kPa), the equivalent of about 2,000 m of altitude. It was designed to be a side-by-side trainer for providing elementary jet flight training and other training to an advanced level. The prototype first flew on 13 September 1960.

One critical area of design was the positioning of the fin. The CL-41 was intended to demonstrate spin recovery. If the fin is too far forward, spin can not be initiated, but if it is too far aft, recovery becomes impossible. Model tests were done to find the optimum position. The original Tutor wind-tunnel model had a cruciform tail, which was revised to the T-tail design by removing the portion above the horizontal stabilizer.

Operational history

CL-41G prototype
CT-114 Tutor of 2 Canadian Forces Flying Training School at CFB Moose Jaw in the spring of 1982
CT-114 Tutors belonging to 2 Canadian Forces Flying Training School parked on the ramp at CFB Moose Jaw, 1982

In September 1961 the Canadian government ordered 190 examples of the production variant, CL-41A for the RCAF as the CT-114 Tutor. For over 30 years, the Tutor, known affectionately as "Toot" in RCAF and CF use, served as a primary trainer. In 1976, the Canadian Forces modified 113 survivors with provision for two external fuel tanks (drop tanks) and upgraded avionics.

The company also developed an armament training and light attack variant, the CL-41G, with an uprated engine and underwing hard points to allow the carriage of external stores (up to 4,000 lb (1814 kg) of weapons) and drop tanks. In March 1966, the Royal Malaysian Air Force ordered 20 (serials M-22-01 to M22-11) CL-41G-5 Tebuan (which means "Wasp" in the Malay language) aircraft as "Counterinsurgency" (COIN) aircraft . The Tebuan entered service in Malaysia in 1967, serving for over 20 years, before being phased out in June 1986 and replaced by the Aermacchi MB-339A.

One other variant was developed, the CL-41R which was fitted with an F-104 Starfighter nose as a proposed electronic systems trainer for future RCAF CF-104 pilots. The R model never went into production.

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Aerobatics

CT-114 Tutor of the Canadian Snowbirds display team

In 1967, 10 Tutors were modified for use as a formation aerobatic aircraft by the RCAF (and later the unified Canadian Forces) display team, the Golden Centennaires to celebrate Canada's Centennial year. The display team was later disbanded but, a few years later, 431 Air Demonstration Squadron was reactivated as the nine-aircraft team, the "Snowbirds," who continue to perform at air shows and special events including the annual flypast on Canada Day over the capital city, Ottawa.

Modifications for the Snowbirds include: a smoke generating system, a unique paint scheme for added crowd appeal, and a highly tuned engine to enhance engine response in low level flying.

Variants

Tutor prototype on display at Southport Aerospace, Manitoba in Golden Centennaires livery
CL-41
Two prototypes, CF-LTW-X and CF-LTX-X used for company engineering and testing program
CL-41A
A total of 190 trainers produced for RCAF and CF use as the CT-114. A number were modified with smoke generating systems and other modifications for the Snowbirds aerobatic team
CL-41G
Unique version for the Royal Malayan Air Force (RMAF). A total of 20 ground-attack variants, known as the "Tebuan" in service with RMAF.
CL-41R
One conversion of CF-LTX-X with a CF-104 nose grafted on to demonstrate the use of CF-104/F-104G radar and avionics; no production examples were built.

Operators

 Canada
 Malaysia

Survivors

Although the CL-41 Tutor has been retired from active training, 22 Tutors continue to fly with the Canadian Forces with the Snowbirds and the Aerospace Engineering Test Establishment at CFB Cold Lake. A number of airframes are held in reserve for future deployment as replacement Snowbird mounts.

Today, at least five CL-41s fly as civilian aircraft, including one Tebuan. The original prototype, CF-LTW-X is displayed as a "gate guardian" at Southport Aerospace at the former CFB Portage la Prairie. while the CL-41R, CF-LTX-X, is now part of the Reynolds-Alberta Museum in Wetaskiwin, Alberta.

A CL-41G was given to Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University in Daytona Beach, Florida by John Travolta in 2001.[2] It has yet to be determined what will become of this aircraft; however, it will never fly again, due to extensive mechanical problems.

Specifications (CL-41A - CT-114)

Data from Macdonald Aircraft Handbook[3]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 2
  • Length: 32 ft 0 in (9.75 m)
  • Wingspan: 36 ft 4 in (11.07 m)
  • Height: 9 ft 4.5 in (2.86 m)
  • Wing area: 220 sq ft (18.58 sq m)
  • Empty weight: 4,840 lb (2,195 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 7,348 lb (3,333 kg)
  • Max takeoff weight: 11,000 lbs (5,000 kg)
  • Powerplant:Orenda J85-CAN-40 turbojet, 2,650 lbf (11.8 kN)

Performance

Armament

No armament, but the Tutor can carry external fuel tanks.

See also

Comparable aircraft

Related lists

References

Notes
  1. ^ Dishlevoy 2005, p. 8-10.
  2. ^ Ross, Bob. "John Travolta Donates Jet to Embry-Riddle." Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, November 2001. Retrieved: 6 September 2009.
  3. ^ Green 1965, p. 470.
Bibliography
  • Dishlevoy, Roy W. "Hatching the Snowbirds: The Canadair CL-41/CT-114 Tutor, Its Early History Remembered." CAHS Journal, Vol, 45, No. 1, Spring 2007.
  • Green, William. Macdonald Aircraft Handbook. London. Macdonald & Co. (Publishers) Ltd., 1964.
  • Molson, Ken M. and Taylor, Harold A. Canadian Aircraft Since 1909. Stittsville, Ontario: Canada's Wings, Inc., 1982. ISBN 0-920002-11-0.
  • Pickler, Ron and Milberry, Larry. Canadair: The First 50 Years. Toronto: Canav Books, 1995. ISBN 0-921022-07-7.

External links


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