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"MARCOM" redirects here. For the historical (1936–1950) U.S. agency, see United States Maritime Commission.
Maple Leaf (from roundel).svg  Maritime Command
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Components
Maritime Forces Atlantic
Maritime Forces Pacific
Naval Reserve Headquarters
History
Royal Canadian Navy
Military History of Canada
Ships
Current Fleet
Historic Ships
Her Majesty's Canadian Ship
Bases
CFB Halifax (Atlantic)
CFB Esquimalt (Pacific)
 

Canadian Forces Maritime Command (MARCOM), also known as the Canadian Navy, is the maritime force of the Canadian Forces. While equal in rank and position, The Chief of the Maritime Staff takes precedence over the Chiefs of the Land and Air Staffs following the tradition of the Royal Navy.

MARCOM is the descendant of the Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) which was Canada's naval service from 1910 until 1 February 1968. Prior to 1910, the Royal Navy provided the maritime defence of Canada. In 1968, the RCN was merged with the army and air force to form the Canadian Armed Forces. MARCOM's ships are commissioned as Her Majesty's Canadian ships, and the initialism HMCS designates them as the ships of Her Majesty's Canadian Armed Forces. As of 2008, there were 33 warships including 4 submarines, 9,000 regular force sailors in MARCOM[1] and 4,000 reserve sailors.[2]

With its headquarters in Ottawa, Ontario, MARCOM has command and control of three formations:

  • Maritime Forces Atlantic (MARLANT) comprises the Canadian Fleet Atlantic, and has responsibility for Canada's Atlantic Area of Responsibility including the eastern Arctic. MARLANTHQ is based at CFB Halifax in Halifax, Nova Scotia.
  • Maritime Forces Pacific (MARPAC) comprises the Canadian Fleet Pacific and has responsibility for Canada's Pacific Area of Responsibility that includes the Western half of the Canadian Arctic. MARPACHQ is based at CFB Esquimalt near Victoria, British Columbia.
  • The third formation is the Naval Reserve Headquarters (NAVRESHQ), located at the Pointe-a-Carcy Naval Complex, in Quebec City, Quebec, responsible for 24 Naval Reserve Divisions across the country. The base is also home to Canadian Forces Fleet School Quebec and HMCS Montcalm

Contents

History

For history before 1968, see Royal Canadian Navy.

MARCOM was formed on 1 February 1968 following the amalgamation of the three branches of the Canadian military — the Royal Canadian Navy, the Canadian Army, and the Royal Canadian Air Force. The headquarters for MARCOM was based at CFB Halifax, alongside its regional subsidiary MARLANT.

Canadian sailors exchanged their RCN uniforms for a rifle-green uniform common to all services (known as "CF green") and adopted an army-based rank structure. Only cap and collar badges identified "naval" personnel. These policies were somewhat reversed in the 1970s when MARCOM returned to a naval-based rank structure. In 1987 the Canadian Armed Forces introduced its Distinctive Environmental Uniforms (DEUs) for its three environmental commands. The new naval uniform was broadly similar to the former RCN uniform except that officers' uniforms contained six rather than eight buttons on the front of the tunic and the "square rig" for other ranks was not re-introduced. In addition, the executive curl on officers' rank insignia was omitted and the rank insignia of other ranks continued to follow the pattern used by the army.

The 1968 unification of the Canadian Armed Forces was the first time a nation with a modernized military had combined sea, land, and air branches into a unified-command structure. The move also saw the fleet air arm of the RCN become the Maritime Air Group. These air units were eventually placed under the Canadian Forces Air Command (AIRCOM) after that command was created in 1975.

In the mid-1990s, MARCOM headquarters were consolidated from Halifax at NDHQ in Ottawa at the same time that AIRCOM headquarters moved from Winnipeg and LFC headquarters moved from Saint-Hubert, Quebec.

Re-structure

HMCS Toronto

Following the 1968 unification, MARCOM undertook several changes to its force structure. The sole remaining aircraft carrier, HMCS Bonaventure (CVL 22), was nearing the end of her service life, being a Second World War–era vessel. In the early 1970s, it was decided to pay Bonaventure off and not find a replacement, instead focusing on the traditional blue-water navy.

The fleet was enhanced in 1972 with the addition of the four new Iroquois-class destroyers, also known as the Tribal class. By the mid-1970s, the navy was looking at a new class of frigate-helicopter (FH) vessels to replace the aging St. Laurent, Restigouche, Mackenzie, and Annapolis classes. This design evolved into the Canadian Patrol Frigate (CPF), which was promised by the government in the early 1980s during a period of increased military spending. By the late 1980s, with construction of the first six vessels underway (by now called the Halifax-class frigates), construction of six further vessels was announced. Nine of the twelve CPF vessels were built at Saint John, New Brunswick, and the remaining three were built at Lauzon, Quebec.

The mid-1980s saw the announcement of the Tribal Update and Modernization Program (TRUMP), which saw the four early-1970s Iroquois-class destroyers updated into area air-defence destroyers. The update saw these vessels become the first non-US ships to carry the Standard SM-2 anti-aircraft missile.

The 1990s saw the addition of the Kingston-class coastal defence vessels which enhanced MARCOM's minesweeping and route survey capabilities. Manned by naval reservists, the Kingston-class is also used for training.

Action post-1968

MARCOM provides vessels for Standing Naval Force Atlantic and for exercises off Norway in support of Canada's defence obligations for northern Scandinavia under the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), patrols the north Atlantic and Pacific oceans in support of Canadian sovereignty, and is tasked by NATO with anti-submarine patrols for the northwest Atlantic.

In August–September 1990, MARCOM hurriedly modernized and deployed the Restigouche-class destroyer escort HMCS Terra Nova (DDE 259), the Iroquois-class destroyer HMCS Athabaskan (DDH 282), and the supply ship HMCS Protecteur (AOR 509) to the Persian Gulf in support of Operation Desert Shield and later Operation Desert Storm, where these vessels were involved in escort duties of various coalition naval forces and non-combatants.

During the mid to late 1990s, MARCOM provided vessels for a NATO task force patrolling the Adriatic Sea off the former Yugoslavia. As part of Operation Apollo, Canada's military contribution to the international campaign against terrorism, 20 MARCOM vessels have been patrolling in the Arabian Sea in recent years.

Today's fleet

The current fleet contains thirty-three ships and submarines plus many more supply and support vessels. The fleet is roughly evenly split between the Atlantic and Pacific commands with the Atlantic housing the larger of the two fleets. MARCOM participates in NATO exercises, and ships are deployed all over the world in support of the Canadian military and in conjunction with multinational deployments.

Approximately 38 aircraft support MARCOM operations are operated by AIRCOM and report through 1 Canadian Air Division:

Ships of Maritime Command

Class or name Builder Type Quantity Year Entered Service Details
Halifax Saint John Shipbuilding, MIL-Davie Shipbuilding, Saint John, New Brunswick,  Canada frigate 12 1992–1996 The backbone of MARCOM, the twelve Halifax-class frigates carry the Sea King helicopters of the Air Force as well as anti-submarine torpedoes and anti-aircraft and anti-ship missiles. Frigate Life Extension (FELEX) to start sometime after 2007
Iroquois MIL-Davie Shipbuilding, Lauzon, Quebec,  Canada destroyer 3 1972–1973 Area-air-defence and command-and-control destroyers with Sea King helicopters, refitted in the 1990s from anti-submarine role.
Kingston Halifax Shipyards, Halifax, Nova Scotia,  Canada patrol 12 1996–1999 Training, Coastal surveillance, general naval operations and exercises, search and rescue, law enforcement, resource protection, fisheries patrols and mine countermeasure capabilities.
Orca Victoria Shipyards, Esquimalt, British Columbia,  Canada patrol/training 8 2006–2008 Training and inshore patrol.
Protecteur Saint John Shipbuilding, Saint John, New Brunswick,  Canada auxiliary 2 1969–1970 At-sea resupply of frigates and destroyers and medical support. Ships to be replaced by the Joint Support Ships. However, this project is now delayed.
Victoria Vickers Shipbuilding and Engineering Ltd and Cammell Laird, Birkenhead,  United Kingdom submarine 4 2000–2004 Diesel-electric hunter-killer submarines with long-range patrol capability. Originally commissioned into the Royal Navy from 1989 to 1993, but transferred to the Canadian Forces from 2000. The complete fleet are in dry dock for reparation and modernization. Since 2000, they have not fired torpedoes.
HMCS Oriole (KC 480) George Lawly & Sons, Boston, USA Sailing Ketch 1 1921 Sail Training Ship. Oldest Commissioned ship in the Canadian Navy.

Auxiliary vessels

Canadian Forces auxiliary vessels (CFAV) are not armed or part of the regular fleet in the Canadian Forces. These ships operated within the port areas in maritime command area in the Pacific and Atlantic coasts.

Class or name Builder Type Quantity Year entered service Details
Fire class - Fire boat 2 - The Fire class though a tugboat is actually used as a dedicated fire and rescue boat with three nozzles to spray water or foam.
Ville class - Harbour tug 5 - The navy auxiliary operates 5 Ville-class tugs, which are operated as harbour tugs.
Glenn class - Harbour tug 5 - Two Glen-class YTBs or heavy harbour tugs are based in BC, three in NS.
YTM Tug Tillicum - Harbour tug 1 - Is a lone medium harbour tugs (YTM) based at Esquimalt.
YDT dive tenders - Diving tender 2 - YDT 11 and YDT 12 Granby (called D.T. 11 and D.T. 12 sometimes) are two medium-sized diver tenders. YDT 11 is based at Esquimalt (Colwood) and the Granby at Halifax.
Sechelt class Torpedo sound range vessels 4 1991 YDT Sechelt and Sooke are two diving tender conversions of Sechelt-class TSRV torpedo sound range vessels found to be surplus to Nanoose Bay range needs.

Aircraft

Since 2 September 1975, all air force functions are assumed by the Canadian Forces Air Command element of the Canadian Forces. Although Maritime Command does not have any aircraft, the Canadian Forces are a unified organization and the following list details the Air Command aircraft operated in maritime roles.

Aircraft Country of manufacture Type Canadian designation In service Notes
SH-3 Sea King Sikorsky  United States
United Aircraft  Canada
Shipborne anti-submarine, search and rescue helicopter on destroyers and frigates CH-124 Sea King 27 Delivered 1963 to Royal Canadian Navy; assigned from Air Command to be replaced by CH-148 Cyclone
P-3 Orion Lockheed  United States Strategic airborne anti-submarine warfare aircraft with surface-surveillance capability CP-140 Aurora 18 Purchased 1980; assigned from Air Command
P-3 Orion Lockheed  United States Strategic airborne surface-surveillance aircraft CP-140A Arcturus 3 Airframes purchased in 1991; assigned from Air Command
Sikorsky H-92 Superhawk Sikorsky Aircraft  United States Shipborne, anti-submarine warfare, search and rescue helicopter on destroyers and frigates CH-148 Cyclone 28 Project delayed; delivery from 2010

Decommissioned fleet

Class or name Type Builder Quantity Year Entered Service Details
St. Laurent class escort destroyers  Canada
Canadian Vickers, Montreal
Halifax Shipyards, Halifax NS
Burrard, Vancouver, BC
Yarrows, Esquimalt, BC
Marine Industries Limited, Sorel, Quebec
7 1955–1994 all but 2 scrapped; Saguenay (Nova Scotia) and Assiniboine (Caribbean) were sunk as artificial reefs
Mackenzie class escort destroyers  Canada
Canadian Vickers, Montreal
4 1962–1994 3 were sunk with 2 as artificial reefs; Qu'Appelle's status is unknown
Restigouche class escort destroyers  Canada
Davie Shipbuilding, Lauzon, Quebec
Halifax Shipyards, Halifax NS
Burrard Dry Dock, North Vancouver, BC
Victoria Machinery Depot, Victoria, BC
7 1958–1997 St Croix was scapped, Gatineau and Terra Nova are laid up in Halifax and rest sunk as reefs
Iroquois class escort destroyers  Canada
MIL Davie Shipbuilding, Lauzon, Quebec
1 – HMCS Huron (DDH 281) 1970–2005 Sunk as a target ship by US and Canadian ships off the coast of BC in 2007
Oberon class diesel electric submarine  United Kingdom
Vickers-Armstrongs, Barrow-in-Furness
3 (+2 spares) 1964–2000 one sold to a museum in Rimouski, Quebec, 3 others laid-up at Dartmouth jetty, across from main naval base
Tench class diesel electric submarine  United States
Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, Kittery, Maine
1 ( USS Argonaut (SS-475) renamed as HMCS Rainbow(S-75) ) 1968–1974 status unknown
Provider class AOR (oiler replinishing ship)  Canada
Davie Shipbuilding, Lauzon, Quebec
1 – HMCS Provider (AOR 508) 1963–2003 sold as barge and latter scrapped
N/A ASL  Italy
Aspa Quarto
1 – HMCS Cormorant (ASL 20) 1978–1997
Annapolis class escort destroyers  Canada
Marine Industries Limited, Sorel, Quebec
2 1964–1997 both sunk; Annapolis is a reef and Nipigon sunk in Quebec
Majestic class light aircraft carrier  United Kingdom
Harland and Wolff, Belfast
1 – HMCS Bonaventure (CVL 22) 1957–1970 scrapped in Taiwan
Cape class escort maintenance  Canada
Allied Shipbuilders Ltd., Vancouver, BC
2 1959–1970 status unknown
N/A escort hydrofoil Frigate  Canada
Marine Industries Limited, Sorel, Quebec
de Havilland Canada, Toronto, Ontario
1 – HMCS Bras d'Or (FHE 400) 1970s now at Musée Maritime du Québec
Glen-Class I tugs tug 4 – Glendevon, Glenevis WWII ships
YBZ-61 vacuum ship 1
Saint Class Deep Sea Tugs ocean tug Saint John Dry Dock, Saint John, NB 1957  Canada 3 – St. Anthony ATA 531, St. John ATA 532, St.Charles ATA 533 stricken beginning in 1972
Naval Research Vessel 1 – CFAV Endeavour 1968–1998
Submersible 1 - SDL-1 SDL-1; built by International Hydrodynamics Corporation of Vancouver, BC 1971-1998 sold in 1998

Retired aircraft

Aircraft Country of Manufacture Type Canadian Designation In Service Notes
F2H Banshee McDonnell Douglas  United States carrier based jet fighter N/A – F2H-3 39; 34 on carrier HMCS Bonaventure ex-United States Navy delivered 1955–1958; retired 1962
S-2 Tracker Sikorsky Aircraft  United States Anti-submarine warfare aircraft CS-2F Tracker 99 delivery 1956–1957; all carrier based aircraft were transferred to land operations after 1970
Sikorsky H-19 "Horse" Sikorsky Aircraft  United States plane guard helicopter H04S-3 2? acquired 1956; retired 1967 and replaced by CH-124 Sea King (till 1970)

Weapons

Shipborne

Aircraft

Air operations

Though the former RCN had its own aircraft, after unification shipboard helicopters came under "air force" control, and Naval Air Squadrons were renumbered in the former RCAF 400-series, with the exceptions of VU-32, VU-33, and 880 Squadron. Shipboard helicopter operations continue in this fashion, with Helicopter Air Detachments (HELAIRDETs) being staffed by Air Command personnel in air force-style DEU's.

Submarines

The 1987 military review highlighted Canada's limited capability to enforce sovereignty on its Arctic coast. It was therefore announced that MARCOM would receive a fleet of 10 to 12 nuclear-powered attack submarines (SSN) suitable for operating for extended periods under the Arctic ice. The proposed SSN fleet would force any nation, friend or foe, to possibly think twice before using Canada's territorial seas in the Arctic for operating nuclear submarines. During 1987–1988, MARCOM examined several British and French SSN designs. The planned procurement, however, was cancelled in 1988–1989 during a time of increased defence cuts.

In 1998, the Canadian government made a deal with the United Kingdom to acquire four mothballed, but state-of-the-art Upholder-class diesel-electric submarines that were declared surplus when the Royal Navy's decided to operate only nuclear-powered submarines such as the Trafalgar-class boats. The Royal and U.S. navies considered the Upholders too valuable and technologically advanced to allow them to fall into the hands of a non-allied nation. Therefore Canada was encouraged through significant discounts to acquire the Upholders. The four submarines were eventually purchased after much foot-dragging by the federal government for $750 million CAD.

The transaction was supposed to have included some reciprocal rights for British forces to continue using CFB Suffield for armoured-unit training and CFB Goose Bay for low-level flight training, while Canada received four well-built and very lightly used high-technology submarines to replace the 1960s-era Oberon class. (It was later revealed that there were no reciprocal rights. It was a plain lease-to-buy arrangement.) After an update program which took longer than expected the Upholders are being successfully reactivated following a decade of mothballing and are now being integrated into the Canadian navy as the Victoria class. Four boats will allow MARPAC to deploy a submarine in the Pacific for the first time in four decades.

The four submarines and their former Royal Navy names:

A naval investigation was conducted into a fatal fire aboard HMCS Chicoutimi which killed an officer and injured several other personnel during its maiden voyage from Faslane Naval Base, Scotland, to Halifax in October 2004. The investigation focused on two hatches that were left open during repairs, thus allowing seawater inside while the submarine was on the surface in a period of rough weather, as well as faulty insulation for wires and a panel near the commanding officer's cabin. The wires were insulated using an older water-resistance specification than the other Victoria-class boats, because it was older than the other three. The other three Victoria-class boats were placed on restricted duty for several weeks following the fire and during the period of investigation.

The investigation found that a series of unexpected circumstances led to the tragedy.[3] No blame was placed on the commanding officer, as it was decided he was reasonable in allowing both hatches to be left open for the repairs. Running with both hatches open was common on the Oberon-class boats. Recommendations include improved water-resistant insulation for electrical wires, improved firefighting training, and a change of operational procedures that will no longer allow a submarine to operate on the surface with both hatches open. The widow of the officer killed, in writing, accepted the findings of the investigation.

Future

HMCS Algonquin and HMCS Regina

Maritime-helicopter replacement

Although aviation assets are the responsibility of Canadian Forces Air Command (AIRCOM) since unification, the political fiasco surrounding the maritime-helicopter replacement has had a major impact on the ability of the Canadian patrol frigates to deliver their expected capabilities. In 1993, the Maritime Helicopter Program, which had selected the AgustaWestland EH101 as a replacement for the aging CH-124 Sea King, was cancelled by incoming Prime Minister Jean Chrétien in an infamous decision that dogged his government for over a decade. Chrétien's government did end up ordering fifteen CH-149 Cormorants, a slightly cheaper version of the EH101, for search-and-rescue services, however it took until July 2004 for a replacement of the now-ancient Sea Kings to be announced. The Sea Kings will be replaced with the CH-148 Cyclone, with delivery expected commence in 2010.

Current and future programs

Joint support ships

In the late 1990s, one of the fleet's three underway-replenishment vessels, HMCS Provider, was paid off. The remaining two supply ships, HMCS Preserver and HMCS Protecteur, were showing their age, and MARCOM began studies into designing a new class of underway-replenishment and naval sealift-capable vessels.

On 16 April 2004, Prime Minister Paul Martin announced plans to purchase three new joint support ships (JSS) to replace the Protecteur-class underway-replenishment vessels. In addition to supporting naval operations, the new ships will be able to transport a battlegroup — a capability Canada's navy has lacked since the departure of the light carrier HMCS Bonaventure in 1970. The new ships will also have reinforced hulls enabling them to sail in the Arctic. The requirement for three JSSes was re-affirmed in June 2006 by the newly elected Conservative government, which issued the request for proposal. In November 2006, two industry teams were selected to provide a proposal. One of these teams was to be awarded the implementation contract in 2008. The first of the 28,000-tonne vessels was scheduled to be delivered in 2012. As of August 22, 2008, the JSS Program has been suspended due to cost. The Protecteur Class will have their service lives extended beyond 2012 while a suitable replacement is found.[4]

Amphibious assault vessels

In the first months of 2005, senior members of the Canadian Forces and the government examined the possibility of purchasing two new or used Future Canadian Amphibious Assault Ship in keeping with the government's commitment to developing greater joint capability in the Canadian Forces. This was apparently not connected to the Joint Support Ship project. According to the Délégation générale pour l’armement (DGA), the Canadian Forces Maritime Command and DND might show an interest in the French built Mistral class amphibious assault ship [5] The ship might carry a significantly large military force with equipment and vehicles in 'fighting order,' enabling the CF to face armed opposition ashore. The Future Canadian Amphibious Assault Ship [6] could be able to rapidly disembark personnel and equipment in 'waves' using 'connector systems' such as landing craft and/or helicopters. The ship would be able to offload equipment and personnel in the face of armed opposition. They could also be used as large hospital ships and support humanitarian operations.

However, while the military may have shown interest in this vessel, it is not an approved Government procurement project as outlined in the Canada First Defence Strategy [7].

Orca-class training vessels

The program to replace the navy's wooden YAG vessels with twelve modern steel training / patrol vessels (the Orca program) is complete and was contracted by Victoria Shipyards Limited. The first ship, PCT (Patrol Craft, Training) 55 Orca was accepted by the navy at CFB Esquimalt on November 17, 2006.[8]

Polar Class 5 Arctic offshore patrol ships

On July 9, 2007, Prime Minister Stephen Harper announced the construction of up to eight Polar Class PC-5 Arctic Offshore Patrol Ships and the establishment of a deep water port in the far North.

These new Polar Class 5 Arctic Patrol Ships will be built in Canada.[9][10 ][11]: The CBC reported that the vessels "...are expected to be based on the Royal Norwegian Navy's Svalbard class design". With steel-reinforced hulls, they will be capable of operating in ice up to one metre thick, and each vessel will also be equipped with a helicopter landing pad. They will be able to patrol the length of the Northwest Passage during the summer navigable season and its approaches year-round, and will also be capable of full operations on the east and west coasts throughout the year. Critics have noted that the vessels are less capable than the three larger icebreakers Prime Minister Stephen Harper announced in 2006 most notably the Navy League of Canada which described the 25-millimetre gun as a "peashooter"[12].

While recent press reports have suggested that the navy offshore/arctic patrol vessel program has been postponed,[12] when they do proceed, Nanisivik Naval Facility, a deep-water port to be constructed at Nanisivik, Nunavut will allow the patrol ships to resupply and refuel.[13][14 ]

Other

The Halifax-class Frigate Life Extension (FELEX) program has been established and a contract was awarded to Lockheed Martin. It is believed that introduction of the active phased array radar (APAR) that the Canadian Forces developed with the Dutch navy will not be undertaken during FELEX due to the weight of the system and stability considerations. Canada is considering a 4-to-10 vessel replacement program for the Iroquois-class destroyers, likely involving the use of APAR. To save money, the replacement classes for the Iroquois- and Halifax-class ships will have identical hulls and propulsion systems. Canada plans to upgrade her Frigates with a missile guidance system for sea to sea and sea to air missiles. There is also the possibility of arming the sea king replacements with anti ship missiles.

A mid-life upgrade program for the Kingston-class patrol vessels appeared on a list of the Chief of the Maritime Staff's project priorities, but was cancelled. The Government has plans (outlined in the Canada First Defence Strategy), to replace the Iroquois class destroyer with the Canadian Single Class Surface Combatant. The Department of National Defence has not identified a procurement timeframe for the Iroquois replacements, although it has been reported that design work is underway and a project office and personnel have been assigned.

Senior leadership

Commanders of Maritime Command

  1. Vice Admiral J.C. O'Brien 1968–1970
  2. Vice Admiral Henry A. Porter 1970–1971
  3. Rear Admiral Robert W. Timbrell 1971–1973
  4. Vice Admiral D.S. Boyle 1973–1977
  5. Vice Admiral A.L Collier 1977–1979
  6. Vice Admiral J. Allan 1979–1980
  7. Vice Admiral J.A. Fulton 1980–1983
  8. Vice Admiral James C. Wood 1983–1987
  9. Vice Admiral Charles M. Thomas 1987–1989
  10. Vice Admiral Robert E. George 1989–1991
  11. Vice Admiral (later Admiral) John Rogers Anderson 1991–1992
  12. Vice Admiral Peter W. Cairns 1992–1994
  13. Vice Admiral Larry Murray 1994–1995
  14. Vice Admiral Lynn Mason 1995–1997

Chiefs of the Maritime Staff

  1. Vice Admiral Gary Garnett 1997–1997
  2. Vice Admiral Greg R. Maddison 1997–2001
  3. Vice Admiral Ron D. Buck 2001–2004
  4. Vice Admiral M. Bruce McLean 2004–2006
  5. Vice Admiral Drew W. Robertson 2006–2009
  6. Vice Admiral P. Dean McFadden 2009-

Rank structure

NATO Code OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 OF(D) Student Officer
Canada Canada (Edit) No Equivalent No Equivalent
Admiral
Amiral
Vice-Admiral
Vice-amiral
Rear-Admiral
Contre-amiral
Commodore
Commodore
Captain
Capitaine de vaisseau
Commander
Capitaine de frégate
Lieutenant-Commander
Capitaine de corvette
Lieutenant
lieutenant de vaisseau
Sub-Lieutenant
Enseigne de vaisseau de 1re classe
Acting Sub-Lieutenant
Enseigne de vaisseau de 2e classe
Naval Cadet
Aspirant de marine
NATO Code OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1
Canada Canada
(Edit)
No Insignia
Chief Petty Officer 1st Class
Premier maître de 1re classe
Chief Petty Officer 2nd Class
Premier maître de 2e classe
Petty Officer 1st Class
Maître de 1re classe
Petty Officer 2nd Class
Maître de 2e classe
Master Seaman
Matelot-chefe classe
Leading Seaman
Matelot de 1re classe
Able Seaman
Matelot de 2e classe
Ordinary Seaman
matelot de 3e classe
No Equivalent

Ceremonies

Governor General Michaëlle Jean acting in the Queen's name as Commander-in-Chief of the Canadian Forces and wears the naval variation of the post's uniform while presenting the newly consecrated Queen's Colour to the Canadian Forces Maritime Command, 27 June 2009.

The Queen's or King's Ceremonial colours (also referred to as the Sovereign's Colour) for the navy has been presented/consecrated 4 times:

The colours consists of a ceremonial standard with the Maple Leaf flag in the top left canton, the monarch's Royal Cypher for Canada (a capital E on a blue background, surrounded by gold maple leaves surmounted by a crown) and an anchor (from Maritime Command's naval jack) on the lower right fly. These elements are found on the 1979 and 2009 colours. The colours from 1959 and 1939 consisted of a Royal Navy white ensign with the Queen's or King's cipher in the middle.

The use of the service colours of the Royal Navy were granted to the RCN in 1925. Two service colours were sent to Halifax and Esquimalt. In 1937 they were retired ,and new colours sent. The official presentation of the King's Colour was not completed until 1939.

The Canadian Forces Maritime Command's retired colours are laid up at Beechwood Cemetery in Ottawa, Ontario.

Source: [1]

See also

References

  1. ^ CBC News (April 21, 2008). "Canadian Forces in the 21st century." CBC.ca In Depth. Retrieved on: 2009-05-28.
  2. ^ http://www.navy.forces.gc.ca/navres/0/0-n_eng.asp?category=154
  3. ^ HMCS Chicoutimi Board of Enquiry website
  4. ^ "Welcome to PMO JSS". Canadian Department of National Defence. May 16, 2007. http://www.forces.gc.ca/admmat/dgmepm/pmojss/index_e.asp. Retrieved July 10, 2007.  
  5. ^ Canadian Forces Maritime Command and DND might show an interest in the French made the Mistral Class
  6. ^ Future Canadian Amphibious Assault Ship and Joint Support Ship
  7. ^ Department of National Defence "Canada First Defence Strategy"
  8. ^ Pam Lloyd (November 27, 2006). "Navy welcomes Orca to Pacific Fleet". Lookout. http://www.lookoutnewspaper.com/archive/20061127/3.shtml. Retrieved 2007-07-10.  
  9. ^ "Arctic patrol vessels approved by committee". CBC. May 13, 2007. http://www.cbc.ca/canada/story/2007/05/13/arctic-patrol.html. Retrieved 2007-07-10.  
  10. ^ "Background — Armed Icebreaker / OPV — Norway’s K/V Svalbard". Canadian American Strategic Review. July 9, 2007. http://www.sfu.ca/casr/bg-icebreaker-svalbard.htm. Retrieved July 10, 2007.  
  11. ^ Doug Thomas. "Canadian Naval Arctic Patrol Vessels". Canadian Naval Review. http://naval.review.cfps.dal.ca/forum/topic2.php. Retrieved July 10, 2007.  
  12. ^ a b . CBC. June 17, 2009. http://www.cbc.ca/canada/story/2009/06/17/arctic-patrol-boats-northern-strategy-postponed452.html#socialcomments. Retrieved 2009-06-17.  
  13. ^ "Ottawa buying up to 8 Arctic patrol ships". CBC. July 9, 2007. http://www.cbc.ca/canada/story/2007/07/09/arctic-cda.html. Retrieved 2007-07-10.  
  14. ^ "B.C. firm wins design contract for Arctic naval port". CBC News. November 26, 2009. http://www.cbc.ca/canada/north/story/2009/11/26/nanisivik-contract.html. Retrieved 11 December 2009.  

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