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Edible crab
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Crustacea
Class: Malacostraca
Order: Decapoda
Infraorder: Brachyura
Superfamily: Cancroidea
Family: Cancridae
Genus: Cancer
Species: C. pagurus
Binomial name
Cancer pagurus
Linnaeus, 1758

The edible crab,[1] Cancer pagurus, is a species of crab found in the North Sea, North Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea. It is a robust crab of a reddish-brown colour, having an oval carapace with a characteristic "pie crust" edge and black tips to the claws.[2] Mature adults may have a carapace width of up to about 25 cm and weigh up to 3 kg.

The edible crab is abundant throughout the northeast Atlantic as far as Norway in the north and northern Africa in the south, on mixed coarse grounds, mud and sand from shallow sublittoral to about 100 m. It is frequently found inhabiting cracks and holes in rocks but occasionally also in open areas. Smaller specimens may be found under rocks in the littoral zone.[3]

Contents

Behaviour

Edible crabs are nocturnal, hiding buried in the substrate during the day, but foraging up to 50 m from their hide-outs in the nighttime.[4] It normally eats benthic animals such as other crustaceans and molluscs; with its powerful claws it is able to shatter carapaces and shells. Males are extremely aggressive amongst themselves, and occasionally even kill each other. Males recognise other males by the size of the claws, females' claws being smaller.

The mouthparts and chelae of an edible crab

The natural predators of adult C. pagurus are fish and cephalopods, whereas the larvae are eaten by various plankton eaters and juveniles (in the tidal zone) by seabirds.

Due to its size, Cancer pagurus is slower than other crabs and has powerful claws to compensate. It may also bury itself under the sand to escape predators. When seized, C. pagurus adopts a characteristic position with the pereiopods and the chelipeds under the carapace to protect the more vulnerable ventral side. Because of this behaviour, this crab is called dormeur (French for "sleeper") in France.

Appearance

The carapace of C. pagurus is a reddish-brown color, although it is purple-brown in young specimens, and occasionally with white patches, and marked along the frontal-lateral margins with ten rounded lobes. Typically, a male has a carapace 90 mm long and 150 mm wide, although they may reach up to 250 mm wide in exceptional cases. A fold of the carapace extends ventrally to constitute a branchial chamber where the gills lie.

The first pereiopod is modified into a strong cheliped. The claw's fingers, the dactylus and propodus, are black. The other pereiopods are covered with rows of short stiff setae and the dactylus is black at the tip, and ends in a sharp tip. From a frontal view it is possible to distinguish the antennae and antennules. Beside these there are the orbits in which the eyes are situated. The mouthparts comprise the third maxillipeds, behind which there are two further pairs of maxillipeds, a pair of maxillae, a pair of maxillules, and finally the mandibles.

A ventral view shows the abdomen reduced and folded under the carapace. The abdomen has a different shape for male and female: in males it is comparatively narrow, whereas in the female it is wider. Hidden beneath the abdomen are the sexual organs and the anus. Reproduction takes place mostly in winter;[3] the male captures the female and holds her under himself until she moults. Internal fertilisation takes place before the hardening of the new carapace, with the aid of two abdominal appendages (gonopods). The fertilised eggs, numbering up to 20,000, are held under the female's abdomen until they hatch. The first developmental stage after hatching is a planktonic larva (1 mm) called the zoea that develops into a postlarva, megalopa, and finally a juvenile. The first juvenile stage is characterised by a well developed abdomen, which will, in time, become reduced in size and folded under the sternum.

Fishery

Edible crabs are heavily exploited commercially throughout their range. It is illegal to catch crabs of too small a size around the coast of Britain, a conservation measure brought in the 1870s. In 2000 a minimum landing size was introduced at a European level. Crabs with a shell width of less than 140 mm north of 56 degrees N, 130 mm in remainder of North sea except in North Norfolk where it is 115 mm , 140 mm in the English Channel and around the southwest peninsula, 130 mm elsewhere. There are also local byelaws which are enforced by local Sea Fishery Committees (SFC's) which may impose further catch restrictions.

In Norway, the size threshold for commercial catch is 130 mm north of Rogaland, and 110 mm south of this region. The Norwegian catch is 8,500 tons annually, as against 20,000 tons in the UK, 13,000 tons in Ireland, 8,500 tons in France, and a total 45,000 tons globally. [5]

References

  1. ^ The edible crab is also sometimes referred to as the Cromer crab, because it is commonly caught around the Norfolk coastal town of Cromer. In the Channel Islands languages of Dgèrnésiais and Jerriais, it is called a chancre.
  2. ^ Neal, K.J. & E. Wilson (2005). "Edible crab, Cancer pagurus". Marine Life Information Network. http://www.marlin.ac.uk/species/Cancerpagurus.htm.  
  3. ^ a b "Edible crab (Cancer pagurus)". ARKive.org. http://www.arkive.org/species/ARK/invertebrates_marine/Cancer_pagurus/more_info.html.  
  4. ^ Skajaa K., A. Ferno, S. Lokkeborg & E. K. Haugland (1998). "Basic movement pattern and chemo-oriented search towards baited pots in edible crab (Cancer pagurus L.)". Hydrobiologia 372: 143–153. doi:10.1023/A:1017047806464.  
  5. ^ IMR Factsheet

Cancer pagurus
File:Cancer
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Crustacea
Class: Malacostraca
Order: Decapoda
Infraorder: Brachyura
Family: Cancridae
Genus: Cancer
Species: C. pagurus
Binomial name
Cancer pagurus
Linnaeus, 1758
Synonyms [1]
  • Cancer fimbriatus Olivi, 1792
  • Platycarcinus pagurus H. Milne-Edwards, 1834
  • Platycarcinus pagurus Couch, 1838
  • Cancer luederwaldti Rathbun, 1930

Cancer pagurus, commonly known as the edible crab or brown crab, is a species of crab found in the North Sea, North Atlantic Ocean and perhaps in the Mediterranean Sea. It is a robust crab of a reddish-brown colour, having an oval carapace with a characteristic "pie crust" edge and black tips to the claws. A mature adult may have a carapace width of up to 25 cm (10 in) and weigh up to 3 kg (6.6 lb). C. pagurus is a nocturnal predator, targeting a range of molluscs and crustaceans. It is the subject of the largest crab fishery in Western Europe, centred around the coasts of the British Isles, with more than 60,000 tonnes caught annually.

Contents

Description

Mouthparts and chelae of a female
Ventral view of a female

The carapace of C. pagurus adults is a reddish-brown colour, while in young specimens it is purple-brown. It occasionally bears white patches, and is marked along the front edge with nine rounded lobes,[1] resembling a pie crust.[2] Males typically have a carapace 60 millimetres (2.4 in) long, and females 98 mm (4 in) long, although they may reach up to 150 mm (6 in) long in exceptional cases.[1] Carapace width is typically 150 mm (6 in), or exceptionally up to 250 mm (10 in).[3] A fold of the carapace extends ventrally to constitute a branchial chamber where the gills lie.[4]

The first pereiopod is modified into a strong cheliped (claw-bearing leg): the claw's fingers, the dactylus and propodus, are black at the tips.[1] The other pereiopods are covered with rows of short stiff setae and the dactylus is black at the tip, and ends in a sharp tip.[1]

From the front, the antennae and antennules are visible. Beside these there are the orbits in which the eyes are situated.[4] The mouthparts comprise three pairs of maxillipeds, behind which there are a pair of maxillae, a pair of maxillules, and finally the mandibles.[4]

In common with most crabs, the abdomen folded under the thorax and shows a sexual dimorphism: in males it is comparatively narrow, whereas in the female it is wider.[4]

Life cycle

Reproduction occurs in winter; the male captures the female and holds her under himself until she moults.[2] Internal fertilisation takes place before the hardening of the new carapace, with the aid of two abdominal appendages (gonopods). After mating, the female retreats to a pit on the sea floor to lay her eggs.[2] Between 250,000 and 3,000,000 fertilised eggs[5] are held under the female's abdomen for up to eight months until they hatch.[2]

The first developmental stage after hatching is a planktonic larva (1 mm) called the zoea that develops into a postlarva (megalopa), and finally a juvenile.[6] The first juvenile stage is characterised by a well developed abdomen, which will, in time, become reduced in size and folded under the sternum. Juveniles settle to the sea floor in the intertidal zone, where they stay until they reach a carapace width of 60–70 mm (2.4–2.8 in) and then migrate to deeper water.[5] The growth rate in males slows from an increase in carapace width of 10 mm per year before it is eight years old, to 2 mm per year thereafter.[5] Females grow at about half the rate of males,[5] probably due to the energetic demands of egg laying. Sexual maturity is reached at a carapace width of 12.7 cm (5.0 in) in females, and 11 cm (4.3 in) in males.[2] Longevity is typically 25–30 years, although exceptional individuals may live for up to 100 years.[7]

Distribution and ecology

File:Blue mussel
The blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, is a favourite food of Cancer pagurus.

Cancer pagurus is abundant throughout the northeast Atlantic as far as Norway in the north and northern Africa in the south, on mixed coarse grounds, mud and sand from shallow sublittoral to about 100 metres (330 ft).[3] Unconfirmed reports suggest that C. pagurus may also occur in the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea.[5] It is frequently found inhabiting cracks and holes in rocks but occasionally also in open areas. Smaller specimens may be found under rocks in the littoral zone.[2]

Adult C. pagurus are nocturnal, hiding buried in the substrate during the day, but foraging up to 50 metres (160 ft) from their hideouts at night.[8] Their diet includes a variety of crustaceans (including the crabs Carcinus maenas and Pilumnus hirtellus, the porcelain crabs Porcellana platycheles and Pisidia longicornis, and the squat lobster Galathea squamifera) and molluscs (including the gastropods Nucella lapillus and Littorina littorea, and the bivalves Ensis, Mytilus edulis, Cerastoderma edule, Ostrea edulis and Lutraria lutraria). It may stalk or ambush motile prey, and may dig large pits to reach buried molluscs.[5] The main predator of Cancer pagurus is the octopus, which will even attack them inside the crab pots that fishermen use to trap them.[9]

Compared to other commercially important crab species, relatively little is known about diseases of Cancer pagurus.[10] Its parasites include viruses, such as the white spot syndrome virus, various bacteria that cause dark lesions on the exoskeleton, and Hematodinium-like dinoflagellates that cause "pink crab disease".[10] Other microscopic pathogens include fungi, microsporidians, paramyxeans and ciliates. Cancer pagurus is also targeted by metazoan parasites, including trematodes and parasitic barnacles.[10] A number of sessile animals occasionally settle as epibionts on the exoskeleton of C. pagurus, including barnacles, sea anemones, serpulid polychaetes such as Janua pagenstecheri, bryozoans and saddle oysters.[10]

Fishery

Cancer pagurus is heavily exploited commercially throughout its range, being the most commercially important crab species in Western Europe.[2] The crabs are caught using crab pots (similar to lobster pots) which are placed offshore and baited.[2] The catch of C. pagurus has increased steadily, rising from 26,000 tonnes in 1978 to 60,000 t in 2007, of which more than 70% was caught around the British Isles.[11] The fishery is widely dispersed around the British and Irish coasts, and C. pagurus is thought to be overfished across much of this area.[11] Most of the edible crabs caught by the British fleet are exported live for sale in France and Spain.[12]

A number of legal restrictions apply to the catching of Cancer pagurus. It is illegal to catch "berried" crabs (females carrying eggs),[2] but since ovigerous females remain in pits dug in the sediment and do not feed, fishing pressure does not affect the supply of larvae.[5] Minimum landing sizes (MLS) for C. pagurus are set by both the European Union technical regulations and by the UK government.[11] Different minimum sizes are employed in different geographical areas, to reflect differences in the crab's growth rate across its range.[11] In particular, the "Cromer crab" fishery along the coasts of Suffolk, Norfolk and Lincolnshire is subject to a MLS of 115 mm (4.5 in), rather than the 140 mm (5.5 in) MLS in most of the species' range. An intermediate value of 130 mm (5.1 in) is used in the rest of the North Sea between the 56th parallel north and the EssexKent border, and in the Irish Sea south of 55° N. Around Devon, Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly, there is a separate MLS for males (160 mm or 6.3 in) and females (140 mm or 5.5 in).[11] The Norwegian catch is 8,500 tons annually, compared to 20,000 tons in the United Kingdom, 13,000 tons in Ireland, 8,500 tons in France, and a total 45,000 tons globally.[13]

Cookery

Around one third of the weight of an adult edible crab is meat, of which two thirds is white meat from the claws, and two thirds is brown meat from the body.[14] It is used to make "dressed crab", in which the meat is arranged in the cleaned shell with other foodstuffs, soups such as bisque or bouillabaisse, pâtés, mousses and hot soufflés.[15]

Taxonomy and systematics

According to the rules of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, Cancer pagurus was first described by Carl Linnaeus in 1758, in the tenth edition of his Systema Naturae, which marks the starting point of zoological nomenclature. It was chosen to be the type species of the genus Cancer by Pierre André Latreille in 1810.[16] The specific epithet pagurus is a Latin word, deriving from the Ancient Greek πάγουρος (pagouros), which, alongside "κάρκινος" (karkinos), was used to refer to edible marine crabs; neither classical term can be confidently assigned to a particular species.[17]

Although the genus Cancer formerly included most crabs,[18] it has since been restricted to eight species.[16] Within that set of closely related species, the closest relative of C. pagurus is the Jonah crab, Cancer borealis, from the east coast of North America.[19]

External links

File:Charybdis japonica.jpg Crustaceans portal

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Mario J. de Kluijver & Sarita S. Ingalsuo. "Cancer pagurus". Macrobenthos of the North Sea. Universiteit van Amsterdam. http://nlbif.eti.uva.nl/bis/crustacea.php?selected=beschrijving&menuentry=soorten&id=183. Retrieved August 4, 2010. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Edible crab (Cancer pagurus)". ARKive. http://www.arkive.org/species/ARK/invertebrates_marine/Cancer_pagurus/more_info.html. Retrieved September 16, 2010. 
  3. ^ a b Ken Neal & Emily Wilson (2008). "Edible crab - Cancer pagurus". Marine Life Information Network. http://www.marlin.ac.uk/speciesinformation.php?speciesID=2872. 
  4. ^ a b c d Ray W. Ingle (1997). "Structure and function". Crayfishes, lobsters, and crabs of Europe: an illustrated guide to common and traded species. Cambridge University Press. pp. 2–10. ISBN 9780412710605. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=x-qVGbTAOiEC&pg=PA3. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g "Species Information for Cancer pagurus". Biological Traits Information Catalogue. Marine Life Information Network. http://www.marlin.ac.uk/biotic/browse.php?sp=4129. Retrieved August 11, 2010. 
  6. ^ D. R. Eaton, J. Brown, J. T. Addison, S. P. Milligana & L. J. Fernand (2003). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator Edible crab (Cancer pagurus) larvae surveys off the east coast of England: implications for stock structure]. In Oliver Tully, Juan Freire & Julian T. Addison. "Life Histories, Assessment and Management of Crustacean Fisheries". Fisheries Research 65 (1–3): 191–199. doi:10.1016/j.fishres.2003.09.036. 
  7. ^ "Edible crab, Cancer pagurus". Fishonline. Marine Conservation Society. http://www.fishonline.org/search/advanced/?step=2&fish_id=12. Retrieved August 23, 2010. 
  8. ^ K. Skajaa, A. Ferno, S. Lokkeborg & E. K. Haugland (1998). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Basic movement pattern and chemo-oriented search towards baited pots in edible crab (Cancer pagurus L.)"]. Hydrobiologia 372: 143–153. doi:10.1023/A:1017047806464. 
  9. ^ Maurice Burton & Robert Burton (2002). "Edible crab". International Wildlife Encyclopedia (3rd ed.). Marshall Cavendish. pp. 741–742. ISBN 9780761472667. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=0gsPc5lk7_UC&pg=PA741. 
  10. ^ a b c d Grant D. Stentiford (2008). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Diseases of the European edible crab (Cancer pagurus): a review"]. ICES Journal of Marine Science 65 (9): 1578–1592. doi:10.1093/icesjms/fsn134. 
  11. ^ a b c d e Nautilus Consultants (December 2009) (PDF). Future Management of Brown Crab in the UK and Ireland (IPF_D123). Seafish Report No. SR633. Sea Fish Industry Authority. ISBN 978-1-906634-36-0. http://www.seafish.org/pdf.pl?file=seafish/Documents/SR633_NautilusBrownCrabManagement_D123_Final.pdf. 
  12. ^ "Responsible Sourcing Guide: Crabs & Lobsters" (PDF). Sea Fish Industry Authority. August 2, 2009. http://www.seafish.org/pdf.pl?file=seafish/Documents/SeafishResponsibleSourcingGuide_CrabsLobsters.pdf. 
  13. ^ Knut Sunnanå. "Taskekrabbe [Edible crab]" (in Norwegian) (PDF). Norwegian Institute of Marine Research. http://www.imr.no/__data/page/8431/2.7_Taskekrabbe.pdf. 
  14. ^ Alan Davidson & Tom Jaine (2006). "Common crab". The Oxford Companion to Food. Oxford University Press. p. 222. ISBN 9780192806819. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=JTr-ouCbL2AC&pg=PA222. 
  15. ^ Rowland Foote (1996). "Types of shellfish". Food preparation and cooking: Cookery units. Student guide. Catering and hospitality, NVQ/SVQ2 (2nd ed.). Nelson Thornes. pp. 306–309. ISBN 9780748725663. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=vRcidxIUWYMC&pg=PA306. 
  16. ^ a b Peter K. L. Ng, Danièle Guinot & Peter J. F. Davie (2008). "Systema Brachyurorum: Part I. An annotated checklist of extant Brachyuran crabs of the world" (PDF). Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 17: 1–286. http://rmbr.nus.edu.sg/rbz/biblio/s17/s17rbz.pdf. 
  17. ^ Andrew Dalby (2003). "Crab". Food in the ancient world from A to Z. Routledge. p. 105. ISBN 9780415232593. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=FtIXAe2qYDgC&pg=PA105. 
  18. ^ Gary C. B. Poore & Shane T. Ahyong (2004). "Cancridae Latreille, 1803". Marine decapod Crustacea of southern Australia: a guide to identification. CSIRO Publishing. pp. 401–403. ISBN 9780643069060. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=ZZWnuGc0xlMC&pg=PA401. 
  19. ^ Michelle K. Harrison and Bernard J. Crespi (1999). "Phylogenetics of Cancer crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura)" (PDF). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 12 (2): 186–199. doi:10.1006/mpev.1998.0608. PMID 10381321. http://decapoda.arthroinfo.org/pdfs/4160/4160.pdf. 



Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Cancer pagurus

Taxonavigation

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Crustacea
Classis: Malacostraca
Subclassis: Eumalacostraca
Superordo: Eucarida
Ordo: Decapoda
Subordo: Pleocyemata
Infraordo: Brachyura
Sectio: Eubrachyura
Subsectio: Heterotremata
Superfamilia: Cancroidea
Familia: Cancridae
Genus: Cancer
Species: Cancer pagurus

Vernacular names

Deutsch: Taschenkrebs
English: Edible crab
Español: Buey de Mar
Français: Torteau
Galego: Noco, Boi de Francia
Nederlands: Noordzeekrab
‪Norsk (bokmål)‬: Taskekrabbe
Português: Caranguejola
Svenska: Krabbtaska







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