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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A close-up image of a candle showing the wick and the various parts of the flame

A candle is a solid block of fuel (commonly wax) and an embedded wick, which is lit to provide light, and sometimes heat.

Today, most candles are made from paraffin. Candles can also be made from beeswax, soy and other plant waxes, and tallow (a by-product of beef-fat rendering). Gel candles are made from a mixture of paraffin and plastic.[citation needed]

A candle manufacturer is traditionally known as a chandler. Various devices have been invented to hold candles, from simple tabletop candle holders, to elaborate chandeliers.

The heat of the match used to light the candle melts and vaporizes a small amount of fuel. Once vaporized, the fuel combines with oxygen in the atmosphere to form a flame. This flame provides sufficient heat to keep the candle burning via a self-sustaining chain of events: the heat of the flame melts the top of the mass of solid fuel, the liquefied fuel then moves upward through the wick via capillary action, and the liquefied fuel is then vaporized to burn within the candle's flame.

The burning of the fuel takes place in several distinct regions (as evidenced by the various colors that can be seen within the candle's flame). Within the bluer regions, hydrogen is being separated from the fuel and burned to form water vapor. The brighter, yellower part of the flame is the remaining carbon being oxidized to form carbon dioxide.

As the mass of solid fuel is melted and consumed, the candle grows shorter. Portions of the wick that are not emitting vaporized fuel are consumed in the flame. The incineration of the wick limits the exposed length of the wick, thus maintaining a constant burning temperature and rate of fuel consumption. Some wicks require regular trimming with scissors (or a specialized wick trimmer), usually to about one-quarter inch (~.7 cm), to promote slower, steady burning, and also to prevent smoking. In early times, the wick needed to be trimmed quite frequently, and special candle-scissors were produced for this purpose, often combined with a snuffer. Nowadays, however, the wick is constructed so that it curves over as it burns (see picture on the right), so that the end of the wick protrudes into the hot zone of the flame and is then consumed by fire, a self-trimming wick.

candles burning


Fuel and candle holders

The candle can be made of paraffin (a byproduct of petroleum refining), stearin (now produced almost exclusively from palm waxes), beeswax (a byproduct of honey collection), gel (a mixture of resin and mineral oil), some plant waxes (generally palm, carnauba, bayberry, or soy), or tallow (rarely used since the introduction of affordable and cheap wax alternatives). The candle is produced in various colors, shapes, sizes and scents. The size of the flame and corresponding rate of burning is controlled largely by the candle wick.

The most basic production method generally entails the liquification of the solid fuel by the controlled application of heat. This liquid is then poured into a mold to produce a pillar type candle, a fireproof jar to produce a candle container, or a wick is repeatedly immersed in the liquid to create a dipped taper. Often, fragrance oils are added to the liquid wax prior to pouring. Natural scents, in the form of essential oils, can also be used. The candle may also be colored by the addition of some sort of coloring agent. This is almost always an aniline-based dye, although pigments can be used in some circumstances.

A candle typically produces about 13 lumens of visible light and 40 watts of heat, although this can vary depending primarily on the characteristics of the candle wick. For comparison, note that a 40 watt incandescent light bulb produces approximately 500 lumens for the same amount of power. The modern SI unit of luminous intensity, the candela, was based on an older unit called the candlepower, which represented the luminous intensity emitted by a candle made to particular specifications (a "standard candle"). The modern unit is defined in a more precise and repeatable way, but was chosen such that a candle's luminous intensity is still about one candela.

Decorative floating candles

It is commonly believed that candles made of beeswax burn more cleanly than petroleum-based paraffin waxes.[citation needed] Highly-refined paraffin wax, however, can burn as or more cleanly than natural waxes, creating less particulates during combustion. The type of wick and inclusion of any scents and/or dyes have a much greater impact on the release of compounds, particulates, and smoke, regardless of the base material. The cleanest burning candle will be well-constructed, unscented, undyed, and burn in a draft-free area. A candle will burn well when formulated waxes are blended together (soy, paraffin and other waxes), and fragrance oils and wick selections are balanced properly.

This holder uses a spike to stabilize the candle.
A collection of lit candles on ornate candlesticks

A smoke film can be a concern to those who frequently burn a candle indoors and is also referred to as ghosting, carbon tracking, or carbon tracing. Smoke can be produced when a candle does not burn the wax fuel completely. A scented candle can be a source of candle smoke deposits. Trimming candle wicks to about 6 millimeters (¼ in) or shorter will keep smoking to a minimum. A flickering flame will produce more smoke, therefore a candle should be burned in an area free from drafts.[1]

Differing opinions about which kind of wax in a candle is "natural." Proponents of the soy wax candle will note the material is biodegradable and "all natural." However, most soy beans used in the manufacture of soy wax are genetically modified. Paraffin wax, as used in candle making, is also biodegradable. It also often meets the United States Food and Drug Administration criteria for use in foods and food contact. It has also been claimed that natural waxes have a neutral carbon footprint as carbon dioxide was recently taken from the air to produce the natural wax, which upon burning would not result in a net increase in carbon dioxide.

Technical characteristics

A modern candle typically burns at a rate of about 0.105 g/min, releasing heat of about 77 W, plus or minus about 9 W [2]. The light produced is about 13 lumens. The luminous efficacy is about 0.17 lumens per watt (luminous efficacy of a source), a hundred times lower than an incandescent light bulb. The color temperature is approximately 1,000K.

The hottest part of the flame is just above the very dull blue part to one side of the flame, at the base. At this point, the flame is about 1,400°C. However note that that part of the flame is very small and releases little heat energy. The blue color is due to chemiluminescence, while the visible yellow color is due to radiative emission from hot soot particles. The soot is formed through a series of complex chemical reactions, leading from the fuel molecule through molecular growth, until multi-carbon ring compounds are formed. The thermal structure of a flame is complex, hundreds of degrees over very short distances leading to extremely steep temperature gradients. On average, the flame temperature is about 1,000 °C .[3]

The flicker frequency of a flame is proportional to the square root of the ratio of the acceleration due to gravity to the diameter of the candle. A candle on the moon would flicker at a different frequency than on Earth and wouldn't flicker at all in the absence of a gravitational force (like on a space platform).[4]


According to the National Fire Protection Association, candles are one of the leading sources of residential fires with almost 10% of civilian injuries and 6 % of civilian fatalities attributed to candles.[5]

A candle flame that is longer than its laminar smoke point [6] will emit soot. Soot inhalation has known health hazards. Proper wick trimming will prevent soot emissions from most candles.

The liquid wax is hot and can cause skin burns, but the amount and temperature are generally rather limited and the burns are seldom serious. The best way to avoid getting burned from splashed wax is to use a candle snuffer instead of blowing on the flame. A candle snuffer is usually a small metal cup on the end of a long handle. When placed over the flame the oxygen supply is cut off. They were used daily when the candle was the main source of lighting a home, before electric lights were available.

Glass candle holders are sometimes cracked by thermal shock from the candle flame, particularly when the candle burns down to the end.

A former worry regarding the safety of candles was that a lead core was used in the wicks to keep them upright in container candles. Without a stiff core, the wicks of a container candle could sag and drown in the deep wax pool. Concerns rose that the lead in these wicks would vaporize during the burning process, releasing lead vapors — a known health and developmental hazard. Lead core wicks have not been common since the 1970s. Today, most metal-cored wicks use zinc or a zinc alloy, which has become the industry standard. Wicks made from specially treated paper and cotton are also available.

Candle holders

Decorative candle holders, especially those shaped as a pedestal, are called candlesticks; if multiple candle tapers are held, the term candelabrum is also used. The root form of chandelier is from the word for candle, but now usually refers to an electric fixture. The word chandelier is sometimes now used to describe a hanging fixture designed to hold multiple tapers.

Many candle holders use a friction-tight socket to keep the candle upright. In this case, a candle that is slightly too wide will not fit in the holder, and a candle that is slightly too narrow will wobble. Any candle that is too large can be trimmed to fit with a knife; a candle that is too small can be fitted with aluminum foil. Traditionally, the candle and candle holders were made in the same place, so they were appropriately sized, but international trade has combined the modern candle with existing holders, which makes the ill-fitting candle more common. This friction tight socket is only needed for the federals and the tapers. For tea light candles, there are a variety of candle holders, including small glass holders and elaborate multi candle stands. The same is true for votives. Wall sconces are available for tea light and votive candles. For pillar type candles, the assortment of candle holders is broad. A fireproof plate, such as a glass plate or small mirror, is a candle holder for a pillar style candle. A pedestal of any kind, with the appropriate sized fire proof top, is another option. A large glass bowl with a large flat bottom and tall mostly vertical curved sides is called a hurricane. The pillar style candle is placed at the bottom center of the hurricane. A hurricane on a pedestal is sometimes sold as a unit.


A rectangular candle.

In Rome, around the first century, candles were made out of tallow and the pith of rushes. The Latin word "candere" means to flicker. The Egyptians and Cretans made the candle from beeswax, as early as 3000 BC.[7] The early candle was made from various forms of natural fat, tallow, and wax. In the 18th century, spermaceti, oil produced by the sperm whale, was used to produce a superior candle.[8] Late in the 18th century, colza oil and rapeseed oil came into use as much cheaper substitutes. Paraffin was first distilled in 1830, and revolutionized candle-making, as it was an inexpensive material which produced a high-quality, odorless candle that burned reasonably cleanly. The industry was devastated soon after, however, by the distillation of kerosene (confusingly also called paraffin oil or just paraffin). Recently resin based candles that are freestanding and transparent have been developed, with the claim that they burn longer than traditional paraffin candles. They are usually scented and oil based.



An Advent candle burning on the fourth day of December.

With the fairly consistent and measurable burning of a candle, a common use was to tell the time. The candle designed for this purpose might have time measurements, usually in hours, marked along the wax. The Song dynasty in China (960–1279) used candle-clocks.[9] By the 18th century, candle-clocks were being made with weights set into the sides of the candle. As the candle melted, the weights fell off and made a noise as they fell into a bowl. A form of candle-clock was used in coal-mining until the 20th century.

In the days leading to Christmas some people burn a candle a set amount to represent each day, as marked on the candle. The type of candle used in this way is called the Advent candle,[10] although this term is also used to refer to a candle that decorates an Advent wreath.

Candles and religion

Birthday cake candles.

Before the advent of electricity, candles and oil lamps were used for illumination. Until the 20th century, candles were more common in northern Europe. In southern Europe and the Mediterranean, oil lamps predominated.

Today, candles are used mainly for their aesthetic value and scent, particularly to set a soft, warm, or romantic ambiance, and for emergency lighting during electrical power failures. Scented candles are used in aromatherapy.

Candles are used in the religious ceremonies of many faiths.


The candle is used in Sikhism on Diwali, the festival of light.[11]


A very large carved Thai candle, similar to those used in the Ubon Ratchathani Candle Festival

Candles are a traditional part of Buddhist ritual observances. Along with incense and flowers, candles (or some other type of light source, such as butter lamps) are placed before Buddhist shrines or images of the Buddha as a show of respect. They may also be accompanied by offerings of food and drink.[12] The light of the candles is described as representing the light of the Buddha's teachings, echoing the metaphor of light used in various Buddhist scriptures.[12][13] See Ubon Ratchathani Candle Festival for an example of a Buddhist festival that makes extensive use of candles.


In almost all Hindu homes, lamps are lit daily and sometimes every day before an altar. In some houses, the oil lamps, or candles, at dawn, and in some, twice a day - at dawn and dusk - and in a few, it is maintained continuously.

A diya, or clay lamp, is frequently used in Hindu celebrations and forms an integral part in many social rites. It is a strong symbol of enlightenment, hope and prosperity.

In its traditional and simplest form, the diya is made from baked clay or terracotta and holds oil or ghee that is lit via a cotton wick.

Traditional diyas have now evolved into a form wherein waxes are being used as replacements for oils.[14]


A U.S. Air Force chaplain's assistant lights an altar candle with a BBQ lighter in preparation for a Christian worship service.
Candles are sometimes burned in churches and cathedrals as a sign of remembrance of the departed.
Candles at the Notre Dame, in Paris
Bundle of candles sold in the shops of the Christian Quarter in the Old City of Jerusalem.

In Christianity the candle is commonly used in worship both for decoration and ambiance, and as a symbol that represent the light of God or, specifically, the light of Christ. The altar candle is often placed on the altar, usually in pairs. Candles are also carried in processions, especially to either side of the processional cross. A votive candle or taper may be lit as an accompaniment to prayer.[15]

Candles are lit by worshippers in front of icons in Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Eastern Catholic and other churches. This is referred to as "offering a candle", because the candle is a symbol of the worshiper offering himself or herself to God (and proceeds from the sale of the candle are offerings by the faithful which go to help the church).[16] Among the Eastern Orthodox, there are times when the entire congregation stands holding lit tapers, such as during the reading of the Matins Gospels on Good Friday, the Lamentations on Holy Saturday, funerals, Memorial services, etc. There are also special candles that are used by Orthodox clergy. A bishop will bless using dikirion and trikirion (candlesticks holding two and three candles, respectively). At Pascha (Easter) the priest holds a special Paschal trikirion, and the deacon holds a Paschal candle. The priest will also bless the faithful with a single candle during the Liturgy of the Presanctified Gifts (celebrated only during Great Lent).

In the Roman Catholic Church a liturgical candle must be made of at least 51% beeswax, the remainder may be paraffin or some other substance.[17] In the Orthodox Church, the tapers offered should be 100% beeswax, unless poverty makes this impossible. The stumps from burned candles can be saved and melted down to make new candles.

In some Western churches, a special candle known as the Paschal candle, specifically represents the Resurrected Christ and is lit only at Easter, funerals, and baptisms.[18] In the Eastern Orthodox Church, during Bright Week (Easter Week) the priest holds a special Paschal trikirion (triple candlestick) and the deacon holds a large candle during all of the services at which they serve.

In Sweden (and other Scandinavian countries), St. Lucia Day is celebrated on December 13 with the crowning of a young girl with a wreath of candles.[19]

In many Western churches, a group of candles arranged in a ring, known as an Advent wreath, are used in church services in the Sundays leading up to Christmas. In households in some Western European countries, a single candle marked with the days of December is gradually burned down, day by day, to mark the passing of the days of Advent; this is called an Advent candle.


A yahrtzeit candle, lit on the Hebrew anniversary of a loved one's death

In Judaism, a pair of candles are lit on Friday evening prior to the start of the weekly Sabbath celebration.[20] On Saturday night, a special candle with several wicks is lit for the Havdalah ritual marking the end of the Sabbath and the beginning of the new week.[20]

The eight-day holiday of Hanukkah, also known as the Festival of Lights, is celebrated by lighting a special candelabrum or Hanukkiyah each night to commemorate the rededication of the Temple in Jerusalem.[21]

A memorial candle is lit on the Yahrtzeit, or anniversary of the death of a loved one according to the Hebrew calendar. The candle burns for 24 hours. A memorial candle is also lit on Yom HaShoah, a day of remembrance for all those who perished in the Holocaust.[22]

Candles are also lit prior to the onset of the Three Festivals (Sukkot, Passover and Shavuot) and the eve of Yom Kippur, and Rosh Hashana.[23]

A candle is also used on the night before Passover in a symbolic search for chametz, or leavened bread, which is not eaten on Passover.[24]


The Candle is also used in celebrations of Kwanzaa, which is an African American holiday which runs from December 26 to January 1. A Kinara is used to hold candles in these celebrations. It holds seven candles; three red candles to represent African American struggles, one black candle to represent the African American people and three green candles to represent African American hopes.[25]


For some Humanists the candle is used as a symbol of the light of reason or rationality. The Humanist festival of HumanLight often features a candle-lighting ceremony.

Unitarian Universalism

A common element of worship in many Unitarian Universalism churches and fellowships is the lighting of candles of joy and concern. Here members of the congregation may come up to the altar or chancel, light a votive or other candle, and share a personal concern or joy with the community. Unitarian Universalism also incorporates candle-lighting ceremonies from other spiritual traditions, from which they draw inspiration.


In Wicca and related forms of Paganism, the candle is frequently used on the altar to represent the presence of the God and Goddess, and in the four corners of a ritual circle to represent the presence of the four classical elements: Fire, Earth, Air, and Water. When used in this manner, lighting and extinguishing the candle marks the opening and closing of the ritual. The candle is also frequently used for magical meditative purposes. Altar candles are traditionally thick tall candles or long tapers which are available in many colors. In Wicca, the candles that are used come in a variety of colors, depending on the nature of the ritual or custom at hand. Some Wiccans may use red, green, blue, yellow and white or purple candles to represent the elements.

Raqs sharqi

In raqs sharqi, candles are used as a complementary element in some dance styles. The candles can be held either on the dancer's hand or above her head, depending on what the choreography demands.

See also


  1. ^
  2. ^ "Characterization of Candle Flames", by Anthony Hamins, Matthew Bundy and Scott E. Dillon. Journal of Fire Protection Engineering, Vol. 15, November 2005. DOI: 10.1177/1042391505053163,
  3. ^ On Fire - Background Essay, NOVA on Teachers' Domain, WGBH. Retrieved January 5, 2009.
  4. ^ Hamins, A., Yang, J.C. and Kashiwagi, T. (1992). An Experimental Investigation of the Pulsation Frequency of Flames, Proc. Combust. Inst., 24: 1695–1702.
  5. ^ John Hall, NFPA 2009, <
  6. ^ K.M. Allan, J.R. Kaminski, J.C. Bertrand, J. Head, Peter B. Sunderland, Laminar Smoke Points of Wax Candles, Combustion Science and Technology 181 (2009) 800-811.
  7. ^ Malbrough, Ray T. (1998). The Magical Power of the Saints: Evocation and Candle Rituals. Llewellyn Worldwide. pp. 68. ISBN 1567184561. 
  8. ^ Shillito, M. Larry; David J. De Marle (1992). Value: Its Measurement, Design, and Management. Wiley-IEEE. pp. 33. ISBN 0471527386.,M1. 
  9. ^ Whitrow, G. J. (1989). Time in History: Views of Time from Prehistory to the Present Day. Oxford University Press. pp. 90–91. ISBN 0192852116.,M1. 
  10. ^ Geddes, Gordon; Jane Griffiths. Christianity. Heinemann. pp. 89. ISBN 0435306936.,M1. 
  11. ^ Peoples of Eastern Asia. Marshall Cavendish. 2004. pp. 223. ISBN 0761475516.,M1. 
  12. ^ a b Teece, Geoff (2004). Buddhism. Black Rabbit Books. pp. 24. ISBN 1583404643.,M1. 
  13. ^ Lay Buddhist Practice by Bhikkhu Khantipalo
  14. ^ sample of a traditional earthen clay lamp
  15. ^ Cooper, Jean C. (1996). Dictionary of Christianity. Taylor & Francis. pp. 43. ISBN 1884964494.,M1. 
  16. ^ Eastmond, Antony; Liz James, Robin Cormack (2003). Icon and Word: the power of images in Byzantium. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.. pp. 145. ISBN 075463549X. 
  17. ^ Anson, Peter F. (2007). Churches - Their Plan and Furnishing. READ BOOKS. pp. 111. ISBN 1406758892. 
  18. ^ Stravinskas, Peter M. J.; Sean O'Malley (2002). Catholic Dictionary. Our Sunday Visitor Publishing. pp. 576. ISBN 087973390X. 
  19. ^ Miles, Clement A. (1976). Christmas Customs and Traditions: Their History and Significance. Courier Dover Publications. pp. 221–224. ISBN 0486233545.,M1. 
  20. ^ a b Olitzky, Kerry M.; Ronald H. Isaacs, Dorcas Gelabert (2004). The Complete how to Handbook for Jewish Living: Three Volumes in One. KTAV Publishing House, Inc.. pp. 49–60. ISBN 0881258385.,M1. 
  21. ^ Cohn-Sherbok, Dan (2003). Judaism: History, Belief and Practice. Routledge. pp. 522. ISBN 0415236614.,M1. 
  22. ^ Olitzky, Kerry M.; Ronald H. Isaacs, Dorcas Gelabert (2004). The Complete how to Handbook for Jewish Living: Three Volumes in One. KTAV Publishing House, Inc.. pp. 432–433. ISBN 0881258385.,M1. 
  23. ^ Jacobs, Louis (1995). The Jewish Religion: A Companion. Oxford University Press. pp. 34. ISBN 0198264631. 
  24. ^ Olitzky, Kerry M.; Marc Lee Raphael (2000). An Encyclopedia of American Synagogue Ritual. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 11–13. ISBN 0313308144.,M1. 
  25. ^ Peek, Philip M.; Kwesi Yankah (2004). African Folklore: An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. pp. 201–203. ISBN 041593933X.,M1. 

External links

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The Candle
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The Candle may refer to:

  • The Candle, a short story by Leo Tolstoy
  • The Candle, a poem by Katherine Mansfield.

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

CANDLE (Lat. candela, from candere, to glow), a cylindrical rod of solid fatty or waxy matter, enclosing a central fibrous wick, and designed to be burnt for giving light. The oldest materials employed for making candles are beeswax and tallow, while among those of more recent introduction are spermaceti, stearine and paraffin wax. Waxlights (cereus, sc. funis) were known to the Romans. In the midlde ages wax candles were little used, owing to their expense, except for the ceremonies of the church and other religious purposes (see Lights, Ceremonial Use or), but in the 15th century, with the cheapening of wax, they began to find wider employment. The tallow candle, mentioned by Apuleius as sebaceus, was long an article of domestic manufacture. The tallow was melted and strained, and then lengths of cotton or flax fibre, or rushes from which most of the external skin had been stripped, only sufficient being left to support the pith ("rushlights"), were dipped into it, the operation being repeated until the desired thickness had been attained. In Paris, in the 13th century, there was a gild of candlemakers who went from house to house to make tallow candles, the manufacture of wax candles being in the hands of another gild. This separation of the two branches of the trade is also exemplified by the existence of two distinct livery companies in the city of London - the Waxchandlers and the Tallowchandlers; the French chandelle properly means tallow candle, candles made of materials less fusible than tallow being called bougies, a term said to be derived from the town of Bougie in Algeria, either because wax was produced there or because the Venetians imported wax candles thence into Europe. The old tallow "dips" gave a poor light, and tallow itself is now used only to a limited extent, except as a source of "stearine." This is the trade name for a mixture of solid fatty acids - mainly stearic and palmitic - manufactured not only from tallow and other animal fats, but also from such vegetable fats as palm-oil. Paraffin wax, a mixture of solid hydrocarbons obtained from crude North American and Rangoon petroleum, and also yielded in large quantities by the Scotch shale oil industry, is, at least in Great Britain, a still more important material of candlemanufacture, which came into use about 1854. Spermaceti, a crystalline fatty substance obtained from the sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus), was introduced as a material for candles about a century earlier. In practice the candlemaker mostly uses mixtures of these materials. For instance, 5-10% of stearine, which is used alone for candles that have to be burnt in hot climates, is mixed with paraffin wax, to counteract the tendency to bend with heat exhibited by the latter substance. Again, the brittleness of spermaceti is corrected by the addition of beeswax, stearine, paraffin wax or ceresin (obtained from the mineral wax ozocerite). In some "composite" candles stearine is mixed with the hard fat ("cocoa-nut stearine") expressed from cocoa-nut oil by hydraulic pressure; and this cocoa-nut stearine is also used for night-lights, which are short thick candles with a thin wick, calculated to burn from six to ten hours.

The stearine or stearic acid industry originated in the discovery made by M. E. Chevreul about 1815, that fats are glycerides or compounds of glycerin with fatty acids, mostly palmitic, stearic and oleic. The object of the candlemaker is to remove this glycerin, not only because it is a valuable product in itself, but also because it is an objectionable constituent of a candle; the vapours of acrolein formed by its decomposition in the flame are the cause of the unpleasant odours produced by tallow "dips." He also removes the oleic acid, which is liquid at ordinary temperatures, from the palmitic and stearic acids, mixtures of which solidify at temperatures varying from about 130° to 155° F., according to the percentage of each present. Several methods are in use for the decomposition of the fats. In the autoclave process the fat, whether tallow, palm-oil or a mixture of the two, mixed with 25 or 30% of water and about 3% of lime, is subjected in an autoclave to steam at a pressure of about 120 lb per square inch for eight or ten hours, when nearly all of it is saponified. On standing the product separates into two layers - "sweet water" containing glycerin below, and the fatty acids with a certain amount of lime soap above. The upper layer is then boiled and treated with enough sulphuric acid to decompose the lime soap, the calcium sulphate formed is allowed to subside, and the fatty acids are run off into shallow boxes to be crystallized or "seeded" prior to the separation of the oleic acid, which is effected by pressing the solid blocks from the boxes, first cold and then hot, by hydraulic machinery. In another process saponification is effected by means of concentrated sulphuric acid. The fat is mixed with 4-6% of the acid and treated with steam in boiling water till the hydrolysis is complete,when on standing the glycerin and sulphuric acid sink to the bottom and the fatty acids rise to the top. Owing to the darkness of their colour, when this process is employed, the latter usually have to be distilled before being crystallized. The autoclave process yields about 45% of stearine, one-third of which is recovered from the expressed oleic acid, but with sulphuric acid saponification the amount of stearine is higher - over 60% - and that of oleic acid less, part of it being converted into solid material by the action of the acid. The yield of glycerin is also less. In a combination of the two processes the fat may first be treated by the autoclave process, so as to obtain a full yield (about 10%) of glycerin, and the resulting fatty acids then subjected to acid saponification, so as to get the higher amount of stearine. At the best, however, some 30% of oleic acid remains, and though often sought, no satisfactory method of converting this residue into solid has been discovered. It constitutes "red oil," and is used in soap-making and in woollen manufacture. In the process patented by Ernst Twitchell in 1898, decomposition is effected by boiling the fat with half its bulk of water in presence of a reagent obtained by the action of sulphuric acid on oleic acid and an aromatic hydrocarbon such as benzene.

The wick is a most important part of a candle, and unless it is of proper size and texture either too much or too little fuel will be supplied to the flame, and the candle will gutter or be otherwise unsatisfactory. The material generally employed is cotton yarn, plaited or "braided" by machinery, and treated or "pickled" with a solution of boracic acid, ammonium or potassium nitrate, or other salt. The tightness of the plaiting varies with the material used for the candle, wicks for stearine being looser than for paraffin, but tighter than for wax or spermaceti. The plaited wick is flat and curls over as the candle burns, and thus the end is kept projecting into the outer part of the flame where it is consumed, complete combustion being aided by the pickling process it has undergone. In the old tallow dips the strands of cotton were merely twisted together, instead of being plaited; wicks made in this way had no determinate bias towards the outside of the flame, and thus were not wholly consumed, the result being that there was apt to be an accumulation of charred matter, which choked the flame unless removed by periodical "snuffing." Four ways of making candles may be distinguished - dipping, pouring, drawing and moulding, the last being that most commonly employed. Dipping is essentially the same as the domestic process already described, but the rate of production is increased by mounting a number of wicks in a series of frames, each of which in turn is brought over the tallow bath so that its wicks can be dipped. Pouring, used in the case of wax, which cannot well be moulded because it contracts in cooling and also has a tendency to stick to the moulds, consists in ladling molten wax upon the wicks suspended from an iron ring. When of the desired thickness the candles are rolled under a plate on a marble slab. In drawing, used for small tapers, the wick, rolled on a drum, is passed through the molten wax or paraffin, drawn through a circular hole and slowly wound on a second drum; it is then passed again through the molten material and through a somewhat larger hole, and reeled back on the first drum, this process being repeated with larger and larger holes until the coating is of the required thickness. In moulding, a number of slightly conical moulds are fixed by the larger extremity to a kind of trough, with their tapered ends projecting downwards and with wicks arranged down their centres. The molten material is poured into the trough and fills the moulds, from which the candles are withdrawn when solidified. Modern candle-moulding machines are continuous in their operation; long lengths of wick are coiled on bobbins, one for each mould, and the act of removing one set of candles from their moulds draws in a fresh set of wicks. "Self-fitting ends," which were invented by J. L. Field in 1864, and being shaped like a truncated cone enable the candles to be fixed in candlesticks of any diameter, are formed by means of an attachment to the tops of the moulds; spirally twisted candles are, as it were, unscrewed from their moulds. It is necessary to be able to regulate the temperature of the moulds accurately, else the candles will not come out freely and will not be of good appearance. For stearine candles the moulds are immersed in tepid water and the cooling must be slow, else the material will crystallize, though if it be too slow cracking will occur. For paraffin, on the other hand, the moulds must be rather hotter than the molten material (about 20,3° F.), and must be quickly cooled to prevent the candles from sticking.

A candle-power, as a unit of light in photometry, was defined by the (London) Metropolis Gas Act of 1860 as the light given by a sperm candle, of which six weighed 1 lb and each burned 120 grains' an hour.

See W. Lant Carpenter, Soaps and Candles (London, 1895); C. E. Groves and W. Thorp, Chemical Technology, vol. ii. "Lighting" (London, 1895); L. L. Lamborn, Soaps, Candles and Glycerine (New York, 1906); J. Lewkowitsch, Oils, Fats, and Waxes (London, 1909).

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From BibleWiki

Heb. ner, Job 18:6; 29:3; Ps 1828; Prov 24:20, in all which places the Revised Version and margin of Authorized Version have "lamp," by which the word is elsewhere frequently rendered. The Hebrew word denotes properly any kind of candle or lamp or torch. It is used as a figure of conscience (Prov 20:27), of a Christian example (Mt 5:14, 15), and of prosperity (Job 21:17; Prov 13:9).

This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.

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Simple English

[[File:|thumb|300px|Candles in a shop.]]

File:Kind en
A burning candle.

A candle is a stick made of wax with a string (a thin piece of rope) straight in the middle. If someone puts the string on fire, the flame will burn slowly and for a long time.

Fire can burn most string very fast. But in a candle, the string does not burn fast, because the fire melts the wax instead. The wax sometimes drips down the side of the candle. When the melted wax is far from the flame, it gets hard again, and can be used again in a new candle.

The flame is very hot, since it is a very small, real fire. The light blue part of the flame can be as hot as

  1. REDIRECT Template:Convert/°C.[1] It can still burn people and things. If the fire spreads, it can grow into a very big fire and even burn down a house or building.

If the flame is kept on the candle long enough, the candle will slowly get shorter and shorter until it is gone. The fire on a candle can be put out by blowing air on it. There is also a special tool called a "candle snuffer" that covers the fire with a small metal cup and puts it out. Today, candle snuffers are usually only used in churches or in places where candles are up very high. Stopping the fire stops the candle from burning until it is all gone.

Before light bulbs, candles were used so people could see at night. Some people still use candles today when electricity is down, or because they like the little amount of light that candles make. Some people also like candles because they look nice, or because they smell nice. A special kind of candle called "citronella" can help keep bugs away.

Candles are expensive and the amount of light that they give is small.


  1. Elert, Glenn, ed. "Temperature of a Candle Flame". The Physics Handbook. Glenn Elert. Retrieved 1 February 2010. 

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