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Cannabis
Common hemp
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Rosales
Family: Cannabaceae
Genus: Cannabis
L.
Species
.Cannabis sativa L.[1]
Cannabis indica Lam.
^ Cannabis sativa L. [ 1 ] Cannabis indica Lam.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cannabis sativa or (especially) Cannabis indica.

^ Cannabis Museum in Amsterdam Cannabis ( Cán-na-bis ) is a genus of flowering plants that includes three putative species, Cannabis sativa L., [ 1 ] Cannabis indica Lam., [ 1 ] and Cannabis ruderalis Janisch.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

.(putative)[1]
Cannabis ruderalis Janisch.
^ Cannabis Museum in Amsterdam Cannabis ( Cán-na-bis ) is a genus of flowering plants that includes three putative species, Cannabis sativa L., [ 1 ] Cannabis indica Lam., [ 1 ] and Cannabis ruderalis Janisch.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cannabis ruderalis Janisch.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

(putative)
.Cannabis (Cán-na-bis) is a genus of flowering plants that includes three putative species, Cannabis sativa L.,[1] Cannabis indica Lam.,[1] and Cannabis ruderalis Janisch.^ Indica: A species of cannabis plant.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sativa: A species of cannabis plant.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not only this but the species can be crossed to produce Indica/Sativa type plants or Sativa/Indica type plants.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These three taxa are indigenous to Central Asia, and South Asia.^ These three taxa are indigenous to central Asia and surrounding regions.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

[2] .Cannabis has long been used for fibre (hemp), for medicinal purposes, and as a recreational drug.^ Cannabis is a very popular recreational drug.
  • Effects of Cannabis, Cannabis Issues, Cannabis Legalization – Marijuanahydro.com 25 September 2009 15:29 UTC www.marijuanahydro.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Canada can grow hemp for fibre use.

^ Cannabis has long been used for fibre ( hemp ), for medicinal purposes , and as a psychoactive .
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Industrial hemp products are made from Cannabis plants selected to produce an abundance of fiber and minimal levels of THC9- tetrahydrocannabinol), a psychoactive molecule that produces the "high" associated with marijuana.^ Industrial hemp products are made from Cannabis plants selected to produce an abundance of fiber and minimal levels of THC (Δ 9 - tetrahydrocannabinol).
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ (Hemp, from which rope and other products are made, is a non-psychoactive strain of cannabis.
  • How marijuana became legal - Sep. 11, 2009 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC money.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • How marijuana became legal - Sep. 11, 2009 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC money.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cloth and clothing made with hemp fibers.
  • hemp-cloth-msg 15 January 2010 6:20 UTC www.florilegium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The psychoactive product consists of dried flowers and leaves of plants selected to produce high levels of THC. Various extracts including hashish and hash oil are also produced from the plant.^ They can use the cured plant as it is and smoke it dry or they can produce hash or oils from the curing process.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the 12/12 continues then the plant will produce its flowers.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Usually measured by the THC levels in a plant.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3]

Contents

Etymology

.The word cannabis is from Greek κάνναβις (kánnabis) (see Latin cannabis)[4], which was originally Scythian or Thracian.^ The word canvas has its origins as a derivative from the word cannabis.
  • Hemp Aprons 100% ORGANIC , Funny Aprons, Novelty Aprons, Kiss the Cook 15 January 2010 6:20 UTC www.ecomall.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Main article: Cannabis (etymology) The plant name cannabis is from Greek κάνναβις ( kánnabis ), via Latin cannabis , a Scythian or Thracian word, also loaned into Persian as kanab .
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Because California seems to be the testing grounds for medical cannabis patients it is not surprising to see most of the information originating from that state.
  • American Medical Marijuana Association 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC americanmarijuana.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5] .It is related to the Persian kanab, the English canvas and possibly even to the English hemp (Old English hænep).^ English hemp (Old English hænep ) may be an early loan (predating Grimm's Law ) from the same source.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Hemp suffers guilt by association because it is related to marijuana even though industrial hemp contains almost no THC, tetrahydrocannabinol – the psychoactive component.
  • Organic_Clothing: Hemp: Facts on the Fiber 15 January 2010 6:20 UTC organicclothing.blogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Etymology: Middle English canevas, from Old North French, from (assumed) Vulgar Latin cannabaceus hempen, from Latin cannabis hemp.
  • Hemp Aprons 100% ORGANIC , Funny Aprons, Novelty Aprons, Kiss the Cook 15 January 2010 6:20 UTC www.ecomall.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5] .In Hebrew, the word is קַנַּבּוֹס [qanːa'boːs].^ In Hebrew , the word is קַנַּבּוֹס [qanːa'boːs].
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

Old Akkadian qunnabtu, Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian qunnabu were used to refer to the plant meaning "a way to produce smoke."[6][7][8]

Description

.Cannabis is an annual, dioecious, flowering herb.^ Cannabis is an annual , dioecious , flowering herb .
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Flowering Cannabis is dioecious: each plant produces either male or female flowers, and is considered either a male or female plant.
  • MARIJUANA PLANTS tips on growing good marijuana. 11 September 2009 8:12 UTC www.greenmanspage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The leaves are palmately compound or digitate, with serrate leaflets.^ The leaves are palmately compound , with serrate leaflets .
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The leaves are alternate or opposite, on long, lax petioles, digitate, and scabrous, withsharply serrated leaflets, tapering into a long, smooth entire point; stipules subulate (Felter and Lloyd, 422).
  • Cannabis/Soma Research Project 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fortlewis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cannabis/Soma Research Project 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fortlewis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9] .The first pair of leaves usually have a single leaflet, the number gradually increasing up to a maximum of about thirteen leaflets per leaf (usually seven or nine), depending on variety and growing conditions.^ At the top of a flowering plant, this number again diminishes to a single leaflet per leaf.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The first pair of leaves usually have a single leaflet, the number gradually increasing up to a maximum of about thirteen leaflets per leaf (usually seven or nine), depending on variety and growing conditions.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The lower leaf pairs usually occur in an opposite leaf arrangement and the upper leaf pairs in an alternate arrangement on the main stem of a mature plant.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

.At the top of a flowering plant, this number again diminishes to a single leaflet per leaf.^ At the top of a flowering plant, this number again diminishes to a single leaflet per leaf.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The first pair of leaves usually have a single leaflet, the number gradually increasing up to a maximum of about thirteen leaflets per leaf (usually seven or nine), depending on variety and growing conditions.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Each new set of leaves will be larger, with a higher number of blades per leaf until, depending on variety, they reach their maximum number, often nine or 11.
  • MARIJUANA PLANTS tips on growing good marijuana. 11 September 2009 8:12 UTC www.greenmanspage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The lower leaf pairs usually occur in an opposite leaf arrangement and the upper leaf pairs in an alternate arrangement on the main stem of a mature plant.^ The lower leaf pairs usually occur in an opposite leaf arrangement and the upper leaf pairs in an alternate arrangement on the main stem of a mature plant.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Then the arrangement of the leaves on the stem (phyllotaxy) changes from the usual opposite to alternate.
  • MARIJUANA PLANTS tips on growing good marijuana. 11 September 2009 8:12 UTC www.greenmanspage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Well some marijuana plant only grow a main branch out from the stem and this may stay that way throughout its entire grow.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Cannabis normally has imperfect flowers, with staminate "male" and pistillate "female" flowers occurring on separate plants.^ Then applies as normal and creates the male flowers.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Marijuana plants are either male or female.

^ It does this by producing both male and female flowers on the same plant.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10] .It is not unusual, however, for individual plants to bear both male and female flowers.^ Hermaphrodite: A trait of a plant where both the male and female flowers are located on the same plant.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is not unusual, however, for individual plants to bear both male and female flowers.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Marijuana plants are either male or female.

[11] .Although monoecious plants are often referred to as "hermaphrodites," true hermaphrodites (which are less common) bear staminate and pistillate structures on individual flowers, whereas monoecious plants bear male and female flowers at different locations on the same plant.^ Hermaphrodite: A trait of a plant where both the male and female flowers are located on the same plant.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lateral: Referring to side(s) of the plant structure.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is not unusual, however, for individual plants to bear both male and female flowers.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Male flowers are normally borne on loose panicles, and female flowers are borne on racemes.^ Then applies as normal and creates the male flowers.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Male flowers are normally borne on loose panicles , and female flowers are borne on racemes .
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Hermaphrodite: A trait of a plant where both the male and female flowers are located on the same plant.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12] ."At a very early period the Chinese recognized the Cannabis plant as dioecious,"[13] and the (ca.^ Má (Pinyin pronunciation), the Chinese expression for hemp, is a pictograph of 2 cannabis plants being raised in a sheltered area.
  • Marijuana - un knol de Justin 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cannabis was even recognized as legal tender in most of the Americas from 1631 until the early 1800's, mainly to encourage farmers to grow more.
  • Hemp Aprons 100% ORGANIC , Funny Aprons, Novelty Aprons, Kiss the Cook 15 January 2010 6:20 UTC www.ecomall.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A good way to identify plant sex at early date is to look at the calyx with the aid of a very fine magnifying glass.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

3rd century BCE) Erya dictionary defined xi "male cannabis" and fu (or ju ) "female cannabis".[14]
.All known strains of Cannabis are wind-pollinated[15] and produce "seeds" that are technically called achenes.^ All known strains of Cannabis are wind-pollinated [ 8 ] and produce " seeds " that are technically called achenes .
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cannabis plants produce a unique family of terpeno-phenolic compounds called cannabinoids, which produce the "high" one experiences from smoking marijuana.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The female plant when pollinated does produce THC but also produces seeds which prevent larger quantities of bud from being produced.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16] .Most strains of Cannabis are short day plants,[15] with the possible exception of C. sativa subsp.^ Most strains of Cannabis are short day plants , [ 8 ] with the possible exception of C. sativa subsp.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Sativa: A species of cannabis plant.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cannabis sativa has been called the world's most versatile plant.
  • Marijuana Books 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.drugwar.com [Source type: General]

sativa var. .spontanea (= C. ruderalis), which is commonly described as "auto-flowering" and may be day-neutral.^ Now the lemons are all in flower in May, Come too are we; we give the house and host good-day.
  • Victorian Women Writers Project 15 September 2009 5:34 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ C. ruderalis ), which is commonly described as "auto-flowering" and may be day-neutral .
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Cannabis, like many organisms, is diploid, having a chromosome complement of 2n=20, although polyploid individuals have been artificially produced.^ Cannabis is naturally diploid , having a chromosome complement of 2n=20, although polyploid individuals have been artificially produced.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I'm sure that we would all like to be assured that we are not 'overdosing' on cannabis, instead of having to make an 'educated' guess on amounts to take.
  • BBC Inside Out Extra - Cannabis 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Using data on the number of pounds eradicated by police around the U.S., Gettman produced estimates of the likely size and value of the cannabis crop in each state.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Facts About Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17] .The plant is believed to have originated in the mountainous regions northwest of the Himalayas.^ The origins of the Cannabis plant are not entirely clear but today it is generally recognized by most biologists and cannabis researchers that it began its life somewhere in the Himalayas (Figure 1.1).
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The plant's natural homeland is thought to be the regions north of Afghanistan and the Altai mountains of Southern Siberia.
  • Cannabis/Soma Research Project 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fortlewis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cannabis/Soma Research Project 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fortlewis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is also known as hemp, although this term is often used to refer only to varieties of Cannabis cultivated for non-drug use.^ It is also known as hemp, although this term is often used to refer only to varieties of Cannabis cultivated for non-drug use.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Although Medical Cannabis had been in use for ...
  • Asthma CONTACTs, LINKS and More | a Medical Cannabis Resource Center (MERCY) Info page 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC www.mercycenters.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Herb: Another term used loosely to refer to cannabis.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Cannabis plants produce a group of chemicals called cannabinoids, which produce mental and physical effects when consumed.^ Cannabinoids are the chemicals in cannabis which are psychoactive.
  • Marihuana, The First Twelve Thousand Years 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.hoboes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ THC Cannabis plants produce psychoactive ingredients called cannabinoids.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cannabis plants produce a group of chemicals called cannabinoids, which produce mental and physical effects when consumed.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Cannabinoids, terpenoids, and other compounds are secreted by glandular trichomes that occur most abundantly on the floral calyxes and bracts of female plants.^ Cannabinoids , terpenoids , and other compounds are secreted by glandular trichomes that occur most abundantly on the floral calyxes and bracts of female plants.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Ford Motor Company, in the 1930s, created charcoal fuel, methanol, and other compounds out of Cannabis-Hemp at their Iron Mountain, Michigan plant.
  • Hemp Aprons 100% ORGANIC , Funny Aprons, Novelty Aprons, Kiss the Cook 15 January 2010 6:20 UTC www.ecomall.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cannabis plants produce a unique family of terpeno-phenolic compounds called cannabinoids, which produce the "high" one experiences from smoking marijuana.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

[18] .As a drug it usually comes in the form of dried flower buds (marijuana), resin (hashish), or various extracts collectively known as hashish oil.^ Cannabis comes in many forms - herbal, resin, powder, and oil.
  • BBC Inside Out Extra - Cannabis 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Various extracts including hashish and hash oil are also produced from the plant.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As a drug it usually comes in the form of dried flower buds ( marijuana ), resin ( hashish ), or various extracts collectively known as hashish oil .
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

[3] .In the early 20th century, it became illegal in most of the world to cultivate or possess Cannabis for drug purposes.^ The possession, use, or sale of psychoactive cannabis products became illegal in most parts of the world in the early 20th century.
  • Marijuana - un knol de Justin 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Jeffrey Dach MD Bio-Identical Hormone Blog: Cannabinoids, Miracle Drug of the 21st Century by Jeffrey Dach MD 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC jeffreydach.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cannabis is believed to be the most widely consumed illegal substance in the world.
  • Cannabis/Soma Research Project 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fortlewis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cannabis/Soma Research Project 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fortlewis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cannabis is the world's most often used illegal drug.
  • Marijuana - un knol de Justin 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

Taxonomy

Cannabis Leaf
.The genus Cannabis was formerly placed in the Nettle (Urticaceae) or Mulberry (Moraceae) family, but is now considered along with hops (Humulus sp.^ The genus Cannabis was formerly placed in the Nettle ( Urticaceae ) or Mulberry ( Moraceae ) family, but is now considered along with hops ( Humulus sp.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ At this time botanists generally recognize a unique family of plants they call "Cannabaceae," under which are classified the genus Cannabis and its closest botanical relative, Humulus , which contains the beer flavoring, hops [9] .
  • Hemp and Marijuana: Myths & Realities from NAIHC 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC naihc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • HEMP AND MARIJUANA: Myths and Realities 15 January 2010 6:20 UTC www.naihc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The drug derives from Cannabis sativa or Cannabis indica, a plant related to nettles and hops.
  • BBC Inside Out Extra - Cannabis 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

) to belong to the .Hemp family (Cannabaceae).^ Hemp family ( Cannabaceae ).
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

[19] .Recent phylogenetic studies based on cpDNA restriction site analysis and gene sequencing strongly suggest that the Cannabaceae arose from within the Celtidaceae clade, and that the two families should be merged to form a single monophyletic group.^ Recent phylogenetic studies based on cpDNA restriction site analysis and gene sequencing strongly suggest that the Cannabaceae arose from within the Celtidaceae clade , and that the two families should be merged to form a single monophyletic group.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Gabriel Nahas, M.D., Ph.D., writes, "One should still distinguish two principal large groups of varieties of Cannabis sativa , the drug type and the fiber type.
  • Hemp and Marijuana: Myths & Realities from NAIHC 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC naihc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • HEMP AND MARIJUANA: Myths and Realities 15 January 2010 6:20 UTC www.naihc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Serebriakova and Sizov split the two C. sativa subspecies into 13 varieties, including four distinct groups within subspecies culta .
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

[20][21]
Various types of Cannabis have been described, and classified as species, subspecies, or varieties:[22]
  • plants cultivated for fiber and seed production, described as low-intoxicant, non-drug, or fiber types.
  • plants cultivated for drug production, described as high-intoxicant or drug types.
  • escaped or wild forms of either of the above types.
Leaf of a Cannabis plant.
.Cannabis plants produce a unique family of terpeno-phenolic compounds called cannabinoids, which produce the "high" one experiences from smoking marijuana.^ (UK) Cannabis and the experience of getting high.
  • Legalise Cannabis for Medical Use in Canada by Mark x 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.toronto420.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cannabis is the only plant genus that contains the unique class of molecular compounds called cannabinoids.
  • Hemp and Marijuana: Myths & Realities from NAIHC 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC naihc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • HEMP AND MARIJUANA: Myths and Realities 15 January 2010 6:20 UTC www.naihc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cannabinoids: The psychoactive compound found in cannabis.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The two cannabinoids usually produced in greatest abundance are cannabidiol (CBD) and/or Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), but only THC is psychoactive.^ Cannabis produces two major cannabinoids-THC (delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol) and CBD (cannabidiol), and several other minor cannabinoid compounds.
  • Hemp and Marijuana: Myths & Realities from NAIHC 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC naihc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • HEMP AND MARIJUANA: Myths and Realities 15 January 2010 6:20 UTC www.naihc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ THC Cannabis plants produce psychoactive ingredients called cannabinoids.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The two cannabinoids usually produced in greatest abundance are cannabidiol ( CBD ) and/or Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol ( THC ), but only THC is psychoactive.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Since the early 1970s, Cannabis plants have been categorized by their chemical phenotype or "chemotype," based on the overall amount of THC produced, and on the ratio of THC to CBD.[23] Although overall cannabinoid production is influenced by environmental factors, the THC/CBD ratio is genetically determined and remains fixed throughout the life of a plant.^ Many researchers have suggested that sex in Cannabis is determined or strongly influenced by environmental factors.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Chemical Cannabis is the legal alternative to the plant.

^ The other interesting factor is that some plants do not produce any THC at all.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24] .Non-drug plants produce relatively low levels of THC and high levels of CBD, while drug plants produce high levels of THC and low levels of CBD. When plants of these two chemotypes cross-pollinate, the plants in the first filial (F1) generation have an intermediate chemotype and produce similar amounts of CBD and THC. Female plants of this chemotype may produce enough THC to be utilized for drug production.^ Sinsemilla: Refers to non-pollinated female cannabis plants.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Non-drug plants produce relatively low levels of THC and high levels of CBD, while drug plants produce high levels of THC and low levels of CBD. When plants of these two chemotypes cross-pollinate, the plants in the first filial (F 1 ) generation have an intermediate chemotype and produce similar amounts of CBD and THC. Female plants of this chemotype may produce enough THC to be utilized for drug production.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Other plants have only 60% THC, but the "levels" of THC may be very high.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23][25]
Top of Cannabis plant in vegetative growth stage.
.Whether the drug and non-drug, cultivated and wild types of Cannabis constitute a single, highly variable species, or the genus is polytypic with more than one species, has been a subject of debate for well over two centuries.^ One may doubt whether the drug .
  • Cannabis/Soma Research Project 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fortlewis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cannabis/Soma Research Project 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fortlewis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Genus and species: Cannabis indica .
  • Cannabis/Soma Research Project 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fortlewis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cannabis/Soma Research Project 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fortlewis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Whether the drug and non-drug, cultivated and wild types of Cannabis constitute a single, highly variable species, or the genus is polytypic with more than one species, has been a subject of debate for well over two centuries.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

.This is a contentious issue because there is no universally accepted definition of a species.^ This is a contentious issue because there is no universally accepted definition of a species .
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There are no special books to turn too.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because it's not addictive, there is no urge to.
  • Cannabis smokers need to be locked up - Telegraph 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26] .One widely applied criterion for species recognition is that species are "groups of actually or potentially interbreeding natural populations which are reproductively isolated from other such groups."^ It was surprising to find such few and small effects given that most of the potential biases inherent in our analyses actually increased the likelihood of finding a cannabis effect.
  • Oppviglerbloggen » Arkiv » Jobb svart! Smugle ivei! Brenn hjemme! 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC www.dagbladet.no [Source type: Academic]

^ A population is a group of individuals of the same strain or species, [such as cannabis Indica or cannabis Sativa (species), or Skunk#1 and Master Kush (strains of a species)], in a given area whose members can interbreed with one another.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of us is a physician and researcher specializing in rehabilitation medicine and neuromuscular diseases such as ALS ("Lou Gehrig's disease").
  • Legalise Cannabis for Medical Use in Canada by Mark x 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.toronto420.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[27] .Populations that are physiologically capable of interbreeding, but morphologically or genetically divergent and isolated by geography or ecology, are sometimes considered to be separate species.^ Populations that are physiologically capable of interbreeding, but morphologically or genetically divergent and isolated by geography or ecology, are sometimes considered to be separate species.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It remains controversial whether sufficient morphological and genetic divergence occurs within the genus as a result of geographical or ecological isolation to justify recognition of more than one species.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ One widely applied criterion for species recognition is that species are "groups of actually or potentially interbreeding natural populations which are reproductively isolated from other such groups."
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

[27] .Physiological barriers to reproduction are not known to occur within Cannabis, and plants from widely divergent sources are interfertile.^ Physiological barriers to reproduction are not known to occur within Cannabis , and plants from widely divergent sources are interfertile.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is an offence under the Mis-use of Drugs Act 1974 to Cultivate any plant of the Genus Cannabis within the UK. We only sell marijuana seeds as souvenirs.
  • Marijuana seeds from 420-The best quality F1 Marijuana seeds 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC 420-seeds.com [Source type: General]

^ Cannabis plants, more commonly known as hemp for this end, is used for a wide variety of purposes, including the manufacture of cordage of varying tensile strength , clothing, and nutritional products.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

[17] .However, physical barriers to gene exchange (such as the Himalayan mountain range) might have enabled Cannabis gene pools to diverge before the onset of human intervention, resulting in speciation.^ However, physical barriers to gene exchange (such as the Himalayan mountain range) might have enabled Cannabis gene pools to diverge before the onset of human intervention, resulting in speciation.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Every country shelters a Cannabis culture; be it in the open or underground, in a closet or out in the yard, Cannabis grows nearly everywhere humans have settled as a result of its virtues.
  • Cannabis/Soma Research Project 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fortlewis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cannabis/Soma Research Project 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fortlewis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cannabis aficionados recognize three distinct types based on such factors as morphology, native range, aroma, and subjective psychoactive characteristics.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

[28] .It remains controversial whether sufficient morphological and genetic divergence occurs within the genus as a result of geographical or ecological isolation to justify recognition of more than one species.^ It remains controversial whether sufficient morphological and genetic divergence occurs within the genus as a result of geographical or ecological isolation to justify recognition of more than one species.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Despite government efforts to isolate and eliminate its use, it is more popular now than ever.
  • Marijuana Books 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.drugwar.com [Source type: General]

^ Even within the coerced treatment model, there are more effective approaches than drug courts, said Naidoo.
  • MARIJUANA seeds CANNABIS Seeds GOLDENSEED 25 September 2009 15:29 UTC www.goldenseed.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[29][30][31]

Early classifications

Relative size of varieties of Cannabis.
.The Cannabis genus was first classified using the "modern" system of taxonomic nomenclature by Carolus Linnaeus in 1753, who devised the system still in use for the naming of species.^ Genus and species: Cannabis indica .
  • Cannabis/Soma Research Project 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fortlewis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cannabis/Soma Research Project 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fortlewis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Named Cannabis sativa in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus.
  • Marihuana, The First Twelve Thousand Years 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.hoboes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cannabis sativa L.) by genus and species or common name (e.g.
  • Cannabis/Soma Research Project 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fortlewis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cannabis/Soma Research Project 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fortlewis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[32] .He considered the genus to be monotypic, having just a single species that he named Cannabis sativa L. (L. stands for Linnaeus, and indicates the authority who first named the species).^ Sativa: A species of cannabis plant.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Genus and species: Cannabis indica .
  • Cannabis/Soma Research Project 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fortlewis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cannabis/Soma Research Project 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fortlewis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Named Cannabis sativa in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus.
  • Marihuana, The First Twelve Thousand Years 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.hoboes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Linnaeus was familiar with European hemp, which was widely cultivated at the time.^ Linnaeus was familiar with European hemp, which was widely cultivated at the time.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In ancient times cannabis was widely cultivated throughout the Middle East.
  • Jesus 'healed using cannabis' [Archive] - Debate Both Sides 25 September 2009 15:29 UTC www.debatebothsides.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Carl Linnaeus, in his Species Plantarum , labeled both Indian and European hemp as Cannabis sativa .
  • Marihuana, The First Twelve Thousand Years 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.hoboes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1785, noted evolutionary biologist Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck published a description of a second species of Cannabis, which he named Cannabis indica Lam.^ Indica: A species of cannabis plant.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Genus and species: Cannabis indica .
  • Cannabis/Soma Research Project 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fortlewis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cannabis/Soma Research Project 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fortlewis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1785, noted evolutionary biologist Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck published a description of a second species of Cannabis , which he named Cannabis indica Lam.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

[33] .Lamarck based his description of the newly named species on plant specimens collected in India.^ Lamarck based his description of the newly named species on plant specimens collected in India.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1785, noted evolutionary biologist Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck published a description of a second species of Cannabis , which he named Cannabis indica Lam.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

.He described C. indica as having poorer fiber quality than C. sativa, but greater utility as an inebriant.^ The Indica Group is different than Sativa Group .

^ He described C. indica as having poorer fiber quality than C. sativa , but greater utility as an inebriant .
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, two symptoms - energy and appetite - were improved to a statistically greater extent by C. indica than by either C. sativa or "other."

.Additional Cannabis species were proposed in the 19th century, including strains from China and Vietnam (Indo-China) assigned the names Cannabis chinensis Delile, and Cannabis gigantea Delile ex Vilmorin.^ Additional Cannabis species were proposed in the 19th century, including strains from China and Vietnam (Indo-China) assigned the names Cannabis chinensis Delile, and Cannabis gigantea Delile ex Vilmorin.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In the early 20th century, the single-species concept was still widely accepted, except in the Soviet Union where Cannabis continued to be the subject of active taxonomic study.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1785, noted evolutionary biologist Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck published a description of a second species of Cannabis , which he named Cannabis indica Lam.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

[34] .However, many taxonomists found these putative species difficult to distinguish.^ However, many taxonomists found these putative species difficult to distinguish.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, many significant exceptions to these rules exist.
  • Jeffrey Dach MD Bio-Identical Hormone Blog: Cannabinoids, Miracle Drug of the 21st Century by Jeffrey Dach MD 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC jeffreydach.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, as CB1 receptors are found in the brain, taking drugs which activate these receptors can lead to side-effects, such as drowsiness, dependence and psychosis, and also recreational abuse.
  • Legalise Cannabis for Medical Use in Canada by Mark x 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.toronto420.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the early 20th century, the single-species concept was still widely accepted, except in the Soviet Union where Cannabis continued to be the subject of active taxonomic study.^ There are still things that are vestiges from the early part of the 20th century.
  • IESB - Movie News, Interviews and More! 15 September 2009 22:49 UTC www.iesb.net [Source type: General]

^ In the early 20th century, the single-species concept was still widely accepted, except in the Soviet Union where Cannabis continued to be the subject of active taxonomic study.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Taxonomic studies of Cannabis in China .
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

.The name Cannabis indica was listed in various Pharmacopoeias, and was widely used to designate Cannabis suitable for the manufacture of medicinal preparations.^ The name Cannabis indica was listed in various Pharmacopoeias , and was widely used to designate Cannabis suitable for the manufacture of medicinal preparations.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Patterns of use vary widely.
  • Pharmacological Reviews of Marijuana 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.druglibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Jamaica is a country in which cannabis is widely used, under the name ganja.
  • Pharmacological Reviews of Marijuana 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.druglibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

[35]

20th Century

Cannabis ruderalis.
.In 1924, Russian botanist D.E. Janichevsky concluded that ruderal Cannabis in central Russia is either a variety of C. sativa or a separate species, and proposed C. sativa L. var.^ Sativa: A species of cannabis plant.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1924, Russian botanist Janischewsky claimed also a third species, Cannabis ruderalis .
  • Marihuana, The First Twelve Thousand Years 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.hoboes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1924, Russian botanist D.E. Janichevsky concluded that ruderal Cannabis in central Russia is either a variety of C. sativa or a separate species, and proposed C. sativa L. var.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

ruderalis Janisch. and .Cannabis ruderalis Janisch.^ Cannabis ruderalis Janisch.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cannabis Museum in Amsterdam Cannabis ( Cán-na-bis ) is a genus of flowering plants that includes three putative species, Cannabis sativa L., [ 1 ] Cannabis indica Lam., [ 1 ] and Cannabis ruderalis Janisch.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

as alternative names.[22] .In 1929, renowned plant explorer Nikolai Vavilov assigned wild or feral populations of Cannabis in Afghanistan to C. indica Lam.^ Indica: A species of cannabis plant.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1929, renowned plant explorer Nikolai Vavilov assigned wild or feral populations of Cannabis in Afghanistan to C. indica Lam.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Marijuana (Cannabis Indica) plants and parts of plants .
  • Mexico Country Profile 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC www.fedex.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

var. .kafiristanica Vav., and ruderal populations in Europe to C. sativa L. var.^ Vav., and ruderal populations in Europe to C. sativa L. var.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The authors assigned fiber/seed landraces and feral populations from Europe, central Asia, and Asia Minor to C. sativa .
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1924, Russian botanist D.E. Janichevsky concluded that ruderal Cannabis in central Russia is either a variety of C. sativa or a separate species, and proposed C. sativa L. var.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

spontanea Vav.[25][34] .In 1940, Russian botanists Serebriakova and Sizov proposed a complex classification in which they also recognized C. sativa and C. indica as separate species.^ In 1940, Russian botanists Serebriakova and Sizov proposed a complex classification in which they also recognized C. sativa and C. indica as separate species.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cannabis Museum in Amsterdam Cannabis ( Cán-na-bis ) is a genus of flowering plants that includes three putative species, Cannabis sativa L., [ 1 ] Cannabis indica Lam., [ 1 ] and Cannabis ruderalis Janisch.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They used gas chromatography to determine cannabinoid content and to infer allele frequencies of the gene that controls CBD and THC production within the studied populations, and concluded that the patterns of cannabinoid variation support recognition of C. sativa and C. indica as separate species, but not C. ruderalis.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Within C. sativa they recognized two subspecies: C. sativa L. subsp.^ Within these two subspecies, Small and Cronquist described C. sativa L. subsp.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Within C. sativa they recognized two subspecies: C. sativa L. subsp.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1976, Canadian botanist Ernest Small [ 31 ] and American taxonomist Arthur Cronquist published a taxonomic revision that recognizes a single species of Cannabis with two subspecies: C. sativa L. subsp.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

culta Serebr. .(consisting of cultivated plants), and C. sativa L. subsp.^ Most strains of Cannabis are short day plants , [ 8 ] with the possible exception of C. sativa subsp.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Industrial hemp ( Cannabis sativa ) is one of the oldest cultivated plants in the world.
  • Growing Industrial Hemp in Ontario 15 January 2010 6:20 UTC www.omafra.gov.on.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Linnaeus added the "sativa" appellation (literally, "sown" or "cultivated," i.e., used in agriculture), indicating the utilitarian nature of the plant.
  • Hemp and Marijuana: Myths & Realities from NAIHC 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC naihc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • HEMP AND MARIJUANA: Myths and Realities 15 January 2010 6:20 UTC www.naihc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

spontanea (Vav.) Serebr. .(consisting of wild or feral plants).^ In 1929, renowned plant explorer Nikolai Vavilov assigned wild or feral populations of Cannabis in Afghanistan to C. indica Lam.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Serebriakova and Sizov split the two C. sativa subspecies into 13 varieties, including four distinct groups within subspecies culta.^ Serebriakova and Sizov split the two C. sativa subspecies into 13 varieties, including four distinct groups within subspecies culta .
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Within C. sativa they recognized two subspecies: C. sativa L. subsp.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If we prune the stem, it will split into two.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, they did not divide C. indica into subspecies or varieties.^ However, they did not divide C. indica into subspecies or varieties.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I also checked into the US Marijuana Party, http://www.usmjparty.org/ and found that they did not share my California values at all.
  • The Secret to Legal Marijuana? Women | DrugReporter | AlterNet 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ Serebriakova and Sizov split the two C. sativa subspecies into 13 varieties, including four distinct groups within subspecies culta .
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

[22][36] .This excessive splitting of C. sativa proved too unwieldy, and never gained many adherents.^ This excessive splitting of C. sativa proved too unwieldy, and never gained many adherents.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

.In the 1970s, the taxonomic classification of Cannabis took on added significance in North America.^ In the 1970s, the taxonomic classification of Cannabis took on added significance in North America.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cannabis indica and Cannabis sativa have been naturalized in North America, Brazil, and Europe, according to Felter and Lloyd in the Kings Dispensatory 18 th Edition .
  • Cannabis/Soma Research Project 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fortlewis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cannabis/Soma Research Project 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fortlewis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Significant amounts are also starting to be produced in North America and Europe .
  • Michigan CONTACTs, LINKS and More | a Medical Cannabis Resource Center (MERCY) Info page 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC www.mercycenters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Laws prohibiting Cannabis in the United States and Canada specifically named products of C. sativa as prohibited materials.^ Laws prohibiting Cannabis in the United States and Canada specifically named products of C. sativa as prohibited materials.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ United States as a food product.

^ Enterprising attorneys for the defense in a few drug busts argued that the seized Cannabis material may not have been C. sativa , and was therefore not prohibited by law.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Enterprising attorneys for the defense in a few drug busts argued that the seized Cannabis material may not have been C. sativa, and was therefore not prohibited by law.^ I may be drug tested in a few days.
  • How long does marijuana stay in your system 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC howto.dcrdetox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Enterprising attorneys for the defense in a few drug busts argued that the seized Cannabis material may not have been C. sativa , and was therefore not prohibited by law.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Grown at the University of Mississippi, this cannabis is provided to those few patients remaining in the 1976 Compassionate Investigational New Drug (CIND) program.
  • Michigan CONTACTs, LINKS and More | a Medical Cannabis Resource Center (MERCY) Info page 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC www.mercycenters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Attorneys on both sides recruited botanists to provide expert testimony.^ Attorneys on both sides recruited botanists to provide expert testimony.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

Among those testifying for the prosecution was Dr. Ernest Small, while Dr. Richard E. Schultes and others testified for the defense. .The botanists engaged in heated debate (outside of court), and both camps impugned the other's integrity.^ The botanists engaged in heated debate (outside of court), and both camps impugned the other's integrity.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

[29][30] .The defense attorneys were not often successful in winning their case, because the intent of the law was clear.^ The defense attorneys were not often successful in winning their case, because the intent of the law was clear.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Enterprising attorneys for the defense in a few drug busts argued that the seized Cannabis material may not have been C. sativa , and was therefore not prohibited by law.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Matthew Abel has over twenty years experience practicing law in Michigan, and has become known specifically for defense of criminal charges in marijuana cases.
  • Michigan CONTACTs, LINKS and More | a Medical Cannabis Resource Center (MERCY) Info page 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC www.mercycenters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[37]
.In 1976, Canadian botanist Ernest Small[38] and American taxonomist Arthur Cronquist published a taxonomic revision that recognizes a single species of Cannabis with two subspecies: C. sativa L. subsp.^ Within these two subspecies, Small and Cronquist described C. sativa L. subsp.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Sativa: A species of cannabis plant.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Within C. sativa they recognized two subspecies: C. sativa L. subsp.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

sativa, and C. sativa L. subsp. indica (Lam.) Small & Cronq.[34] .The authors hypothesized that the two subspecies diverged primarily as a result of human selection; C. sativa subsp.^ Within C. sativa they recognized two subspecies: C. sativa L. subsp.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The authors hypothesized that the two subspecies diverged primarily as a result of human selection; C. sativa subsp.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1976, Canadian botanist Ernest Small [ 31 ] and American taxonomist Arthur Cronquist published a taxonomic revision that recognizes a single species of Cannabis with two subspecies: C. sativa L. subsp.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

.sativa was presumably selected for traits that enhance fiber or seed production, whereas C. sativa subsp.^ Industrial hemp products are made from Cannabis plants selected to produce an abundance of fiber and minimal levels of THC (Δ 9 - tetrahydrocannabinol).
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Nothing is wasted in the production process: seeds are used to make oil and food supplements, while the stalks are used for fiber.
  • Hemp Aprons 100% ORGANIC , Funny Aprons, Novelty Aprons, Kiss the Cook 15 January 2010 6:20 UTC www.ecomall.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The authors assigned fiber/seed landraces and feral populations from Europe, central Asia, and Asia Minor to C. sativa .
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

indica was primarily selected for drug production. .Within these two subspecies, Small and Cronquist described C. sativa L. subsp.^ Within these two subspecies, Small and Cronquist described C. sativa L. subsp.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Within C. sativa they recognized two subspecies: C. sativa L. subsp.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1976, Canadian botanist Ernest Small [ 31 ] and American taxonomist Arthur Cronquist published a taxonomic revision that recognizes a single species of Cannabis with two subspecies: C. sativa L. subsp.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

sativa var. spontanea Vav. as a wild or escaped variety of low-intoxicant .Cannabis, and C. sativa subsp.^ Most strains of Cannabis are short day plants , [ 8 ] with the possible exception of C. sativa subsp.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cannabis , and C. sativa subsp.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

indica var. kafiristanica (Vav.) Small & Cronq. as a wild or escaped variety of the high-intoxicant type. .This classification was based on several factors including interfertility, chromosome uniformity, chemotype, and numerical analysis of phenotypic characters.^ Interfertility and chromosomal uniformity in Cannabis .
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This classification was based on several factors including interfertility, chromosome uniformity, chemotype, and numerical analysis of phenotypic characters.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

[23][34][39]
.Professors William Emboden, Loran Anderson, and Harvard botanist Richard E. Schultes and coworkers also conducted taxonomic studies of Cannabis in the 1970s, and concluded that stable morphological differences exist that support recognition of at least three species, C. sativa, C. indica, and C. ruderalis.[40][41][42][43] For Schultes, this was a reversal of his previous interpretation that Cannabis is monotypic, with only a single species.^ Indica: A species of cannabis plant.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sativa: A species of cannabis plant.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Professors William Emboden, Loran Anderson, and Harvard botanist Richard E. Schultes and coworkers also conducted taxonomic studies of Cannabis in the 1970s, and concluded that stable morphological differences exist that support recognition of at least three species, C. sativa , C. indica , and C. ruderalis.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

[44] .According to Schultes' and Anderson's descriptions, C. sativa is tall and laxly branched with relatively narrow leaflets, C. indica is shorter, conical in shape, and has relatively wide leaflets, and C. ruderalis is short, branchless, and grows wild in central Asia.^ SATIVA: Height - Can grow tall.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Ruderalis" is the term used to describe the short plants that grow wild in Europe and central Asia.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ According to Schultes' and Anderson's descriptions, C. sativa is tall and laxly branched with relatively narrow leaflets, C. indica is shorter, conical in shape, and has relatively wide leaflets, and C. ruderalis is short, branchless, and grows wild in central Asia .
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

.This taxonomic interpretation was embraced by Cannabis aficionados who commonly distinguish narrow-leafed "sativa" drug strains from wide-leafed "indica" drug strains.^ This taxonomic interpretation was embraced by Cannabis aficionados who commonly distinguish narrow-leafed "sativa" drug strains from wide-leafed "indica" drug strains.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In the early 20th century, the single-species concept was still widely accepted, except in the Soviet Union where Cannabis continued to be the subject of active taxonomic study.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Enterprising attorneys for the defense in a few drug busts argued that the seized Cannabis material may not have been C. sativa , and was therefore not prohibited by law.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

[45]

Ongoing research

.Molecular analytical techniques developed in the late twentieth century are being applied to questions of taxonomic classification.^ Molecular analytical techniques developed in the late twentieth century are being applied to questions of taxonomic classification.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

.This has resulted in many reclassifications based on evolutionary systematics.^ This has resulted in many reclassifications based on evolutionary systematics .
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Many new soil-based methods can achieve the same or better results.
  • Effects of Cannabis, Cannabis Issues, Cannabis Legalization – Marijuanahydro.com 25 September 2009 15:29 UTC www.marijuanahydro.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Several studies of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and other types of genetic markers have been conducted on drug and fiber strains of Cannabis, primarily for plant breeding and forensic purposes.^ That is why we have different types of cannabis plants.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Comparison of hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.) varieties using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA markers .
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Several studies of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA ( RAPD ) and other types of genetic markers have been conducted on drug and fiber strains of Cannabis , primarily for plant breeding and forensic purposes.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

[46][47][48][49][50] .Dutch Cannabis researcher E.P.M. de Meijer and coworkers described some of their RAPD studies as showing an "extremely high" degree of genetic polymorphism between and within populations, suggesting a high degree of potential variation for selection, even in heavily selected hemp cultivars.^ Dutch Cannabis researcher E.P.M. de Meijer and coworkers described some of their RAPD studies as showing an "extremely high" degree of genetic polymorphism between and within populations, suggesting a high degree of potential variation for selection, even in heavily selected hemp cultivars.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cannabis Marijuana Effective as Pain Reliever, Research Shows The research showed that the cannabis, or marijuana, was only able to reduce pain within a very narrow range of doses.

^ Possession of small amounts of cannabis is not illegal in Portugal but, technically, consumption is.  However, having liaised with the Dutch, police will not act except in extreme circumstances.
  • DrugSense: Drug Law Reform - Weekly Newsletter 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.drugsense.org [Source type: News]

[24] .They also commented that these analyses confirm the continuity of the Cannabis gene pool throughout the studied accessions, and provide further confirmation that the genus comprises a single species, although theirs was not a systematic study per se.^ Genus and species: Cannabis indica .
  • Cannabis/Soma Research Project 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fortlewis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cannabis/Soma Research Project 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fortlewis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A study of systematic wood anatomy in Cannabis .
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They also commented that these analyses confirm the continuity of the Cannabis gene pool throughout the studied accessions, and provide further confirmation that the genus comprises a single species, although theirs was not a systematic study per se .
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

.Karl W. Hillig, a graduate student in the laboratory of long-time Cannabis researcher Paul G. Mahlberg[51] at Indiana University, conducted a systematic investigation of genetic, morphological, and chemotaxonomic variation among 157 Cannabis accessions of known geographic origin, including fiber, drug, and feral populations.^ Karl W. Hillig, a graduate student in the laboratory of long-time Cannabis researcher Paul G. Mahlberg [ 44 ] at Indiana University , conducted a systematic investigation of genetic, morphological, and chemotaxonomic variation among 157 Cannabis accessions of known geographic origin, including fiber, drug, and feral populations.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A systematic investigation of Cannabis .
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Morphological variation of achenes of Cannabis .
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

.In 2004, Hillig and Mahlberg published a chemotaxomic analysis of cannabinoid variation in their Cannabis germplasm collection.^ Objective: This study examined the genetic association between variation in the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1) gene and cannabis dependence symptoms.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Many experiments done in rabbits using various routes of administration, including instillation of cannabinoids into the eye, have confirmed the ability of cannabis to reduce intraocular pressure.
  • Pharmacological Reviews of Marijuana 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.druglibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

^ THE REPORT is comprised of Seven Parts and gives an in-depth analysis of all the various aspects and uses of cannabis.

.They used gas chromatography to determine cannabinoid content and to infer allele frequencies of the gene that controls CBD and THC production within the studied populations, and concluded that the patterns of cannabinoid variation support recognition of C. sativa and C. indica as separate species, but not C. ruderalis.[25] The authors assigned fiber/seed landraces and feral populations from Europe, central Asia, and Asia Minor to C. sativa.^ As mentioned, THC content is genetically determined.
  • Hemp and Marijuana: Myths & Realities from NAIHC 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC naihc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Patterns of use vary widely.
  • Pharmacological Reviews of Marijuana 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.druglibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The article warned airmen not to use products containing hemp seed oil, hemp oil or delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol -- known as THC -- marijuana's main active chemical.
  • DrugSense: Drug Law Reform - Weekly Newsletter 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.drugsense.org [Source type: News]

.Narrow-leaflet and wide-leaflet drug accessions, southern and eastern Asian hemp accessions, and feral Himalayan populations were assigned to C. indica.^ Narrow-leaflet and wide-leaflet drug accessions, southern and eastern Asian hemp accessions, and feral Himalayan populations were assigned to C. indica.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1929, renowned plant explorer Nikolai Vavilov assigned wild or feral populations of Cannabis in Afghanistan to C. indica Lam.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The authors assigned fiber/seed landraces and feral populations from Europe, central Asia, and Asia Minor to C. sativa .
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

.In 2005, Hillig published a genetic analysis of the same set of accessions (this paper was the first in the series, but was delayed in publication), and proposed a three-species classification, recognizing C. sativa, C. indica, and (tentatively) C. ruderalis.^ Indica/Sativa and Sativa/Indica is really the same thing.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The prevailing opinion currently recognizes three species : C. sativa , C. indica , and C. ruderalis .
  • Hemp and Marijuana: Myths & Realities from NAIHC 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC naihc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • HEMP AND MARIJUANA: Myths and Realities 15 January 2010 6:20 UTC www.naihc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A population is a group of individuals of the same strain or species, [such as cannabis Indica or cannabis Sativa (species), or Skunk#1 and Master Kush (strains of a species)], in a given area whose members can interbreed with one another.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[28] .In his doctoral dissertation published the same year, Hillig stated that principal components analysis of phenotypic (morphological) traits failed to differentiate the putative species, but that canonical variates analysis resulted in a high degree of discrimination of the putative species and infraspecific taxa.^ In his doctoral dissertation published the same year, Hillig stated that principal components analysis of phenotypic (morphological) traits failed to differentiate the putative species, but that canonical variates analysis resulted in a high degree of discrimination of the putative species and infraspecific taxa.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In 2004, Hillig and Mahlberg published a chemotaxomic analysis of cannabinoid variation in their Cannabis germplasm collection.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Meanwhile, substantial evidence had accumulated that tolerance could be shown in various animal species, especially with high doses of THC given for prolonged periods.
  • Pharmacological Reviews of Marijuana 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.druglibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

[52] .Another paper in the series on chemotaxonomic variation in the terpenoid content of the essential oil of Cannabis revealed that several wide-leaflet drug strains in the collection had relatively high levels of certain sesquiterpene alcohols, including guaiol and isomers of eudesmol, that set them apart from the other putative taxa.^ Unlike opium, morphine, or alcohol, cannabis was a relatively obscure drug.
  • Marihuana, The First Twelve Thousand Years 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.hoboes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sinsemilla and hash oil are other variants of cannabis.
  • How long does marijuana stay in your system 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC howto.dcrdetox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another paper in the series on chemotaxonomic variation in the terpenoid content of the essential oil of Cannabis revealed that several wide-leaflet drug strains in the collection had relatively high levels of certain sesquiterpene alcohols, including guaiol and isomers of eudesmol, that set them apart from the other putative taxa.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

[53] .Hillig concluded that the patterns of genetic, morphological, and chemotaxonomic variation support recognition of C. sativa and C. indica as separate species.^ Sativa and Indica are extremely common and these 2 species will be the main focus of this book.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not only this but the species can be crossed to produce Indica/Sativa type plants or Sativa/Indica type plants.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PURE SATIVA (This is a pure species) SATIVA (This is a mostly Sativa species with some Indica) PURE INDICA (This is a pure species) INDICA (This is a mostly Indica species with some Sativa) INDICA/SATIVA (This is a 50/50 cross between a Sativa and an Indica species) They also produce: RUDERALIS (This is a pure species) And some other Ruderalis mixes.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He also concluded there is little support to treat C. ruderalis as a separate species from C. sativa at this time, but more research on wild and weedy populations is needed because they were underrepresented in their collection.^ Opponent Organic Wines: A Healthier Choice There was a time when organic wine was considered nothing really more than fortified grape juice, but over the past few years they have improved in taste and quality to rival that of conventional wines......

^ It may also help researchers design more effective anti-marijuana ads by isolating adverse elements in the ads that may elicit boomerang effects in the target population.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The research says there is no evidence for claims that most cannabis consumed in Britain and the rest of Europe is now 10 times or more stronger than it was in the 70s.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Facts About Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In September 2005, New Scientist reported that researchers at the Canberra Institute of Technology had identified a new type of Cannabis based on analysis of mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA.[54] The New Scientist story, which was picked up by many news agencies and web sites, indicated that the research was to be published in the journal Forensic Science International.^ Csa Study: Researchers Find that Marijuana May Alleviate Skin Allergies An international group of researchers have found that the main substance found in marijuana, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), may help combat certain skin problems caused by allergic reactions, according to a journal published by Science.

^ Fragrances New Multiple Sclerosis Drug Moves Closer to Patients in U.K The maker of Sativex, a cannabis-based drug used to control spasticity in Multiple Sclerosis patients, is reporting good test results and plans to apply for permission to market it in the United Kingdom.

^ Andrew Campbell, a member of the New South Wales (Australia) Mental Health Review Tribunal, published a study in 2005 which revealed that four out of five individuals with schizophrenia were regular cannabis users when they were teenagers.
  • The DEA Position On Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.justice.gov [Source type: Academic]

.When the article was finally published, there was no mention of "Rasta."^ Mainstream myth-busting Since more women are smoking weed, it's no surprise there has finally been an onslaught of girl stoner coverage in the corporate media.
  • The Secret to Legal Marijuana? Women | DrugReporter | AlterNet 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ Furthermore, there is no mention of god or Christianity in any of our foundational documents.
  • Big Hollywood » Blog Archive » Brad Pitt and Atheist Evangelism 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC bighollywood.breitbart.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no published evidence that cannabinoids are superior or equivalent to available therapies.
  • Workshop on the Medical Utility of Marijuana 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[55]
.As of 2007, taxonomy web sites continue to list Cannabis as a type of species, whilst listing Cannabis Sativa, Cannabis Indica and Cannabis Ruderalis as a type of subspecies.^ Indica: A species of cannabis plant.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sativa: A species of cannabis plant.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not only this but the species can be crossed to produce Indica/Sativa type plants or Sativa/Indica type plants.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[56][57][58][59]

Popular usage

.The scientific debate regarding taxonomy has had little effect on the terminology in widespread use among cultivators and users of drug-type Cannabis.^ In conclusion, our meta-analysis of studies that have attempted to address the question of longer term neurocognitive disturbance in moderate and heavy cannabis users has failed to demonstrate a substantial, systematic, and detrimental effect of cannabis use on neuropsychological performance.
  • Oppviglerbloggen » Arkiv » Jobb svart! Smugle ivei! Brenn hjemme! 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC www.dagbladet.no [Source type: Academic]

^ The action plan to discourage cannabis use includes elements such as drug prevention campaigns, mass-media anti-drugs campaign, increased treatment efforts to cannabis users, and encouragement of administrative and criminal law enforcement efforts.
  • The DEA Position On Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.justice.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The effects of chronic use of cannabis are more to the point when considering the issues of its status as a possible social drug.
  • Pharmacological Reviews of Marijuana 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.druglibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

.Cannabis aficionados recognize three distinct types based on such factors as morphology, native range, aroma, and subjective psychoactive characteristics.^ Ganja was the main revenue-generating cannabis drug, but bhang, which was not subject to taxation, was the most popular of the three cannabis drugs, and the most widely used among the Hindus.
  • Marihuana, The First Twelve Thousand Years 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.hoboes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Decriminalization Key Factors Surrounding the Debate of Rescheduling Marijuana in the United States Marijuana is currently a Schedule I drug based on three criteria.

^ Endocannabinoids are endogenous lipid mediators generated by virtually all cell types both in the brain and peripheral tissues, which exert broad range of biological effects (cardiovascular, psychoactive, antiinflammatory) similar to those of cannabis [1 ].
  • Jeffrey Dach MD Bio-Identical Hormone Blog: Cannabinoids, Miracle Drug of the 21st Century by Jeffrey Dach MD 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC jeffreydach.com [Source type: Academic]

."Sativa" is the term used to describe the most widespread variety, which is usually tall, laxly branched, and found in warm lowland regions.^ For example, it is also possible that the minimum blood level of 9 -THC that produces useful analgesia also usually produces a level of sedation, mental clouding, and thinking impairment that is unacceptable to most patients.
  • Workshop on the Medical Utility of Marijuana 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Spliff: A term used to describe a cannabis cigarette.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once again, environmental laws play an important role with developing countries usually using the cheapest and most convenient method of disposal.
  • Organic_Clothing: Hemp: Facts on the Fiber 15 January 2010 6:20 UTC organicclothing.blogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

."Indica" is used to designate shorter, bushier plants adapted to cooler climates and highland environments.^ Some Sativa plants may be shorter because of the Indica breeding in them and some Indica plants may be taller because of the Sativa breeding in them.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Shultes group seems to have designated the opposite height of growth parameters for C. Indica and C. sativa , suggesting that C. indica is actually the shorter of the two.
  • Cannabis/Soma Research Project 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fortlewis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cannabis/Soma Research Project 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fortlewis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Plants grown in warmer climates tend to be best for medicinal use, whilst those grown in more northerly latitudes produce the better fibre[4].
  • Cannabis sativa - Plants For A Future database report 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.pfaf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

."Ruderalis" is the term used to describe the short plants that grow wild in Europe and central Asia.^ [Readers should take note that cannabis, marijuana, hemp and ganja are all terms describing the same plant and its products.

^ Revulsion against drugs and the hippie culture even led to the term "entheogen" being coined to describe a psychotropic substance used in religious rituals.
  • Jesus 'healed using cannabis' [Archive] - Debate Both Sides 25 September 2009 15:29 UTC www.debatebothsides.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The report concluded that, "the short-term immunosuppressive effects are not well established but, if they exist, are not likely great enough to preclude a legitimate medical use."
  • MedicalMJ.org - Medical Marijuana News and Facts 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.medicalmj.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Breeders, seed companies, and cultivators of drug type Cannabis often describe the ancestry or gross phenotypic characteristics of cultivars by categorizing them as "pure indica," "mostly indica," "indica/sativa," "mostly sativa", or "pure sativa."

Reproduction

Breeding systems

Cannabis sativa seeds.
.Cannabis is predominantly dioecious,[15][60] although many monoecious varieties have been described.^ This early argument as to whether there is one species of cannabis which includes many different varieties or several different species still remains to be settled.” .
  • Marihuana, The First Twelve Thousand Years 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.hoboes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It would seem reasonable to assume that cannabis might unmask latent psychiatric disorders and that this action probably accounts for the great variety that have been described following its use.
  • Pharmacological Reviews of Marijuana 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.druglibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Although cannabis does not effect a cure for many of the problems it is prescribed to treat, it is a very safe and effective medicine for helping to reduce the symptoms of many serious diseases.
  • Cannabis sativa - Plants For A Future database report 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.pfaf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[61] .Subdioecy (the occurrence of monoecious individuals and dioecious individuals within the same population) is widespread.^ Once we have done this we have isolated the genotype and it will breed true within the same population.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[62][63][64] Many populations have been described as sexually labile.[48][65][66]
Cannabis bud with visible trichomes.
Male Cannabis pollen sacs.
.As a result of intensive selection in cultivation, Cannabis exhibits many sexual phenotypes that can be described in terms of the ratio of female to male flowers occurring in the individual, or typical in the cultivar.^ The male flowers then pollinate the female flowers which will eventually produce seeds.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What happens is that the best male pollen should have been selected by the female as the one that she prefers.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Spliff: A term used to describe a cannabis cigarette.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[67] .Dioecious varieties are preferred for drug production, where typically the female flowers are used.^ Drug use causes huge amounts of lost productivity” .
  • Congress Sets Sights On Cannabis Prohibition Laws; Major Press Conference Today In Washington | NORML Blog 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC blog.norml.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Again clones from a female plant are used like in the SOG method, but we allow at least 1 square foot per flowering plant in the ScrOG method.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reality: Hemp oil is an increasingly popular product, used for an expanding variety of purposes.
  • Hemp and Marijuana: Myths & Realities from NAIHC 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC naihc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Dioecious varieties are also preferred for textile fiber production, whereas monoecious varieties are preferred for pulp and paper production.^ The fibers have been used for cordage, and as pulp for paper.
  • Cannabis/Soma Research Project 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fortlewis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cannabis/Soma Research Project 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fortlewis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both the fiber (bast) and pulp (hurd) of the hemp plant can be used to make paper.
  • Marijuana and Hemp Information 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.bigeye.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This form is monoecious whereas most other forms are dioecious[141].
  • Cannabis sativa - Plants For A Future database report 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.pfaf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It has been suggested that the presence of monoecy can be used to differentiate licit crops of monoecious hemp from illicit drug crops.^ So is the using of almost all illicit drugs.
  • Do you smoke? [Archive] - Mac Forums 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC forums.macrumors.com [Source type: Original source]

^ CHOPRA, R. N.: Use of hemp drugs in India, Indian Medical Gazette, Calcutta, 1940, 75, pages 356-367.
  • UNODC - Bulletin on Narcotics - 1951 Issue 1 - 006 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC www.unodc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In Britain, the Drugs Branch reports that since hemp cultivation began in 1993, "there have been very few thefts of crop and diversion from licit sources has been insignificant."
  • Hemp and Marijuana: Myths & Realities from NAIHC 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC naihc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • HEMP AND MARIJUANA: Myths and Realities 15 January 2010 6:20 UTC www.naihc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[62] .However, the so-called "sativa" drug strains often produce monoecious individuals, probably as a result of inbreeding.^ However, all so called varieties freely interbreed and produce various combinations of the characters.
  • Cannabis sativa - Plants For A Future database report 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.pfaf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I would only add that there are two types of the drug-producing version: C. Sativa and C. Indica.
  • Cannabis sativa - Plants For A Future database report 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.pfaf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cannabis, or marijuana as it is often called when referring to the drug form of the plant, is an effective medicine that is relatively safer than many commonly-used pharmaceutical products.
  • MedicalMJ.org - Medical Marijuana News and Facts 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.medicalmj.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Mechanisms of sex determination

.Cannabis has been described as having one of the most complicated mechanisms of sex determination among the dioecious plants.^ Name one plant that has 1/5 the uses that cannabis has.
  • Cannabis sativa - Plants For A Future database report 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.pfaf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One acre of cannabis is equal to seven acres of densly wooded forest, it grows faster and taller than any other plant, and has infinite uses.
  • Cannabis sativa - Plants For A Future database report 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.pfaf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ About one in three users in one high school and one in five in another reported having anxiety, confusion, or other unpleasant effects from cannabis use.
  • Pharmacological Reviews of Marijuana 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.druglibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

[67] .Many models have been proposed to explain sex determination in Cannabis.^ HIRATA, K.: Cytological basis of the sex determination in cannabis sativa L., Japanese Journal of Genetics, Tokyo, 1929, 4, pages 198-201.
  • UNODC - Bulletin on Narcotics - 1951 Issue 1 - 006 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC www.unodc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ HIRATA, K.: Sex determination in hemp ( cannabis sativa L. ), Journal of Genetics, Cambridge, England, 1927, 19, pages 65-79.
  • UNODC - Bulletin on Narcotics - 1951 Issue 1 - 006 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC www.unodc.org [Source type: Academic]

.Based on studies of sex reversal in hemp, it was first reported by K. Hirata in 1924 that an XY sex-determination system is present.^ BOSE, R. D.: A study of sex in the Indian hemp, Agricultural Journal of India, Calcutta, 1930, 25, pages 495-507.
  • UNODC - Bulletin on Narcotics - 1951 Issue 1 - 006 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC www.unodc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ SCHAFFNER, J. H.: The influence of relative length of daylight on the reversal of sex in hemp, Ecology, New York, 1923, 4, pages 323-334.
  • UNODC - Bulletin on Narcotics - 1951 Issue 1 - 006 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC www.unodc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In this review, we summarize advances that have been made and the status of studies of a diverse array of CB1R antagonists that have been identified mainly based on modifications of the first-in-class CB1R antagonist, rimonabant.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[65] At the time, the XY system was the only known system of sex determination. .The X:A system was first described in Drosophila spp in 1925.[68] Soon thereafter, Schaffner disputed Hirata's interpretation,[69] and published results from his own studies of sex reversal in hemp, concluding that an X:A system was in use and that furthermore sex was strongly influenced by environmental conditions.^ BOSE, R. D.: A study of sex in the Indian hemp, Agricultural Journal of India, Calcutta, 1930, 25, pages 495-507.
  • UNODC - Bulletin on Narcotics - 1951 Issue 1 - 006 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC www.unodc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Now this hallowed plant gets to shine in the world's first cookbook devoted exclusively to the delicious and nutritious dishes you can make using hemp seed.
  • Marijuana Books 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.drugwar.com [Source type: General]

^ This has resulted in many published studies focusing on exposure in utero to substances and human offspring outcomes.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[66]
.Since then, many different types of sex determination systems have been discovered, particularly in plants.^ That is why we have different types of cannabis plants.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hemp' is any durable plant that has been used since pre-history for many purposes.
  • Marijuana and Hemp Information 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.bigeye.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In general, the endocannabinoid system is involved in many different physiological functions, many of which relate to stress-recovery systems and to the maintenance of homeostatic balance (10).
  • Jeffrey Dach MD Bio-Identical Hormone Blog: Cannabinoids, Miracle Drug of the 21st Century by Jeffrey Dach MD 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC jeffreydach.com [Source type: Academic]

[60] .Dioecy is relatively uncommon in the plant kingdom, and a very low percentage of dioecious plant species have been determined to use the XY system.^ "They started out with a very low-grade plant, rolled it up with stems and seeds, and then freeze-dried it so that they probably ruined any of the THC crystals.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Weinheim 1959 An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants.
  • Cannabis sativa - Plants For A Future database report 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.pfaf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The way to solve this is by using predator urine (Also see Deer) or by building a very small mesh fence around the bottom of your outdoor plants.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In most cases where the XY system is found it is believed to have evolved recently and independently.[70]
.Since the 1920s, a number of sex determination models have been proposed for Cannabis.^ HIRATA, K.: Cytological basis of the sex determination in cannabis sativa L., Japanese Journal of Genetics, Tokyo, 1929, 4, pages 198-201.
  • UNODC - Bulletin on Narcotics - 1951 Issue 1 - 006 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC www.unodc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ HIRATA, K.: Sex determination in hemp ( cannabis sativa L. ), Journal of Genetics, Cambridge, England, 1927, 19, pages 65-79.
  • UNODC - Bulletin on Narcotics - 1951 Issue 1 - 006 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC www.unodc.org [Source type: Academic]

Ainsworth describes sex determination in the genus as using "an X/autosome dosage type".[60]
A male hemp plant.
Dense raceme of carpellate flowers typical of drug-type varieties of Cannabis.
.The question of whether heteromorphic sex chromosomes are indeed present is most conveniently answered if such chromosomes were clearly visible in a karyotype.^ But the answer to the question as to how long does marijuana stay in your system typically lies on the amount of THC present in marijuana.
  • How long does marijuana stay in your system 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC howto.dcrdetox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cannabis has other uses besides being a medicine, yet most people seem to think that doctors are the only answer to the cannabis question.
  • Effects of Cannabis, Cannabis Issues, Cannabis Legalization – Marijuanahydro.com 25 September 2009 15:29 UTC www.marijuanahydro.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Page 130 indeed it seems, since you send such fine presents, signore mio ,' continued the crafty 'Nunziatina, and waited for him to reply.
  • Victorian Women Writers Project 15 September 2009 5:34 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Cannabis was one of the first plant species to be karyotyped; however, this was in a period when karyotype preparation was primitive by modern standards (see History of Cytogenetics).^ Indica: A species of cannabis plant.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sativa: A species of cannabis plant.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are 3 main species of Cannabis plants.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Heteromorphic sex chromosomes were reported to occur in staminate individuals of dioecious "Kentucky" hemp, but were not found in pistillate individuals of the same variety.^ The exhaustive Indian Hemp "Raj" Commission report (1986) by British authorities found no reason to restrict its use.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Great variation can occur even when the same individual is repeatedly dosed under controlled and ideal conditions.
  • Workshop on the Medical Utility of Marijuana 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required) and are pollinated by Wind.
  • Cannabis sativa - Plants For A Future database report 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.pfaf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Dioecious "Kentucky" hemp was assumed to use an XY mechanism.^ The assumed conclusion drawn by some people then being that industrial hemp could be used in this way.
  • Hemp and Marijuana: Myths & Realities from NAIHC 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC naihc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Heterosomes were not observed in analyzed individuals of monoecious "Kentucky" hemp, nor in an unidentified German cultivar. .These varieties were assumed to have sex chromosome composition XX.[71] According to other researchers, no modern karyotype of Cannabis had been published as of 1996.[72] Proponents of the XY system state that Y chromosome is slightly larger than the X, but difficult to differentiate cytologically.^ It also provides the basis for the idea that man can have no higher aspiration than to depend upon other mens' whims for his existence.
  • Big Hollywood » Blog Archive » Brad Pitt and Atheist Evangelism 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC bighollywood.breitbart.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These are the rationales for studying the pharmacological actions of other constituents of the cannabis leaf, as well as determining whether a differential benefit occurs with smoked marijuana rather than oral dronabinol.
  • Workshop on the Medical Utility of Marijuana 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The research says there is no evidence for claims that most cannabis consumed in Britain and the rest of Europe is now 10 times or more stronger than it was in the 70s.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Facts About Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[73]
.More recently, Sakamoto and various co-authors[74][75] have used RAPD to isolate several genetic marker sequences that they name Male-Associated DNA in Cannabis (MADC), and which they interpret as indirect evidence of a male chromosome.^ Expectances for cannabis use predicted recent cannabis use and the presence and severity of cannabis dependence.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Or the cannabis they have for their own use.
  • MERCY - the Medical Cannabis Resource Center | MercyCenters.org 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mercycenters.org [Source type: General]

^ Results suggested that cannabis use expectancies were associated with cannabis use but not symptom variables.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.Several other research groups have reported identification of male-associated markers using RAPD and AFLP.^ Male respondents reported being physically assaulted while trying to collect food, fighting over space, or while stealing, by police officers, miscreants, or other homeless people.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The research involved more than 4,000 Australian twins whose use of marijuana and other drugs was followed in detail from adolescence into adulthood.
  • Why Smoking Marijuana Doesn't Make You a Junkie | DrugReporter | AlterNet 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ We used a prospective design to examine the association of marijuana use during the transition from late adolescence to early adulthood with reported relationship quality with significant other in the mid-to late twenties.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[24][48][76] Ainsworth commented on these findings, stating,
"It is not surprising that male-associated markers are relatively abundant. .In dioecious plants where sex chromosomes have not been identified, markers for maleness indicate either the presence of sex chromosomes which have not been distinguished by cytological methods or that the marker is tightly linked to a gene involved in sex determination.^ A good way to identify plant sex at early date is to look at the calyx with the aid of a very fine magnifying glass.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First Early Sexing Method: If you have been growing the same strain and all the seeds at the same time, then you may notice that some plants are taller than others.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dioecious”: sexually distinct male and female plants.
  • Marihuana, The First Twelve Thousand Years 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.hoboes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[60]"
Environmental sex determination is known to occur in a variety of species.[77] .Many researchers have suggested that sex in Cannabis is determined or strongly influenced by environmental factors.^ These data indicate that cannabis use history strongly determines the behavioural response to single doses of THC. Copyright 2009, Sage Publications .
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Genetic factors are known to influence cannabis dependence.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Shared environmental influences were modest for alcohol (10%) and absent for cigarettes and cannabis.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[66] Ainsworth reviews that treatment with auxin and ethylene have feminizing effects, and that treatment with cytokinins and gibberellins have masculinizing effects.[60] .It has been reported that sex can be reversed in Cannabis using chemical treatment.^ Tetrahydrocannabinol (using an older chemical nomenclature), or dronabinol, is the main psychoactive substance in Cannabis plant.
  • Jeffrey Dach MD Bio-Identical Hormone Blog: Cannabinoids, Miracle Drug of the 21st Century by Jeffrey Dach MD 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC jeffreydach.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Unlike cannabis, CBD does not have any psychoactive properties so its use would not violate laws, Molecular Cancer Therapeutics reports.
  • Jeffrey Dach MD Bio-Identical Hormone Blog: Cannabinoids, Miracle Drug of the 21st Century by Jeffrey Dach MD 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC jeffreydach.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is most common with LSD and other similar hallucinogens but has been reported fairly often with cannabis use.
  • Pharmacological Reviews of Marijuana 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.druglibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

[78] A PCR-based method for the detection of female-associated DNA polymorphisms by genotyping has been developed.[79]

Industrial and Personal Uses

.Cannabis is used for a wide variety of purposes.^ Worldwide, cannabis is the Most widely used illicit substance, and it has been identified as a correlate in schizophrenia samples for poorer symptomatic and functional outcomes in many international studies.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Ganja was the main revenue-generating cannabis drug, but bhang, which was not subject to taxation, was the most popular of the three cannabis drugs, and the most widely used among the Hindus.
  • Marihuana, The First Twelve Thousand Years 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.hoboes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The medicine is a tincture or admixture of the sticky resin in the blossoms and leaves of the hemp plant, and is used for a variety of purposes.
  • Marijuana and Hemp Information 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.bigeye.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Hemp

.Hemp is the natural, durable soft fiber from the stalk of Cannabis sativa plants that grow upwards of 20 feet tall.^ Habitat: Natural setting where a plant grows.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sativa: A species of cannabis plant.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For our purposes, hemp is the plant called `cannabis sativa.'
  • Marijuana and Hemp Information 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.bigeye.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Cannabis plants used for hemp production are not valued for recreational uses as the plants that are cultivated for hemp produce minimal levels of THC, analogous to attempting to get drunk from low-alcohol beer.^ Some plants may contain 100% THC but the "levels" of THC may be low.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sometimes the technique may be good but the levels of THC in the plant are low.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Usually measured by the THC levels in a plant.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Cannabis plants intended for any drug cultivation cannot be hidden in a hemp field either, as the size and height of each are significantly different.^ That is why we have different types of cannabis plants.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Perhaps the height of different Cannabis plants stems from growing conditions (e.g.
  • Cannabis/Soma Research Project 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fortlewis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cannabis/Soma Research Project 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fortlewis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Marijuana is a greenish-gray mixture of the dried, shredded leaves, stems, seeds, and flowers of Cannabis sativa, the hemp plant.
  • Dangers of Smoking Marijuana 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC smoking.ygoy.com [Source type: Original source]

[80]
.Hemp producers sell hemp seeds as a health food, as they are rich in heart-healthy, essential fatty acids, amino acids (both essential and nonessential), vitamins and minerals.^ It offers many nutritional benefits too, being high in essential fatty acids and amino acids, vitamins and minerals.
  • the Lycaeum - Marijuana Cookbook 11 September 2009 8:12 UTC www.lycaeum.org [Source type: General]

^ They are both Dutch seed companies.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hemp seed oil provides the human body with essential fatty acids.
  • Marijuana and Hemp Information 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.bigeye.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hemp "milk" is a milk substitute also made from hemp seeds that is both dairy and gluten-free.^ Your basic larder for cooking with hemp products can include cookie and pancake mixes, roasted and flavored seeds, hemp non-dairy cheese and meat substitutes, and naturally, hemp oil.
  • the Lycaeum - Marijuana Cookbook 11 September 2009 8:12 UTC www.lycaeum.org [Source type: General]

^ Paper made naturally from hemp is acid free and will last for centuries.
  • Marijuana and Hemp Information 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.bigeye.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the same time, he gave hemp seed free to farmers with the understanding that they were to plant it immediately and replace the gift with seed from their next year’s crop.
  • Marihuana, The First Twelve Thousand Years 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.hoboes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[81]
.Hemp is fairly easy to grow and matures very fast compared to many crops, most notably trees used for paper.^ Canada can grow hemp for fibre use.

^ Hemp paper is used by .

^ The paper we use most today is a `chemical pulp' paper made from trees.
  • Marijuana and Hemp Information 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.bigeye.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Compared to cotton for clothing, hemp cloth is known to be of superior strength and longer-lasting.^ Hemp fabric products will last longer than cotton fabric products thus the buyer buys less over longer periods of time.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cloth that hemp makes may be a little less soft than cotton, (though there are also special kinds of hemp, or ways to grow or treat hemp, that can produce a soft cloth) but it is much stronger and longer lasting.
  • Marijuana and Hemp Information 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.bigeye.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NOTE: See also the files: hemp-cloth-msg , rope-msg , silk-msg , cotton-msg , linen-msg , herbs-msg , seeds-msg , smoking-msg .

.The fibers may also be used to form cordage for industrial-strength ropes.^ The fibers have been used for cordage, and as pulp for paper.
  • Cannabis/Soma Research Project 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fortlewis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cannabis/Soma Research Project 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fortlewis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If we assume that the use of Cannabis as a divine inebriant outdates the use of hemp as fiber, then we may also look at whether the use of Cannabis actually led to other uses of the plant.
  • Cannabis/Soma Research Project 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fortlewis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cannabis/Soma Research Project 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fortlewis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hemp fibers have been used to make Bibles, cordage, lighting oil, building materials, and even plastic pipe (Balick and Cox, 94).
  • Cannabis/Soma Research Project 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fortlewis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cannabis/Soma Research Project 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fortlewis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hemp plants also require little pesticides and herbicides due to its height, density and foliage.^ In 1639 the Massachusetts court “formalized its demands by passing a law requiring every householder to plant hemp seed.” .
  • Marihuana, The First Twelve Thousand Years 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.hoboes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hemp requires little fertilizer, and grows well almost everywhere.
  • Marijuana and Hemp Information 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.bigeye.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hemp is not the only answer, but there is little doubt that the Cannabis plant can contribute to the renewed sustainability of the U.S. .
  • Cannabis/Soma Research Project 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fortlewis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cannabis/Soma Research Project 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fortlewis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This also makes the hemp plant very environmentally-friendly.^ Both the fiber (bast) and pulp (hurd) of the hemp plant can be used to make paper.
  • Marijuana and Hemp Information 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.bigeye.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hemp offers us an opportunity to make affordable and environmentally safe paper for all of our needs, since it does not need much chemical treatment.
  • Marijuana and Hemp Information 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.bigeye.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now this hallowed plant gets to shine in the world's first cookbook devoted exclusively to the delicious and nutritious dishes you can make using hemp seed.
  • Marijuana Books 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.drugwar.com [Source type: General]

.Hemp can be utilized for 25,000 very durable textile products,[80] ranging from paper and clothing to biofuels (from the oils found in the seeds), medicines and construction material.^ Hemp seed oil has a multitude of uses in products such as varnishes and lubricants.
  • Marijuana and Hemp Information 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.bigeye.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While these laws and bounties had the effect of increasing hemp production throughout Virginia and Maryland, very little hemp ever found its way into English ports.
  • Marihuana, The First Twelve Thousand Years 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.hoboes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the ozone layer were to deplete by 16%, which by some estimates is very possible, soy production would fall by 25-30%.
  • Marijuana and Hemp Information 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.bigeye.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hemp has been used by many civilizations, from China to Europe (and later North America) for the last 12,000 years of history.^ The history of hemp is the history of civilization: The first paper, in China, was hemp.
  • Marihuana, The First Twelve Thousand Years 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.hoboes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Patrick Chester - August 15th, 2009 at 12:15 pm Similarly, many atheists, when pressed, use Doughboy logic to defend atheism.
  • Big Hollywood » Blog Archive » Brad Pitt and Atheist Evangelism 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC bighollywood.breitbart.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was through these stories, for instance, that many Europeans learned that the hemp plants that grew wild in their fields were used as medicines by the people of India.
  • Marihuana, The First Twelve Thousand Years 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.hoboes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[80][82]

Recreational use

Comparison of physical harm and dependence regarding various drugs (the British medical journal The Lancet)[83].
.Cannabis is a popular recreational drug around the world, only behind alcohol, caffeine and tobacco.^ Cannabis is a very popular recreational drug.
  • Effects of Cannabis, Cannabis Issues, Cannabis Legalization – Marijuanahydro.com 25 September 2009 15:29 UTC www.marijuanahydro.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Instead of gradually diminishing with time, an animal study showed that longings for the popular recreational drug get worse with time and increase the likelihood of a relapse.
  • DrugSense: Drug Law Reform - Weekly Newsletter 25 September 2009 1:23 UTC www.drugsense.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mbatia J; Jenkins R; Singleton N; White B. Prevalence of alcohol consumption and hazardous drinking, tobacco and drug use in urban Tanzania, and their associated risk factors.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.In the United States alone, it is believed that over 100 million Americans have tried Cannabis, with 25 million Americans using it within the past year.^ It is estimated that about four percent of the world's adult population (162 million) use cannabis annually and 0.6 percent (22.5 million) daily .
  • Jeffrey Dach MD Bio-Identical Hormone Blog: Cannabinoids, Miracle Drug of the 21st Century by Jeffrey Dach MD 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC jeffreydach.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The use of marijuana as a medication has been a politically charged topic in the United States for more than three decades.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Among the notable findings: Illicit drug use concurrent with alcohol use (i.e., during or within 2 hours of last alcohol use) was reported by 5.6% of past month alcohol users in 2006 and 2007; this is equivalent to an estimated 7.1 million persons.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[84]
.The psychoactive effects of Cannabis are known to have a biphasic nature.^ According to the YEP, "new Home Secretary Clarke looks set to restore the B grade after concerns about the effects of a strong form of cannabis known as skunk.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Facts About Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However this does not mean that the psychoactive effects of cannabis are still active in the .
  • Effects of Cannabis, Cannabis Issues, Cannabis Legalization – Marijuanahydro.com 25 September 2009 15:29 UTC www.marijuanahydro.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therapeutic effect of cannabis Perhaps the best known use of cannabis in a therapeutic setting is as an analgesic in the management of cancer pain, post-operative and phantom limb pain.
  • Granny Storm Crow's List- - Cannabis Forums Message Boards - Medical Marijuana, Cannabis Club, Dispensary, News 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC boards.cannabis.com [Source type: Academic]

.Primary psychoactive effects include a state of relaxation, and to a lesser degree, euphoria from its main psychoactive compound, tetrahydrocannabinol.^ Tetrahydrocannabinol (using an older chemical nomenclature), or dronabinol, is the main psychoactive substance in Cannabis plant.
  • Jeffrey Dach MD Bio-Identical Hormone Blog: Cannabinoids, Miracle Drug of the 21st Century by Jeffrey Dach MD 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC jeffreydach.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Other effects include relaxation; euphoria; altered senses; anxiety; disorientation; fatigue; and appetite stimulation.
  • Jeffrey Dach MD Bio-Identical Hormone Blog: Cannabinoids, Miracle Drug of the 21st Century by Jeffrey Dach MD 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC jeffreydach.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Background: Following the discovery of an endogenous cannabinoid system and the identification of specific cannabinoid receptors in the central nervous system, much work has been done to investigate the main effects of these compounds.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.Secondary psychoactive effects, such as a facility for philosophical thinking; introspection and metacognition have been reported, amongst cases of anxiety and paranoia.^ Clinical Studies and Case Reports Acute and subacute bronchial effects of oral cannabinoids.
  • Granny Storm Crow's List- - Cannabis Forums Message Boards - Medical Marijuana, Cannabis Club, Dispensary, News 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC boards.cannabis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Clinical Studies and Case Reports Analgesic effect of the cannabinoid analogue nabilone Clinical Studies and Case Reports The perceived effects of smoked cannabis on patients with multiple sclerosis.
  • Granny Storm Crow's List- - Cannabis Forums Message Boards - Medical Marijuana, Cannabis Club, Dispensary, News 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC boards.cannabis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Clinical Studies and Case Reports The perceived effects of marijuana on spinal cord injured males.
  • Granny Storm Crow's List- - Cannabis Forums Message Boards - Medical Marijuana, Cannabis Club, Dispensary, News 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC boards.cannabis.com [Source type: Academic]

[85] .Finally, the tertiary psychoactive effects of the drug cannabis, can include an increase in heart rate and hunger, believed to be caused by 11-Hydroxy-THC, a psychoactive metabolite of THC produced in the liver.^ And I don't believe cannabis causes chirosis of the liver, either.
  • Cannabis smokers need to be locked up - Telegraph 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ THC Cannabis plants produce psychoactive ingredients called cannabinoids.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The action plan to discourage cannabis use includes elements such as drug prevention campaigns, mass-media anti-drugs campaign, increased treatment efforts to cannabis users, and encouragement of administrative and criminal law enforcement efforts.
  • The DEA Position On Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.justice.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Normal cognition is restored after approximately three hours for larger doses via a smoking pipe, bong or vaporizer.^ Marijuana vaporization is an effective delivery method because it has the rapid action and easy dose adjustment of inhalation, but without the respiratory hazards associated with smoking.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Like a bong, hookah or any glass pipe, the vaporizer holds the vapor or fumes in an enclosure before you inhale.
  • Effects of Cannabis, Cannabis Issues, Cannabis Legalization – Marijuanahydro.com 25 September 2009 15:29 UTC www.marijuanahydro.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Use of vaporizers reduces toxins from cannabis smoke IACM-Bulletin Marijuana Water Pipe and Vaporizer Study Marijuana Water Pipe and Vaporizer Study WILSON'S DISEASE Cannabis sativa and dystonia secondary to Wilson's disease.
  • Granny Storm Crow's List- - Cannabis Forums Message Boards - Medical Marijuana, Cannabis Club, Dispensary, News 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC boards.cannabis.com [Source type: Academic]

[85] .However, if a large amount is taken orally the effects may last much longer.^ Hopefully that won't last too much longer!
  • Do you smoke? [Archive] - Mac Forums 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC forums.macrumors.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lights that are air-cooled (Figure 5.12) tend to last longer and do not heat up your grow area that much.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cloth that hemp makes may be a little less soft than cotton, (though there are also special kinds of hemp, or ways to grow or treat hemp, that can produce a soft cloth) but it is much stronger and longer lasting.
  • Marijuana and Hemp Information 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.bigeye.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After 24 hours to a few days, minuscule psychoactive effects may be felt, depending on dosage, frequency and tolerance to the drug.^ I may be drug tested in a few days.
  • How long does marijuana stay in your system 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC howto.dcrdetox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have to pass a drug test in a few days.
  • Do you smoke? [Archive] - Mac Forums 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC forums.macrumors.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As of yet there is no on the spot breathalyzer test for cannabis use, but there are tests to determine if someone has used cannabis recently, in the last few hours, in the last few days, weeks or months.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Various forms of the drug cannabis exist, including extracts such as hashish and hash oil[3] which, due to appearance, are more susceptible to adulterants when left unregulated.^ Sinsemilla and hash oil are other variants of cannabis.
  • How long does marijuana stay in your system 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC howto.dcrdetox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Progressive, cannabis, drug reform, and more.
  • Email lists, newsgroups. Drug war, cannabis, drug reform, and progressivenews in general. Yahoo Groups, Usenet newsgroups, mailing lists, Listserv,Majordomo, EZ Mailing List Manager, etc.. Archives, too. 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC corporatism.tripod.com [Source type: General]

^ The effects of chronic use of cannabis are more to the point when considering the issues of its status as a possible social drug.
  • Pharmacological Reviews of Marijuana 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.druglibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

.The plant Cannabis sativa is known to cause more of a "high" by stimulating hunger and by producing a rather more comedic, or energetic feeling.^ Sativa: A species of cannabis plant.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Marijuana is a greenish-gray mixture of the dried, shredded leaves, stems, seeds, and flowers of Cannabis sativa, the hemp plant.
  • Dangers of Smoking Marijuana 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC smoking.ygoy.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cannabis sativa: -Long plant, longer time to finish flowering, will give you a happy euphoric high.

.Conversely, the Cannabis indica plant is known to cause more of a "stoned" type of feeling, possibly due to a higher CBD to THC ratio.^ Indica: A species of cannabis plant.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That is why we have different types of cannabis plants.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Is it necessary to plant cannabis indica in Germany?
  • UNODC - Bulletin on Narcotics - 1951 Issue 1 - 006 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC www.unodc.org [Source type: Academic]

[86]
.Cannabidiol (CBD), which has no psychotropic effects by itself [87] (although sometimes showing a small stimulant effect, similar to caffeine), attenuates, or reduces[88] the higher anxiety levels caused by THC alone.^ There is no violence associated with Cannabis use (except for that which is associated with it's illicit supply) and the effect on health is so small it's virtually insignificant for the vast majority of people.
  • Cannabis smokers need to be locked up - Telegraph 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NO, but mental side effects such as depression can be, but only a small percentage of addicts (NOT USERS, BUT ADDICTS) go through this.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ElSohly also claimed that if marijuana were to be approved by FDA using marijuana provided by NIDA, that we would have no trouble just switching to another product with similar THC levels.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

[89]
.According to the UK medical journal The Lancet, Cannabis has a lower rate of dependence compared to both nicotine and alcohol.^ In 1974, her husband read an article in a medical journal that described how positively rats had reacted to cannabis when treated for certain ailments.
  • The Secret to Legal Marijuana? Women | DrugReporter | AlterNet 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ According to a 1999 Institute of Medicine report , the rate at which people who try a substance and go on to become addicted is 32 percent for nicotine, 23 percent for heroin, 17 percent for cocaine, 15 percent for alcohol, and 9 percent for cannabis.
  • The Secret to Legal Marijuana? Women | DrugReporter | AlterNet 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ Typical is a 2004 New Mexico speech in which, according to the Albuquerque Journal , "Walters emphasized that marijuana is a 'gateway drug' that can lead to other chemical dependencies."
  • Why Smoking Marijuana Doesn't Make You a Junkie | DrugReporter | AlterNet 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

[90] .However, everyday use of Cannabis can in some cases, be correlated with some psychological withdrawal symptoms such as irritability, and insomnia[85] and evidence could suggest that; if a user experiences stress, the likeliness of getting a panic attack increases due to an increase of THC metabolites.^ (UK) Cannabis and the experience of getting high.
  • Legalise Cannabis for Medical Use in Canada by Mark x 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.toronto420.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Epidemiological evidence suggests a link between cannabis use and psychosis.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Results suggested that cannabis use expectancies were associated with cannabis use but not symptom variables.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[91][92] .However, any Cannabis withdrawal symptoms are typically mild and are never life-threatening.^ YES. (C) Is cannabis abuse or use life threatening?
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, any addiction can be tough to break depending on its hold on you, so while physically the symptoms of withdrawal may be different, psychologically the differences are similar, and support from different 'abusers' can be effective.
  • Do you smoke? [Archive] - Mac Forums 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC forums.macrumors.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, there is growing evidence that cannabis onset occurs later in life as well and little is known of the risk and protective influences that are associated with late-onset cannabis initiation.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[90]

Medical use

.A synthetic form of the main psychoactive cannabinoid in Cannabis, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), is used as a treatment for a wide range of medical conditions.^ Cannabinoids: The psychoactive compound found in cannabis.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cannabis (marijuana) is among the most widely used of all psychoactive drugs.
  • Jeffrey Dach MD Bio-Identical Hormone Blog: Cannabinoids, Miracle Drug of the 21st Century by Jeffrey Dach MD 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC jeffreydach.com [Source type: Academic]

^ THC Cannabis plants produce psychoactive ingredients called cannabinoids.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the United States, although the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does acknowledge that "there has been considerable interest in its use for the treatment of a number of conditions, including glaucoma, AIDS wasting, neuropathic pain, treatment of spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis, and chemotherapy-induced nausea," the agency has not approved "medical marijuana". There are currently 2 oral forms of cannabis (cannabinoids) available by prescription in the United States for nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy: dronabinol (Marinol) and nabilone (Cesamet).^ The legalization of medical marijuana in Michigan is acknowledged.
  • Michigan CONTACTs, LINKS and More | a Medical Cannabis Resource Center (MERCY) Info page 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC www.mercycenters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dronabinol is currently marketed in the United States for the stimulation of appetite in AIDS patients.
  • Workshop on the Medical Utility of Marijuana 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Michigan VA acknowledges Medical Marijuana .
  • Michigan CONTACTs, LINKS and More | a Medical Cannabis Resource Center (MERCY) Info page 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC www.mercycenters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Dronabinol is also approved for the treatment of anorexia associated with AIDS.[93] The FDA does facilitate scientific investigations into the medical uses of cannabinoids.^ Dronabinol is approved for the treatment of anorexia in patients with AIDS-associated weight loss.
  • Workshop on the Medical Utility of Marijuana 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Clinical Studies and Case Reports Dronabinol in the treatment of agitation in patients with Alzheimer’s disease with anorexia Clinical Studies and Case Reports Cannabis use for chronic non-cancer pain Clinical Studies and Case Reports Tetrahydrocannabinol for treatment of chronic pain Clinical Studies and Case Reports Analgesic effect of the cannabinoid analogue nabilone Clinical Studies and Case Reports The perceived effects of smoked cannabis on patients with multiple sclerosis.
  • Granny Storm Crow's List- - Cannabis Forums Message Boards - Medical Marijuana, Cannabis Club, Dispensary, News 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC boards.cannabis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Clinical Studies and Case Reports Cannabis in painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy Clinical Studies and Case Reports Smoked cannabis therapy for HIV-related painful peripheral neuropathy Clinical Studies and Case Reports Short-term effects of cannabinoids in patients with HIV-1 infection Clinical Studies and Case Reports Dronabinol as a treatment for anorexia associated with weight loss in patients with AIDS. Clinical Studies and Case Reports Effect of dronabinol on nutritional status in HIV infection.
  • Granny Storm Crow's List- - Cannabis Forums Message Boards - Medical Marijuana, Cannabis Club, Dispensary, News 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC boards.cannabis.com [Source type: Academic]

[94]
In a collection of writings on medical marijuana by 45 researchers, a literature review on the medicinal uses of Cannabis and cannabinoids concluded that established uses include easing of nausea and vomiting, anorexia, and weight loss; "well-confirmed effect" was found in the treatment of spasticity, painful conditions (i.e. neurogenic pain), movement disorders, asthma, and glaucoma. Reported but "less-confirmed" effects included treatment of allergies, inflammation, infection, epilepsy, depression, bipolar disorders, anxiety disorder, dependency and withdrawal. .Basic level research was being carried out at the time on autoimmune disease, cancer, neuroprotection, fever, disorders of blood pressure.^ The chemical properties of nanoparticles allow them to attach to disease sites and release the drug that they are carrying at a specific time.

^ Rock out with your cocks out!” (These pronouncements carried the weight of law, since Spears was wearing a police/stripper costume at the time.

^ Subjective, physiological (heart rate, blood pressure, and carbon monoxide levels) and pharmacokinetic effects (plasma THC concentration) were monitored before and at specified time points for 3 h after smoking.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[95 ]
.Clinical trials conducted by the American Marijuana Policy Project, have shown the efficacy of cannabis as a treatment for cancer and AIDS patients, who often suffer from clinical depression, and from nausea and resulting weight loss due to chemotherapy and other aggressive treatments.^ Dronabinol is approved for the treatment of anorexia in patients with AIDS-associated weight loss.
  • Workshop on the Medical Utility of Marijuana 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ This is also the overwhelming consensus of investigators who conduct controlled clinical trials of analgesic efficacy.
  • Workshop on the Medical Utility of Marijuana 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Two years before, the medical-marijuana movement had received a significant public-relations boost in the form of an elderly San Francisco General Hospital volunteer, Mary Jane Rathbun, who'd realized that marijuana eased the suffering of AIDS patients and allowed them to eat.
  • Jeffrey Dach MD Bio-Identical Hormone Blog: Cannabinoids, Miracle Drug of the 21st Century by Jeffrey Dach MD 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC jeffreydach.com [Source type: Academic]

[96] .A synthetic version of the cannabinoid THC named dronabinol has been shown to relieve symptoms of anorexia and reduce agitation in elderly Alzheimer's patients.^ Cannabinoids reduce symptoms of Tourette's syndrom...
  • Granny Storm Crow's List- - Cannabis Forums Message Boards - Medical Marijuana, Cannabis Club, Dispensary, News 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC boards.cannabis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ THC decreased or relieved the symptoms.
  • Workshop on the Medical Utility of Marijuana 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Clinical Studies and Case Reports Dronabinol in the treatment of agitation in patients with Alzheimer’s disease with anorexia Clinical Studies and Case Reports Cannabis use for chronic non-cancer pain Clinical Studies and Case Reports Tetrahydrocannabinol for treatment of chronic pain Clinical Studies and Case Reports Analgesic effect of the cannabinoid analogue nabilone Clinical Studies and Case Reports The perceived effects of smoked cannabis on patients with multiple sclerosis.
  • Granny Storm Crow's List- - Cannabis Forums Message Boards - Medical Marijuana, Cannabis Club, Dispensary, News 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC boards.cannabis.com [Source type: Academic]

[97] .Dronabinol has been approved for use with anorexia in patients with HIV/AIDS and chemotherapy-related nausea.^ Dronabinol is approved for the treatment of anorexia in patients with AIDS-associated weight loss.
  • Workshop on the Medical Utility of Marijuana 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Marinol has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the treatment of anorexia in AIDS patients, as well as for refractory nausea and vomiting of patients undergoing chemotherapy, .
  • Jeffrey Dach MD Bio-Identical Hormone Blog: Cannabinoids, Miracle Drug of the 21st Century by Jeffrey Dach MD 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC jeffreydach.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Clinical Studies and Case Reports Effects of dronabinol on anorexia and disturbed behavior in patients with Alzheimer's disease Clinical Studies and Case Reports Dronabinol as a treatment for anorexia associated with weight loss in patients with AIDS. Clinical Studies and Case Reports Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol for appetite stimulation in cancer-associated anorexia Clinical Studies and Case Reports Effect of dronabinol on nutritional status in HIV infection.
  • Granny Storm Crow's List- - Cannabis Forums Message Boards - Medical Marijuana, Cannabis Club, Dispensary, News 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC boards.cannabis.com [Source type: Academic]

.This drug, while demonstrating the effectiveness of Cannabis at combating several disorders, is more expensive and less available than whole cannabis and has not been shown to be effective or safe.^ Progressive, cannabis, drug reform, and more.
  • Email lists, newsgroups. Drug war, cannabis, drug reform, and progressivenews in general. Yahoo Groups, Usenet newsgroups, mailing lists, Listserv,Majordomo, EZ Mailing List Manager, etc.. Archives, too. 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC corporatism.tripod.com [Source type: General]

^ A 2002 review of seven separate studies involving 7,934 drivers reported, "Crash culpability studies have failed to demonstrate that drivers with cannabinoids in the blood are significantly more likely than drug-free drivers to be culpable in road crashes."
  • American Medical Marijuana Association 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC americanmarijuana.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ State laws are usually less strict, but state mandatory minumum sentences for drugs are getting more popular.
  • Marijuana and Hemp Information 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.bigeye.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[98]
.Glaucoma, a condition of increased pressure within the eyeball causing gradual loss of sight, can be treated with medical marijuana to decrease this intraocular pressure.^ Marijuana can control the eye pressure and keep glaucoma from causing blindness.
  • Marijuana and Hemp Information 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.bigeye.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A search of the medical literature revealed the suggestion that marijuana could indeed return dangerously high intraocular pressures (caused by glaucoma) to normal levels, thereby relieving visual disturbances.
  • Marijuana Books 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.drugwar.com [Source type: General]

^ Background: There are indications that marijuana is increasingly used to alleviate symptoms and for the treatment of a variety of medical conditions both physical and psychological.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

There has been debate for 25 years on the subject. .Some data exist, showing a reduction of IOP in glaucoma patients who smoke cannabis,[99] but the effects are short-lived, and the frequency of doses needed to sustain a decreased IOP can cause systemic toxicity.^ Not the millions of people who smoke cannabis.
  • Cannabis smokers need to be locked up - Telegraph 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A Canadian study showed a decrease in productivity following the smoking of cannabis.
  • Pharmacological Reviews of Marijuana 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.druglibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Data on the effects of cannabis on the female reproductive system are sparse.
  • Pharmacological Reviews of Marijuana 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.druglibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

.There is also some concern over its use since it can also decrease blood flow to the optic nerve.^ The prevalence of cannabis use has actually decreased since the penalties were lowered (although there is unlikely to be any causal connection.
  • Cannabis smokers need to be locked up - Telegraph 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There hasn't been an upward blip (in schizophrenia) of any kind since cannabis use became common in the 1960s and 1970s."
  • Cannabis smokers need to be locked up - Telegraph 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I even used the record for some lip sincing school performances.
  • cannabisnews.com: Priming The Propaganda Mill 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC cannabisnews.com [Source type: General]

.Marijuana lowers IOP by acting on a cannabinoid receptor on the ciliary body called the CB receptor.^ Our data unveiled, for the first time, that TNF- acts as a link between cannabinoid receptor activation and ceramide production.
  • Jeffrey Dach MD Bio-Identical Hormone Blog: Cannabinoids, Miracle Drug of the 21st Century by Jeffrey Dach MD 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC jeffreydach.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The antinociceptive effect of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol in the arthritic rat involves the CB(2) cannabinoid receptor.
  • Granny Storm Crow's List- - Cannabis Forums Message Boards - Medical Marijuana, Cannabis Club, Dispensary, News 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC boards.cannabis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Marijuana plant contains 400 chemicals and 60 of them are cannabinoids, which are psychoactive compounds that are produced inside the body after cannabis is metabolized or is extorted from the cannabis plant.
  • HOW DOES MARIJUANA AFFECT THE BRAIN? | Serendip's Exchange 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC serendip.brynmawr.edu [Source type: Original source]

[100] .Although Cannabis is not a good therapeutic choice for glaucoma patients, it may lead researchers to more effective, safer treatments.^ Marijuana chemical may treat depression Marijuana chemical may treat depression Therapeutic Aspects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids ROBSON: Br J Psychiatry, Volume 178().February 2001.107-115 Treating depression with cannabinoids Internationale Arbeitsgemeinschaft Cannabis als Medizin Animal research highlights a therapeutic potential of cannabinoids for the treatment of depression Internationale Arbeitsgemeinschaft Cannabis als Medizin DERMATITIS Efficacy of dietary hempseed oil in patients with atopic dermatitis.
  • Granny Storm Crow's List- - Cannabis Forums Message Boards - Medical Marijuana, Cannabis Club, Dispensary, News 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC boards.cannabis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some believe that the Netherlands is a good example of how cannabis tolerance leads to an increase in crime.
  • Effects of Cannabis, Cannabis Issues, Cannabis Legalization – Marijuanahydro.com 25 September 2009 15:29 UTC www.marijuanahydro.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The concept that cannabis decriminalization or legalization will lead to more (or less) children using cannabis is flawed.
  • Effects of Cannabis, Cannabis Issues, Cannabis Legalization – Marijuanahydro.com 25 September 2009 15:29 UTC www.marijuanahydro.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A promising study shows that agents targeted to ocular CB receptors can reduce IOP in glaucoma patients who have failed other therapies.^ She had spent the morning with a patient who was anxious about his radiation therapy.
  • The Secret to Legal Marijuana? Women | DrugReporter | AlterNet 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ The very same study could be used to show that current, heavy users of marijuana and other illegal drugs were actually more successful.
  • Marijuana and Hemp Information 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.bigeye.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Studies in the early 1970s showed that marijuana, when smoked, lowers intraocular pressure in people with normal pressure and those with glaucoma.
  • Workshop on the Medical Utility of Marijuana 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[101]
.Medical cannabis is also used for analgesia, or pain relief.^ See more stories tagged with: women , marijuana , drug reform , drug policy , pot , weed , substance use , medical cannabis .
  • The Secret to Legal Marijuana? Women | DrugReporter | AlterNet 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ Medical Cannabis was used extensively in the medieval Islamic World 8th century to 18th century.
  • Jeffrey Dach MD Bio-Identical Hormone Blog: Cannabinoids, Miracle Drug of the 21st Century by Jeffrey Dach MD 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC jeffreydach.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Medical doctors are not informed clearly about the use and abuse of cannabis.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is also reported to be beneficial for treating certain neurological illnesses such as epilepsy, and bipolar disorder.^ Addiction is an illness as damaging to society as infectious TB, and should be treated as such.
  • Cannabis smokers need to be locked up - Telegraph 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[102] .Case reports have found that Cannabis can relieve tics in people with obsessive compulsive disorder and Tourette syndrome.^ Authors' conclusions: Not enough evidence to support the use of cannabinoids in treating tics and obsessive compulsive behaviour in people with Tourette's syndrome.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Clinical Studies and Case Reports Comparison of orally administered cannabis extract and delta-9-THC Unbound MEDLINE .
  • Granny Storm Crow's List- - Cannabis Forums Message Boards - Medical Marijuana, Cannabis Club, Dispensary, News 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC boards.cannabis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ July 28, 2007 at 06:01 AM Report this comment Interesing that you suggest that people get mugged to buy cannabis.
  • Cannabis smokers need to be locked up - Telegraph 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Patients treated with tetrahydrocannabinol, the main psychoactive chemical found in Cannabis, reported a significant decrease in both motor and vocal tics, some of 50% or more.^ Cannabinoids: The psychoactive compound found in cannabis.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cannabinoids are the chemicals in cannabis which are psychoactive.
  • Marihuana, The First Twelve Thousand Years 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.hoboes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tetrahydrocannabinol (using an older chemical nomenclature), or dronabinol, is the main psychoactive substance in Cannabis plant.
  • Jeffrey Dach MD Bio-Identical Hormone Blog: Cannabinoids, Miracle Drug of the 21st Century by Jeffrey Dach MD 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC jeffreydach.com [Source type: Academic]

[103][104][105] Some decrease in obsessive-compulsive behavior was also found.[103] .A recent study has also concluded that cannabinoids found in Cannabis might have the ability to prevent Alzheimer's disease.^ Cannabinoids: The psychoactive compound found in cannabis.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, two early studies suggested that T-lymphocytes might be decreased in number as well as in ability to respond to an immunologic challenge.
  • Pharmacological Reviews of Marijuana 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.druglibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Recent studies have also shown that cannabinoids may have more specific effects in interrupting the pathological process in Alzheimer's disease.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[106] THC has been shown to reduce arterial blockages.[107]
.Another potential use for medical cannabis is movement disorders.^ The thing to note is that the majority of people who use cannabis will never do another illegal drug.
  • Effects of Cannabis, Cannabis Issues, Cannabis Legalization – Marijuanahydro.com 25 September 2009 15:29 UTC www.marijuanahydro.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ See more stories tagged with: women , marijuana , drug reform , drug policy , pot , weed , substance use , medical cannabis .
  • The Secret to Legal Marijuana? Women | DrugReporter | AlterNet 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press] theories of domination and oppression to examine the rise of community-base medical cannabis dispensaries as "new social movements".
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.Cannabis is frequently reported to reduce the muscle spasms associated with multiple sclerosis; this has been acknowledged by the Institute of Medicine, but it noted that these abundant anecdotal reports are not well-supported by clinical data.^ Persistent muscle spasms, including but not limited to spasms caused by multiple sclerosis.
  • MERCY - the Medical Cannabis Resource Center | MercyCenters.org 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mercycenters.org [Source type: General]

^ Clinical Studies and Case Reports Marihuana as a therapeutic agent for muscle spasm or spasticity Clinical Studies and Case Reports Cannabis-based medicine in spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis.
  • Granny Storm Crow's List- - Cannabis Forums Message Boards - Medical Marijuana, Cannabis Club, Dispensary, News 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC boards.cannabis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These results range from anecdotal reports to surveys and clinical trials.
  • Workshop on the Medical Utility of Marijuana 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Evidence from animal studies suggests that there is a possible role for cannabinoids in the treatment of certain types of epileptic seizures.^ Preclinical evidence suggests a possible role for cannabinoids in the treatment of the epilepsies, particularly generalized and partial tonic-clonic seizures.
  • Workshop on the Medical Utility of Marijuana 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It is interesting that no study in man or animals ever revealed any evidence for "reverse tolerance" or sensitization, such as had been reported in an early, rather naive clinical study of marijuana (176).
  • Pharmacological Reviews of Marijuana 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.druglibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Clinical Studies and Case Reports Orally and rectally administered delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on spasticity Clinical Studies and Case Reports Nabilone in the treatment of multiple sclerosis Clinical Studies and Case Reports Effect of cannabinoids on spasticity and ataxia in multiple sclerosis.
  • Granny Storm Crow's List- - Cannabis Forums Message Boards - Medical Marijuana, Cannabis Club, Dispensary, News 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC boards.cannabis.com [Source type: Academic]

[108] .A synthetic version of the major active compound in Cannabis, THC, is available in capsule form as the prescription drug dronabinol (Marinol) in many countries.^ A synthetic form of marijuana's active ingredient has been made into a prescription drug, Marinol.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Central to the current debate about the therapeutic uses of marijuana is the claim that smoked marijuana offers therapeutic advantages over the currently available oral form (dronabinol capsules) of its most active ingredient, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol ( 9 -THC), for a wide variety of conditions.
  • Workshop on the Medical Utility of Marijuana 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The thing to note is that the majority of people who use cannabis will never do another illegal drug.
  • Effects of Cannabis, Cannabis Issues, Cannabis Legalization – Marijuanahydro.com 25 September 2009 15:29 UTC www.marijuanahydro.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The prescription drug Sativex, an extract of cannabis administered as a sublingual spray, has been approved in Canada for the treatment of multiple sclerosis.^ Sativex approved in Canada.
  • Jeffrey Dach MD Bio-Identical Hormone Blog: Cannabinoids, Miracle Drug of the 21st Century by Jeffrey Dach MD 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC jeffreydach.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Clinical Studies and Case Reports Do cannabis-based medicinal extracts have general or specific effects Clinical Studies and Case Reports Efficacy, safety and tolerability of an oral cannabis extract in the treatment of spasticity Clinical Studies and Case Reports Cannabis-based extracts for bladder dysfunction in advanced multiple sclerosis.
  • Granny Storm Crow's List- - Cannabis Forums Message Boards - Medical Marijuana, Cannabis Club, Dispensary, News 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC boards.cannabis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Sativex is a whole cannabis plant extract, mouth spray approved for multiple sclerosis patients to alleviate neuropathic pain and muscle spasticity.
  • Jeffrey Dach MD Bio-Identical Hormone Blog: Cannabinoids, Miracle Drug of the 21st Century by Jeffrey Dach MD 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC jeffreydach.com [Source type: Academic]

[109]

Religious use

.Cannabis is first referred to in Hindu Vedas between 2000 and 1400 BCE, in the Atharvaveda.^ Aim: To assess the association between first reactions to cannabis and the risk of cannabis dependence.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1903, the British physician Dr Creighton was the first to determine that several references to cannabis can be found in the Old Testament.
  • Jesus 'healed using cannabis' [Archive] - Debate Both Sides 25 September 2009 15:29 UTC www.debatebothsides.com [Source type: Original source]

.By the 10 century CE, it was being referred to in India as "food of the gods".[110] Cannabis use eventually became a ritual part of the Hindu festival of Holi.^ Cannabis use should contribute to, rather than detract from, users' health, well-being, creativity, work, relationships, and social obligations.
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy: Facts About Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Medical Cannabis was used extensively in the medieval Islamic World 8th century to 18th century.
  • Jeffrey Dach MD Bio-Identical Hormone Blog: Cannabinoids, Miracle Drug of the 21st Century by Jeffrey Dach MD 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC jeffreydach.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If the law really was being enforced properly, I suspect middle class use of cannabis would fall, as the middle class still regards a criminal record as a stigma.
  • Cannabis smokers need to be locked up - Telegraph 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Buddhism, cannabis has been used in meditation and regarded as a holy plant since 500 BCE.[111] Shamanic use of Cannabis in China has been dated to at least 1000 BCE.[112] In ancient Germanic culture, Cannabis was associated with the Norse love goddess, Freya.^ I have used cannabis ever since.
  • Granny Storm Crow's List- - Cannabis Forums Message Boards - Medical Marijuana, Cannabis Club, Dispensary, News 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC boards.cannabis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The prevalence of cannabis use has actually decreased since the penalties were lowered (although there is unlikely to be any causal connection.
  • Cannabis smokers need to be locked up - Telegraph 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tetrahydrocannabinol (using an older chemical nomenclature), or dronabinol, is the main psychoactive substance in Cannabis plant.
  • Jeffrey Dach MD Bio-Identical Hormone Blog: Cannabinoids, Miracle Drug of the 21st Century by Jeffrey Dach MD 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC jeffreydach.com [Source type: Academic]

[113][114] .An anointing oil mentioned in Exodus is, by some translators, said to contain Cannabis.^ Indeed, Bennett goes so far as to say that Jesus was probably not born the messiah but acquired the title when he was anointed with cannabis oil by John the Baptist.
  • Jesus 'healed using cannabis' [Archive] - Debate Both Sides 25 September 2009 15:29 UTC www.debatebothsides.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Kuni 01-23-2006, 09:23 PM what is important is what the ORIGINAL text said, in the ORIGINAL language in which it was written.It was thought until recently that cannabis was not mentioned in the Bible.
  • Jesus 'healed using cannabis' [Archive] - Debate Both Sides 25 September 2009 15:29 UTC www.debatebothsides.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The book contains lots of information with regards to the inaccuracies of some pseudo-scientific approaches to cannabis prohibition.
  • Effects of Cannabis, Cannabis Issues, Cannabis Legalization – Marijuanahydro.com 25 September 2009 15:29 UTC www.marijuanahydro.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[115] Sufis have used Cannabis in a spiritual context since the thirteenth century CE.[116]
In modern times the Rastafari movement has embraced Cannabis as a sacrament.[117] .Elders of the modern religious movement known as the Ethiopian Zion Coptic Church consider Cannabis to be the Eucharist, claiming it as an oral tradition from Ethiopia dating back to the time of Christ, even though the movement was founded in the United States in 1975 and has no ties to either Ethiopia or the Coptic Church.^ Religious communities United States.

^ It is known that the fiber of hemp-plant, *Cannabis sativa*, was used for cordage in ancient times; and it is therefore probable that the resinous exudation, "honey" or "dew", which is found upon its flowering tops on some soils, or in certain climates (*Cannabis Indica*), was known for its stimulant or intoxicant properties from an equally early date...we may assume it to have been traditional among the Semites from remote antiquity.
  • Jesus 'healed using cannabis' [Archive] - Debate Both Sides 25 September 2009 15:29 UTC www.debatebothsides.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1995, with the publication of Green Gold, the biblical references to cannabis were given their most thorough examination up to that time, but unfortunately this information is still not widely known by most modern day Jews, Christians or religious scholars.
  • Jesus 'healed using cannabis' [Archive] - Debate Both Sides 25 September 2009 15:29 UTC www.debatebothsides.com [Source type: Original source]

[118] .Like the Rastafari, some modern Gnostic Christian sects have asserted that Cannabis is the Tree of Life.^ I would suggest that is almost certainly true, and that like a lot of legitimate medicine, cannabis does give some relief from their mental problems.
  • Cannabis smokers need to be locked up - Telegraph 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Babies that are born to cannabis-using mothers may have some abnormalities like being small, hyperactive and show certain types of behavioral problems.
  • Effects of Cannabis, Cannabis Issues, Cannabis Legalization – Marijuanahydro.com 25 September 2009 15:29 UTC www.marijuanahydro.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some people like to clean the roots, but I would not recommend it for cannabis.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[119][120] .Other organized religions founded in the 20th century that treat Cannabis as a sacrament are the THC Ministry,[121] the Way of Infinite Harmony, Cantheism,[122] the Cannabis Assembly[123] and the Church of Cognizance.^ Fax: (916)266-7455 * or Visit: www.compassionatecoalition.org/forum The Amsterdam THC Ministry, First Universal Church of Kantheism, is based on ancient wisdom, modern science and the enlightening and healing properties of the cannabis sacrament.
  • Michigan CONTACTs, LINKS and More | a Medical Cannabis Resource Center (MERCY) Info page 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC www.mercycenters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ THC, the main psychoactive chemical found in cannabis, is soluble in non-polar liquids.
  • the Lycaeum - Marijuana Cookbook 11 September 2009 8:12 UTC www.lycaeum.org [Source type: General]

^ MACLAGAN, H.: Extract of Cannabis indica, American Druggist, New York, 1884, 13, pages 121-122.
  • UNODC - Bulletin on Narcotics - 1951 Issue 1 - 006 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC www.unodc.org [Source type: Academic]

Aspects of Cannabis production and use

.
Cannabis field seized by authorities.

See also

References

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  95. ^ Grotenhermen, F.; Russo, E. (2002). "Chapter 11, Review of therapeutic effects". Cannabis and cannabinoids: pharmacology, toxicology, and therapeutic potential. Haworth Press. p. 123. ISBN 0789015080. http://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en. Retrieved 2009-05-18.  
  96. ^ Low-Dose Pot Eases Pain While Keeping Mind Clear.
  97. ^ "Cannabis lifts Alzheimer appetite". BBC. 21 August 2003. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/3169901.stm. Retrieved 2007-09-15.  
  98. ^ Greenberg, Gary (2005-11-01). "Respectable Reefer". Mother Jones. http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2005/11/respectable-reefer?page=3. Retrieved 2007-04-03.  
  99. ^ Merritt JC, Crawford WJ, Alexander PC, Anduze AL, Gelbart SS (March 1980). "Effect of marihuana on intraocular and blood pressure in glaucoma". Ophthalmology 87 (3): 222–8. PMID 7053160.  
  100. ^ Goldberg J, Flowerdew G, Smith E, Brody JA, Tso MO (October 1988). "Factors associated with age-related macular degeneration. An analysis of data from the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey". Am. J. Epidemiol. 128 (4): 700–10. PMID 3421236. http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/128/4/700.  
  101. ^ Porcella A, Maxia C, Gessa GL, Pani L. (2001). "The synthetic cannabinoid WIN55212-2 decreases the intraocular pressure in human glaucoma resistant to conventional therapies". Eur J Neurosci 13 (13): 409–12. doi:10.1046/j.0953-816X.2000.01401.x.  
  102. ^ "Review of Therapeutic Effects". http://www.medboardwatch.com/wb/pages/therapeutic-effects.php. Retrieved 2007-08-20.  
  103. ^ a b K.R. Muller, U. Schneider, H. Kolbe, H.M. Emrich (1999). "Treatment of Tourette's Syndrome With Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol". American Journal of Psychiatry 156 (3). http://www.marijuana.org/AmJoPsychMarch99.html. Retrieved 2007-09-15.  
  104. ^ K.R. Muller, U. Schneider, A. Koblenz, M. Jöbges, H. Kolbe, T. Daldrup, H.M. Emrich (2002). "Treatment of Tourette's Syndrome with Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC): A Randomized Crossover Trial". Pharmacopsychiatry 35 (2): 57. doi:10.1055/s-2002-25028. http://www.thieme-connect.com/ejournals/abstract/pharmaco/doi/10.1055/s-2002-25028. Retrieved 2007-09-15.  
  105. ^ R. Sandyk, G. Awerbuch (1988). "Marijuana and Tourette's Syndrome". Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 8 (6): 444. doi:10.1097/00004714-198812000-00021. http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/hemp/medical/mjtouret.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-15.  
  106. ^ Ramíirez, B. G., C. Blázquez, T. Gómez del Pulgar, M. Guzmán, and M. L. de Ceballos (2005). "Prevention of Alzheimer's disease pathology by cannabinoids: neuroprotection mediated by blockade of microglial activation". Journal of Neuroscience 25 (8^): 1904–1913. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4540-04.2005. PMID 15728830. http://www.jneurosci.org/cgi/content/abstract/25/8/1904. Retrieved 2007-02-27.  
  107. ^ Steffens S, Veillard NR, Arnaud C, et al. (April 2005). "Low dose oral cannabinoid therapy reduces progression of atherosclerosis in mice". Nature 434 (7034): 782–6. doi:10.1038/nature03389. PMID 15815632.  
  108. ^ Randall, Blanchard (1992). Medical use of marijuana policy and regulatory issues. Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress. OCLC 29975643.  
  109. ^ Koch, W. (2005-06-23). "Spray alternative to pot on the market in Canada". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/2005-06-23-pot-spray_x.htm. Retrieved 2007-02-27.  
  110. ^ Abel, Ernest L. (1980). "Marijuana - The First Twelve Thousand Years". http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/hemp/history/first12000/1.htm.   Chapter 1: Cannabis in the Ancient World. India: The First Marijuana-Oriented Culture.
  111. ^ Herer, Jack (1985). The Emperor Wears No Clothes. Ah Ha Publishing. http://www.jackherer.com/chapter10.html.   Chapter 10.
  112. ^ "Perforated skulls provide evidence of craniotomy in ancient China". China Economic Net. 2007-01-26. http://en.ce.cn/National/culture/200701/26/t20070126_10220745.shtml.  
  113. ^ Pilcher, Tim (2005). Spliffs 3: The Last Word in Cannabis Culture?. Collins & Brown Publishers. p. 34. ISBN 1843403102.   ISBN 9781843403104.
  114. ^ Vindheim, Jan Bojer. "The History of Hemp in Norway". The Journal of Industrial Hemp. International Hemp Association. http://www.vindheim.net/hamp/hemp.html.  
  115. ^ Kaplan, Aryeh (1981). The Living Torah. New York. p. 442.  
  116. ^ Ernest, Abel (1979). A Comprehensive Guide to Cannabis Literature. Greenwood Press. p. 14. ISBN 0313207216.   ISBN 9780313207211.
  117. ^ Joseph Owens (1982). Dread, The Rastafarians of Jamaica. London: Heinemann. ISBN 0-4359-8650-3.  
  118. ^ The Ethiopian Zion Coptic Church. "Marijuana and the Bible". Schaffer Library of Drug Policy. http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/hemp/potbible.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-13.  
  119. ^ "Zion Light Ministry". http://rastafari.tribe.net/thread/0838144c-cce9-45ac-982b-5f0e5fccd07d. Retrieved 2007-08-20.  
  120. ^ Chris Bennett, Lynn & Osburn, Judy Osburn (1938). Green Gold: the Tree of LifeMarijuana in Magic & Religion. Access Unlimited. p. 418. ISBN 0-9629-8722-0.  
  121. ^ "The Hawai'i Cannabis Ministry". http://www.thc-ministry.org/. Retrieved 2007-09-13.  
  122. ^ "Cantheism". http://www.ebeneezer.net/ritual/vegetable/offsite/Cantheist.html. Retrieved 2007-09-13.  
  123. ^ "Cannabis Assembly". http://www.cannabisassembly.org/. Retrieved 2007-09-13.  

Further reading

.
  • Cannabis: A History (2005) Martin Booth ISBN 0-312-32220-8
  • UNODC: World Drug Report 2006, Chapter 2: Cannabis: Why We Should Care (2006)
  • EMCDDA drugs profile: Cannabis (2007)
  • Herer, Jack.^ History of Marijuana, Legalization Movments, Politics, Racism, http://www.jackherer.com/chapters.html The emperor wears no clothes, Jack Herer.
    • Jeffrey Dach MD Bio-Identical Hormone Blog: Cannabinoids, Miracle Drug of the 21st Century by Jeffrey Dach MD 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC jeffreydach.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Shard~ Mar 26, 2006, 10:02 PM IMO, all drugs should be legal.
    • Do you smoke? [Archive] - Mac Forums 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC forums.macrumors.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ July 28, 2007 at 02:20 PM Report this comment Why anyone should be surprised with Heffer's opinions I don't know?
    • Cannabis smokers need to be locked up - Telegraph 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The Emperor Wears No Clothes: The Authoritative Historical Record of Cannabis and the Conspiracy Against Marijuana.^ The purpose of this book is to revive the authoritative historical, social and economic perspective needed to ensure comprehensive legal reforms, abolish cannabis hemp/ marijuana prohibition laws and save the earth's life systems.
    • Marijuana Books 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.drugwar.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Marijuana Delivery Service submit review no info available Redondo Beach, California Marijuana Delivery Service Redondo Beach Cannabis Club Reviews .
    • Los Angeles Cannabis Club Directory: Medical Marijuana Dispensaries and Coops 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.losangelescannabisclubs.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The Emperor Wears No Clothes .
    • Marijuana Books 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.drugwar.com [Source type: General]

    Ah Ha Publishing Company, 2000. ISBN 1-878125-02-8
  • Herer, Jack. Internet edition of The Emperor Wears No Clothes

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

.Cannabis is a genus of flowering plant believed to be indigenous to Central Asia, China, and the north-west Himalayas.^ Rolling off the great crest of the Himalayas to the west and to the north are an apex of mountainous zones that define the northern borders of Afghanistan and Pakistan.
  • Strains of Yesteryear | Cannabis Culture Magazine 15 September 2009 22:49 UTC www.cannabisculture.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Marijuana is a greenish-gray mixture of the dried, shredded leaves, stems, seeds, and flowers of Cannabis sativa, the hemp plant.
  • Dangers of Smoking Marijuana 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC smoking.ygoy.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (Originally marijuana was the Mexican slang word for the smoking preparation of dried leaves and flowering tops of the Cannabis sativa plant--the indigenous variety of the hemp plant.
  • HEMP, THE PLANT THAT CAN SAVE MOTHER EARTH, Footnote 9 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC www.ratical.org [Source type: Academic]

.The common name for Cannabis is hemp, although this term is sometimes used to refer only to strains cultivated for "industrial" (non-drug) use.^ Although Medical Cannabis had been in use for ...
  • Asthma CONTACTs, LINKS and More | a Medical Cannabis Resource Center (MERCY) Info page 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC www.mercycenters.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Herb: Another term used loosely to refer to cannabis.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ C. The use of cannabis drugs in India.
  • Wootton Report BIBLIOGRAPHY 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC www.drugtext.org [Source type: Academic]

.Cannabis plants produce a unique family of compounds called cannabinoids, several of which produce mental and/or physiological effects when consumed.^ Cannabis is the only plant genus that contains the unique class of molecular compounds called cannabinoids.
  • Hemp and Marijuana: Myths & Realities from NAIHC 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC naihc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • HEMP AND MARIJUANA: Myths and Realities 15 January 2010 6:20 UTC www.naihc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cannabinoids: The psychoactive compound found in cannabis.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cannabis plants produce a unique family of terpeno-phenolic compounds called cannabinoids, which produce the "high" one experiences from smoking marijuana.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

.The drug usually comes in the form of dried flowers and leaves (marijuana), resin (hashish), or various extracts.^ As a drug it usually comes in the form of dried flower buds ( marijuana ), resin ( hashish ), or various extracts collectively known as hashish oil .
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Psychoactive potency by cannabis plant part is approximately as follows (descending order):[8] Trichomes Female flowering buds Male flowering buds New shoots Leaves from flower buds Leaves in ascending order of size Stems of leaves (petioles) in ascending order of size Stems in ascending order of size Roots and seeds Hashish Hashish Hashish (pressed keif) or charas: a concentrated resin composed of heated glandular trichomes that have been physically extracted,[9] usually by rubbing, sifting, or with ice.
  • Marijuana - un knol de Justin 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Marijuana is a greenish-gray mixture of the dried, shredded leaves, stems, seeds, and flowers of Cannabis sativa, the hemp plant.
  • Dangers of Smoking Marijuana 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC smoking.ygoy.com [Source type: Original source]

.The cultivation or possession of Cannabis for drug purposes is outlawed in most countries.^ The cultivation and possession of Cannabis for recreational use is outlawed in most countries.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In the early 20th century, it became illegal in most of the world to cultivate or possess Cannabis for drug purposes.
  • About Cannabis 20 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.thcexpo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is an offence under the Mis-use of Drugs Act 1974 to Cultivate any plant of the Genus Cannabis within the UK. We only sell marijuana seeds as souvenirs.
  • Marijuana seeds from 420-The best quality F1 Marijuana seeds 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC 420-seeds.com [Source type: General]

.In Australia each state has different rules for the amount of marijuana you can possess before facing criminal charges.^ Last August, Diego Alvarez was arrested in Avon on charges of felony cultivation of marijuana and felony possession of more than eight ounces of marijuana in a bust that made news throughout the state .
  • Denver News - The Latest Word - "Marijuana" Archives 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC blogs.westword.com [Source type: General]

^ Any ordinance that restricts possession amounts to below state levels is not valid according to SB 420.
  • Police took my Ounce. - Cannabis Forums Message Boards - Medical Marijuana, Cannabis Club, Dispensary, News 25 September 2009 1:23 UTC boards.cannabis.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Not only have these states and cities removed criminal sanctions for personal amounts of marijuana, studies show a significant savings in taxpayer dollars and law enforcement hours spent on cases.

Sourced

.
  • Make the most of the Indian hemp seed, and sow it everywhere!^ "Make the most of the Indian Hemp Seed and sow it every where."
    • Granny Storm Crow's List- - Cannabis Forums Message Boards - Medical Marijuana, Cannabis Club, Dispensary, News 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC boards.cannabis.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ At the very least, this makes hemp seed a step up from soy.

    ^ Hemp oil contains the most EFAs of any nut or seed oil, with the omega-3 and omega-6 EFAs occurring in the nutritionally optimal 1:3 ratio.
    • Hemp 15 January 2010 6:20 UTC www.dpeg.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    • George Washington in a note to his gardener at Mount Vernon (1794), The Writings of George Washington, Volume 33, page 270 (Library of Congress)
    • Washington also recorded his concern that the male and female plants be separated:
May 12-13 1765: Sowed Hemp at Muddy hole by Swamp.
August 7, 1765: —began to seperate (sic) the Male from the Female Hemp at Do —rather too late.
Some assert his interest in separating the male and female plants is an indication that he may have used Indian hemp medicinally to treat his chronic tooth aches. Others note that fiber of the male and female hemp plants have a different optimum harvest times.

External links

Wiktionary-logo-en.png
Look up cannabis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also cannabis

German

Wikipedia-logo.png
German Wikipedia has an article on:
Cannabis
Wikipedia de

Noun

Cannabis m.
  1. cannabis.

Synonyms


Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Taxonavigation

Classification System: APG II (down to family level)
Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiospermae
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids I
Ordo: Rosales
Familia: Cannabaceae
Genus: Cannabis
Species: C. sativa - C. indica - C. ruderalis

Vernacular names

English: Hemp
‪Norsk (bokmål)‬: Hamp
Română: Cânepă
Svenska: Hampor

Simple English

Cannabis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Rosales
Family: Cannabaceae
Genus: Cannabis
L.
Species

Cannabis sativa L.
Cannabis indica Lam.
Cannabis ruderalis Janisch.

Cannabis (pronounced IPA: ['kan.nə.bıs]) (also called Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, or marijuana) is a plant. The cannabis plant's flowers contain a chemical or drug known as THC (short for tetra-hydro-cannabinol). Smoking or eating the flower can make a person feel good (euphoria) or have creative ideas. Marijuana is treated as an illegal drug in many countries, but some countries allow it to be used as medicine when people have certain medical conditions.

Contents

Ancient history

Scientists believe that marijuana first grew somewhere in the Himalayas.[1] Evidence of smoking of marijuana goes as far back as prehistory, where burnt hemp seeds were found at a burial site in present day Romania.[2] The most famous users of cannabis were the ancient Hindus, who called it ganjika in Sanskrit (ganja in modern Indian languages).[3] According to legend, the Indian god, Shiva, told his followers to worship the plant. The ancient drug soma was sometimes associated with marijuana. People in the Persian Empire (what is now Iran) would light giant campfires made of marijuana, exposing themselves and their neighbors to the smoke. The ceremony was known as the booz-rooz.[4]

Marijuana was also known in ancient Greece, where magicians would burn its flowers in order to cause people strange thoughts. The cult of Dionysus, which is believed to have begun in ancient Greece, is also believed to have involved inhaling marijuana smoke.[5]

Effects

When a person breathes in the marijuana smoke or eats it, he or she may get a feeling called "getting high" or "getting stoned". The most common effects of the drug include feeling happy, relaxed, tired, silly or scared, having many ideas what to do or not being able to think clearly (or remember some things at all), and getting hungry. Smoking marijuana changes how people think and feel, making it either harder or easier to solve some problems. Some people who take marijuana feel strange or paranoid (worried that something bad is going to happen).

When people smoke or eat cannabis, they often get hungry, because cannabis increases a person's appetite for food. The slang term for this effect is "the munchies." Since hashish (dried resin) is much more concentrated than marijuana (includes leaves and flowers), people who take large amounts of hashish may feel even stronger effects. They may also hear strange sounds, or have visions or thoughts called hallucinations. Some hashish users like the feeling of these visions and thoughts, while others may find them scary; however, hallucinations after smoking or eating cannabis are rare.

Hazards of cannabis

Marijuana is one of the least dangerous of the illegal drugs that are commonly used. It is almost impossible to overdose on cannabis.[6][7][8]

A person who is intoxicated ("high" or "stoned") from marijuana when they drive a car could get hurt or killed in an accident. While the responsible choice is not to drive under the influence of any intoxicant, the chances of getting into an accident while "stoned" are less likely than while "drunk".[9]

Smoking marijuana for a long time, even when it is used a lot, has not been shown to cause cancer to the lungs.[10][11]

"Hard drugs", such as heroin, meth and cocaine are chemically addictive. This means that if a person starts taking heroin, crack, or cocaine, that persons body will physically need to keep taking the drug, to stop use may cause them to become sick. Marijuana and hashish is not chemically addictive, but as with any thing else, it can be psychologically or wikt:habitually addictive, meaning people can get so used to it, they feel as if they need it. Unlike with alcohol, tobacco, and hard drugs, people who use marijuana can stop taking it when they want, while experiencing only minor withdrawal symptoms.

It is a common belief that people who use marijuana are less interested in life and may not want to go to school or work ("amotivational syndrome"). However, many reports show that people who use marijuana do just as well as or even better than people who do not.[12][13]

References

  1. Marijuana and the Cannabinoids", ElSohly(p.8)
  2. Rudgley, Richard (1998). Lost Civilisations of the Stone Age. New York: Free Press. ISBN 0-684-85580-1.
  3. Miller, Ga (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica. 34 (11th ed.). 761–762. doi:10.1126/science.34.883.761
  4. Ibn Taymiyya (2001). Le haschich et l'extase. Beyrouth: Albouraq. ISBN 2-8416-1174-4
  5. Miller, Ga (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica. 34 (11th ed.). 761–762. doi:10.1126/science.34.883.761
  6. "Health Education | Marijuana". http://www.brown.edu/Student_Services/Health_Services/Health_Education/atod/marijuana.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-29. 
  7. "Medical Marijuana Keystone Document". http://www.fcda.org/judge.young.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-29. 
  8. "How Marijuana Can Kill You: Why a Cannabis Overdose is Impossible". http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/827177/how_marijuana_can_kill_you_why_a_cannabis.html. Retrieved 2009-03-29. 
  9. Moskowitz, Herbert; Robert Petersen (1982). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Marijuana and Driving: A Review"]. American Council for Drug Education. 
  10. Turner, Carlton E. The Marijuana Controversy. Rockville: American Council for Drug Education, 1981.
  11. [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Deglamorising cannabis"]. The Lancet 346. November 1995. 
  12. Himmelstein, J.L. (1983). The Strange Career of Marihuana: Politics and Ideology of Drug Control in America.. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0313235171. 
  13. Pope, H.G. et al., “Drug Use and Life Style Among College Undergraduates in 1989: A Comparison With 1969 and 1978,” American Journal of Psychiatry 147 (1990): 998-1001.

koi:Пыш


mrj:Кӹне


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 24, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Hemp, which are similar to those in the above article.








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