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Cancer
Classification and external resources
.
A coronal CT scan showing malignant cancer of the lung sac.^ This time, the X-Ray showed her lungs were filled with cancer.
  • Canine Cancer Survivor Stories & Memories – Donate to Cure Dog Cancer With Veterinary Research 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.curecaninecancer.org [Source type: General]


Legend: → tumor ←, ★ central pleural effusion, 1&3 lungs, 2 spine, 4 ribs, 5 aorta, 6 spleen, 7&8 kidneys, 9 liver.
DiseasesDB 28843
MedlinePlus 001289
MeSH D009369
.Cancer /ˈkænsə(r)/  ( listen) (medical term: malignant neoplasm) is a class of diseases in which a group of cells display uncontrolled growth (division beyond the normal limits), invasion (intrusion on and destruction of adjacent tissues), and sometimes metastasis (spread to other locations in the body via lymph or blood).^ Cancer has spread beyond the liver to other places in the body, such as the bones or lungs.

^ In stage IIB, cancer has spread to other tissues within the pelvis.

^ Cancer that has spread to tissues in the liver is considered stage IV disease.

.These three malignant properties of cancers differentiate them from benign tumors, which are self-limited, and do not invade or metastasize.^ A radioactive substance used in the treatment of bone cancer and bone metastases (cancers that have spread from the original tumor to the bone).

^ Embryonal tumors may be benign or malignant, and include neuroblastomas and Wilms tumors.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Embryomas may be benign or malignant, and include neuroblastomas and Wilms tumors.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Most cancers form a tumor but some, like leukemia, do not.^ Leukemias (cancers of the blood) generally do not form solid tumors.

^ A drug that is used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and is being studied in the treatment of some other types of cancer.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ To treat skin cancer, the doctor uses a scalpel to remove the entire tumor and some of the healthy tissue around it.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The branch of medicine concerned with the study, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of cancer is oncology.^ A drug being studied in the treatment and prevention of cancer.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It is also being studied in the treatment of cancer.

^ A substance that has been studied in the treatment of cancer.

.Cancer affects people at all ages with the risk for most types increasing with age.^ This condition seldom becomes invasive cancer; however, having LCIS in one breast increases the risk of developing breast cancer in either breast.

^ Most skin cancers form in older people on parts of the body exposed to the sun or in people who have weakened immune systems.

^ His tongue was shriveled and black.ened He has had two types of mouth cancer, the most recent of which was squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue.
  • Canine Cancer Survivor Stories & Memories – Donate to Cure Dog Cancer With Veterinary Research 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.curecaninecancer.org [Source type: General]

[1] .Cancer caused about 13% of all human deaths in 2007[2] (7.6 million).^ I realized it was my human brain that latched onto \"the diagnosis\" and he could care less about the word cancer.
  • Canine Cancer Survivor Stories & Memories – Donate to Cure Dog Cancer With Veterinary Research 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.curecaninecancer.org [Source type: General]

^ It has been shown to cause apoptosis (cell death) in cells that are malignant (cancer) and in cells that may become cancer.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ From them we heard about how the veterinary cancer doctors are working jointly with the human doctors on cancer treatments, including the ones saving Kevin's life.
  • Canine Cancer Survivor Stories & Memories – Donate to Cure Dog Cancer With Veterinary Research 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.curecaninecancer.org [Source type: General]

[3]
.Cancers are caused by abnormalities in the genetic material of the transformed cells.^ It is found at abnormally high levels on the surface of many types of cancer cells, so these cells may divide excessively in the presence of epidermal growth factor.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ These differ in terms of how abnormal the cells are and how likely it is that the condition will become cancer.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Cancer of the blood-forming tissues in which large numbers of immature, abnormal red blood cells are found in the blood and bone marrow.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

[4] .These abnormalities may be due to the effects of carcinogens, such as tobacco smoke, radiation, chemicals, or infectious agents.^ It is found at abnormally high levels on the surface of many types of cancer cells, so these cells may divide excessively in the presence of epidermal growth factor.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Tobacco (smoking and chewing) and alcohol may increase the risk of erythroleukoplakia.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ These abnormal melanocytes may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue.

.Other cancer-promoting genetic abnormalities may randomly occur through errors in DNA replication, or are inherited, and thus present in all cells from birth.^ A high level of SGOT released into the blood may be a sign of liver or heart damage, cancer, or other diseases.

^ This substance collects in overactive glands, cancer cells, heart muscle, or other tissues and a picture is taken by a gamma camera (a special camera that detects radioactivity).

^ In stage IVC, cancer has spread to other parts of the body; the tumor may be any size and may have spread to lymph nodes.

The heritability of cancers is usually affected by complex interactions between carcinogens and the host's genome.
.Genetic abnormalities found in cancer typically affect two general classes of genes.^ It is found at abnormally high levels on the surface of many types of cancer cells, so these cells may divide excessively in the presence of epidermal growth factor.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A highly malignant type of cancer typically found in glandular cells that line the digestive organs.

^ Cancer of the blood-forming tissues in which large numbers of immature, abnormal red blood cells are found in the blood and bone marrow.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Cancer-promoting oncogenes are typically activated in cancer cells, giving those cells new properties, such as hyperactive growth and division, protection against programmed cell death, loss of respect for normal tissue boundaries, and the ability to become established in diverse tissue environments.^ It affects cancer cell receptors governing cell growth and cell death.

^ An abnormal patch of red and white tissue that forms on mucous membranes in the mouth and may become cancer.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Sorafenib tosylate stops cells from dividing and may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow.

.Tumor suppressor genes are then inactivated in cancer cells, resulting in the loss of normal functions in those cells, such as accurate DNA replication, control over the cell cycle, orientation and adhesion within tissues, and interaction with protective cells of the immune system.^ An injection of ethanol (alcohol) through the skin directly into a tumor to kill cancer cells.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A disease in which malignant (cancer) cells are found in the tissues of the pancreas.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A drug that is used to plan cancer treatment by measuring oxygen levels in tumor cells.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Definitive diagnosis requires the histologic examination of a biopsy specimen, although the initial indication of malignancy can be symptomatic or radiographic imaging abnormalities. .Most cancers can be treated and some cured, depending on the specific type, location, and stage.^ A drug that is used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and is being studied in the treatment of some other types of cancer.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ This type of surgery is used most often to treat malignant mesothelioma.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ To treat skin cancer, the doctor uses a scalpel to remove the entire tumor and some of the healthy tissue around it.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Once diagnosed, cancer is usually treated with a combination of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy.^ An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination used to treat breast cancer.

^ The percentage of people in a study or treatment group who are alive for a certain period of time after they were diagnosed with or treated for a disease, such as cancer.

^ An abbreviation for a chemotherapy combination that is used to treat Hodgkin lymphoma and is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer.

As research develops, treatments are becoming more specific for different varieties of cancer. .There has been significant progress in the development of targeted therapy drugs that act specifically on detectable molecular abnormalities in certain tumors, and which minimize damage to normal cells.^ Enzastaurin blocks certain cell signaling pathways, and may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Enzastaurin hydrochloride blocks certain cell signaling pathways, and may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Molecular: may have different genetic abnormalities than nonsarcomatoid tumor ( Mod Pathol 2007;20:303 ) .
  • Kidney tumor - adult malignancies 20 November 2009 8:56 UTC pathologyoutlines.com [Source type: Academic]

.The prognosis of cancer patients is most influenced by the type of cancer, as well as the stage, or extent of the disease.^ Cancer that has spread to tissues in the liver is considered stage IV disease.

^ Cancer 2004;100:1406 ) and have good prognosis (5 year survival is 78-92%, 3-6% die of disease); same behavior as clear cell when stratified by grade/stage .
  • Kidney tumor - adult malignancies 20 November 2009 8:56 UTC pathologyoutlines.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cancer that has spread to the surface of the liver is stage III disease.

.In addition, histologic grading and the presence of specific molecular markers can also be useful in establishing prognosis, as well as in determining individual treatments.^ A signature molecule may be used to see how well the body responds to a treatment for a disease or condition.

Contents

Classification

.Cancers are classified by the type of cell that resembles the tumor and, therefore, the tissue presumed to be the origin of the tumor.^ A drug that is used to plan cancer treatment by measuring oxygen levels in tumor cells.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A protein made by many cells in the body and by some types of tumors.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ This substance collects in overactive glands, cancer cells, heart muscle, or other tissues and a picture is taken by a gamma camera (a special camera that detects radioactivity).

These are the histology and the location, respectively. Examples of general categories include:
.
  • Carcinoma: Malignant tumors derived from epithelial cells.^ In stage IIB, one or more tumors (lumps of malignant cells) are found on the skin.

    ^ EMD 72000 binds to the epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) on tumor cells and blocks growth signals.
    • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .This group represents the most common cancers, including the common forms of breast, prostate, lung and colon cancer.
  • Sarcoma: Malignant tumors derived from connective tissue, or mesenchymal cells.
  • Lymphoma and leukemia: Malignancies derived from hematopoietic (blood-forming) cells
  • Germ cell tumor: Tumors derived from totipotent cells.^ A disease in which malignant (cancer) cells are found in the tissues of the pancreas.
    • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ It is a form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

    ^ Cancer that forms in tissues of the skin.

    .In adults most often found in the testicle and ovary; in fetuses, babies, and young children most often found on the body midline, particularly at the tip of the tailbone; in horses most often found at the poll (base of the skull).
  • Blastic tumor or blastoma: A tumor (usually malignant) which resembles an immature or embryonic tissue.^ Kidney tumor - adult malignancies .
    • Kidney tumor - adult malignancies 20 November 2009 8:56 UTC pathologyoutlines.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ A soft tissue tumor that is most common in infants and young children.
    • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The tumor is found in one or both ovaries.

    Many of these tumors are most common in children.
.Malignant tumors (cancers) are usually named using -carcinoma, -sarcoma or -blastoma as a suffix, with the Latin or Greek word for the organ of origin as the root.^ A drug that is used to plan cancer treatment by measuring oxygen levels in tumor cells.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Primary thyroid-like follicular carcinoma - Kidney tumor - adult malignancies chapter .
  • Kidney tumor - adult malignancies 20 November 2009 8:56 UTC pathologyoutlines.com [Source type: Academic]

^ High grade urothelial carcinoma of renal pelvis - Kidney tumor - adult malignancies chapter .
  • Kidney tumor - adult malignancies 20 November 2009 8:56 UTC pathologyoutlines.com [Source type: Academic]

.For instance, a cancer of the liver is called hepatocarcinoma; a cancer of the fat cells is called liposarcoma.^ Also called stage I renal cell cancer.

^ Also called spindle cell cancer.

^ Also called stage III renal cell cancer.

.For common cancers, the English organ name is used.^ Is this a common route of administration for medications used in cancer?
  • Natural Standard Blog: Marijuana may Help Kill Brain Cancer Cells 11 September 2009 2:02 UTC blog.naturalstandard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Oral cancer is a common problem among men in developing countries, and is often associated with tobacco or alcohol use.
  • Cancer supplements : by Ray Sahelian, M.D., anti cancer foods, cancer prevention with diet, herbs, and supplements 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cancer patients may be able to fight chemotherapy-induced nausea using a common pantry spice -- ginger.
  • Cancer: News & Videos about Cancer - CNN.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For instance, the most common type of breast cancer is called ductal carcinoma of the breast or mammary ductal carcinoma.^ Also called breast carcinoma in situ.

^ In November of 2005 I was diagnosed with Invasive Ductal Carcinoma, breast cancer.
  • Canine Cancer Survivor Stories & Memories – Donate to Cure Dog Cancer With Veterinary Research 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.curecaninecancer.org [Source type: General]

^ A steroid metabolism gene called CYP17 is being studied in breast, ovarian, and uterine cancers.

.Here, the adjective ductal refers to the appearance of the cancer under the microscope, resembling normal breast ducts.^ Biopsy of the testicles, ovaries, or skin: The removal of cells or tissues from the testicles, ovaries, or skin so they can be viewed under a microscope to check for signs of cancer.
  • Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia/Other Myeloid Malignancies Treatment (PDQ®) 20 November 2009 8:56 UTC www.fccc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Hirayama T. Epidemiology of breast cancer with special reference to the role of diet.
  • Cancer Project / Factors Contributing to Cancer / Meat Consumption and Cancer Risk 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.cancerproject.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It seems somewhat bizarre to describe normal regulatory genes by referring to them as "pre-diseased", but these genes were discovered by cancer researchers.
  • CANCER DEATH -- CAUSES & PREVENTION 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

.Benign tumors (which are not cancers) are named using -oma as a suffix with the organ name as the root.^ A drug that is used to plan cancer treatment by measuring oxygen levels in tumor cells.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ To treat skin cancer, the doctor uses a scalpel to remove the entire tumor and some of the healthy tissue around it.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A radioactive substance used in the treatment of bone cancer and bone metastases (cancers that have spread from the original tumor to the bone).

.For instance, a benign tumor of the smooth muscle of the uterus is called leiomyoma (the common name of this frequent tumor is fibroid).^ For instance, kidney cancers include renal cell cancer, the most common kidney cancer, Wilm's tumor, which usually affects children, and transitional cell cancer, which is similar to bladder cancer.
  • CancerGuide: Understanding Cancer Types and Staging 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cancerguide.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, a benign fibrous tumor is called a fibroma , a benign bone tumor is called an osteoma , a benign fat tumor is called a lipoma and a benign glandular tumor is called an adenoma .
  • CANCER DEATH -- CAUSES & PREVENTION 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The suffix -oma means tumor , and benign tumors are denoted by a tissue-name prefix added to the "-oma" suffix.
  • CANCER DEATH -- CAUSES & PREVENTION 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

.Unfortunately, some cancers also use the -oma suffix, examples being melanoma and seminoma.^ SU011248 is also used to treat advanced kidney cancer and is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer.

^ SU11248 is also used to treat advanced kidney cancer and is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer.

^ Sutent is also used to treat advanced kidney cancer and is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer.

Signs and symptoms

Symptoms of cancer metastasis depend on the location of the tumor.
Roughly, cancer symptoms can be divided into three groups:
.
Every symptom in the above list can be caused by a variety of conditions (a list of which is referred to as the differential diagnosis). .Cancer may be a common or uncommon cause of each item.^ Rectal cancer is approximately one-seventh as common a cause of death as colon cancer, although it accounts for nearly half of the diagnosed new cases.
  • CANCER DEATH -- CAUSES & PREVENTION 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It has been shown to cause apoptosis (cell death) in cells that are malignant (cancer) and in cells that may become cancer.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Velcade blocks several molecular pathways in a cell and may cause cancer cells to die.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC ha.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Causes

.Cancer is a diverse class of diseases which differ widely in their causes and biology.^ Early menopause can be caused by some cancer treatments, surgery to remove the ovaries, and certain diseases or genetic conditions.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A liquid that has been promoted as a treatment for a wide range of diseases, including cancer.

^ These alterations can (but do not always) cause cancer or other diseases.

Any organism, even plants, can acquire cancer. .Nearly all known cancers arise gradually, as errors build up in the cancer cell and its progeny (see mechanisms section for common types of errors).^ A drug that is used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and is being studied in the treatment of some other types of cancer.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It is found at abnormally high levels on the surface of many types of cancer cells, so these cells may divide excessively in the presence of epidermal growth factor.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A drug used to treat certain types of non-small cell lung cancer.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Anything which replicates (our cells) will probabilistically suffer from errors (mutations). .Unless error correction and prevention is properly carried out, the errors will survive, and might be passed along to daughter cells.^ This process is repeated until the last molecule is activated and the cell function involved is carried out.

.Normally, the body safeguards against cancer via numerous methods, such as: apoptosis, helper molecules (some DNA polymerases), possibly senescence, etc.^ Cancer has spread beyond the liver to other places in the body, such as the bones or lungs.

^ In stage IVB, cancer has spread beyond the pelvis and pelvic lymph nodes to other places in the body, such as the abdomen, liver, intestinal tract, or lungs.

^ A biological molecule found in blood, other body fluids, or tissues that is a sign of a normal or abnormal process, or of a condition or disease.

.However these error-correction methods often fail in small ways, especially in environments that make errors more likely to arise and propagate.^ A substance that helps make more white blood cells, especially granulocytes, macrophages, and cells that become platelets.

For example, such environments can include the presence of disruptive substances called carcinogens, or periodic injury (physical, heat, etc.), or environments that cells did not evolve to withstand, such as hypoxia[5] (see subsections). .Cancer is thus a progressive disease, and these progressive errors slowly accumulate until a cell begins to act contrary to its function in the organism.^ Cancer that begins in the cells that line an organ.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A type of cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs and that contains long spindle-shaped cells.

^ This process is repeated until the last molecule is activated and the cell function involved is carried out.

The errors which cause cancer are often self-amplifying, eventually compounding at an exponential rate. For example:
  • A mutation in the error-correcting machinery of a cell might cause that cell and its children to accumulate errors more rapidly
  • A mutation in signaling (endocrine) machinery of the cell can send error-causing signals to nearby cells
  • A mutation might cause cells to become neoplastic, causing them to migrate and disrupt more healthy cells
  • A mutation may cause the cell to become immortal (see telomeres), causing them to disrupt healthy cells forever
.Thus cancer often explodes in something akin to a chain reaction caused by a few errors, which compound into more severe errors.^ Stage I is divided into stages I and IE. In stage I, cancer is found in one or more lymph nodes in one lymph node group.

^ In stage A2, the cancer cells look more abnormal or are in several areas in the prostate.

.Errors which produce more errors are effectively the root cause of cancer, and also the reason that cancer is so hard to treat: even if there were 10,000,000,000 cancerous cells and one killed all but 10 of those cells, those cells (and other error-prone precancerous cells) could still self-replicate or send error-causing signals to other cells, starting the process over again.^ It may also help other drugs kill cancer cells.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ When all participants meet the same eligibility criteria, it gives researchers greater confidence that results of the study are caused by the intervention being tested and not by other factors.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In stage IIB, one or more tumors (lumps of malignant cells) are found on the skin.

This rebellion-like scenario is an undesirable survival of the fittest, where the driving forces of evolution work against the body's design and enforcement of order. .In fact, once cancer has begun to develop, this same force continues to drive the progression of cancer towards more invasive stages, and is called clonal evolution.^ Also called stage IV kidney cancer.

^ Also called stage I renal cell cancer.

^ Also called stage I kidney cancer.

[6]
Research about cancer causes often falls into the following categories:
  • Agents (e.g. viruses) and events (e.g. mutations) which cause or facilitate genetic changes in cells destined to become cancer.
  • The precise nature of the genetic damage, and the genes which are affected by it.
  • The consequences of those genetic changes on the biology of the cell, both in generating the defining properties of a cancer cell, and in facilitating additional genetic events which lead to further progression of the cancer.

Mutation: chemical carcinogens

The incidence of lung cancer is highly correlated with smoking. Source:NIH.
.Cancer pathogenesis is traceable back to DNA mutations that impact cell growth and metastasis.^ It inhibits a hormone growth factor that causes some cancer cells to divide.

^ It is found at abnormally high levels on the surface of many types of cancer cells, so these cells may divide excessively in the presence of epidermal growth factor.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Etoposide phosphate blocks certain enzymes needed for cell division and DNA repair, and it may kill cancer cells.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Substances that cause DNA mutations are known as mutagens, and mutagens that cause cancers are known as carcinogens.^ Sickle cell anemia is caused by a mutation (change) in one of the genes for hemoglobin (the substance inside red blood cells that binds to oxygen and carries it from the lungs to the tissues).

^ A substance obtained from milk thistle seeds that is being studied in the prevention of liver damage caused by certain cancer treatments.

^ A block in an artery caused by blood clots or other substances, such as fat globules, infected tissue, or cancer cells.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Particular substances have been linked to specific types of cancer.^ A substance being studied in the treatment of bladder cancer, lung cancer, and other types of cancer.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC ha.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Kidney cancer A diet high in refined cereals, and bread in particular, is associated with an elevated risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the main type of kidney cancer.
  • Cancer supplements : by Ray Sahelian, M.D., anti cancer foods, cancer prevention with diet, herbs, and supplements 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When the researchers looked at individual types of alcohol, though, only beer and "spirits" -- and not wine -- were linked to elevated cancer risks.
  • Cancer supplements : by Ray Sahelian, M.D., anti cancer foods, cancer prevention with diet, herbs, and supplements 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

.Tobacco smoking is associated with many forms of cancer,[7] and causes 90% of lung cancer.^ It causes infectious mononucleosis and has been associated with certain cancers, including Burkitt lymphoma, immunoblastic lymphoma, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Many different types of cancer may form in the bones, tissues, fluid, or nerves of the spine.

^ An aggressive (fast-growing) cancer that forms in tissues of the lung and can spread to other parts of the body.

[8] Prolonged exposure to asbestos fibers is associated with mesothelioma.[9]
Many mutagens are also carcinogens, but some carcinogens are not mutagens. Alcohol is an example of a chemical carcinogen that is not a mutagen.[10] .Such chemicals may promote cancers through stimulating the rate of cell division.^ It blocks enzymes needed for cell division and may kill cancer cells.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC extraordinary-opportunities.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ An injection of ethanol (alcohol) through the skin directly into a tumor to kill cancer cells.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Cancer may have spread to nearby lymph nodes and has spread to other parts of the body, such as the liver or lungs.

.Faster rates of replication leaves less time for repair enzymes to repair damaged DNA during DNA replication, increasing the likelihood of a mutation.^ Etoposide phosphate blocks certain enzymes needed for cell division and DNA repair, and it may kill cancer cells.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Etopophos blocks certain enzymes needed for cell division and DNA repair, and it may kill cancer cells.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Sedoxantrone trihydrochloride binds to DNA and stops cells, including cancer cells, from repairing damage to DNA and from making more DNA, RNA, and protein.

.Decades of research has demonstrated the link between tobacco use and cancer in the lung, larynx, head, neck, stomach, bladder, kidney, oesophagus and pancreas.^ See also pages about politicians who died of specific cancers: brain : breast , colon , leukemia , liver , lung , pancreas , prostate .
  • The Political Graveyard: Politicians Who Died of Cancer 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cancer of the pancreas in which the cancer has spread to distant organs (such as the liver or lungs).

^ SU011248 is also used to treat advanced kidney cancer and is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer.

[11] Tobacco smoke contains over fifty known carcinogens, including nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.[12] .Tobacco is responsible for about one in three of all cancer deaths in the developed world,[7] and about one in five worldwide.^ Of all the words in the dictionary – cancer may be the one we least want to hear.
  • Canine Cancer Survivor Stories & Memories – Donate to Cure Dog Cancer With Veterinary Research 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.curecaninecancer.org [Source type: General]

^ From them we heard about how the veterinary cancer doctors are working jointly with the human doctors on cancer treatments, including the ones saving Kevin's life.
  • Canine Cancer Survivor Stories & Memories – Donate to Cure Dog Cancer With Veterinary Research 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.curecaninecancer.org [Source type: General]

[12] .Indeed, lung cancer death rates in the United States have mirrored smoking patterns, with increases in smoking followed by dramatic increases in lung cancer death rates and, more recently, decreases in smoking followed by decreases in lung cancer death rates in men.^ In stage IIIA, the cancer is anywhere within the testicle, spermatic cord, or scrotum; may have spread to one or more lymph nodes in the abdomen; and has spread to distant lymph nodes or to the lungs.

^ In stage IIIB, the cancer is anywhere within the testicle, spermatic cord, or scrotum; and may have spread to one or more nearby or distant lymph nodes or to the lungs.

^ Ephedra may cause high blood pressure, increased heart rate, or death if used with certain drugs, and may reduce the effects of certain drugs used to treat cancer and other diseases.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

However, the numbers of smokers worldwide is still rising, leading to what some organizations have described as the tobacco epidemic.[13]

Mutation: ionizing radiation

.Sources of ionizing radiation, such as radon gas, can cause cancer.^ Synthetic protegrin analogs, such as iseganan, are being studied in the treatment of oral mucositis (painful mouth sores) caused by radiation therapy.

^ A block in an artery caused by blood clots or other substances, such as fat globules, infected tissue, or cancer cells.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Prolonged exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun can lead to melanoma and other skin malignancies.^ Risk factors at other sites include exposure to arsenic, Thorotrast, polyvinyl chloride or radiation; also posttreatment lymphedema .
  • Kidney tumor - adult malignancies 20 November 2009 8:56 UTC pathologyoutlines.com [Source type: Academic]

[14] It is estimated that 2% of future cancers will be due to current CT scans.[15]
.Non-ionizing radio frequency radiation from mobile phones and other similar RF sources has also been proposed as a cause of cancer, but there is currently little established evidence of such a link.^ Although the virus has been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals, there is no evidence that it causes cancer in people.

^ Sources include power lines, electric appliances, radio waves, microwaves, and others.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A drug used to treat pain caused by bone cancer and other cancers that have spread to the bones.

[16]

Infection

.Some cancers can be caused by infection.^ It inhibits a hormone growth factor that causes some cancer cells to divide.

^ Early menopause can be caused by some cancer treatments, surgery to remove the ovaries, and certain diseases or genetic conditions.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It is being studied in the prevention of liver damage caused by some cancer treatments.

[17] This is especially true in animals such as birds, but also in humans, with viruses responsible for up to 20% of human cancers worldwide.[18] .These include human papillomavirus (cervical carcinoma), human polyomaviruses (mesothelioma, brain tumors), Epstein-Barr virus (B-cell lymphoproliferative disease and nasopharyngeal carcinoma), Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (Kaposi's Sarcoma and primary effusion lymphomas), hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses (hepatocellular carcinoma), Human T-cell leukemia virus-1 (T-cell leukemias), and helicobacter pylori (gastric carcinoma).^ Also called Epstein-Barr virus.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Examples of solid tumors are sarcomas, carcinomas, and lymphomas.

^ It causes infectious mononucleosis and has been associated with certain cancers, including Burkitt lymphoma, immunoblastic lymphoma, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

[18]
.Experimental and epidemiological data imply a causative role for viruses and they appear to be the second most important risk factor for cancer development in humans, exceeded only by tobacco usage.^ Having sideropenic dysphagia may increase the risk of developing esophageal cancer.

^ This condition seldom becomes invasive cancer; however, having LCIS in one breast increases the risk of developing breast cancer in either breast.

^ It inhibits a hormone growth factor that causes some cancer cells to divide.

[19] .The mode of virally-induced tumors can be divided into two, acutely-transforming or slowly-transforming.^ Unless the tumor is very large, or located adjacent to the larynx or the point in the chest where the trachea divides into the large bronchi,  it should be possible to remove the entire section of trachea in which a tumor is located and then suture the two sections of trachea that remain back together.
  • Tumors and Cancer in Cats 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.vetinfo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Stage I is divided into stages IA, IB, and IC. In stage IA, the tumor is found in a single ovary.

^ Stage I is divided into stages IA and IB. In stage IA, the tumor is not more than 1 millimeter thick, with no ulceration.

.In acutely transforming viruses, the virus carries an overactive oncogene called viral-oncogene (v-onc), and the infected cell is transformed as soon as v-onc is expressed.^ The envelope may play a role in helping a virus survive and infect other cells.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ This envelope comes from the infected cell, or host, in a process called "budding off."
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Nerve impulses are usually carried to the neighboring cell by chemicals called neurotransmitters, which are released by the nerve cell and are taken up by another cell on the other side of the synapse.

In contrast, in slowly-transforming viruses, the virus genome is inserts near a proto-oncogene in the host genome. The viral promoter or other transcription regulation elements then cause overexpression of that proto-oncogene. This induces uncontrolled cell division. .Because the site of insertion is not specific to proto-oncogenes and the chance of insertion near any proto-oncogene is low, slowly-transforming viruses will cause tumors much longer after infection than the acutely-transforming viruses.^ It is used to treat infection caused by viruses.

^ She was having so much trouble breathing because of the location of the tumor.
  • Canine Cancer Survivor Stories & Memories – Donate to Cure Dog Cancer With Veterinary Research 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.curecaninecancer.org [Source type: General]

.Hepatitis viruses, including hepatitis B and hepatitis C, can induce a chronic viral infection that leads to liver cancer in 0.47% of hepatitis B patients per year (especially in Asia, less so in North America), and in 1.4% of hepatitis C carriers per year.^ My German Shorthair Pointer lost his life to liver cancer a year ago now he was nine years old.
  • Canine Cancer Survivor Stories & Memories – Donate to Cure Dog Cancer With Veterinary Research 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.curecaninecancer.org [Source type: General]

^ An herb native to North America that has been used to prevent and treat the common cold and other respiratory infections.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Patients with this disease have a high risk of developing viral, bacterial, and fungal infections.

.Liver cirrhosis, whether from chronic viral hepatitis infection or alcoholism, is associated with the development of liver cancer, and the combination of cirrhosis and viral hepatitis presents the highest risk of liver cancer development.^ This condition seldom becomes invasive cancer; however, having LCIS in one breast increases the risk of developing breast cancer in either breast.

^ Patients with this disease have a high risk of developing viral, bacterial, and fungal infections.

^ Having sideropenic dysphagia may increase the risk of developing esophageal cancer.

.Worldwide, liver cancer is one of the most common, and most deadly, cancers due to a huge burden of viral hepatitis transmission and disease.^ Risk for cancers due to immun osuppression is 1.9; in Italian study, most common are viral related Kaposi’s sarcoma and EBV+ non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, with common sites being native kidney, uterus and liver ( Epidemiol Prev 2008;32:205 ); in Thailand study, most common are urothelial and hepatocellular carcinomas ( Transplant Proc 2008;40:2403 ) .
  • Kidney tumor - adult malignancies 20 November 2009 8:56 UTC pathologyoutlines.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cancer that has spread to tissues in the liver is considered stage IV disease.

^ A high level of SGOT released into the blood may be a sign of liver or heart damage, cancer, or other diseases.

.Advances in cancer research have made a vaccine designed to prevent cancer available.^ A vaccine made from immune system cells collected from a patient with prostate cancer.

^ A drug used to treat advanced breast cancer and to prevent recurrent breast cancer in postmenopausal women who have already been treated with tamoxifen.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.In 2006, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved a human papilloma virus vaccine, called Gardasil.^ In clinical trials, refers to a drug (including a new drug, dose, combination, or route of administration) or procedure that has undergone basic laboratory testing and received approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to be tested in human subjects.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It belongs to the family of drugs called cancer vaccines.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has banned the sale of dietary supplements that contain ephedra.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The vaccine protects against four HPV types, which together cause 70% of cervical cancers and 90% of genital warts.^ It is also used together with gemcitabine to treat pancreatic cancer and is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Sunscreens reflect, absorb, and scatter both ultraviolet A and B radiation to provide protection against both types of radiation.

^ It is being studied in the treatment of bone pain caused by some types of cancer.

.In March 2007, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) officially recommended that females aged 11–12 receive the vaccine, and indicated that females as young as age 9 and as old as age 26 are also candidates for immunization.^ Lucky is an 11-year old mixed breed and Doc was a pug who lived to 12.
  • Canine Cancer Survivor Stories & Memories – Donate to Cure Dog Cancer With Veterinary Research 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.curecaninecancer.org [Source type: General]

.In addition to viruses, researchers have noted a connection between bacteria and certain cancers.^ Protegrins kill certain bacteria, fungi, and viruses by making holes in their outer membranes and causing them to burst.

.The most prominent example is the link between chronic infection of the wall of the stomach with Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer.^ Cancer has spread to the lower third of the vagina and may have spread to the pelvic wall (the tissues that line the part of the body between the hips), and nearby lymph nodes.

^ Cancer has spread beyond the cervix but not to the pelvic wall (the tissues that line the part of the body between the hips).

^ In cancer treatment, sterile talc powder is used to prevent pleural effusions (an abnormal collection of fluid in the space between the lungs and the chest wall).

[20][21] .Although only a minority of those infected with Helicobacter go on to develop cancer, since this pathogen is quite common it is probably responsible for most of these cancers.^ I have always been a firm believer in natural supplementation and did some research on line and could only find information on people with cancer that go good results with supplementation.
  • Canine Cancer Survivor Stories & Memories – Donate to Cure Dog Cancer With Veterinary Research 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.curecaninecancer.org [Source type: General]

^ The most common type is adenocarcinoma (cancer that begins in cells that make and release mucus and other fluids).

^ Abnormal activation of signaling pathways can lead to cancer, and drugs are being developed to block these pathways.

[22]

Hormonal imbalances

.Some hormones can act in a similar manner to non-mutagenic carcinogens in that they may stimulate excessive cell growth.^ It may stop the growth of tumor cells.

^ It can also stimulate the growth of some types of cells.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Sorafenib tosylate stops cells from dividing and may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow.

Immune system dysfunction

.HIV is associated with a number of malignancies, including Kaposi's sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and HPV-associated malignancies such as anal cancer and cervical cancer.^ SLL is a type of non-Hodgkin Lymphoma.

^ Non-Hodgkin lymphoma: well recognized risk post-transplant, usually EBV associated extranodal B cell lymphomas that respond to reduction of immunosuppressive treatment; EBV promotes proliferation of B cells, which may escape T cell control .
  • Kidney tumor - adult malignancies 20 November 2009 8:56 UTC pathologyoutlines.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Risk for cancers due to immun osuppression is 1.9; in Italian study, most common are viral related Kaposi’s sarcoma and EBV+ non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, with common sites being native kidney, uterus and liver ( Epidemiol Prev 2008;32:205 ); in Thailand study, most common are urothelial and hepatocellular carcinomas ( Transplant Proc 2008;40:2403 ) .
  • Kidney tumor - adult malignancies 20 November 2009 8:56 UTC pathologyoutlines.com [Source type: Academic]

AIDS-defining illnesses have long included these diagnoses. .The increased incidence of malignancies in HIV patients points to the breakdown of immune surveillance as a possible etiology of cancer.^ A vaccine made from immune system cells collected from a patient with prostate cancer.

[23] Certain other immune deficiency states (e.g. .common variable immunodeficiency and IgA deficiency) are also associated with increased risk of malignancy.^ Epidemiology: rare, <100 cases reported; associated with horseshoe kidney, which has an increased risk of renal tumors in general .
  • Kidney tumor - adult malignancies 20 November 2009 8:56 UTC pathologyoutlines.com [Source type: Academic]

[24]

Heredity

.Most forms of cancer are sporadic, meaning that there is no inherited cause of the cancer.^ Although the virus has been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals, there is no evidence that it causes cancer in people.

^ Most skin cancers form in older people on parts of the body exposed to the sun or in people who have weakened immune systems.

^ The vet come out to tell us the lump was malignant cancer, an aggressive form and there was nothing she could do.
  • Canine Cancer Survivor Stories & Memories – Donate to Cure Dog Cancer With Veterinary Research 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.curecaninecancer.org [Source type: General]

There are, however, a number of recognised syndromes where there is an inherited predisposition to cancer, often due to a defect in a gene that protects against tumor formation. Famous examples are:

Other causes

.Excepting the rare transmissions that occur with pregnancies and only a marginal few organ donors, cancer is generally not a transmissible disease.^ At the rate that her cancer was progressing, Lily would only live a few more weeks.
  • Canine Cancer Survivor Stories & Memories – Donate to Cure Dog Cancer With Veterinary Research 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.curecaninecancer.org [Source type: General]

The main reason for this is tissue graft rejection caused by MHC incompatibility.[25] .In humans and other vertebrates, the immune system uses MHC antigens to differentiate between "self" and "non-self" cells because these antigens are different from person to person.^ A monoclonal antibody that binds to cells that have the CD40 antigen on their surface, including cells from multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

^ The active ingredient in a drug used to treat chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura (a condition in which platelets are destroyed by the immune system).
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A type of immune cell that blocks the actions of some other types of lymphocytes, to keep the immune system from becoming over-active.

.When non-self antigens are encountered, the immune system reacts against the appropriate cell.^ A rare disease in which too many mast cells (a type of immune system cell) are found in the skin, bones, joints, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, and gastrointestinal tract.

^ A monoclonal antibody that binds to cells that have the CD40 antigen on their surface, including cells from multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

^ A type of immune cell that blocks the actions of some other types of lymphocytes, to keep the immune system from becoming over-active.

Such reactions may protect against tumour cell engraftment by eliminating implanted cells. In the United States, approximately 3,500 pregnant women have a malignancy annually, and transplacental transmission of acute leukaemia, lymphoma, melanoma and carcinoma from mother to fetus has been observed.[25] .The development of donor-derived tumors from organ transplants is exceedingly rare.^ Tumors can rarely be of donor origin ( glioblastoma multiforme- Hum Path 1993;24:1256 , lymphoma- Hum Path 1991;22:1291 ), but are usually due to immunosuppression .
  • Kidney tumor - adult malignancies 20 November 2009 8:56 UTC pathologyoutlines.com [Source type: Academic]

.The main cause of organ transplant associated tumors seems to be malignant melanoma, that was undetected at the time of organ harvest[26], though other cases exist[27].^ Other malignant mesenchymal tumors .
  • Kidney tumor - adult malignancies 20 November 2009 8:56 UTC pathologyoutlines.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Epidemiology: rare, <100 cases reported; associated with horseshoe kidney, which has an increased risk of renal tumors in general .
  • Kidney tumor - adult malignancies 20 November 2009 8:56 UTC pathologyoutlines.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Post-kidney transplant tumors - Kidney tumor - adult malignancies chapter .
  • Kidney tumor - adult malignancies 20 November 2009 8:56 UTC pathologyoutlines.com [Source type: Academic]

.In fact, cancer from one organism will usually grow in another organism of that species, as long as they share the same histocompatibility genes[28], proven using mice; however this would never happen in a real-world setting except as described above.^ This condition seldom becomes invasive cancer; however, having LCIS in one breast increases the risk of developing breast cancer in either breast.

^ Ideally, the subjects in a study should be very similar to one another and to the larger population from which they are drawn (for example, all individuals with the same disease or condition).

^ Cancer cells that are estrogen receptor negative do not need estrogen to grow, and usually do not stop growing when treated with hormones that block estrogen from binding.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.In non-humans, a few types of transmissible cancer have been described, wherein the cancer spreads between animals by transmission of the tumor cells themselves.^ Relatively few cancer cells have spread throughout the body.

^ IV non-small cell lung cancer (...

^ The tumor may be any size, and cancer has spread to distant parts of the body.

This phenomenon is seen in dogs with Sticker's sarcoma, also known as canine transmissible venereal tumor,[29] as well as Devil facial tumour disease in Tasmanian devils.

Pathophysiology

Cancers are caused by a series of mutations. Each mutation alters the behavior of the cell somewhat.
.Cancer is fundamentally a disease of regulation of tissue growth.^ A disease in which malignant (cancer) cells are found in the tissues of the pancreas.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Ovarian cancer that is found in tissues of the liver is stage IV disease.

^ Cancer that has spread to tissues in the liver is considered stage IV disease.

.In order for a normal cell to transform into a cancer cell, genes which regulate cell growth and differentiation must be altered.^ It inhibits a hormone growth factor that causes some cancer cells to divide.

^ It is found at abnormally high levels on the surface of many types of cancer cells, so these cells may divide excessively in the presence of epidermal growth factor.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Stage I ovarian germ cell tumor is divided into stages IA, IB, and IC. In stage IA, cancer is found in a single ovary.

[30] .Genetic changes can occur at many levels, from gain or loss of entire chromosomes to a mutation affecting a single DNA nucleotide.^ During her short time here, she touched many and her loss will change our lives forever .
  • Canine Cancer Survivor Stories & Memories – Donate to Cure Dog Cancer With Veterinary Research 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.curecaninecancer.org [Source type: General]

.There are two broad categories of genes which are affected by these changes.^ These changes may cause disease, and may affect how a person reacts to bacteria, viruses, drugs, and other substances.

.Oncogenes may be normal genes which are expressed at inappropriately high levels, or altered genes which have novel properties.^ A high level of SGOT released into the blood may be a sign of liver or heart damage, cancer, or other diseases.

^ It is found at abnormally high levels on the surface of many types of cancer cells, so these cells may divide excessively in the presence of epidermal growth factor.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A high level of serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase released into the blood may be a sign of liver damage, cancer, or other diseases.

.In either case, expression of these genes promotes the malignant phenotype of cancer cells.^ It is found at abnormally high levels on the surface of many types of cancer cells, so these cells may divide excessively in the presence of epidermal growth factor.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Nearly all of the skin is red, dry, and scaly; lymph nodes are either normal or enlarged but do not contain cancer cells.

^ Molecular: gene expression profile is distinct from clear cell or chromophobe renal cell carcinoma .
  • Kidney tumor - adult malignancies 20 November 2009 8:56 UTC pathologyoutlines.com [Source type: Academic]

.Tumor suppressor genes are genes which inhibit cell division, survival, or other properties of cancer cells.^ Tumor markers are released into the blood by tumor cells or by other cells in response to tumor cells.

^ A drug that is used to plan cancer treatment by measuring oxygen levels in tumor cells.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Both renal cell carcinoma and hemangioblastoma are caused by loss of function of VHL tumor suppressor protein .
  • Kidney tumor - adult malignancies 20 November 2009 8:56 UTC pathologyoutlines.com [Source type: Academic]

Tumor suppressor genes are often disabled by cancer-promoting genetic changes. .Typically, changes in many genes are required to transform a normal cell into a cancer cell.^ It is found at abnormally high levels on the surface of many types of cancer cells, so these cells may divide excessively in the presence of epidermal growth factor.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Sickle cell anemia is caused by a mutation (change) in one of the genes for hemoglobin (the substance inside red blood cells that binds to oxygen and carries it from the lungs to the tissues).

^ Stage I ovarian germ cell tumor is divided into stages IA, IB, and IC. In stage IA, cancer is found in a single ovary.

[31]
.There is a diverse classification scheme for the various genomic changes which may contribute to the generation of cancer cells.^ It collects in bone, where it releases radiation that may kill cancer cells.

^ SNX-5422 blocks a protein needed for cells to grow and may kill cancer cells.

^ When cancer spreads, the cancer cells may appear first in the sentinel node before spreading to other lymph nodes.

.Most of these changes are mutations, or changes in the nucleotide sequence of genomic DNA. Aneuploidy, the presence of an abnormal number of chromosomes, is one genomic change which is not a mutation, and may involve either gain or loss of one or more chromosomes through errors in mitosis.^ It is found at abnormally high levels on the surface of many types of cancer cells, so these cells may divide excessively in the presence of epidermal growth factor.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Sickle cell anemia is caused by a mutation (change) in one of the genes for hemoglobin (the substance inside red blood cells that binds to oxygen and carries it from the lungs to the tissues).

^ These problems can produce seizures, unusual body movements, a loss of consciousness or changes in consciousness, as well as mental problems or problems with the senses.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Large-scale mutations involve the deletion or gain of a portion of a chromosome. .Genomic amplification occurs when a cell gains many copies (often 20 or more) of a small chromosomal locus, usually containing one or more oncogenes and adjacent genetic material.^ In stage IIB, one or more tumors (lumps of malignant cells) are found on the skin.

^ I hope we have many more birthdays together like this one.
  • Canine Cancer Survivor Stories & Memories – Donate to Cure Dog Cancer With Veterinary Research 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.curecaninecancer.org [Source type: General]

^ Definition: tumors that cannot be otherwise classified, often because they fit more than one category .
  • Kidney tumor - adult malignancies 20 November 2009 8:56 UTC pathologyoutlines.com [Source type: Academic]

Translocation occurs when two separate chromosomal regions become abnormally fused, often at a characteristic location. .A well-known example of this is the Philadelphia chromosome, or translocation of chromosomes 9 and 22, which occurs in chronic myelogenous leukemia, and results in production of the BCR-abl fusion protein, an oncogenic tyrosine kinase.^ STI571 blocks the protein made by the bcr/abl oncogene.

^ It belongs to the families of drugs called protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors and angiogenesis inhibitors.

^ Sprycel binds to and blocks BCR-ABL and other proteins that help cancer cells grow.

Small-scale mutations include point mutations, deletions, and insertions, which may occur in the promoter of a gene and affect its expression, or may occur in the gene's coding sequence and alter the function or stability of its protein product. .Disruption of a single gene may also result from integration of genomic material from a DNA virus or retrovirus, and such an event may also result in the expression of viral oncogenes in the affected cell and its descendants.^ Azzopardi phenomenon: blood vessels deeply encrusted with basophilic material consistent with DNA; associated with small cell carcinoma .
  • Kidney tumor - adult malignancies 20 November 2009 8:56 UTC pathologyoutlines.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If the cells have estrogen receptors, they may need estrogen to grow, and this may affect how the cancer is treated.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Prevention

.Cancer prevention is defined as active measures to decrease the incidence of cancer.^ There are also diet measures and supplements that have been found to= be beneficial in preventing or treating cancer.
  • A large U 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.flcv.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It even prevents their binding to DNA and thus has been shown to reduce the incidence of cancer in human cells exposed to carcinogens.

^ The incidence of non-AIDS-defining malignancies (e.g., anal, skin, and lung cancers as well as Hodgkin ’s disease ) appear to be increasing in the era of Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment (HAART).
  • PA-07-454: Research on Malignancies in the Context of HIV/AIDS (R21) 20 November 2009 8:56 UTC grants.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[32] .Greater than 30% of cancer is preventable via avoiding risk factors including: tobacco, overweight or obesity, low fruit and vegetable intake, physical inactivity, alcohol, sexually transmitted infection, air pollution.^ Higher than normal levels of IGF-1 may increase the risk of several types of cancer.

^ Tobacco (smoking and chewing) and alcohol may increase the risk of erythroleukoplakia.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Perillyl alcohol, a substance found in English lavender, is being studied in cancer prevention and treatment.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

[33] .This can be accomplished by avoiding carcinogens or altering their metabolism, pursuing a lifestyle or diet that modifies cancer-causing factors and/or medical intervention (chemoprevention, treatment of pre-malignant lesions).^ When all participants meet the same eligibility criteria, it gives researchers greater confidence that results of the study are caused by the intervention being tested and not by other factors.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It is being studied in the prevention of liver damage caused by some cancer treatments.

^ It is being studied in the treatment of bone pain caused by cancer that has spread to the bone.

.The epidemiological concept of "prevention" is usually defined as either primary prevention, for people who have not been diagnosed with a particular disease, or secondary prevention, aimed at reducing recurrence or complications of a previously diagnosed illness.^ The percentage of people in a study or treatment group who are alive for a certain period of time after they were diagnosed with or treated for a disease, such as cancer.

^ An antihypertensive agent that can also be used to slow or prevent the progression of heart disease in people with childhood cancer treated with drugs that may be harmful to the heart.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A scientist who studies the patterns, causes, and control of disease in groups of people.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Modifiable ("lifestyle") risk factors

.The vast majority of cancer risk factors are environmental or lifestyle-related, leading to the claim that cancer is a largely preventable disease.^ An antihypertensive agent that can also be used to slow or prevent the progression of heart disease in people with childhood cancer treated with drugs that may be harmful to the heart.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Stromagen has been studied in the prevention of graft-versus-host disease during stem cell transplant in patients receiving treatment for cancer.

^ A drug used to reduce the risk of invasive breast cancer in postmenopausal women who are at high risk of the disease or who have osteoporosis.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

[34] .Examples of modifiable cancer risk factors include alcohol consumption (associated with increased risk of oral, esophageal, breast, and other cancers), smoking (although 20% of women with lung cancer have never smoked, versus 10% of men[35]), physical inactivity (associated with increased risk of colon, breast, and possibly other cancers), and being overweight / obese (associated with colon, breast, endometrial, and possibly other cancers).^ Tobacco (smoking and chewing) and alcohol may increase the risk of erythroleukoplakia.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It is being studied as a biomarker for breast cancer.

^ Women with sclerosing adenosis of the breast may have a slightly increased risk of breast cancer.

.Based on epidemiologic evidence, it is now thought that avoiding excessive alcohol consumption may contribute to reductions in risk of certain cancers; however, compared with tobacco exposure, the magnitude of effect is modest or small and the strength of evidence is often weaker.^ Tobacco (smoking and chewing) and alcohol may increase the risk of erythroleukoplakia.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Tobacco (smoking and chewing) and alcohol may increase the risk of erythroplakia.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ This condition seldom becomes invasive cancer; however, having LCIS in one breast increases the risk of developing breast cancer in either breast.

.Other lifestyle and environmental factors known to affect cancer risk (either beneficially or detrimentally) include certain sexually transmitted diseases (such as those conveyed by the human papillomavirus), the use of exogenous hormones, exposure to ionizing radiation and ultraviolet radiation from the sun or from tanning beds, and certain occupational and chemical exposures.^ ELISAs may be used to help diagnose certain diseases.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Risk factors at other sites include exposure to arsenic, Thorotrast, polyvinyl chloride or radiation; also posttreatment lymphedema .
  • Kidney tumor - adult malignancies 20 November 2009 8:56 UTC pathologyoutlines.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Early menopause can be caused by some cancer treatments, surgery to remove the ovaries, and certain diseases or genetic conditions.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Every year, at least 200,000 people die worldwide from cancer related to their workplace.^ Convicted in 1973 on 17 counts of bribery , conspiracy, perjury , and related charges; sentenced to three years in federal prison and fined $50,000.
  • The Political Graveyard: Politicians Who Died of Cancer 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[36] .Millions of workers run the risk of developing cancers such as lung cancer and mesothelioma from inhaling asbestos fibers and tobacco smoke, or leukemia from exposure to benzene at their workplaces.^ See also pages about politicians who died of specific cancers: brain : breast , colon , leukemia , liver , lung , pancreas , prostate .
  • The Political Graveyard: Politicians Who Died of Cancer 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Inhaling environmental tobacco smoke is called involuntary or passive smoking.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Cancer has spread beyond the liver to other places in the body, such as the bones or lungs.

[36] .Currently, most cancer deaths caused by occupational risk factors occur in the developed world.^ This condition seldom becomes invasive cancer; however, having LCIS in one breast increases the risk of developing breast cancer in either breast.

^ It inhibits a hormone growth factor that causes some cancer cells to divide.

^ Most salivary gland cancers occur in older people.

[36] .It is estimated that approximately 20,000 cancer deaths and 40,000 new cases of cancer each year in the U.S. are attributable to occupation.^ Case reports: 20 year old man with metastases to liver and lung and death 5 years later ( Am J Surg Pathol 1999;23:589 ) .
  • Kidney tumor - adult malignancies 20 November 2009 8:56 UTC pathologyoutlines.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Case reports: 40 year out woman ( Case of the Week #19 ), 60 year old man ( Arch Pathol Lab Med 2005;129:238 ) .
  • Kidney tumor - adult malignancies 20 November 2009 8:56 UTC pathologyoutlines.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Epidemiology: In 2008 in US, 54,000 new renal cancers, 13,000 deaths; 85% are renal cell carcinomas .
  • Kidney tumor - adult malignancies 20 November 2009 8:56 UTC pathologyoutlines.com [Source type: Academic]

[37]

Diet

.The consensus on diet and cancer is that obesity increases the risk of developing cancer.^ An inherited increase in the risk of developing a disease.

^ A number of genetic and environmental factors increases the risk of developing cancer.
  • Cancer supplements : by Ray Sahelian, M.D., anti cancer foods, cancer prevention with diet, herbs, and supplements 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Pancreatic cancer Physical activity decreases risk, obesity increases risk.
  • Cancer supplements : by Ray Sahelian, M.D., anti cancer foods, cancer prevention with diet, herbs, and supplements 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

.Particular dietary practices often explain differences in cancer incidence in different countries (e.g.^ Stomach cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in Japan -- a fact often associated with the frequent consumption of pickled, burned and highly-salted foods in that country.
  • CANCER DEATH -- CAUSES & PREVENTION 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Because both breast & colon cancer are rare in Japan, but are not rare among Japanese-Americans, diet has often been pointed-to as making the difference.
  • CANCER DEATH -- CAUSES & PREVENTION 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Oral cancer is a common problem among men in developing countries, and is often associated with tobacco or alcohol use.
  • Cancer supplements : by Ray Sahelian, M.D., anti cancer foods, cancer prevention with diet, herbs, and supplements 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

gastric cancer is more common in Japan, while colon cancer is more common in the United States. In this example the preceding consideration of Haplogroups are excluded). .Studies have shown that immigrants develop the risk of their new country, often within one generation, suggesting a substantial link between diet and cancer.^ This condition seldom becomes invasive cancer; however, having LCIS in one breast increases the risk of developing breast cancer in either breast.

^ In stage IIIA, the cancer is anywhere within the testicle, spermatic cord, or scrotum; may have spread to one or more lymph nodes in the abdomen; and has spread to distant lymph nodes or to the lungs.

^ In stage IIIB, the cancer is anywhere within the testicle, spermatic cord, or scrotum; and may have spread to one or more nearby or distant lymph nodes or to the lungs.

[38] Whether reducing obesity in a population also reduces cancer incidence is unknown.
.Despite frequent reports of particular substances (including foods) having a beneficial or detrimental effect on cancer risk, few of these have an established link to cancer.^ Past research has suggested a role for sulforaphane in preventing cancer, possibly due to its effects on detoxification enzymes that can defend against cancer-promoting substances.
  • Cancer supplements : by Ray Sahelian, M.D., anti cancer foods, cancer prevention with diet, herbs, and supplements 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

^ We conclude that anti-cancer effects of nutrients involve beneficial changes in ECM biological properties.

^ Authors interested in feedback on the journal’s interest in a particular manuscript should send a letter including the Summary and Significance paragraphs for the study to cancer@cell.com.
  • Cancer Cell - authors 11 September 2009 17:11 UTC www.cell.com [Source type: Academic]

.These reports are often based on studies in cultured cell media or animals.^ Sequences which decrease production of HAAH in in vitro cell-based or cell-free assays are then be tested in vivo in rats or mice to confirm decreased HAAH production in animals with malignant neoplasms.
  • Diagnosis and treatment of malignant neoplasms - Patent 6812206 25 September 2009 5:59 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These findings were supported by in vitro studies on melanoma A2058 cells that demonstrated NM inhibition of MMP-9 and MMP-2 secretion and dose-dependent inhibition in Matrigel invasion by these cells.

^ In this study, estradiol stimulated breast cancer (MCF-7) cell growth, MMP expression, matrix invasion, and VEGF secretion (measure of angiogenesis) were observed in culture.

.Public health recommendations cannot be made based on these studies until they have been validated in an observational (or occasionally a prospective interventional) trial in humans.^ In clinical trials, an event or outcome that can be measured objectively to determine whether the intervention being studied is beneficial.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Proposed dietary interventions for primary cancer risk reduction generally gain support from epidemiological association studies. .Examples of such studies include reports that reduced meat consumption is associated with decreased risk of colon cancer,[39] and reports that consumption of coffee is associated with a reduced risk of liver cancer.^ See also pages about politicians who died of specific cancers: brain : breast , colon , leukemia , liver , lung , pancreas , prostate .
  • The Political Graveyard: Politicians Who Died of Cancer 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The percentage of people in a study or treatment group who are alive for a certain period of time after they were diagnosed with or treated for a disease, such as cancer.

^ Cancer has spread beyond the liver to other places in the body, such as the bones or lungs.

[40] .Studies have linked consumption of grilled meat to an increased risk of stomach cancer,[41] colon cancer,[42] breast cancer,[43] and pancreatic cancer,[44] a phenomenon which could be due to the presence of carcinogens such as benzopyrene in foods cooked at high temperatures.^ It is being studied as a biomarker for breast cancer.

^ See also pages about politicians who died of specific cancers: brain : breast , colon , leukemia , liver , lung , pancreas , prostate .
  • The Political Graveyard: Politicians Who Died of Cancer 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A steroid metabolism gene called CYP17 is being studied in breast, ovarian, and uterine cancers.

.A 2005 secondary prevention study showed that consumption of a plant-based diet and lifestyle changes resulted in a reduction in cancer markers in a group of men with prostate cancer who were using no conventional treatments at the time.^ An anticancer drug that is also used in cancer prevention.

^ A drug being studied in the treatment and prevention of cancer.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Used in the palliative therapy of prostate cancer.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

[45] These results were amplified by a 2006 study. .Over 2,400 women were studied, half randomly assigned to a normal diet, the other half assigned to a diet containing less than 20% calories from fat.^ It is also being studied in the prevention of breast cancer in certain premenopausal women and in the prevention and treatment of other conditions.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

The women on the low fat diet were found to have a markedly lower risk of breast cancer recurrence, in the interim report of December, 2006.[46]
.Recent studies have also demonstrated potential links between some forms of cancer and high consumption of refined sugars and other simple carbohydrates.^ A drug that is used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and is being studied in the treatment of some other types of cancer.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A drug used to treat high blood levels of uric acid in patients with leukemia, lymphoma, and other types of cancer who are receiving certain types of cancer treatment.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A substance being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

[47][48][49][50][51] .Although the degree of correlation and the degree of causality is still debated,[52][53][54] some organizations have in fact begun to recommend reducing intake of refined sugars and starches as part of their cancer prevention regimens.^ It is being studied in the prevention of liver damage caused by some cancer treatments.

^ It is being studied in the prevention and treatment of some types of cancer.

[55][56][57]
.In November 2007, the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR), in conjunction with the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF), published Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective, "the most current and comprehensive analysis of the literature on diet, physical activity and cancer".[58] The WCRF/AICR Expert Report lists 10 recommendations that people can follow to help reduce their risk of developing cancer, including the following dietary guidelines: (1) reducing intake of foods and drinks that promote weight gain, namely energy-dense foods and sugary drinks, (2) eating mostly foods of plant origin, (3) limiting intake of red meat and avoiding processed meat, (4) limiting consumption of alcoholic beverages, and (5) reducing intake of salt and avoiding mouldy cereals (grains) or pulses (legumes).^ Name: Adrian & Karen Lakin Pet’s Name: Albion Story: Today, March 21, 2007, marks two years that Albion has been cancer free.
  • Canine Cancer Survivor Stories & Memories – Donate to Cure Dog Cancer With Veterinary Research 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.curecaninecancer.org [Source type: General]

^ Our vet told us about Morris and the dog cancer research they have been funding.
  • Canine Cancer Survivor Stories & Memories – Donate to Cure Dog Cancer With Veterinary Research 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.curecaninecancer.org [Source type: General]

^ It may also prevent the growth and spread of other types of cancer, including colorectal cancer.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

[59][60]
.Some mushrooms offer an anti-cancer effect, which is thought to be linked to their ability to up-regulate the immune system.^ It is a side effect of some cancer treatments.

^ Most skin cancers form in older people on parts of the body exposed to the sun or in people who have weakened immune systems.

^ Echinacea may interfere with treatment that uses the immune system to fight cancer.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Some mushrooms known for this effect include, Reishi,[61][62] Agaricus blazei, [63], Maitake, [64] and Trametes versicolor[65]. Research suggests the compounds in medicinal mushrooms most responsible for up-regulating the immune system and providing an anti-cancer effect, are a diverse collection of polysaccharide compounds, particularly beta-glucans. .Beta-glucans are known as "biological response modifiers", and their ability to activate the immune system is well documented.^ It is a type of biological response modifier.

^ A cell that performs a specific function in response to a stimulus; usually used to describe cells in the immune system.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Specifically, beta-glucans stimulate the innate branch of the immune system.^ A cell that performs a specific function in response to a stimulus; usually used to describe cells in the immune system.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Research has shown beta-glucans have the ability to stimulate macrophage, NK cells, T cells, and immune system cytokines.^ A substance being studied for its ability to stimulate the production of blood cells during chemotherapy.

^ A rare disease in which too many mast cells (a type of immune system cell) are found in the skin, bones, joints, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, and gastrointestinal tract.

^ A cell that performs a specific function in response to a stimulus; usually used to describe cells in the immune system.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

The mechanisms in which beta-glucans stimulate the immune system is only partially understood. .One mechanism in which beta-glucans are able to activate the immune system, is by interacting with the Macrophage-1 antigen (CD18) receptor on immune cells.^ A rare disease in which too many mast cells (a type of immune system cell) are found in the skin, bones, joints, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, and gastrointestinal tract.

^ A cell that performs a specific function in response to a stimulus; usually used to describe cells in the immune system.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A type of immune cell that blocks the actions of some other types of lymphocytes, to keep the immune system from becoming over-active.

[66]

Vitamins

Vitamin supplementation has not been proven effective in the prevention of cancer. The components of food are also proving to be more numerous and varied than previously understood, so patients are increasingly advised to consume fruits and vegetables for maximal health benefits.[67]
Vitamin D
.Low levels of vitamin D is correlated with increased cancer risk.^ This condition seldom becomes invasive cancer; however, having LCIS in one breast increases the risk of developing breast cancer in either breast.

^ Higher than normal levels of IGF-1 may increase the risk of several types of cancer.

^ Eating saturated fat increases the level of cholesterol in the blood and the risk of heart disease.

[68][69] Whether this relationship is causal is yet to be determined.[70]
Beta carotene
.Beta-carotene supplementation has been found to increase slightly, but not significantly risks of lung cancer.^ Patients with epidermolysis bullosa may be at increased risk of squamous cell cancer of the skin.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

[71]
Folic acid
.Folic acid supplementation has not been found effective in preventing colon cancer and may increase colon polyps.^ It may also prevent the spread of cancer.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Cancer is found in (1) the kidney and in 1 nearby lymph node; or (2) an adrenal gland or in the layer of fatty tissue around the kidney, and may be found in 1 nearby lymph node; or (3) the main blood vessels of the kidney and may be found in 1 nearby lymph node.

^ It is found at abnormally high levels on the surface of many types of cancer cells, so these cells may divide excessively in the presence of epidermal growth factor.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

[72]

Chemoprevention

.The concept that medications could be used to prevent cancer is an attractive one, and many high-quality clinical trials support the use of such chemoprevention in defined circumstances.^ This creative approach pre-dated the use of anti-anxiety medications in pets and veterinary behaviorists, who today could offer help.
  • Canine Cancer Survivor Stories & Memories – Donate to Cure Dog Cancer With Veterinary Research 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.curecaninecancer.org [Source type: General]

^ It is found at abnormally high levels on the surface of many types of cancer cells, so these cells may divide excessively in the presence of epidermal growth factor.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ No clinical trial using Essiac in humans has been reported in a peer-reviewed, scientific journal, and the FDA has not approved the use of Essiac for the treatment of any medical conditions.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Daily use of tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), typically for 5 years, has been demonstrated to reduce the risk of developing breast cancer in high-risk women by about 50%.^ Tamoxifen and raloxifene are selective estrogen receptor modulators.

^ A drug used to reduce the risk of invasive breast cancer in postmenopausal women who are at high risk of the disease or who have osteoporosis.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It is a type of selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM).
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.A recent study reported that the selective estrogen receptor modulator raloxifene has similar benefits to tamoxifen in preventing breast cancer in high-risk women, with a more favorable side effect profile.^ Tamoxifen and raloxifene are selective estrogen receptor modulators.

^ It is a side effect of some cancer treatments.

^ It is a type of selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM).
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

[73]
.Raloxifene is a SERM like tamoxifen; it has been shown (in the STAR trial) to reduce the risk of breast cancer in high-risk women equally as well as tamoxifen.^ A drug used to reduce the risk of invasive breast cancer in postmenopausal women who are at high risk of the disease or who have osteoporosis.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It is also being studied in the prevention of breast cancer in certain premenopausal women and in the prevention and treatment of other conditions.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A drug used to treat advanced breast cancer and to prevent recurrent breast cancer in postmenopausal women who have already been treated with tamoxifen.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.In this trial, which studied almost 20,000 women, raloxifene had fewer side effects than tamoxifen, though it did permit more DCIS to form.^ It may have fewer side effects and work better than doxorubicin.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A form of estrogen that may have fewer side effects than other forms.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ When I woke up the next moring I looked on the side of the bed a place where Bizzy always slept and did not find him and I started crying again.
  • Canine Cancer Survivor Stories & Memories – Donate to Cure Dog Cancer With Veterinary Research 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.curecaninecancer.org [Source type: General]

[73]
.Finasteride, a 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor, has been shown to lower the risk of prostate cancer, though it seems to mostly prevent low-grade tumors.^ A drug that blocks the hormone endothelin and may prevent prostate cancer from spreading to the bones.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Name: Benitta Pet’s Name: Rocky Story: Rocky was diagmosed with a cancer tumor of his lower left jaw, we are fighting it with herbs and medical treatment.
  • Canine Cancer Survivor Stories & Memories – Donate to Cure Dog Cancer With Veterinary Research 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.curecaninecancer.org [Source type: General]

[74] The effect of COX-2 inhibitors such as rofecoxib and celecoxib upon the risk of colon polyps have been studied in familial adenomatous polyposis patients[75] and in the general population.[76][77] In both groups, there were significant reductions in colon polyp incidence, but this came at the price of increased cardiovascular toxicity.

Genetic testing

.Genetic testing for high-risk individuals is already available for certain cancer-related genetic mutations.^ A drug used to treat high blood levels of uric acid in patients with leukemia, lymphoma, and other types of cancer who are receiving certain types of cancer treatment.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A drug used to reduce the risk of invasive breast cancer in postmenopausal women who are at high risk of the disease or who have osteoporosis.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Early menopause can be caused by some cancer treatments, surgery to remove the ovaries, and certain diseases or genetic conditions.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Carriers of genetic mutations that increase risk for cancer incidence can undergo enhanced surveillance, chemoprevention, or risk-reducing surgery.^ This condition seldom becomes invasive cancer; however, having LCIS in one breast increases the risk of developing breast cancer in either breast.

^ Higher than normal levels of IGF-1 may increase the risk of several types of cancer.

^ Patients with epidermolysis bullosa may be at increased risk of squamous cell cancer of the skin.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Early identification of inherited genetic risk for cancer, along with cancer-preventing interventions such as surgery or enhanced surveillance, can be lifesaving for high-risk individuals.^ Screening can also include checking for a person’s risk of developing an inherited disease by doing a genetic test.

Gene Cancer types Availability
BRCA1, BRCA2 Breast, ovarian, pancreatic Commercially available for clinical specimens
MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS1, PMS2 Colon, uterine, small bowel, stomach, urinary tract Commercially available for clinical specimens

Vaccination

.Prophylactic vaccines have been developed to prevent infection by oncogenic infectious agents such as viruses, and therapeutic vaccines are in development to stimulate an immune response against cancer-specific epitopes.^ A cell that performs a specific function in response to a stimulus; usually used to describe cells in the immune system.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A vaccine made from immune system cells collected from a patient with prostate cancer.

[78]
As reported above, a preventive human papillomavirus vaccine exists that targets certain sexually transmitted strains of human papillomavirus that are associated with the development of cervical cancer and genital warts. The only two HPV vaccines on the market as of October 2007 are Gardasil and Cervarix.[78] .There is also a hepatitis B vaccine, which prevents infection with the hepatitis B virus, an infectious agent that can cause liver cancer.^ It causes infectious mononucleosis and has been associated with certain cancers, including Burkitt lymphoma, immunoblastic lymphoma, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Although the virus has been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals, there is no evidence that it causes cancer in people.

^ A substance obtained from milk thistle seeds that is being studied in the prevention of liver damage caused by certain cancer treatments.

[78] A canine melanoma vaccine has also been developed.[79][80]

Screening

Cancer screening is an attempt to detect unsuspected cancers in an asymptomatic population. .Screening tests suitable for large numbers of healthy people must be relatively affordable, safe, noninvasive procedures with acceptably low rates of false positive results.^ A relatively large number of cancer cells have spread throughout the body.

^ No test is 100% specific because some people who do not have the disease will test positive for it (false positive).

.If signs of cancer are detected, more definitive and invasive follow up tests are performed to confirm the diagnosis.^ Screening, tests for cancer Diagnosis: Screening Cancer Screening Recommendations .
  • Index: CA: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Incubation of the antibody with the test sample is followed by detection of immune complexes by a detectable label.
  • Diagnosis and treatment of malignant neoplasms - Patent 6812206 25 September 2009 5:59 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For 50 years, the Pap test has been the gold standard for detecting cervical cancer.
  • Health News - Cancer and Chemotherapy News and Information from CNN health 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Screening for cancer can lead to earlier diagnosis in specific cases. .Early diagnosis may lead to extended life, but may also falsely prolong the lead time to death through lead time bias or length time bias.^ In cancer, a person is considered to be a survivor from the time of diagnosis until the end of life.

.A number of different screening tests have been developed for different malignancies.^ A substance that causes blood stem cells (cells from which other types of cells develop) to change into different types of blood cells and increases the number and actions of these cells in the blood.

^ Screening can also include checking for a person’s risk of developing an inherited disease by doing a genetic test.

.Breast cancer screening can be done by breast self-examination, though this approach was discredited by a 2005 study in over 300,000 Chinese women.^ It is being studied as a biomarker for breast cancer.

^ A steroid metabolism gene called CYP17 is being studied in breast, ovarian, and uterine cancers.

^ Examples of cancer screening tests are the mammogram (breast), colonoscopy (colon), Pap smear (cervix), and PSA blood level and digital rectal exam (prostate).

.Screening for breast cancer with mammograms has been shown to reduce the average stage of diagnosis of breast cancer in a population.^ Examples of cancer screening tests are the mammogram (breast), colonoscopy (colon), Pap smear (cervix), and PSA blood level and digital rectal exam (prostate).

^ A type of breast imaging test that is used to detect cancer cells in the breasts of some women who have had abnormal mammograms, or who have dense breast tissue.

^ Stage II breast cancer is divided into stages IIA and IIB. In stage IIB, (1) the tumor is larger than 2 centimeters but not larger than 5 centimeters and has spread to the axillary (under the arm) lymph nodes; or (2) the tumor is larger than 5 centimeters but has not spread to the axillary lymph nodes.

Stage of diagnosis in a country has been shown to decrease within ten years of introduction of mammographic screening programs. .Colorectal cancer can be detected through fecal occult blood testing and colonoscopy, which reduces both colon cancer incidence and mortality, presumably through the detection and removal of pre-malignant polyps.^ Examples of cancer screening tests are the mammogram (breast), colonoscopy (colon), Pap smear (cervix), and PSA blood level and digital rectal exam (prostate).

^ A type of breast imaging test that is used to detect cancer cells in the breasts of some women who have had abnormal mammograms, or who have dense breast tissue.

^ In stage B0, the cancer is detected only by increased blood levels of PSA (prostate-specific antigen).

.Similarly, cervical cytology testing (using the Pap smear) leads to the identification and excision of precancerous lesions.^ Examples of cancer screening tests are the mammogram (breast), colonoscopy (colon), Pap smear (cervix), and PSA blood level and digital rectal exam (prostate).

.Over time, such testing has been followed by a dramatic reduction of cervical cancer incidence and mortality.^ The percentage of people in a study or treatment group who are alive for a certain period of time after they were diagnosed with or treated for a disease, such as cancer.

^ The test checks for abnormal cells, such as lung cancer cells.

Testicular self-examination is recommended for men beginning at the age of 15 years to detect testicular cancer. .Prostate cancer can be screened using a digital rectal exam along with prostate specific antigen (PSA) blood testing, though some authorities (such as the US Preventive Services Task Force) recommend against routinely screening all men.^ An anticancer drug that is also used in cancer prevention.

^ Examples of cancer screening tests are the mammogram (breast), colonoscopy (colon), Pap smear (cervix), and PSA blood level and digital rectal exam (prostate).

^ In stage B0, the cancer is detected only by increased blood levels of PSA (prostate-specific antigen).

.Screening for cancer is controversial in cases when it is not yet known if the test actually saves lives.^ Scanning for colon cancer has been proven to reduce death rate, but the same cannot be said for tests screening for prostate cancer, breast cancer or lung cancer.
  • CANCER DEATH -- CAUSES & PREVENTION 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some good quality herbs known to boost the immune system response do not test all that strong individually for cancer.

^ As the immune system is so important in fighting cancer, and as so many well known supplements focus on immune system support, we have energetically tested a bunch of supplements to get an idea of what really does work well.

.The controversy arises when it is not clear if the benefits of screening outweigh the risks of follow-up diagnostic tests and cancer treatments.^ Screening, tests for cancer Diagnosis: Screening Cancer Screening Recommendations .
  • Index: CA: Merck Manual Home Edition 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Scanning for colon cancer has been proven to reduce death rate, but the same cannot be said for tests screening for prostate cancer, breast cancer or lung cancer.
  • CANCER DEATH -- CAUSES & PREVENTION 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Before it is frequency enhanced, energetic testing for its benefit in fighting cancer is 156 .

.For example: when screening for prostate cancer, the PSA test may detect small cancers that would never become life threatening, but once detected will lead to treatment.^ Cancer has spread from the bladder to the fatty layer of tissue surrounding it, and may have spread to the reproductive organs (prostate, uterus, vagina).

^ Our family decided that we would go ahead with treatment as long as Sneakers continued with his high quality of life.
  • Canine Cancer Survivor Stories & Memories – Donate to Cure Dog Cancer With Veterinary Research 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.curecaninecancer.org [Source type: General]

^ Examples of cancer screening tests are the mammogram (breast), colonoscopy (colon), Pap smear (cervix), and PSA blood level and digital rectal exam (prostate).

.This situation, called overdiagnosis, puts men at risk for complications from unnecessary treatment such as surgery or radiation.^ Also called radiation surgery, radiosurgery, and stereotactic radiosurgery.

^ Also called radiation surgery, radiosurgery, and stereotaxic radiosurgery.

^ The patient then receives radiation treatment with atomic particles called neutrons.

.Follow up procedures used to diagnose prostate cancer (prostate biopsy) may cause side effects, including bleeding and infection.^ It is a side effect of some cancer treatments.

^ A doctor who performs biopsies and other surgical procedures in cancer patients.

^ Cancer has spread from the bladder to the fatty layer of tissue surrounding it, and may have spread to the reproductive organs (prostate, uterus, vagina).

.Prostate cancer treatment may cause incontinence (inability to control urine flow) and erectile dysfunction (erections inadequate for intercourse).^ Spinal cord compression may cause pain, weakness, loss of feeling, paralysis, incontinence (inability to control urine or stool), or impotence (inability to have an erection of the penis).

^ It is being studied in the treatment of bone pain caused by cancer that has spread to the bone.

^ Cancer has spread from the bladder to the fatty layer of tissue surrounding it, and may have spread to the reproductive organs (prostate, uterus, vagina).

.Similarly, for breast cancer, there have recently been criticisms that breast screening programs in some countries cause more problems than they solve.^ It inhibits a hormone growth factor that causes some cancer cells to divide.

^ Although the virus has been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals, there is no evidence that it causes cancer in people.

^ Examples of cancer screening tests are the mammogram (breast), colonoscopy (colon), Pap smear (cervix), and PSA blood level and digital rectal exam (prostate).

.This is because screening of women in the general population will result in a large number of women with false positive results which require extensive follow-up investigations to exclude cancer, leading to having a high number-to-treat (or number-to-screen) to prevent or catch a single case of breast cancer early.^ Breast self exam increases the number of false positive results.
  • Cancer supplements : by Ray Sahelian, M.D., anti cancer foods, cancer prevention with diet, herbs, and supplements 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Screening for breast cancer has been very effective.
  • CANCER DEATH -- CAUSES & PREVENTION 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

^ To investigate, the researchers studied 663 women with proven breast cancer.
  • Cancer supplements : by Ray Sahelian, M.D., anti cancer foods, cancer prevention with diet, herbs, and supplements 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

.Cervical cancer screening via the Pap smear has the best cost-benefit profile of all the forms of cancer screening from a public health perspective as, largely caused by a virus, it has clear risk factors (sexual contact), and the natural progression of cervical cancer is that it normally spreads slowly over a number of years therefore giving more time for the screening program to catch it early.^ A relatively large number of cancer cells have spread throughout the body.

^ Unfortunately, Dr. Robin found a large tumor on her spleen that she said was probably a fast-moving blood vessel cancer/sarcoma that had likely spread to her spine and caused the paralysis.
  • Canine Cancer Survivor Stories & Memories – Donate to Cure Dog Cancer With Veterinary Research 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.curecaninecancer.org [Source type: General]

^ It is being studied in the treatment of bone pain caused by cancer that has spread to the bone.

Moreover, the test is easy to perform and relatively cheap.
.For these reasons, it is important that the benefits and risks of diagnostic procedures and treatment be taken into account when considering whether to undertake cancer screening.^ After a patient’s bone marrow is destroyed by treatment with whole body irradiation or chemotherapy, these cells are injected back into the patient to help rebuild bone marrow.

^ Refers to a medical procedure in which an organ, cells, or tissue are taken from a living body for a treatment or procedure, and then returned to the living body.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A procedure in which an x-ray of the veins is taken after a special dye is injected into the bone marrow or veins.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC ha.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Use of medical imaging to search for cancer in people without clear symptoms is similarly marred with problems.^ It may make tumor cells more sensitive to radiation therapy, improve tumor images using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and kill cancer cells.

^ A few years ago an acquaintance told me story after story of people with cancer experiencing quick and dramatic improvement in their condition using Ellagic Acid.

^ A computer program that uses personal and family medical history information to estimate a woman’s chance of developing breast cancer.

.There is a significant risk of detection of what has been recently called an incidentaloma - a benign lesion that may be interpreted as a malignancy and be subjected to potentially dangerous investigations.^ Solid tumors may be benign (not cancer), or malignant (cancer).

.Recent studies of CT scan-based screening for lung cancer in smokers have had equivocal results, and systematic screening is not recommended as of July 2007. Randomized clinical trials of plain-film chest X-rays to screen for lung cancer in smokers have shown no benefit for this approach.^ Although the virus has been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals, there is no evidence that it causes cancer in people.

^ No cancer is found in the abdomen or mediastinum (area between the lungs).

^ Cancer is found in the lining of the chest wall and may also be found in the lining of the lung, the lining of the diaphragm (the thin muscle below the lungs and heart that separates the chest from the abdomen), or the lining of the sac that covers the heart on the same side of the chest.

.Canine cancer detection has shown promise, but is still in the early stages of research.^ Hopefully with more cancer research, less families will lose their pets to canine cancer.
  • Canine Cancer Survivor Stories & Memories – Donate to Cure Dog Cancer With Veterinary Research 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.curecaninecancer.org [Source type: General]

^ We need to make pet owners aware of Canine Cancer and we need more research so our pets do not have to suffer.
  • Canine Cancer Survivor Stories & Memories – Donate to Cure Dog Cancer With Veterinary Research 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.curecaninecancer.org [Source type: General]

^ In stage B0, the cancer is detected only by increased blood levels of PSA (prostate-specific antigen).

Diagnosis

Chest x-ray showing lung cancer in the left lung.
.Most cancers are initially recognized either because signs or symptoms appear or through screening.^ A review concluded that breast cancer screening is not worthwhile when life expectancy is less than 10 years, and most women 80 or older have a life expectancy of less than 10 years.
  • Cancer supplements : by Ray Sahelian, M.D., anti cancer foods, cancer prevention with diet, herbs, and supplements 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ovarian cancer is the hardest to screen-for, and it is therefore most often fatal.
  • CANCER DEATH -- CAUSES & PREVENTION 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Regular examinations can detect colorectal cancers before symptoms appear, so colorectal exams are recommended for everyone over 40.
  • CANCER DEATH -- CAUSES & PREVENTION 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

.Neither of these lead to a definitive diagnosis, which usually requires the opinion of a pathologist, a type of physician (medical doctor) who specializes in the diagnosis of cancer and other diseases.^ These alterations can (but do not always) cause cancer or other diseases.

^ A substance being studied in the treatment of prostate and other types of cancer.

^ The percentage of people in a study or treatment group who are alive for a certain period of time after they were diagnosed with or treated for a disease, such as cancer.

.People with suspected cancer are investigated with medical tests.^ When referring to a medical test, sensitivity refers to the percentage of people who test positive for a specific disease among a group of people who have the disease.

^ When referring to a medical test, specificity refers to the percentage of people who test negative for a specific disease among a group of people who do not have the disease.

.These commonly include blood tests, X-rays, CT scans and endoscopy.^ She was returned to the Dr.'s for x-rays and blood tests.
  • Canine Cancer Survivor Stories & Memories – Donate to Cure Dog Cancer With Veterinary Research 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.curecaninecancer.org [Source type: General]

^ In CT scanning, an x-ray machine linked to a computer is used to produce detailed pictures of organs inside the body.

Pathology

.A cancer may be suspected for a variety of reasons, but the definitive diagnosis of most malignancies must be confirmed by histological examination of the cancerous cells by a pathologist.^ Gemcitabine hydrochloride blocks the cell from making DNA and may kill cancer cells.

^ It may make tumor cells more sensitive to radiation therapy, improve tumor images using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and kill cancer cells.

^ Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC), the sixth most common malignancies in the United States, are known for their aggressive growth and propensity to invade and metastasize.

Tissue can be obtained from a biopsy or surgery. .Many biopsies (such as those of the skin, breast or liver) can be done in a doctor's office.^ IP-6 has been reported to have in vivo and in vitro anticancer activity against numerous tumors, such as colon, prostate, breast, liver, chronic myeloid leukemia, and rhabdomyosarcomas.
  • Cancer supplements : by Ray Sahelian, M.D., anti cancer foods, cancer prevention with diet, herbs, and supplements 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A rare disease in which too many mast cells (a type of immune system cell) are found in the skin, bones, joints, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, and gastrointestinal tract.

^ Malignant neoplasms detected in this manner include those derived from endodermal tissue, e.g., colon cancer, breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, liver cancer, and cancer of the bile ducts.
  • Diagnosis and treatment of malignant neoplasms - Patent 6812206 25 September 2009 5:59 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.Biopsies of other organs are performed under anesthesia and require surgery in an operating room.^ A doctor who performs biopsies and other surgical procedures in cancer patients.

^ Because of her age and the fact we almost lost her previously while under anesthesia several years ago, we were hesitant to have the biopsy done.
  • Canine Cancer Survivor Stories & Memories – Donate to Cure Dog Cancer With Veterinary Research 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.curecaninecancer.org [Source type: General]

.The tissue diagnosis given by the pathologist indicates the type of cell that is proliferating, its histological grade, genetic abnormalities, and other features of the tumor.^ A cell from which other types of cells develop.

^ The abnormal cells have not spread outside the duct to other tissues in the breast.

^ Tumor markers are released into the blood by tumor cells or by other cells in response to tumor cells.

Together, this information is useful to evaluate the prognosis of the patient and to choose the best treatment. .Cytogenetics and immunohistochemistry are other types of testing that the pathologist may perform on the tissue specimen.^ A rare type of cancer that forms in the tissues that support the ovaries or testes.

^ Many different types of cancer may form in the bones, tissues, fluid, or nerves of the spine.

^ A type of cell that makes up certain types of connective tissue (supporting tissue that surrounds other tissues and organs).

.These tests may provide information about the molecular changes (such as mutations, fusion genes, and numerical chromosome changes) that has happened in the cancer cells, and may thus also indicate the future behavior of the cancer (prognosis) and best treatment.^ The test checks for abnormal cells, such as lung cancer cells.

^ These areas may contain cancer cells.

^ The percentage of people in a study or treatment group who are alive for a certain period of time after they were diagnosed with or treated for a disease, such as cancer.

Management

.Many management options for cancer exist including: chemotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery, immunotherapy, monoclonal antibody therapy and other methods.^ A type of radiation therapy in which a radioactive substance, such radioactive idoine or a radioactively labeled monoclonal antibody, is swallowed or injected into the body and travels through the blood, locating and killing tumor cells.

^ In stage IVB, cancer has spread to other parts of the body beyond the pelvis, including lymph nodes in the abdomen and/or groin.

^ Stereotaxic radiation therapy is used to treat brain tumors and other brain disorders.

.Which are used depends upon the location and grade of the tumor and the stage of the disease, as well as the general state of a person's health.^ Scintigraphy is used to diagnose, stage, and monitor disease.

^ Stage 0 is divided into stage 0a (papillary carcinoma) and stage 0is (carcinoma in situ), depending on the type of tumor.

^ A signature molecule may be used to see how well the body responds to a treatment for a disease or condition.

Experimental cancer treatments are also under development.
.Complete removal of the cancer without damage to the rest of the body is the goal of treatment.^ The introduction of a Westernized lifestyle, diet, and child-bearing pattern may underlie this trend Surgical removal of the breast tumor without mastectomy, plus treatment with tamoxifen, may be sufficient for elderly women with early-stage breast cancer.
  • Cancer supplements : by Ray Sahelian, M.D., anti cancer foods, cancer prevention with diet, herbs, and supplements 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Early menopause can be caused by some cancer treatments, surgery to remove the ovaries, and certain diseases or genetic conditions.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A substance obtained from milk thistle seeds that is being studied in the prevention of liver damage caused by certain cancer treatments.

.Sometimes this can be accomplished by surgery, but the propensity of cancers to invade adjacent tissue or to spread to distant sites by microscopic metastasis often limits its effectiveness.^ Cancer has spread to distant organs or tissues.

^ Cancer involves abnormal cells that divide uncontrollably and have the ability to invade and destroy normal body tissue.
  • Health News - Cancer and Chemotherapy News and Information from CNN health 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In stage IVC, cancer has spread beyond the larynx to distant parts of the body.

.The effectiveness of chemotherapy is often limited by toxicity to other tissues in the body.^ Stage D prostate cancer is cancer that began in the prostate and has spread to lymph nodes near or far from the prostate, or to other parts of the body, often to the bones.

^ It often occurs with rheumatoid arthritis or other connective tissue diseases.

^ A neuroblastoma may arise from sympathetic nervous tissue anywhere in the body, but this tumor most often develops in the abdomen.
  • Recognition of Common Childhood Malignancies - April 1, 2000 - American Academy of Family Physicians 20 November 2009 8:56 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

.Radiation can also cause damage to normal tissue.^ This type of radiation therapy helps spare normal tissue.

^ A disease caused when cells from a donated stem cell graft attack the normal tissue of the transplant patient.

.Because "cancer" refers to a class of diseases,[81][82] it is unlikely that there will ever be a single "cure for cancer" any more than there will be a single treatment for all infectious diseases.^ The percentage of people in a study or treatment group who are alive for a certain period of time after they were diagnosed with or treated for a disease, such as cancer.

^ In stage B2, there is more cancer in one or both lobes of the prostate.

^ The vets told us there was nothing that could be done other than tumor removal; then, our herbalist suggested a treatment of cancer-fighting herbs, which we have continued with to this day and he seems to be doing great.
  • Canine Cancer Survivor Stories & Memories – Donate to Cure Dog Cancer With Veterinary Research 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.curecaninecancer.org [Source type: General]

[83] .Angiogenesis inhibitors were once thought to have potential as a "silver bullet" treatment applicable to many types of cancer, but this has not been the case in practice.^ It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer.

^ SU011248 is also used to treat advanced kidney cancer and is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer.

^ SU11248 is also used to treat advanced kidney cancer and is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer.

[84]

Prognosis

Cancer has a reputation as a deadly disease. .While this certainly applies to certain particular types, the truths behind the historical connotations of cancer are increasingly overturned by advances in medical care.^ Sprycel is also being studied in the treatment of certain other blood diseases and types of cancer.

^ SU011248 is also used to treat advanced kidney cancer and is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer.

^ SU11248 is also used to treat advanced kidney cancer and is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer.

.Some types of cancer have a prognosis that is substantially better than nonmalignant diseases such as heart failure and stroke.^ The percentage of people in a study or treatment group who are alive for a certain period of time after they were diagnosed with or treated for a disease, such as cancer.

^ I cannot think of a better cause or tribute than to help find a cure for this devastating disease.
  • Canine Cancer Survivor Stories & Memories – Donate to Cure Dog Cancer With Veterinary Research 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.curecaninecancer.org [Source type: General]

^ A high level of SGOT released into the blood may be a sign of liver or heart damage, cancer, or other diseases.

.Progressive and disseminated malignant disease has a substantial impact on a cancer patient's quality of life, and many cancer treatments (such as chemotherapy) may have severe side-effects.^ It is a side effect of some cancer treatments.

^ The percentage of people in a study or treatment group who are alive for a certain period of time after they were diagnosed with or treated for a disease, such as cancer.

^ After a patient’s bone marrow is destroyed by treatment with whole body irradiation or chemotherapy, these cells are injected back into the patient to help rebuild bone marrow.

.In the advanced stages of cancer, many patients need extensive care, affecting family members and friends.^ I am so sick of CANCER killing the people and animals we love as our family members!
  • Canine Cancer Survivor Stories & Memories – Donate to Cure Dog Cancer With Veterinary Research 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.curecaninecancer.org [Source type: General]

^ Cancers in advanced stages which are described as curable by chemotherapy include testicular cancer, small-cell cancer of the lung, and many forms of leukemia & lymphoma.
  • CANCER DEATH -- CAUSES & PREVENTION 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Over 85% of pancreatic cancers contain mutations in the K-ras member of the ras family of oncogenes which cause the release of mutagenic growth signals.
  • CANCER DEATH -- CAUSES & PREVENTION 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

.Palliative care solutions may include permanent or "respite" hospice nursing.^ Services may include help getting to and from medical appointments, home delivery of medication and meals, in-home nursing care, help paying medical costs not covered by insurance, loaning medical equipment, and housekeeping help.

Emotional impact

.Many local organizations offer a variety of practical and support services to people with cancer.^ A professional trained to talk with people and their families about emotional or physical needs, and to find them support services.

^ As the immune system is so important in fighting cancer, and as so many well known supplements focus on immune system support, we have energetically tested a bunch of supplements to get an idea of what really does work well.

^ I've had too many people tell me what nutritional supplements they were taking for their cancer.

.Support can take the form of support groups, counseling, advice, financial assistance, transportation to and from treatment, films or information about cancer.^ A rare type of cancer that forms in the tissues that support the ovaries or testes.

^ In medicine, the ongoing collection of information about a disease, such as cancer, in a certain group of people.

^ From them we heard about how the veterinary cancer doctors are working jointly with the human doctors on cancer treatments, including the ones saving Kevin's life.
  • Canine Cancer Survivor Stories & Memories – Donate to Cure Dog Cancer With Veterinary Research 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.curecaninecancer.org [Source type: General]

.Neighborhood organizations, local health care providers, or area hospitals may have resources or services available.^ Health care providers are obligated to provide patients with the standard of care.

^ In medicine, a doctor or other health care professional who is trained and licensed in a special area of practice.

^ Health care providers are obligated to provide patients with standard therapy.

.Counseling can provide emotional support to cancer patients and help them better understand their illness.^ An improvement that is reported by the patient, but cannot be measured by the healthcare provider (for example, "I feel better").

Different types of counseling include individual, group, family, peer counseling, bereavement, patient-to-patient, and sexuality.
.Many governmental and charitable organizations have been established to help patients cope with cancer.^ A vaccine made from a patient's tumor cells that may help the body’s immune system find and kill cancer cells.

^ The urine of smokers is full of mutagens (which helps explain why smoking increases cancer rates in the urinary bladder and so many other organs).
  • CANCER DEATH -- CAUSES & PREVENTION 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

^ EEG biofeedback may help cancer patients deal with the stress and mental side effects of chemotherapy.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.These organizations are often involved in cancer prevention, cancer treatment, and cancer research.^ It is also being studied in the treatment and prevention of cancer.

^ A substance obtained from milk thistle seeds that is being studied in the prevention of liver damage caused by certain cancer treatments.

^ It is being studied in the prevention of liver damage caused by some cancer treatments.

Epidemiology

Death rate from malignant cancer per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004.[85]
     no data      ≤ 55      55-80      80-105      105-130      130-155      155-180      180-205      205-230      230-255      255-280      280-305      ≥ 305
As of 2004, worldwide cancer caused 13% of all deaths (7.4 million). .The leading causes were: lung cancer (1.3 million deaths/year), stomach cancer (803,000 deaths), colorectal cancer (639,000 deaths), liver cancer (610,000 deaths), and breast cancer (519,000 deaths).^ See also pages about politicians who died of specific cancers: brain : breast , colon , leukemia , liver , lung , pancreas , prostate .
  • The Political Graveyard: Politicians Who Died of Cancer 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He survived surgery to repair the disease bloat when he was five years old, but liver cancer overtook him quickly four years later.
  • Canine Cancer Survivor Stories & Memories – Donate to Cure Dog Cancer With Veterinary Research 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.curecaninecancer.org [Source type: General]

^ Cancer may have spread to nearby lymph nodes and has spread to other parts of the body, such as the liver or lungs.

[86] .Greater than 30% of cancer is preventable via avoiding risk factors including: tobacco, overweight or obesity, low fruit and vegetable intake, physical inactivity, alcohol, sexually transmitted infections, and air pollution.^ Higher than normal levels of IGF-1 may increase the risk of several types of cancer.

[33]
.In the United States, cancer is responsible for 25% of all deaths with 30% of these from lung cancer.^ We can’t allow all these deaths to be in vain.
  • Canine Cancer Survivor Stories & Memories – Donate to Cure Dog Cancer With Veterinary Research 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.curecaninecancer.org [Source type: General]

^ Blocking these signals can affect many functions of the cell, including cell division and cell death, and may kill cancer cells.

.The most commonly occurring cancer in men is prostate cancer (about 25% of new cases) and in women is breast cancer (also about 25%).^ See also pages about politicians who died of specific cancers: brain : breast , colon , leukemia , liver , lung , pancreas , prostate .
  • The Political Graveyard: Politicians Who Died of Cancer 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Women with sclerosing adenosis of the breast may have a slightly increased risk of breast cancer.

^ Examples of cancer screening tests are the mammogram (breast), colonoscopy (colon), Pap smear (cervix), and PSA blood level and digital rectal exam (prostate).

.Cancer can occur in children and adolescents, but it is uncommon (about 150 cases per million in the U.S.), with leukemia the most common.^ Most salivary gland cancers occur in older people.

^ The most common type is adenocarcinoma (cancer that begins in cells that make and release mucus and other fluids).

[87] In the first year of life the incidence is about 230 cases per million in the U.S., with the most common being neuroblastoma.[88]
.In the developed world, one in three people will develop cancer during their lifetimes.^ This condition seldom becomes invasive cancer; however, having LCIS in one breast increases the risk of developing breast cancer in either breast.

.If all cancer patients survived and cancer occurred randomly, the lifetime odds of developing an second primary cancer would be one in nine.^ This condition seldom becomes invasive cancer; however, having LCIS in one breast increases the risk of developing breast cancer in either breast.

^ Of all the words in the dictionary – cancer may be the one we least want to hear.
  • Canine Cancer Survivor Stories & Memories – Donate to Cure Dog Cancer With Veterinary Research 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.curecaninecancer.org [Source type: General]

^ A procedure in which a patient receives blood-forming stem cells (cells from which all blood cells develop) donated by his or her healthy identical twin.

[89] .However, cancer survivors have an increased risk of developing a second primary cancer, and the odds are about two in nine.^ Having sideropenic dysphagia may increase the risk of developing esophageal cancer.

^ This condition seldom becomes invasive cancer; however, having LCIS in one breast increases the risk of developing breast cancer in either breast.

^ Women with sclerosing adenosis of the breast may have a slightly increased risk of breast cancer.

[89] About half of these second primaries can be attributed to the normal one-in-nine risk associated with random chance.[89] .The increased risk is believed to be primarily due to the same risk factors that produced the first cancer, such as the person's genetic profile, alcohol and tobacco use, obesity, and environmental exposures, and partly due, in some cases, to the treatment for the first cancer, which might have included mutagenic chemotherapeutic drugs or radiation.^ It is a side effect of some cancer treatments.

^ The percentage of people in a study or treatment group who are alive for a certain period of time after they were diagnosed with or treated for a disease, such as cancer.

^ This condition seldom becomes invasive cancer; however, having LCIS in one breast increases the risk of developing breast cancer in either breast.

[89] .Cancer survivors may also be more likely to comply with recommended screening, and thus may be more likely than average to detect cancers.^ In stage IIIA, the cancer is anywhere within the testicle, spermatic cord, or scrotum; may have spread to one or more lymph nodes in the abdomen; and has spread to distant lymph nodes or to the lungs.

^ In stage IIIB, the cancer is anywhere within the testicle, spermatic cord, or scrotum; and may have spread to one or more nearby or distant lymph nodes or to the lungs.

^ Higher than normal levels of IGF-1 may increase the risk of several types of cancer.

[89]

History

.Today, the Greek term carcinoma is the medical term for a malignant tumor derived from epithelial cells.^ In stage IIB, one or more tumors (lumps of malignant cells) are found on the skin.

It is Celsus who translated carcinos into the Latin cancer, also meaning crab. .Galen used "oncos" to describe all tumours, the root for the modern word oncology.^ Prepare all applications using the SF424 (R&R) application forms and in accordance with the SF424 (R&R) Application Guide ( MS Word or PDF ).
  • PA-07-454: Research on Malignancies in the Context of HIV/AIDS (R21) 20 November 2009 8:56 UTC grants.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[91]
.Hippocrates described several kinds of cancers.^ Greek physician Hippocrates was the first to use the words "carcinos" and "carcinoma" in 400 BC to describe tumors, which led to the term "cancer" being coined.
  • Cancer: News & Videos about Cancer - CNN.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Often, several different kinds of cancer can start in the same organ.
  • CancerGuide: Understanding Cancer Types and Staging 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cancerguide.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

He called benign tumours oncos, Greek for swelling, and malignant tumours carcinos, Greek for crab or crayfish. This name comes from the appearance of the cut surface of a solid malignant tumour, with "the veins stretched on all sides as the animal the crab has its feet, whence it derives its name"[92]. .He later added the suffix -oma, Greek for swelling, giving the name carcinoma.^ The suffix -oma means tumor , and benign tumors are denoted by a tissue-name prefix added to the "-oma" suffix.
  • CANCER DEATH -- CAUSES & PREVENTION 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

.Since it was against Greek tradition to open the body, Hippocrates only described and made drawings of outwardly visible tumors on the skin, nose, and breasts.^ The BRCA1 & BRAC2 tumor-suppressor genes of breast cancer not only affect the cell-cycle, they assist in DNA-damage repair .
  • CANCER DEATH -- CAUSES & PREVENTION 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Salves made from the Pacific Yew needles were used to treat skin tumors and diseases, bronchitis and respiratory problems.

^ IP-6 has been reported to have in vivo and in vitro anticancer activity against numerous tumors, such as colon, prostate, breast, liver, chronic myeloid leukemia, and rhabdomyosarcomas.
  • Cancer supplements : by Ray Sahelian, M.D., anti cancer foods, cancer prevention with diet, herbs, and supplements 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

Treatment was based on the humor theory of four bodily fluids (black and yellow bile, blood, and phlegm). .According to the patient's humor, treatment consisted of diet, blood-letting, and/or laxatives.^ The prognosis and treatment options for childhood CML depend on how long it has been since the patient was diagnosed and how many blast cells are in the blood.
  • Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia/Other Myeloid Malignancies Treatment (PDQ®) 20 November 2009 8:56 UTC www.fccc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A drug used to treat high blood levels of uric acid in patients with leukemia, lymphoma, and other types of cancer who are receiving certain types of cancer treatment.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Through the centuries it was discovered that cancer could occur anywhere in the body, but humor-theory based treatment remained popular until the 19th century with the discovery of cells.^ He explained the cancer was extremely advanced and that she could not survive surgery if even through the night.
  • Canine Cancer Survivor Stories & Memories – Donate to Cure Dog Cancer With Veterinary Research 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.curecaninecancer.org [Source type: General]

^ Surgery performed after primary treatment to determine whether tumor cells remain.

^ Staging is usually based on the size of the tumor, whether lymph nodes contain cancer, and whether the cancer has spread from the original site to other parts of the body.

The oldest known description and surgical treatment of cancer was discovered in Egypt and dates back to approximately 1600 B.C. The Papyrus describes 8 cases of ulcers of the breast that were treated by cauterization, with a tool called "the fire drill." The writing says about the disease, "There is no treatment."[93]
.Another very early surgical treatment for cancer was described in the 1020s by Avicenna (Ibn Sina) in The Canon of Medicine.^ He put up a great fight, for 5 months he was cancer free and dealt very well with the chemo treatments.
  • Canine Cancer Survivor Stories & Memories – Donate to Cure Dog Cancer With Veterinary Research 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.curecaninecancer.org [Source type: General]

.He stated that the excision should be radical and that all diseased tissue should be removed, which included the use of amputation or the removal of veins running in the direction of the tumor.^ It may also be used to remove a tumor and normal tissue around it.

^ A chronic, inflammatory, connective tissue disease that can affect many organs including the joints, skin, heart, lungs, kidneys, and nervous system.

^ Ideally, the subjects in a study should be very similar to one another and to the larger population from which they are drawn (for example, all individuals with the same disease or condition).

He also recommended the use of cauterization for the area treated if necessary.[94]
In the 16th and 17th centuries, it became more acceptable for doctors to dissect bodies to discover the cause of death. .The German professor Wilhelm Fabry believed that breast cancer was caused by a milk clot in a mammary duct.^ A substance obtained from milk thistle seeds that is being studied in the prevention of liver damage caused by certain cancer treatments.

^ DCIS is a noninvasive condition in which abnormal cells are found in the lining of a breast duct (a tube that carries milk to the nipple).

.The Dutch professor Francois de la Boe Sylvius, a follower of Descartes, believed that all disease was the outcome of chemical processes, and that acidic lymph fluid was the cause of cancer.^ Nearly all of the skin is red, dry, and scaly; lymph nodes are either normal or enlarged but do not contain cancer cells.

^ A biological molecule found in blood, other body fluids, or tissues that is a sign of a normal or abnormal process, or of a condition or disease.

^ It is caused by a block in the flow of lymph and a buildup of fluid in tissues.

His contemporary Nicolaes Tulp believed that cancer was a poison that slowly spreads, and concluded that it was contagious.[95]
.The first cause of cancer was identified by British surgeon Percivall Pott, who discovered in 1775 that cancer of the scrotum was a common disease among chimney sweeps.^ The percentage of people in a study or treatment group who are alive for a certain period of time after they were diagnosed with or treated for a disease, such as cancer.

^ Cancer cells are found in both kidneys when the disease is first diagnosed.

^ These alterations can (but do not always) cause cancer or other diseases.

The work of other individual physicians led to various insights, but when physicians started working together they could make firmer conclusions.
With the widespread use of the microscope in the 18th century, it was discovered that the 'cancer poison' spread from the primary tumor through the lymph nodes to other sites ("metastasis"). .This view of the disease was first formulated by the English surgeon Campbell De Morgan between 1871 and 1874.[96] The use of surgery to treat cancer had poor results due to problems with hygiene.^ It is used to treat brain tumors and other brain disorders that cannot be treated by regular surgery.

^ The percentage of people in a study or treatment group who are alive for a certain period of time after they were diagnosed with or treated for a disease, such as cancer.

^ SU011248 is also used to treat advanced kidney cancer and is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer.

.The renowned Scottish surgeon Alexander Monro saw only 2 breast tumor patients out of 60 surviving surgery for two years.^ Tumor is only found in one area; all of the tumor that can be seen is completely removed during surgery.

^ Stage 2 is divided into stages 2A and 2B. In stage 2A, the tumor is in one area only and not all of the tumor that can be seen can be completely removed during surgery.

^ All of the cancer was removed by surgery, except for a small amount of cancer that can be seen only with a microscope, or tumor cells that may have spilled into the abdomen during surgery.

.In the 19th century, asepsis improved surgical hygiene and as the survival statistics went up, surgical removal of the tumor became the primary treatment for cancer.^ The removal of cancer as well as some of the breast tissue around the tumor and the lining over the chest muscles below the tumor.

^ A radioactive substance used in the treatment of bone cancer and bone metastases (cancers that have spread from the original tumor to the bone).

^ Either (1) the tumor cannot be removed by surgery; or (2) cancer that can be seen without a microscope remains after surgery; or (3) the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes.

.With the exception of William Coley who in the late 1800s felt that the rate of cure after surgery had been higher before asepsis (and who injected bacteria into tumors with mixed results), cancer treatment became dependent on the individual art of the surgeon at removing a tumor.^ All of the cancer was removed by surgery, except for a small amount of cancer that can be seen only with a microscope, or tumor cells that may have spilled into the abdomen during surgery.

^ Stage I is divided into stage IA and stage IB, depending on where the cancer has spread.

^ The percentage of people in a study or treatment group who are alive for a certain period of time after they were diagnosed with or treated for a disease, such as cancer.

.During the same period, the idea that the body was made up of various tissues, that in turn were made up of millions of cells, laid rest the humor-theories about chemical imbalances in the body.^ A protein made by the body that stimulates the growth of many types of cells.

^ A type of cell that makes up certain types of connective tissue (supporting tissue that surrounds other tissues and organs).

^ SPECT can give information about blood flow to tissues and chemical reactions (metabolism) in the body.

The age of cellular pathology was born.
.When Marie Curie and Pierre Curie discovered radiation at the end of the 19th century, they stumbled upon the first effective non-surgical cancer treatment.^ The percentage of people in a study or treatment group who are alive for a certain period of time after they were diagnosed with or treated for a disease, such as cancer.

^ In cancer treatment, a process used to plan radiation therapy so that the target area is precisely located and marked.

.With radiation also came the first signs of multi-disciplinary approaches to cancer treatment.^ In cancer treatment, a process used to plan radiation therapy so that the target area is precisely located and marked.

The surgeon was no longer operating in isolation, but worked together with hospital radiologists to help patients. .The complications in communication this brought, along with the necessity of the patient's treatment in a hospital facility rather than at home, also created a parallel process of compiling patient data into hospital files, which in turn led to the first statistical patient studies.^ After a patient’s bone marrow is destroyed by treatment with whole body irradiation or chemotherapy, these cells are injected back into the patient to help rebuild bone marrow.

^ Stromagen has been studied in the prevention of graft-versus-host disease during stem cell transplant in patients receiving treatment for cancer.

.A founding paper of cancer epidemiology was the work of Janet Lane-Claypon, who published a comparative study in 1926 of 500 breast cancer cases and 500 control patients of the same background and lifestyle for the British Ministry of Health.^ It is being studied as a biomarker for breast cancer.

^ See also pages about politicians who died of specific cancers: brain : breast , colon , leukemia , liver , lung , pancreas , prostate .
  • The Political Graveyard: Politicians Who Died of Cancer 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A steroid metabolism gene called CYP17 is being studied in breast, ovarian, and uterine cancers.

.Her ground-breaking work on cancer epidemiology was carried on by Richard Doll and Austin Bradford Hill, who published "Lung Cancer and Other Causes of Death In Relation to Smoking.^ See also pages about politicians who died of specific cancers: brain : breast , colon , leukemia , liver , lung , pancreas , prostate .
  • The Political Graveyard: Politicians Who Died of Cancer 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cancer may have spread to nearby lymph nodes and has spread to other parts of the body, such as the liver or lungs.

^ A doctor who performs biopsies and other surgical procedures in cancer patients.

A Second Report on the Mortality of British Doctors" followed in 1956 (otherwise known as the British doctors study). .Richard Doll left the London Medical Research Center (MRC), to start the Oxford unit for Cancer epidemiology in 1968. With the use of computers, the unit was the first to compile large amounts of cancer data.^ Died, of cancer , in Baptist Medical Center , Montgomery, Montgomery County , Ala., October 20, 1989 .
  • The Political Graveyard: Politicians Who Died of Cancer 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ MRI scans use a large magnet connected to a computer to create pictures of areas inside the body.

^ A term that is used to describe either a new primary cancer or cancer that has spread from the place in which it started to other parts of the body.

Modern epidemiological methods are closely linked to current concepts of disease and public health policy. .Over the past 50 years, great efforts have been spent on gathering data across medical practise, hospital, provincial, state, and even country boundaries to study the interdependence of environmental and cultural factors on cancer incidence.^ Died, of cancer , in New York Hospital - Cornell Medical Center , Manhattan, New York County , N.Y., September 28, 1990 .
  • The Political Graveyard: Politicians Who Died of Cancer 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Cancer patient treatment and studies were restricted to individual physicians' practices until World War II, when medical research centers discovered that there were large international differences in disease incidence.^ It is also being studied in the treatment of cancer.

^ A substance that has been studied in the treatment of cancer.

^ It is being studied in the treatment of cancer.

This insight drove national public health bodies to make it possible to compile health data across practises and hospitals, a process that many countries do today. The Japanese medical community observed that the bone marrow of victims of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki was completely destroyed. .They concluded that diseased bone marrow could also be destroyed with radiation, and this led to the discovery of bone marrow transplants for leukemia.^ After a patient’s bone marrow is destroyed by treatment with whole body irradiation or chemotherapy, these cells are injected back into the patient to help rebuild bone marrow.

^ Sometimes cancer cells are found in the blood and bone marrow, and the disease is called chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

^ A group of diseases in which the bone marrow does not make enough healthy blood cells.

.Since World War II, trends in cancer treatment are to improve on a micro-level the existing treatment methods, standardize them, and globalize them to find cures through epidemiology and international partnerships.^ Lawyer ; alternate delegate to Republican National Convention from New York, 1940 ; served in the U.S. Army during World War II. Presbyterian .
  • The Political Graveyard: Politicians Who Died of Cancer 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Served in the U.S. Navy during World War II; Foreign Service officer; U.S. Ambassador to Dahomey , 1961-64; Guinea , 1966-69; Kenya , 1969.
  • The Political Graveyard: Politicians Who Died of Cancer 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Served in the U.S. Army during World War II; served in the U.S. Army during the Korean conflict; lawyer ; member of Pennsylvania state senate 32nd District, 1971-78.
  • The Political Graveyard: Politicians Who Died of Cancer 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Research

.Cancer research is the intense scientific effort to understand disease processes and discover possible therapies.^ It seems somewhat bizarre to describe normal regulatory genes by referring to them as "pre-diseased", but these genes were discovered by cancer researchers.
  • CANCER DEATH -- CAUSES & PREVENTION 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In studies of gene therapy for cancer, researchers are trying to improve the body's natural ability to fight the disease or to make the cancer cells more sensitive to other kinds of therapy.

^ In cancer treatment, a process used to plan radiation therapy so that the target area is precisely located and marked.

.The improved understanding of molecular biology and cellular biology due to cancer research has led to a number of new, effective treatments for cancer since President Nixon declared "War on Cancer" in 1971. Since 1971 the United States has invested over $200 billion on cancer research; that total includes money invested by public and private sectors and foundations.^ Survivorship includes issues related to the ability to get health care and follow-up treatment, late effects of treatment, second cancers, and quality of life.

^ General in the Union Army during the Civil War; President of the United States , 1869-77; candidate for Republican nomination for President, 1880 .
  • The Political Graveyard: Politicians Who Died of Cancer 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Served in the U.S. Army during World War II; served in the U.S. Army during the Korean conflict; lawyer ; member of Pennsylvania state senate 32nd District, 1971-78.
  • The Political Graveyard: Politicians Who Died of Cancer 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[97] Despite this substantial investment, the country has seen a five percent decrease in the cancer death rate (adjusting for size and age of the population) between 1950 and 2005.[98]

Glossary

The following closely related terms may be used to designate abnormal growths:
  • Tumor or tumour: originally, it meant any abnormal swelling, lump or mass. In current English, however, the word tumor has become synonymous with neoplasm, specifically solid neoplasm. .Note that some neoplasms, such as leukemia, do not form tumors.
  • Neoplasm: the scientific term to describe an abnormal proliferation of genetically altered cells.^ Different types of solid tumors are named for the type of cells that form them.

    ^ A general term for the abnormal growth of squamous cells on the surface of the cervix.

    ^ Leukemias (cancers of the blood) generally do not form solid tumors.

    .Neoplasms can be benign or malignant:
    • Malignant neoplasm or malignant tumor: synonymous with cancer.
    • Benign neoplasm or benign tumor: a tumor (solid neoplasm) that stops growing, does not invade other tissues and does not form metastases.
  • Invasive tumor is another synonym of cancer.^ Leukemias (cancers of the blood) generally do not form solid tumors.

    ^ Cancer that forms in tissues of the skin.

    ^ Cancer that forms in tissues lining the stomach.

    .The name refers to invasion of surrounding tissues.
  • Pre-malignancy, pre-cancer or non-invasive tumor: A neoplasm that is not invasive but has the potential to progress to cancer (become invasive) if left untreated.^ This condition seldom becomes invasive cancer; however, having LCIS in one breast increases the risk of developing breast cancer in either breast.

    ^ Cancer has spread from the bladder to the fatty layer of tissue surrounding it, and may have spread to the reproductive organs (prostate, uterus, vagina).

    ^ The removal of cancer as well as some of the breast tissue around the tumor and the lining over the chest muscles below the tumor.

    These lesions are, in order of increasing potential for cancer, atypia, dysplasia and carcinoma in situ.
The following terms can be used to describe a cancer:
.
  • Screening: a test done on healthy people to detect tumors before they become apparent.^ No tumor is found in the thyroid but abnormal cells are found by screening tests.

    .A mammogram is a screening test.
  • Diagnosis: the confirmation of the cancerous nature of a lump.^ Examples of cancer screening tests are the mammogram (breast), colonoscopy (colon), Pap smear (cervix), and PSA blood level and digital rectal exam (prostate).

    ^ A type of breast imaging test that is used to detect cancer cells in the breasts of some women who have had abnormal mammograms, or who have dense breast tissue.

    .This usually requires a biopsy or removal of the tumor by surgery, followed by examination by a pathologist.
  • Surgical excision: the removal of a tumor by a surgeon.^ The removal of tissue by a surgeon for examination by a pathologist.

    ^ Tumor is only found in one area; all of the tumor that can be seen is completely removed during surgery.

    ^ The tumor was completely removed by surgery and all of the following are true: (1) cancer was found only in the kidney and did not spread to blood vessels of the kidney; (2) the outer layer of the kidney did not break open; (3) the tumor did not break open; (4) a biopsy of the tumor was not done; and (5) no cancer cells were found at the edges of the area where the tumor was removed.

    .
    • Surgical margins: the evaluation by a pathologist of the edges of the tissue removed by the surgeon to determine if the tumor was removed completely ("negative margins") or if tumor was left behind ("positive margins").
  • Grade: a number (usually on a scale of 3) established by a pathologist to describe the degree of resemblance of the tumor to the surrounding benign tissue.
  • Stage: a number (usually on a scale of 4) established by the oncologist to describe the degree of invasion of the body by the tumor.
  • Recurrence: new tumors that appear at the site of the original tumor after surgery.
  • Metastasis: new tumors that appear far from the original tumor.
  • Median survival time: a period, often measured in months or years, over which 50% of the cancer patients are expected to be alive.^ The removal of tissue by a surgeon for examination by a pathologist.

    ^ In stage 4S, (1) the child is younger than 1 year; and (2) the cancer has spread to the skin, liver, and/or bone marrow; and (3) the tumor is in one area only and all of the tumor that can be seen may be completely removed during surgery; and/or (4) cancer cells may be found in the lymph nodes near the tumor.

    ^ In stage 3 neuroblastoma, the tumor (1) cannot be completely removed during surgery and has spread from one side of the body to the other side and may also have spread to nearby lymph nodes; or (2) is in one area of one side of the body only, but has spread to lymph nodes on the other side of the body; or (3) is in the middle of the body and has spread to tissues or lymph nodes on both sides of the body, and the tumor cannot be removed by surgery.

    [99]
  • .
  • Transformation: the concept that a low-grade tumor transforms to a high-grade tumor over time.^ The changes in the cells are described as low grade or high grade, depending on how much of the cervix is affected and how abnormal the cells appear.

    .Example: Richter's transformation.
  • Chemotherapy: treatment with drugs.
  • Radiation therapy: treatment with radiations.
  • Adjuvant therapy: treatment, either chemotherapy or radiation therapy, given after surgery to kill the remaining cancer cells.
  • Neoadjuvant therapy: treatment either chemotherapy or radiation therapy, given before surgery to shrink a tumor to make its resection easier.
  • Prognosis: the probability of cure after the therapy.^ It collects in bone, where it releases radiation that may kill cancer cells.

    ^ Surgery performed after primary treatment to determine whether tumor cells remain.

    ^ A type of radiation therapy in which a radioactive substance, such radioactive idoine or a radioactively labeled monoclonal antibody, is swallowed or injected into the body and travels through the blood, locating and killing tumor cells.

    .It is usually expressed as a probability of survival five years after diagnosis.^ The survival rate is often stated as a five-year survival rate, which is the percentage of people in a study or treatment group who are alive five years after diagnosis or treatment.

    Alternatively, it can be expressed as the number of years when 50% of the patients are still alive. .Both numbers are derived from statistics accumulated with hundreds of similar patients to give a Kaplan-Meier curve.
  • Cure: A cancer patient is "cured" if they live past the time by which 95% of treated patients live after the date of their diagnosis of cancer.^ The percentage of people in a study or treatment group who are alive for a certain period of time after they were diagnosed with or treated for a disease, such as cancer.

    ^ In cancer, a person is considered to be a survivor from the time of diagnosis until the end of life.

    .This period varies among different types of cancer; for example, in the case of Hodgkin's disease this period is 10 years, whereas for Burkitt's lymphoma this period would be 1 year.^ The percentage of people in a study or treatment group who are alive for a certain period of time after they were diagnosed with or treated for a disease, such as cancer.

    ^ Many different types of cancer may form in the bones, tissues, fluid, or nerves of the spine.

    ^ Sprycel is also being studied in the treatment of certain other blood diseases and types of cancer.

    [100] The phrase "cure" used in oncology is based upon the statistical concept of a median survival time and disease-free median survival time.[101]

Notes

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References

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

.Cancer is a class of diseases in which a group of cells display uncontrolled growth.^ The percentage of people in a study or treatment group who are alive for a certain period of time after they were diagnosed with or treated for a disease, such as cancer.

^ It inhibits a hormone growth factor that causes some cancer cells to divide.

^ It is found at abnormally high levels on the surface of many types of cancer cells, so these cells may divide excessively in the presence of epidermal growth factor.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Sourced

.
  • Abortion opponents have attempted to link the procedure with breast cancer, but here again the scientific evidence undermines their claims....To believe otherwise is no more grounded in evidence that to believe that breast cancer is caused by power lines, or that the polio vaccine impedes virility, or that fluoridated drinking water triggers autism.^ Although the virus has been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals, there is no evidence that it causes cancer in people.

    ^ The removal of cancer as well as some of the breast tissue around the tumor and the lining over the chest muscles below the tumor.

    ^ I have always been a firm believer in natural supplementation and did some research on line and could only find information on people with cancer that go good results with supplementation.
    • Canine Cancer Survivor Stories & Memories – Donate to Cure Dog Cancer With Veterinary Research 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.curecaninecancer.org [Source type: General]

    .
  • We "need" cancer because, by the very fact of its incurability, it makes all other diseases, however virulent, not cancer.^ A drug that is used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and is being studied in the treatment of some other types of cancer.
    • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cip.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ We all miss him as he was a part of the family..however, he will be waiting on the other side of the Rainbow Bridge for us!
    • Canine Cancer Survivor Stories & Memories – Donate to Cure Dog Cancer With Veterinary Research 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.curecaninecancer.org [Source type: General]

    ^ A high level of SGOT released into the blood may be a sign of liver or heart damage, cancer, or other diseases.

    • Gilbert Adair, journalist and film critic, "Under the Sign of Cancer," Myths and Memories, 1986.

External links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:
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Look up cancer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary

Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

Here is the link to the ITunes U Lecture from Berkeley. Cancer
I will post my notes soon. .Please feel free to add details or make changes where necessary.^ This may make a person feel frustrated, angry, or anxious, and may cause unhealthy chemical changes in the body.

Contact me via email if you need help. Thanks, April

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also cancer, cáncer, Cáncer, càncer, and câncer

Contents

Translingual

Etymology

.From Latin cancer (crab), from Ancient Greek καρκίνος (karkinos), crab).^ The Greek physician Hippocrates (400 B.C.) named cancer using the Greek word karkinos (crab) because of the creeping, clutching crab-claw appearance of cancerous tissue spreading into other tissue areas.
  • CANCER DEATH -- CAUSES & PREVENTION 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The word cancer comes from the Latin for crab, probably because of the way a cancer adheres to any part that it seizes upon in an abstinate manner like the crab.
  • Definition of Cancer, malignant neoplasms 25 September 2009 5:59 UTC home.online.no [Source type: Academic]

^ This is incorrect, however, the derivation of cancer being the Latin cancer meaning gangrene as well as crab.
  • All about the sun sign Cancer in the Zodiac, complete information. 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.astrology-online.com [Source type: General]

Proper noun

Cancer
  1. The genus containing crabs.

See also


English

Signs of the Zodiac
Previous:
Gemini
Symbol:
Cancer symbol.png
Next:
Leo
Wikipedia has an article about Cancer.

Etymology

.From Latin cancer (crab), from Ancient Greek καρκίνος (karkinos), crab).^ The Greek physician Hippocrates (400 B.C.) named cancer using the Greek word karkinos (crab) because of the creeping, clutching crab-claw appearance of cancerous tissue spreading into other tissue areas.
  • CANCER DEATH -- CAUSES & PREVENTION 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The word cancer comes from the Latin for crab, probably because of the way a cancer adheres to any part that it seizes upon in an abstinate manner like the crab.
  • Definition of Cancer, malignant neoplasms 25 September 2009 5:59 UTC home.online.no [Source type: Academic]

^ This is incorrect, however, the derivation of cancer being the Latin cancer meaning gangrene as well as crab.
  • All about the sun sign Cancer in the Zodiac, complete information. 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.astrology-online.com [Source type: General]

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
Cancer
Plural
-
Cancer (symbol )
  1. (astronomy) A constellation of the zodiac supposedly shaped like a crab.
  2. (astrology) The Zodiac sign for the crab, covering June 22 - July 22.

Antonyms

Derived terms

Translations

Noun

Singular
Cancer
Plural
Cancers
Cancer (plural Cancers)
  1. Someone with a Cancer star sign

Synonyms

Translations

See also

Anagrams


Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Cancer pagurus

Taxonavigation

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Crustacea
Classis: Malacostraca
Subclassis: Eumalacostraca
Superordo: Eucarida
Ordo: Decapoda
Subordo: Pleocyemata
Infraordo: Brachyura
Sectio: Eubrachyura
Subsectio: Heterotremata
Superfamilia: Cancroidea
Familia: Cancridae
Genus: Cancer
Species: C. amphioetus - C. antennarius - C. anthonyi - C. bellanius - C. borealis - C. branneri - C. edwardsi - C. gracilis - C. irroratus - C. johngarthi - C. jordani - C. macrophthalmus - C. magister - C. oregonensis - C. pagurus - C. porteri - C. productus - C. setosus - †C. starri

Name

Cancer Linnaeus, 1758

Reference

  • Linnaeus, C. (1758). Cancer. pp. 625-634 in, Systema naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, Secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis. 10th edn Holmiae : L. Salvius 824 pp.

Simple English

Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders. It is when the body has no control over cells that begin to split. In cancer, body cells copy their contents. They then make new cells with these copies. These cells are able to go into other tissues. They go into other tissues by growing into them. They can also go into other tissues by putting themselves into far away places by metastasis. Metastasis is the stage in which cancer cells move through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. Cancer can affect anybody at any age. People are more likely to get it as they get older. This is because DNA damage becomes more apparent in older DNA. An exception is testicular cancer. It is more common in young men. Cancer is one of the biggest and most researched causes of death in developed countries.

Contents

Causes

Cancer is a leading cause of death. It causes about 12.5% of all deaths worldwide. This is according to the World Health Organization. There are some things that can be causes or triggers of different types of cancer. They include tobacco (smoked or smokeless), marijuana[1], lots of sunlight, radiation (including X-rays in large or many doses and exposure to radiation in a nuclear power plant), chemicals used in building and manufacturing (for example, asbestos and benzene), high-fat or low-fiber diets, air and water pollution, people who eat very little fruits and vegetables, obesity, not enough physical activity, drinking too much alcohol, and household use of some chemicals. Some cancers can also be caused by viruses.

Kinds

There are lots of different kinds of cancers. Some of the most common include breast cancer, brain cancer, leukemia, testicular cancer, mesothelioma, and lung cancer. Breast cancer begins in the breast. It can be found in anybody at anytime. It can also be found in men. Brain cancer starts in the brain (cancer of the brain is called a brain tumour). Testicular cancer starts in the testicles. It is most common in young men. Mesothelioma and lung cancer start in the lungs.

Treatment

There is no cure for cancer. Cancer can sometimes be treated using radiotherapy (also called radiation therapy), chemotherapy, or immunotherapy (also called biological therapy).

One hard problem in treating cancer is that most things that kill cancer also kill normal cells. Cancerous cells are often quite weak. Since the cancer is actually a part of the body, the body will not attack it, even though the cancer often could easily kill the body. Another hard problem in treating cancer is that there are many different types of cancer. Each have their own symptoms and causes. Some people can handle cancer better than others. However, it is harmful to everybody. It can be fatal.

There is always progress in finding treatment. Many cancers are treated successfully. For example, a study showed that if someone with lymphedema (a swelling of the arm linked to breast cancer) lifts weights, they be able to fight cancer better than somebody who does not.

History

The Greek term carcinoma is a medical term. It is used for a malignant tumour from epithelial cells. Celsus translated the Greek word carcinos into the Latin cancer. Cancer also means crab. Galen used "oncos" to describe all tumours. This is the origin for the current word, oncology.[2]

Hippocrates named many kinds of cancer. He called benign tumours oncos. In Greek, oncos means swelling. He called malignant tumours carcinos. This means crab or crayfish in Greek. The veins of the cut surface of solid malignant tumor looks like a crab: "the veins stretched on all sides as the animal the crab has its feet, whence it derives (gets) its name".[3] He later added -oma after the word. It is Greek for swelling. This has given the name carcinoma. Hippocrates only described and made drawings of tumors he saw from outside. This is because the Greeks did not open up the body. He drew tumors that were on the skin, nose, and breasts. People were treated based on the humor theory. The humor theory describes four bodily fluids (black, yellow bile, blood, and phlegm). The patient's treatment was made up of diet, blood-letting, and/or laxatives. The treatment was according to the patient's humor. Through the centuries it was discovered that cancer could occur anywhere in the body. The humor theory treatment was popular until the 19th century with the discovery of cells.

The oldest known description and surgical treatment of cancer was discovered in Egypt. It dates back to approximately 1600 B.C.[4] The Papyrus describes eight cases of ulcers of the breast. They were treated by cauterization. They used a tool called "the fire drill." The writing says about the disease, "There is no treatment."[4]

Another very early surgical treatment for cancer was described in the 1020s. It was described by Avicenna (Ibn Sina) in The Canon of Medicine. He stated that the removal should be radical and that all diseased tissue should be removed. This included the use of amputation or the removal of veins running in the direction of the tumor. He also recommended the use of cauterization for the area treated if necessary.[5]

In the 16th and 17th centuries, it became more acceptable for doctors to dissect bodies to discover the cause of death. The German professor Wilhelm Fabry believed that breast cancer was caused by a milk clot in a mammary duct. The Dutch professor Francois de la Boe Sylvius believed that all disease was the outcome of chemical processes. He believed that acidic lymph fluid was the cause of cancer. He was a follower of Descartes. Nicolaes Tulp believed that cancer was a poison that slowly spreads. He said that it was contagious. He lived at the same time as Sylvius.[6]

British surgeon Percivall Pott was the first to find a cause for cancer. In 1775, he discovered that cancer of the scrotum was a common disease among chimney sweeps. The work of other physicians led to different views. Physicians then started working together. They reached better conclusions.

The microscope began to be widely used in the 18th century. With the microscope, it was discovered that the 'cancer poison' spread from the one tumor through the lymph nodes to other sites ("metastasis"). This view of the disease was first made clear by the English surgeon Campbell De Morgan. He made it known between 1871 and 1874.[7] The use of surgery to treat cancer had poor results. This was because of problems with hygiene. The well known Scottish surgeon Alexander Monro saw only 2 breast tumor patients out of 60 surviving surgery for two years. In the 19th century, asepsis made surgical hygiene better. As the survival statistics went up, surgical removal of the tumor became the primary treatment for cancer. Cancer treatment became dependent on the individual art of the surgeon at removing a tumor, except for William Coley. In the late 1800s, Coley felt that the rate of cure after surgery had been higher before asepsis. He had injected bacteria into tumors with mixed results. During the same period, the idea was that the body was made up of many kinds of tissues. They in turn were made up of millions of cells. This laid rest the humor-theories about chemical imbalances in the body. The age of cellular pathology was born.

At the end of the 19th century, Marie Curie and Pierre Curie discovered radiation. They had found the first non-surgical cancer treatment. With radiation also came the first signs of multi-disciplinary approaches to cancer treatment. The surgeon was no longer operating in isolation. The surgeon worked together with hospital radiologists to help patients. This made things difficult in communication. It also made it necessary for the patient's treatment to be done in a hospital rather than at home. This made a process of putting all of the patient data into hospital files. This led to the first statistical patient studies.

Janet Lane-Claypon wrote a paper on cancer epidemiology. It was a founding paper. She published a comparative study in 1926. It was about 500 breast cancer cases and 500 control patients. They both had the same background and lifestyle. It was published for the British Ministry of Health. Her work on cancer epidemiology was carried on by Richard Doll and Austin Bradford Hill. They published "Lung Cancer and Other Causes of Death In Relation to Smoking. A Second Report on the Mortality of British Doctors" followed in 1956 (otherwise known as the British doctors study). Richard Doll left the London Medical Research Center (MRC). He left to start the Oxford unit for Cancer epidemiology in 1968. With the use of computers, the unit was the first to bring together large amounts of cancer data. Modern epidemiological methods are closely related to current ideas of disease and public health policy. Over the past 50 years, great efforts have been made on collecting data across medical practice, hospital, provincial, state, and even country boundaries. This data is used to study the sharing dependence of environmental and cultural causes on cancer incidence.

Cancer patient treatment and studies were only allowed to individual physicians' practices. This changed during World War II. This is when medical research centers found that there were large international differences in disease incidence. This idea made national public health bodies to make it possible to bring together health data across practices and hospitals. Many countries use this process today. The Japanese medical community found that the bone marrow of victims of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki was completely destroyed. They said that diseased bone marrow could also be destroyed with radiation. This led to the discovery of bone marrow transplants for leukemia. Since World War II, improvements in cancer treatment are getting much better. There are some things that still need to get better. They need to be better on a micro-level with existing treatment methods. They need to be standardized. They need to be globalized to find cures through epidemiology and international partnerships.

References

  1. "Marijuana Damages DNA And May Cause Cancer, New Test Reveals". ScienceDaily.com. 2009-06-15. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/06/090615095940.htm. 
  2. Karpozilos A, Pavlidis N (2004). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "The treatment of cancer in Greek antiquity"]. European Journal of Cancer 40 (14): 2033–40. doi:10.1016/j.ejca.2004.04.036. PMID 15341975. 
  3. Moss, Ralph W. (2004). "Galen on Cancer". CancerDecisions. http://www.cancerdecisions.com/speeches/galen1989.html. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 "The History of Cancer". American Cancer Society. September 2009. http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_6x_the_history_of_cancer_72.asp. 
  5. Patricia Skinner (2001), Unani-tibbi, Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine
  6. Marilyn Yalom "A history of the breast" 1997. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-679-43459-3
  7. Grange JM, Stanford JL, Stanford CA (2002). "Campbell De Morgan's 'Observations on cancer', and their relevance today". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 95 (6): 296–9. doi:10.1258/jrsm.95.6.296. PMID 12042378. PMC 1279913. http://www.jrsm.org/cgi/content/full/95/6/296. 

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