Canadian Recording Industry Association: Wikis

  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Canadian Recording Industry Association is a Toronto-based, non-profit trade organization that was founded 9 April 1963 to represent the interests of companies that record, manufacture and market sound recordings in Canada.[1] Originally formed as the 10-member Canadian Record Manufacturer's Association, the association changed its name in 1972 and opened membership to other record industry companies.[2]

CRIA is governed by a board of directors who are elected annually by CRIA members. To be eligible for election a candidate for the board must be among the executive officers of the member companies. Graham Henderson of Universal Music Canada has been president since 15 November 2004; Brian Robertson previously held the position from 1974.[3]

Members are divided into 3 classes[2]:

  • Class A members are Canadian individuals or companies whose principal business is producing, manufacturing, or marketing sound recordings. These members hold voting rights, and currently consist of the "big four" record labels.[4]
  • Class B members are Canadian individuals or companies whose principal business is producing sound recordings. These members pay a $600 annual membership fee but have no voting rights. As of 2007, there were 22 class B members.[4]
  • Manufacturing Division members are Canadian individuals or companies whose principal business is manufacturing sound recordings.

Contents

Album certifications

The CRIA provides "certifications" for album sales, similar to the RIAA's. The certification levels for albums released after May 1, 2008 are:

  • Gold: 40,000 units (previously 50,000)
  • Platinum: 80,000 units (previously 100,000)
  • Diamond: 800,000 units (previously 1,000,000) [5]

Note: Multi-Platinum certification refers to albums that have sold 160,000 units or more (i.e. 160,000 is double Platinum) but have not yet sold 800,000 units (Diamond certification).

Other services

The CRIA is responsible for the distribution of [ISRC] registrant codes within Canada, and also works with the IFPI and RIAA to try and prevent copyright infringement of artists' work.

Representation

Historically, CRIA has represented all record labels in the country. Recently, however, some labels and other industry groups have publicly disagreed with CRIA and claim it no longer represents them. In 2006, six well-known "indie" labels including Nettwerk left the CRIA in a dispute over Canadian content rules. They claimed the association was only protecting the interests of "the four major foreign multi-national labels,"[6] referring to EMI, Universal, Sony BMG, and Warner. Other points of contention include CRIA's stance against the blank media tax, their support for digital locks on music[7], and positions against copyright reform[8]. In 2007 a group of musicians formed the Canadian Music Creators Coalition, claiming "legislative proposals that would facilitate lawsuits against our fans or increase the labels' control over the enjoyment of music are made not in our names, but on behalf of the labels' foreign parent companies."

Legal actions

On February 16, 2004, the CRIA applied to the Federal Court to force five major Canadian internet service providersShaw Communications Inc., Telus Corp., Rogers Cable, Bell Canada's Sympatico service and Quebec's Vidéotron — to hand over the names of 29 people accused of illegal filesharing. On April 2005, Vidéotron indicated its willingness to supply customer information to the CRIA.[9]

On March 31, 2004, in the case of BMG v. John Doe, Justice Konrad von Finckenstein of the Federal Court of Canada ruled that making music available for download over the Internet was not equivalent to distribution and was thus noninfringing. The Justice compared the file trading activities to "having a photocopier in a library room full of copyrighted material" and wrote that there was no evidence of unauthorized distribution presented.[10] The Federal Court of Appeal upheld the lower courts ruling denying the disclosure of the customers' identities, but, in reference to "what would or would not constitute infringement of copyright," stated: "such conclusions should not have been made in the very preliminary stages of this action, since they would require a consideration of the evidence as well as the law applicable to such evidence after it has been properly adduced, and could be damaging to the parties if a trial takes place."[11] The Copyright Board of Canada earlier that year had included downloading music in the list of "private copying" activities for which tariffs on blank media applied. (Private copying is the act of copying music for personal use from a noninfringing source, and is itself noninfringing.) That made it extremely unlikely that downloaders could be successfully prosecuted, leaving only the possibility of acting against uploaders, those supplying the works to others on the networks.[citation needed]

In 2008, the operators of the isoHunt website filed a motion with the Supreme Court of British Columbia seeking a declaratory judgment affirming the legality of their operation. The motion was denied, and the court ruled a full trial was needed. This decision was appealed by the operators of isoHunt; the appeal was also denied. In late 2009, isoHunt filed a formal suit against CRIA and the four "major" record labels seeking "declaratory relief to clarify its legal rights."[12]

Additionally, in October 2008, the four main members of the CRIA were sued by the estate of Chet Baker and several other artists for copyright infringement. The major claims in this lawsuit are as follows:

  • That some three hundred thousand works were illegally distributed by the CRIA's members, and
  • That they failed to seek proper licensing and distribution agreements with the creators of the aforementioned works, instead placing the works on what is colloquially referred to as a "pending list" (i.e., any payments to be made for the use of the aforementioned works are reserved, pending an agreement with the artists who created the works).

As the standard punitive damages for each act of infringement is set at $20,000, and there are three hundred thousand works on the "pending lists", the CRIA may face punitive damages of a minimum of $6 billion.[13]

See also

External links

References

  1. ^ "About CRIA". CRIA. http://www.cria.ca/about.php. Retrieved 8 Dec 2009. 
  2. ^ a b "Canadian Recording Industry Association". The Canadian Encyclopedia. http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=U1ARTU0000587. Retrieved 8 Dec 2009. 
  3. ^ "Long time recording industry President Brian Robertson to step down; Graham Henderson to succeed". CRIA. 21 Sep 2004. http://cria.ca/news/210904_n.php. Retrieved 8 Dec 2009. 
  4. ^ a b Geist, Michael (12 Sep 2007). "LeBlanc on HMV and CRIA Stats". http://www.michaelgeist.ca/content/view/2230/125/. Retrieved 8 Dec 2009. 
  5. ^ CRIA. "Canadian Recording Industry Association (CRIA): Certification Definitions". CRIA. http://www.cria.ca/cert.php. Retrieved 2008-11-12. 
  6. ^ "Indie labels break with CRIA over commercial radio proposal". CBC. 13 Apr 2009. http://www.cbc.ca/arts/story/2006/04/13/cria-indie-crtc.html. Retrieved 8 Dec 2009. 
  7. ^ Geist, Michael (6 Aug 2009). "Manitoba Music Industry Association Distances Self From CRIA On Copyright Reform". http://www.michaelgeist.ca/content/view/4244/125/. Retrieved 8 Dec 2009. 
  8. ^ "Copyright Consulations - Canadian Music Creators Coalition (CMCC)". Industry Canada. 11 Sep 2009. http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/008.nsf/eng/02870.html. Retrieved 8 Dec 2009. 
  9. ^ Joudrey, Stephanie (2005-04-22). "Canadian File Sharing Lawsuits Moving Ahead, Vidéotron To Reveal Names". ChartAttack.com. http://www.chartattack.com/news/38505/canadian-file-sharing-lawsuits-moving-ahead-videotron-to-reveal-names. Retrieved 2009-08-10. 
  10. ^ BMG Canada Inc. v. John Doe, FC 488 .
  11. ^ BMG Canada Inc. v. John Doe, FCA 193 .
  12. ^ "Statement of Claim - isoHunt vs CRIA members". 19 Nov 2009. http://isohunt.com/img/legal/Statement%20of%20Claim%20-%20isoHunt%20vs%20CRIA%20members.pdf. 
  13. ^ "Geist: Record industry faces liability over infringement". 7 Dec 2009. http://www.thestar.com/business/article/735096--geist-record-industry-faces-liability-over-infringement. 

Simple English

The Canadian Recording Industry Association is a non-profit trade organization that was founded in 1964 to represent the interests of Canadian companies that create, manufacture and market sound recordings in Canada. The organization is based in Toronto.[1]

CRIA is governed by a board of directors who are elected annually by CRIA members. To be eligible for election a candidate for the board must be among the chief executive officers of member companies of the organization. Graham Henderson (Universal Music Canada) is the current president of the CRIA.

Album certifications

The CRIA certifications for albums are:

  • 40,000 units: Gold
  • 80,000 units: Platinum
  • 1,000,000 units: Diamond [2]

Note: Multi-Platinum refers to how many times the album has reached 100,000 units sold.

Other websites

References








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message