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Cannabis
.Dried flowers from the Cannabis sativa plant.^ Sativa: A species of cannabis plant.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From its vegetative cycle to its flowering cycle the cannabis plant develops in three most noticeable sections.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A. "Marijuana" refers to the dried leaves and flowers of the cannabis plant [1], which contain the non-narcotic chemical THC at various potencies.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Note the visible trichomes (commonly known as "crystals"), which contain large quantities of THC, CBD and other cannabinoids.^ THC quantities on the other hand are.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It does not produce large quantities of THC, nor does it flower like the other varieties.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is known that the bulbous glands on the leaves produce cannabinoids and so does the stem, but these are only in minor quantities compared to the stalked capitate trichomes.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Phylum: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Rosales
Family: Cannabaceae
Genus: Cannabis
Species: C. sativa
Binomial name
Cannabis sativa L.[1]
Cannabis indica Lam. (putative)[1]
.Cannabis, also known as marijuana[2], marihuana,[3] and ganja (from Sanskrit: गांजा gañjā, meaning "hemp"), among many other namesa[›], refers to any number of preparations of the Cannabis plant intended for use as a psychoactive drug.^ The homogeneity test of variance showed consistent protective effects of religiosity on four types of substance use, namely, alcohol, cigarette, marijuana, and other illicit drugs.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Using the Horn Drug Interaction Probability Scale, our patient's warfarin-marijuana interaction appeared to be probable.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Many other drugs reside in our system for a short stint of time.
  • How long does marijuana stay in your system 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC howto.dcrdetox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The most common form of cannabis used as a drug is the dried herbal form.^ Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug worldwide.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Nowadays, cannabis is the most widely used illegal drug in France.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The effects of chronic use of cannabis are more to the point when considering the issues of its status as a possible social drug.
  • Pharmacological Reviews of Marijuana 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.druglibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

.The typical herbal form of cannabis consists of the flowers and subtending leaves and stalks of mature pistillate or female plants.^ Hermaphrodite: A trait of a plant where both the male and female flowers are located on the same plant.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From its vegetative cycle to its flowering cycle the cannabis plant develops in three most noticeable sections.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sinsemilla: Refers to non-pollinated female cannabis plants.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The resinous form of the drug is known as hashish (or merely as 'hash').^ Zero Zero is by far the most purest form of Hashish on the market today and comes from plants that have high levels of THC in conjunction with a good Hash making technique.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hash/Hashish: Compressed Cannabis Resin.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4]
.The major psychoactive chemical compound in cannabis is Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (commonly abbreviated as THC).^ Cannabinoids: The psychoactive compound found in cannabis.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cannabinoids are the chemicals in cannabis which are psychoactive.
  • Marihuana, The First Twelve Thousand Years 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.hoboes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The availability of synthetic trans-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major component of cannabis, and the chemical techniques for quantifying its content in cannabis preparations and in blood have made possible for the first time pharmacological studies which provide some precision in dose.
  • Pharmacological Reviews of Marijuana 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.druglibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

.At least 66 other cannabinoids are also present in cannabis, including cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN) and tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) among many others, which are believed to result in different effects than those of THC alone.^ This prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study investigated the acute effects of cannabinoids on psychomotor performance in 24 healthy right-handed volunteers (age 27.9 +/- A 2.9 years, 12 male) by comparing Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC) and standardized cannabis extract containing Delta(9)-THC and cannabidiol.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Some strains have male plants that produce more THC than other males of a different strain.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By contrast, other studies propose a causal linkage as well as a dose-effect relationship between cannabis consumption and the appearance of schizophrenia.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[5]
.Cannabis use has been found to have occurred as long ago as the third millennium B.C.[6] In modern times, the drug has been used for recreational, religious or spiritual, and medicinal purposes.^ More specifically, racist views of the time saw these peoples as less able to resist the criminalizing effects of drug use.
  • Marihuana, The First Twelve Thousand Years 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.hoboes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A scientific review by Oxford University researcher Leslie Iversen in the February issue of Current Opinion in Pharmacology concludes, "Overall, by comparison with other drugs used mainly for 'recreational' purposes, cannabis could be rated a relatively safe drug."
  • cannabisnews.com: Priming The Propaganda Mill 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC cannabisnews.com [Source type: General]

^ Ganja was the main revenue-generating cannabis drug, but bhang, which was not subject to taxation, was the most popular of the three cannabis drugs, and the most widely used among the Hindus.
  • Marihuana, The First Twelve Thousand Years 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.hoboes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The United Nations (UN) estimated that in 2004 about 4% of the world's adult population (162 million people) use cannabis annually, and about 0.6% (22.5 million) use it on a daily basis.^ Not the millions of people who smoke cannabis.
  • Cannabis smokers need to be locked up - Telegraph 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So the correct answer is 0 people 26 have died from using cannabis.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Little is known about motives or expectancies for cannabis use in psychotic populations, despite these cognitive factors being a central focus of the treatment for substance misuse in psychosis.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[7] .The possession, use, or sale of cannabis preparations containing psychoactive cannabinoids became illegal in most parts of the world in the early twentieth century.^ Cannabinoids: The psychoactive compound found in cannabis.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cannabinoids are the chemicals in cannabis which are psychoactive.
  • Marihuana, The First Twelve Thousand Years 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.hoboes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nowadays, cannabis is the most widely used illegal drug in France.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.Since then, some countries have intensified the enforcement of cannabis prohibition, while others have reduced it.^ We will not discuss other methods used for mass production by some eastern countries as these are somewhat substandard to the home methods mentioned below.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since I would imagine there's well in excess of ten million people in the UK who have used cannabis at some time, I wonder where we'd put them all?
  • Cannabis smokers need to be locked up - Telegraph 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The French wanted hemp to sell to other countries, not for home use: they had been a major exporter since the fifteenth century.
  • Marihuana, The First Twelve Thousand Years 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.hoboes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

History

.
The use of cannabis, at least as fiber, has been shown to go back at least 10,000 years in Taiwan.
^ Earliest record of cannabis use is from Taiwan.
  • Marihuana, The First Twelve Thousand Years 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.hoboes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some cannabis plants can be kept alive for up to 10 years by simply keeping a light on the plant at all times.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mar 25, 2006, 04:10 PM I smoke started when i started to oxford quit school for a couple of years and quit smoking started back to college and unfortunately picked it up again .
  • Do you smoke? [Archive] - Mac Forums 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC forums.macrumors.com [Source type: Original source]

[8] .Má (Pinyin pronunciation), the Chinese expression for hemp, is a pictograph of two plants under a shelter.^ In fact, hemp was so highly regarded by the Chinese that they called their country the “land of mulberry and hemp.”” Mulberry being the plant that silkworms ate.
  • Marihuana, The First Twelve Thousand Years 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.hoboes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9]
.Cannabis is indigenous to Central and South Asia.^ Cannabis is generally believed to have originated in Central Asia, and then spread to China, India, Persia, the Arab countries, Europe, Africa, and the Americas.
  • Marihuana, The First Twelve Thousand Years 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.hoboes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10] .Evidence of the inhalation of cannabis smoke can be found as far back as the 3rd millennium B.C., as indicated by charred cannabis seeds found in a ritual brazier at an ancient burial site in present day Romania.^ Similar tolerance to cannabis smoking was observed in a 64-day study in which at least one cigarette daily had to be smoked with smoking as desired later in the same day.
  • Pharmacological Reviews of Marijuana 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.druglibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

^ I do take a couple of pieces into those meetings that I have to go to until 11 or 12 PM. Now I am back at the point that I smoke 2 to 3 packs a day.
  • Do you smoke? [Archive] - Mac Forums 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC forums.macrumors.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nineteen men with long histories of heavy cannabis smoking were examined, and none was found to have brain atrophy as determined by this sensitive technique (101).
  • Pharmacological Reviews of Marijuana 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.druglibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

[6] .Cannabis is also known to have been used by the ancient Hindus of India and Nepal thousands of years ago.^ Interestingly enough, hashish has generally double the concentration of active ingredient as the strongest pot, and has been known for thousands of years.
  • cannabisnews.com: Priming The Propaganda Mill 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC cannabisnews.com [Source type: General]

^ However, surprisingly few researchers from sociology or other social science disciplines have investigated cannabis use in recent years.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The scheme was due to foreign speculators: foreign speculators are, to free Italy of to-day, what the devouring hordes of the Huns were to the Italy of a thousand and more years ago.
  • Victorian Women Writers Project 15 September 2009 5:34 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Original source]

The herb was called ganjika in Sanskrit (गांजा/গাঁজা ganja in modern Indic languages).[11][12] .The ancient drug soma, mentioned in the Vedas as a sacred intoxicating hallucinogen, was sometimes associated with cannabis.^ This is a native drug made from what is sometimes called the “crazy weed.” The effects are high exhilaration and intoxication, followed by extreme depression and broken nerves.
  • Marihuana, The First Twelve Thousand Years 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.hoboes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The acute panic reactions associated with cannabis are similar to those previously reported to be caused by hallucinogens.
  • Pharmacological Reviews of Marijuana 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.druglibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

[13]
.Cannabis was also known to the ancient Assyrians, who discovered its psychoactive properties through the Aryans.^ Only in India is there definitive evidence of cannabis use for its psychoactive properties.
  • Marihuana, The First Twelve Thousand Years 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.hoboes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14] .Using it in some religious ceremonies, they called it qunubu (meaning "way to produce smoke"), a probable origin of the modern word "cannabis".[15] Cannabis was also introduced by the Aryans to the Scythians and Thracians/Dacians, whose shamans (the kapnobatai—"those who walk on smoke/clouds") burned cannabis flowers to induce a state of trance.^ Not the millions of people who smoke cannabis.
  • Cannabis smokers need to be locked up - Telegraph 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 1890s, chemists Wood, Spivey, and Easterfield, at Cambridge University, “succeeded in obtaining a relatively pure extraction of cannabis which they called “cannabinol.”” They seem to have had some trouble: Spivey and Easterfield were both “blown to bits” by chemical explosions, and Wood was dragged from a burning laboratory.
  • Marihuana, The First Twelve Thousand Years 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.hoboes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Your idiotic article really pulls the covers off of those who would use our money for social good.
  • Cannabis smokers need to be locked up - Telegraph 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16] .Members of the cult of Dionysus, believed to have originated in Thrace (Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey), are also thought to have inhaled cannabis smoke.^ I believe that what the prohibitionists in power fear is the freedom of thought created by cannabis use.
  • cannabisnews.com: Priming The Propaganda Mill 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC cannabisnews.com [Source type: General]

^ He also said researchers believe that if they can perfect a method of "vaporizing" marijuana -- allowing it to be inhaled rather than smoked -- it would be easier to administer as medicine.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

.In 2003, a leather basket filled with cannabis leaf fragments and seeds was found next to a 2,500- to 2,800-year-old mummified shaman in the northwestern Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China.^ At the same time, he gave hemp seed free to farmers with the understanding that they were to plant it immediately and replace the gift with seed from their next year’s crop.
  • Marihuana, The First Twelve Thousand Years 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.hoboes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 33 year old next to me had a heart attack today!
  • Do you smoke? [Archive] - Mac Forums 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC forums.macrumors.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In recent years there has been an explosion in the Cannabis seed business.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17][18]
Cannabis sativa from Vienna Dioscurides, 512 A.D.
.Cannabis has an ancient history of ritual use and is found in pharmacological cults around the world.^ Paraquat: A defoliant used to kill the cannabis plant around the world.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This book is about cannabis and how it is grown around the world.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These data indicate that cannabis use history strongly determines the behavioural response to single doses of THC. Copyright 2009, Sage Publications .
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.Hemp seeds discovered by archaeologists at Pazyryk suggest early ceremonial practices like eating by the Scythians occurred during the 5th to 2nd century B.C., confirming previous historical reports by Herodotus.^ As early as the fifteenth century, demonologists declared that one of the main constituents that the witches compounded for their heinous ceremony was hemp.
  • Marihuana, The First Twelve Thousand Years 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.hoboes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although hemp seed was a major grain crop in ancient China until the sixth century A.D., it was not as important a food grain as rice or millet.” .
  • Marihuana, The First Twelve Thousand Years 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.hoboes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Background: Previous reports in adults have suggested that the effects experienced after cannabis use can be described in terms of positive and negative subtypes that are heritable and are associated with abuse and dependence.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[19] .One writer has claimed that cannabis was used as a religious sacrament by ancient Jews and early Christians[20] due to the similarity between the Hebrew word "qannabbos" ("cannabis") and the Hebrew phrase "qené bósem" ("aromatic cane").^ ElSohly also claimed that if marijuana were to be approved by FDA using marijuana provided by NIDA, that we would have no trouble just switching to another product with similar THC levels.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Neurobehavior disinhibition also was a mediator of the association between neighborhood context and son's cannabis use.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These traders would not sell hard drugs, so one of major links between cannabis and hard drugs would be removed.
  • Cannabis smokers need to be locked up - Telegraph 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was used by Muslims in various Sufi orders as early as the Mamluk period, for example by the Qalandars.^ Sociologists report a general pattern of marijuana use that peaks in the early adult years, followed by a period of levelling off and then a gradual reduction in use [9].
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Standard genetic analyses were conducted with substance use initiation variables categorized as never, late, and early onset.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[21]
A study published in the South African Journal of Science showed that "pipes dug up from the garden of Shakespeare's home in Stratford upon Avon contain traces of cannabis."[22] The chemical analysis was carried out after researchers hypothesized that the "noted weed" mentioned in Sonnet 76 and the "journey in my head" from Sonnet 27 could be references to cannabis and the use thereof.[23]
.Cannabis was criminalized in the United States in 1937 due to Marihuana Tax Act of 1937.^ Almost immediately after the Marihuana Tax Act became law, the Bureau of Narcotics was forced to reconsider its position on one of the main arguments it had used to secure passage of the law.
  • Marihuana, The First Twelve Thousand Years 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.hoboes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Harry Anslinger used variations on this; during the hearings on the Marihuana Tax Act of 1937, he said: .
  • Marihuana, The First Twelve Thousand Years 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.hoboes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He (Steven Porter) was unaware of any cannabis problem in the United States.
  • Marihuana, The First Twelve Thousand Years 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.hoboes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Several theories try to explain why it is illegal in most Western societies.^ In most cases the cola is going to produce the most bud so why not try to get that part of the plant to grow really big.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But it would be a mistake to think that there are no natural theories attempting to explain why the universe was what it was at the point of the big bang.
  • Big Hollywood » Blog Archive » Brad Pitt and Atheist Evangelism 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC bighollywood.breitbart.com [Source type: Original source]

.Jack Herer, a cannabis legalization activist and writer, argues that the economic interests of the paper and chemical industry were a driving force to make it illegal.^ Yes it is hard to tell and make no mistake - if you drive after smoking cannabis then you are just as stupid as if you where driving under the influence of alcohol.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If cannabis was legal there would be no need to go to the illegal dealers, therefore cutting the risk of being introduced to something 'stronger'.
  • Cannabis smokers need to be locked up - Telegraph 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This paper argues that collecting information on hippies was a useful weapon in the battle against softening penalties for marijuana offences since the federal police force was among the strongest opponents of legalizing or decriminalizing marijuana for recreational purposes.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[24][25][26] .Another explanation is that beneficial effects of hemp would lower the profit of pharmaceutical companies which therefore have a vital interest to keep cannabis illegal.^ Cannabis is illegal, and will stay that way, because we are a signatory to the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs which requires us to keep it illegal.
  • Cannabis smokers need to be locked up - Telegraph 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ About one in three users in one high school and one in five in another reported having anxiety, confusion, or other unpleasant effects from cannabis use.
  • Pharmacological Reviews of Marijuana 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.druglibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

^ People die from drinking alcohol and it does blight society, it would do so even more if it was illegal I am sure as cannabis is.
  • Cannabis smokers need to be locked up - Telegraph 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[27] .Those economic theories were criticized for not taking social aspect into account.^ I do take a couple of pieces into those meetings that I have to go to until 11 or 12 PM. Now I am back at the point that I smoke 2 to 3 packs a day.
  • Do you smoke? [Archive] - Mac Forums 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC forums.macrumors.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To complement this, a chart is provided as to define use, which takes into account the users description of the level of potency, the number of puffs/hits, and the number of persons with share the marijuana use.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The world does not take into account people who have nothing.
  • Victorian Women Writers Project 15 September 2009 5:34 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The illegalization was rather a result of racism directed to associate American immigrants of Mexican and African descent with cannabis abuse.^ This is because cannabis research is illegal in most countries or if research is allowed most of the results are suppressed.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The object of this retrospective study was to identify the prevalence of cannabis use/abuse and the demographic and clinical correlates therefor in a large homogeneous South African schizophrenia population.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The fact that some choose to abuse the cannabis plant illegally is immaterial.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

[28]

Forms

Cannabis (herbal form)

Dried Cannabis flowers in its herbal form.
.The terms cannabis or marijuana generally refer to the dried flowers and subtending leaves and stems of the female cannabis plant.^ Sinsemilla: Refers to non-pollinated female cannabis plants.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A. "Marijuana" refers to the dried leaves and flowers of the cannabis plant [1], which contain the non-narcotic chemical THC at various potencies.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Marijuana: Another term for cannabis.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is the most widely consumed form, containing 3% to 22% THC.[29][30] In contrast, cannabis strains used to produce industrial hemp contain less than 1% THC and are thus not valued for recreational use.^ Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug worldwide.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Nowadays, cannabis is the most widely used illegal drug in France.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Some strains have male plants that produce more THC than other males of a different strain.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[31]

Hashish

Hashish
.Hashish (also spelled hasheesh), hashisha, or simply hash is a concentrated resin produced from the flowers of the female cannabis plant.^ Resin glands are produced all over the female flowers and new leaves.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the 12/12 continues then the plant will produce its flowers.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It does this by producing both male and female flowers on the same plant.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hash can often be more potent than marijuana and can be smoked or chewed.^ The use of marijuana as a medication has been a politically charged topic in the United States for more than three decades.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Results: Frequent marijuana users were more likely to be female, Caucasian, and younger than other groups.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ More often than not, however, the farmer kept his harvest for his own needs.” .
  • Marihuana, The First Twelve Thousand Years 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.hoboes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[32] It varies in color from black to golden brown depending upon purity.
.According to both the "Talk to FRANK" website and the UKCIA website, "Soap Bar", "perhaps the most common type of hash found in the UK", can contain turpentine, tranquillizers, boot polish, henna and animal faeces - amongst several other things.^ The three most common new types of indoor growing are SOG, ScrOG and Cabinet growing.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is most common with LSD and other similar hallucinogens but has been reported fairly often with cannabis use.
  • Pharmacological Reviews of Marijuana 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.druglibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A common screen used by most home hash makers is a screen with 120 lines.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[33][34] .One small study of five soap-bar samples seized by UK Customs in 2001 found huge adulteration by many toxic substances, including soil, glue, engine oil and animal faeces.^ Worldwide, cannabis is the Most widely used illicit substance, and it has been identified as a correlate in schizophrenia samples for poorer symptomatic and functional outcomes in many international studies.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This has resulted in many published studies focusing on exposure in utero to substances and human offspring outcomes.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ We do not know the full toxicity of many of the possible metabolites which might accumulate, but generally toxicity studies of cannabis and its constituents lead to the inescapable conclusion that it is one of the safest drugs ever studied this way.
  • Pharmacological Reviews of Marijuana 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.druglibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

[35]

Hash oil

.Hash oil, or honey oil, is an essential oil extracted from the cannabis plant through the use of various solvents.^ Sinsemilla and hash oil are other variants of cannabis.
  • How long does marijuana stay in your system 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC howto.dcrdetox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They can use the cured plant as it is and smoke it dry or they can produce hash or oils from the curing process.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was through these stories, for instance, that many Europeans learned that the hemp plants that grew wild in their fields were used as medicines by the people of India.
  • Marihuana, The First Twelve Thousand Years 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.hoboes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It has a high proportion of cannabinoids (ranging from 40–90%).[36] .This oil is also used in the process of making a variety of cannabis foods.^ They can use the cured plant as it is and smoke it dry or they can produce hash or oils from the curing process.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hemp: This is the stalk and stems produced from the cannabis plant that are used to make fabrics.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Kief

.Kief is a powder made from trichomes removed from the leaves and flowers of cannabis plants.^ From its vegetative cycle to its flowering cycle the cannabis plant develops in three most noticeable sections.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fan Leaves: They are the largest leaves of the cannabis plant that gather the most available light.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cannabis plants need at least 50% of the leaves to continue growing without fatal stunting problems.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Kief can be compressed to produce cakes of hashish, or consumed in powder form.^ When the collected trichomes are compressed they form a blocky mass which we refer to as Hashish.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[37]

Residue

Residue collected from a pipe
.Because of THC's adhesive properties, a sticky residue builds up inside the paraphernalia when cannabis is smoked.^ Smoking cannabis or taking THC i.v.
  • Pharmacological Reviews of Marijuana 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.druglibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Compared with tobacco, cannabis smoking yields more residue ("tar"), but the amount of smoke inhaled is very likely to be considerably less.
  • Pharmacological Reviews of Marijuana 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.druglibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Also by keeping your own records you will be building up your own little map of cannabis genes.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It has tar-like properties but still contains THC as well as other cannabinoids.^ It does not produce large quantities of THC, nor does it flower like the other varieties.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Funny, when I was a smoker, (and still today), I gag like hell on that other substance you speak of, and did just fine with cigs.
  • Do you smoke? [Archive] - Mac Forums 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC forums.macrumors.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Doc discusses the links between cannabis and red eye, the quest for other substances containing THC (sea urchins?!
  • Dopefiend.co.uk : The Cannabis Podcast Network 25 September 2009 15:29 UTC dopecast.libsyn.com [Source type: General]

.This buildup still has all the psychoactive properties of cannabis but is more difficult to smoke due to the discomfort caused to the throat and lungs.^ Smoke from both cannabis and tobacco increased the size of cytoplasm, nuclei, and nucleoli along with an increase in DNA content of human lung cell explants.
  • Pharmacological Reviews of Marijuana 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.druglibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

^ MacsomJRR Mar 25, 2006, 08:15 PM Smoking causes lung cancer.
  • Do you smoke? [Archive] - Mac Forums 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC forums.macrumors.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Pot causes mental illness in people, only a statisitcal probability so maybe it does, Pot is bad for you, like all smoking is.
  • Cannabis smokers need to be locked up - Telegraph 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Cannabis users typically only smoke residue when cannabis is unavailable.^ The efficiency of the delivery of a dose by smoking has been estimated to be about 18%, but frequent smokers obtain 23%, while infrequent users obtain only 10% (110).
  • Pharmacological Reviews of Marijuana 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.druglibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Only in those who are already susceptible to schizophrenia will the illness very occasionally manifest itself after smoking cannabis.
  • Cannabis smokers need to be locked up - Telegraph 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The probability of cannabis use and the conditional probability of cannabis use (given opportunity) are greater for users of alcohol only, tobacco only, and alcohol plus tobacco, as compared to non-users of alcohol and tobacco.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

Glass may be water-steamed at a low temperature prior to scraping in order to make the residue easier to remove.[38]

Potency

According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), "the amount of THC present in a cannabis sample is generally used as a measure of cannabis potency."[39] The three main forms of cannabis products are the herb (marijuana), resin (hashish), and oil (hash oil). The UNODC states that marijuana often contains 5% THC content, resin "can contain up to 20% THC content", and that "Cannabis oil may contain more than 60% THC content.".[39]
A scientific study published in 2000 in the Journal of Forensic Sciences (JFS) found that the potency (THC content) of confiscated cannabis in the United States (US) rose from "approximately 3.3% in 1983 and 1984", to "4.47% in 1997". It also concluded that "other major cannabinoids (i.e., CBD, CBN, and CBC)" (other chemicals in cannabis) "showed no significant change in their concentration over the years".[40] More recent research undertaken at the University of Mississippi's Potency Monitoring Project[41] has found that average THC levels in cannabis samples between 1975 and 2007 have increased from 4% in 1983 to 9.6% in 2007.
.Australia's National Cannabis Prevention and Information Centre (NCPIC) states that the buds (flowers) of the female cannabis plant contain the highest concentration of THC, followed by the leaves.^ At the end of flowering the bud will contain seeds.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bud: Female flower.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The female plant when pollinated does produce THC but also produces seeds which prevent larger quantities of bud from being produced.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The stalks and seeds have "much lower THC levels".[42] The UN states that the leaves can contain ten times less THC than the buds, and the stalks one hundred times less THC.[39]
According to the "Talk to FRANK" (UK) website:
."Recently, there has been an increased availability of strong herbal cannabis, containing on average 2-3 times the amount of the active compound, tetrahydrocannabinol or THC, as compared to the traditional imported ‘weed’.^ The availability of synthetic trans-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major component of cannabis, and the chemical techniques for quantifying its content in cannabis preparations and in blood have made possible for the first time pharmacological studies which provide some precision in dose.
  • Pharmacological Reviews of Marijuana 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.druglibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study investigated the acute effects of cannabinoids on psychomotor performance in 24 healthy right-handed volunteers (age 27.9 +/- A 2.9 years, 12 male) by comparing Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC) and standardized cannabis extract containing Delta(9)-THC and cannabidiol.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ As of yet there is no on the spot breathalyzer test for cannabis use, but there are tests to determine if someone has used cannabis recently, in the last few hours, in the last few days, weeks or months.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This strong cannabis includes:‘sinsemilla’ (a bud grown in the absence of male plants and which has no seeds); ‘homegrown’; ‘skunk’, which has a characteristic strong smell; and imported ‘netherweed’...^ The female plant when pollinated does produce THC but also produces seeds which prevent larger quantities of bud from being produced.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the main problems is that the plant’s characteristics change depending on where the plant is grown.
  • Marihuana, The First Twelve Thousand Years 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.hoboes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Seed: The female plant will produce seeds at this point if she has received viable pollen from a male plant.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

...it may not be possible to tell whether a particular sample of 'skunk' or ‘homegrown’ or ‘sinsemilla’ will have a higher potency than an equal amount of traditional herbal cannabis
.Of course, "homegrown", "netherweed" and "sinsemilla" are not always "strong". The selection of "skunk" strains generally are, although not every strain of cannabis with a "characteristic strong smell" can be accurately named "skunk". "Traditional herbal cannabis" or "weed", has on the whole, always been subjectively "strong" and thus FRANK leaves his website uncited.^ Skunk: An old strain of cannabis that has a strong smell and sour taste.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An Ozone generator would be in place to kill the smell and cannabis odor.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By constantly selecting new traits that you want to keep, you can manipulate the strain into a totally true breeding strain for every phenotype.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[34]

Routes of administration

A Volcano vaporizer. The balloon (top) is filled with vapors that are eventually inhaled.
Cannabis joints, wasteful and potentially harmful, can reach a burning temperature of 1000°F. when puffed on too impatiently.
A narrow, screened single-toke utensil, such as the midwakh (shown here) or kiseru, permits 25-mg. low-temperature servings, protecting economy and health.
.Cannabis is consumed in many different ways, most of which involve inhaling smoke.^ It is estimated that in most countries there must be at least 2 - 12 different cannabis strains growing wildly.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I am in my 40's and have known many people smoke cannabis regularly over a 20 year period.
  • Cannabis smokers need to be locked up - Telegraph 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Compared with tobacco, cannabis smoking yields more residue ("tar"), but the amount of smoke inhaled is very likely to be considerably less.
  • Pharmacological Reviews of Marijuana 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.druglibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

.The most commonly used include wire-screened bowls, bubblers (small pipes with water chambers), bongs, one-hitters, chillums, paper-wrapped joints and tobacco-leaf-wrapped blunts.^ Blunt: A joint rolled in a tobacco-leaf wrapper.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Blunts consist of marijuana wrapped in tobacco leaves, whereas joints consist of marijuana wrapped in cigarette paper.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is consumed in various ways - joints, blunts, pipes, bongs, vaporizers.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.A vaporizer heats herbal cannabis to 365–410°F (185–210°C), which causes the active ingredients to evaporate into a gas without burning the plant material (the boiling point of THC is 392°F (200°C) at 0.02mmHg pressure, and somewhat higher at standard atmospheric pressure).^ Unlike smoking, a vaporizer does not burn the plant material, but heats it just to the point at which THC and cannabinoids vaporize into steam.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Voth's main point was that marijuana has so many ingredients that it can't possibly be made into a medicine.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cannabis plants need at least 50% of the leaves to continue growing without fatal stunting problems.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[43] .A lower proportion of toxic chemicals are released than by smoking, although this may vary depending on the design of the vaporizer and the temperature at which it is set.^ He couldn't explain why the PHS/NIDA review of Chemic's vaporizer protocol and request for 10 grams took more than two years.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The researchers found that, "vaporization of marijuana does not result in exposure to combustion gases, and therefore is expected to be much safer than smoking marijuana cigarettes."
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ MONITORING RECYCLE SYSTEMS Depending on what set-up you are using, you may find that your solution goes through a system that uses the nutrients in the reservoir over and over.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This method of consuming cannabis produces markedly different effects than smoking due to the flash points of different cannabinoids; for example, CBN has a flash point of 212.7°C[44] and would normally be present in smoke but might not be present in vapor.^ Some strains have male plants that produce more THC than other males of a different strain.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Smoking is most efficient method for administering the drug, due to the enormously high lipid solubility of THC. .
  • Pharmacological Reviews of Marijuana 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.druglibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The first subject was enrolled in Dr. Donald Abrams' FDA-approved study comparing subjective effects, cannabinoid blood levels and carbon monoxide levels in subjects who smoke marijuana or inhale the vapors of the same amount of marijuana generated by a vaporizer.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

.As an alternative to smoking, cannabis may be consumed orally.^ Sure cannabis smoke may double _some_ peoples probability of devloping some `psychosis`, but do you really know what this _means_?
  • Cannabis smokers need to be locked up - Telegraph 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, the cannabis or its extract must be sufficiently heated or dehydrated to cause decarboxylation of its most abundant cannabinoid, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA), into psychoactive THC.^ THC Cannabis plants produce psychoactive ingredients called cannabinoids.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tetrahydrocannabinol/THC: The psychoactive cannabinoid in marijuana that is responsible for the high or drug effect.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study investigated the acute effects of cannabinoids on psychomotor performance in 24 healthy right-handed volunteers (age 27.9 +/- A 2.9 years, 12 male) by comparing Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC) and standardized cannabis extract containing Delta(9)-THC and cannabidiol.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[45]
.Cannabinoids can be leached from cannabis plant matter using high-proof spirits (often grain alcohol) to create a tincture, often referred to as Green Dragon.^ Sinsemilla: Refers to non-pollinated female cannabis plants.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is most common with LSD and other similar hallucinogens but has been reported fairly often with cannabis use.
  • Pharmacological Reviews of Marijuana 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.druglibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A. "Marijuana" refers to the dried leaves and flowers of the cannabis plant [1], which contain the non-narcotic chemical THC at various potencies.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Cannabis can also be consumed as a tea. THC is lipophilic and only slightly water soluble (with a solubility of 2.8 mg per liter),[46] so tea is made by first adding a saturated fat to hot water (i.e. cream or any milk except skim) with a small amount of cannabis, green or black tea leaves and honey or sugar, steeped for approximately 5 minutes.

Effects

Main short-term physical effects of cannabis.
.Cannabis has psychoactive and physiological effects when consumed.^ Medical marijuana’s elder statesman is not convinced that the therapeutic benefits of cannabis can be separated from the psychoactive effects -- or that cannabis should be "pharmaceuticalized."
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

.The minimum amount of THC required to have a perceptible psychoactive effect is about 10 micrograms per kilogram of body weight.^ Others which either have psychoactive effects, or modify the effects of D 9 -THC are D 8 -THC, cannabicyclol, cannabichromene, cannabigerol, cannabivarol, cannabidivarol, “and a long list of similar compounds.” .
  • Marihuana, The First Twelve Thousand Years 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.hoboes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ THC testing is also an expensive process that requires heavy amounts of research.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ THC is one of the few chemicals for which there is no known toxic amount [10].
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[47] .Aside from a subjective change in perception and, most notably, mood, the most common short-term physical and neurological effects include increased heart rate, lowered blood pressure, impairment of short-term episodic memory, working memory, psychomotor coordination, and concentration.^ Subjective, physiological (heart rate, blood pressure, and carbon monoxide levels) and pharmacokinetic effects (plasma THC concentration) were monitored before and at specified time points for 3 h after smoking.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The most probable adverse effects include a dependence syndrome, increased risk of motor vehicle crashes, impaired respiratory function, cardiovascular disease, and adverse effects of regular use on adolescent psychosocial development and mental health.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The degree of lowering of intraocular pressure is at least as great as that with conventional eye drops, such as pilocarpine, and the duration of effect is often longer.
  • Pharmacological Reviews of Marijuana 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.druglibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

[48] .Long-term effects are less clear.^ It is less clear whether tolerance develops to the impairing effects of THC in heavy users of cannabis.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Wig, N.N., and Varma, V.K.: Patterns of long-term heavy cannabis use in North India and its effects on cognitive functions: a preliminary report.
  • Pharmacological Reviews of Marijuana 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.druglibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Huestegge L; Radach R; Kunert HJ. Long-term effects of cannabis on oculomotor function in humans.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[49][50]

Classification

.While many drugs clearly fall into the category of either stimulant, depressant, or hallucinogen, cannabis exhibits a mix of all properties, perhaps leaning the most towards hallucinogen or psychedelic properties, though with other effects quite pronounced as well.^ Brad Pitt falls into that category.
  • Big Hollywood » Blog Archive » Brad Pitt and Atheist Evangelism 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC bighollywood.breitbart.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Four years later, Dr. W. W. Sotckberger said “We have had correspondence with El Paso and other border cities in Texas for a good many years about this situation,” “the reported effects of the drug on Mexicans, making them want to clean up the town, do not jibe very well with the effects of cannabis, which so far as we have reports, simply causes temporary elation, followed by depression and heavy sleep.” .
  • Marihuana, The First Twelve Thousand Years 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.hoboes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many other drugs reside in our system for a short stint of time.
  • How long does marijuana stay in your system 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC howto.dcrdetox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Though THC is typically considered the primary active component of the cannabis plant, various scientific studies have suggested that certain other cannabinoids like CBD may also play a significant role in its psychoactive effects.^ Cannabis plants in soil like a pH of 7.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ THC Cannabis plants produce psychoactive ingredients called cannabinoids.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cannabinoids, the active components of the hemp plant Cannabis sativa, along with their endogenous counterparts and synthetic derivatives, have elicited anti-cancer effects in many different in vitro and in vivo models of cancer.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[8][51][52]

Medical use

.Cannabis used medically does have several well-documented beneficial effects.^ Expectances for cannabis use predicted recent cannabis use and the presence and severity of cannabis dependence.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ By contrast, other studies propose a causal linkage as well as a dose-effect relationship between cannabis consumption and the appearance of schizophrenia.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There is no violence associated with Cannabis use (except for that which is associated with it's illicit supply) and the effect on health is so small it's virtually insignificant for the vast majority of people.
  • Cannabis smokers need to be locked up - Telegraph 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Among these are: the amelioration of nausea and vomiting, stimulation of hunger in chemotherapy and AIDS patients, lowered intraocular eye pressure (shown to be effective for treating glaucoma), as well as general analgesic effects (pain reliever).^ Purpose/Objectives: To synthesize the research to determine whether oral delta-9-tetrahycirocannabinol (THC) and smoked marijuana are effective treatments for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) and to evaluate side effects and patient preference of these treatments.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ We believe that the National Institute on Drug Abuse facility at the University of Mississippi has an unjustifiable monopoly on the production of marijuana for legitimate medical and research purposes in the United States...The current lack of such competition may well result in the production of lower-quality research-grade marijuana, which in turn jeopardizes important research into the therapeutic effects of marijuana for patients undergoing chemotherapy or suffering from AIDS, glaucoma, or other diseases."
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These preliminary data suggest that CBD may be effective, safe and well tolerated for the treatment of the psychosis in PD. Copyright 2009, Sage Publications .
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

b[›]
.Less confirmed individual studies also have been conducted indicating cannabis to be beneficial to a gamut of conditions running from multiple sclerosis to depression.^ "Netherlands to run trials of marijuana in patients with multiple sclerosis" Tony Sheldon British Medical Journal () 324:504.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ We may perhaps be able to conduct a cross-validation study at less than half the cost of the validation study.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ We may perhaps be able to conduct a cross-validation study at less then half the cost of the validation study.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

.Synthesized cannabinoids are also sold as prescription drugs, including Marinol (dronabinol in the United States and Germany) and Cesamet (nabilone in Canada, Mexico, The United States and The United Kingdom).^ Participants: All public schools in the United States that included grades 6 through 8 and enrolled at least 100 students in sixth grade were recruited.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Fully one-half of the fatal car crashes in the United States are associated with another social drug, alcohol.
  • Pharmacological Reviews of Marijuana 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.druglibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

^ MAPS is the only organization that is attempting to resolve the controversy over medical marijuana via the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) research route.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

b[›]
.Currently, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not approved smoked marijuana for any condition or disease in the United States, largely because good quality scientific evidence for its use from U.S. studies is lacking; however, a major barrier to acquiring the necessary evidence is the lack of federal funding for this kind of research.^ However, this research is not publicly funded.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The PTSD study will use THC drops as opposed to smoked marijuana.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ MAPS is the only organization that is attempting to resolve the controversy over medical marijuana via the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) research route.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

[53] .Regardless, thirteen states have legalized cannabis for medical use.^ The use of marijuana as a medication has been a politically charged topic in the United States for more than three decades.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Medical doctors are not informed clearly about the use and abuse of cannabis.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cocaine-dependent patients with frequent marijuana use also used more cocaine and alcohol, and reported more medical, legal, and psychiatric problems, including antisocial personality disorder.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[54][55] .Canada, Spain, The Netherlands and Austria have also legalized cannabis for medicinal use.^ This is true...the netherlands are a good example...after pot was legalized there was a rise in use for a while, but now it has dropped off considerably.
  • Do you smoke? [Archive] - Mac Forums 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC forums.macrumors.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This request to the DEA is, to our knowledge, the first attempt to import the marijuana plant from the Netherlands, through the newly established Office of Medicinal Cannabis.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Although cannabis could no longer be legally grown in Canada without a permit after 1938, it was still dispensed in pharmacies as an over-the-counter medicinal until 1939 and was used in prescriptions until 1954.
  • Marihuana, The First Twelve Thousand Years 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.hoboes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[56][57]

Long-term effects

.The smoking of cannabis is the most harmful method of consumption, as the inhalation of smoke from organic materials can cause various health problems.^ Organic: This refers to a method of gardening utilizing only materials derived from living things and not man made chemicals.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Methods: This paper provides a review of epidemiological evidence on the major adverse health effects of cannabis use and considers its implications for policy.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Method: Calculation for England and Wales using best available estimates of: incidence of schizophrenia; rates of heavy and light cannabis use; and risk that cannabis causes schizophrenia.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[58]
By comparison, studies on the vaporization of cannabis found that subjects were "only 40% as likely to report respiratory symptoms as users who do not vaporize, even when age, sex, cigarette use, and amount of cannabis consumed are controlled."[59] Another study found vaporizers to be "a safe and effective cannabinoid delivery system."[60][61]
.
Cannabis is ranked one of the least harmful drugs by a study published in the UK medical journal, The Lancet.
^ Similar tolerance to cannabis smoking was observed in a 64-day study in which at least one cigarette daily had to be smoked with smoking as desired later in the same day.
  • Pharmacological Reviews of Marijuana 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.druglibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Probably one of the best sites for medical information is www.cannabisx.com , www.lycaeum.org , or www.overgrow.com One other thing to mention is that street cannabis may contain other added drugs.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The study, by M Czyzewska and HJ Ginsburg, was published electronically in the journal "Addictive Behaviors" (PDF) .
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

[62]
.While a study in New Zealand of 79 lung-cancer patients suggested daily cannabis smokers have a 5.7 times higher risk of lung cancer than non-users,[63] another study of 2252 people in Los Angeles failed to find a correlation between the smoking of cannabis and lung, head or neck cancers.^ A longer experimental study in which cannabis was smoked rather than taken p.o.
  • Pharmacological Reviews of Marijuana 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.druglibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Marijuana smoking and the risk of head and neck cancer: Pooled analysis in the INHANCE Consortium.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The major finding of the study was that marijuana scenes in anti-marijuana public service announcements negatively affected ad liking and thought valence toward the ads among adolescents who were at higher levels of risk for marijuana use.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[64] .These effects have been attributed to the well documented anti-tumoral properties of cannabinoids, specifically tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol.^ We also got him to admit that the cannabinoids have anti-tumor properties while nicotine does not.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Tetrahydrocannabinol/THC: The psychoactive cannabinoid in marijuana that is responsible for the high or drug effect.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study investigated the acute effects of cannabinoids on psychomotor performance in 24 healthy right-handed volunteers (age 27.9 +/- A 2.9 years, 12 male) by comparing Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC) and standardized cannabis extract containing Delta(9)-THC and cannabidiol.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.Some studies have also found that moderate cannabis use may protect against head and neck cancers,[65] as well as lung cancer.^ Finally, the whole issue of cannabis use is so laden with emotion that serious investigations of health hazards of the drug have been colored by the prejudices of the experimenter, either for or against the drug as a potential hazard to health.
  • Pharmacological Reviews of Marijuana 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.druglibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

^ I has long been postulated that the apparent loss of motivation seen in some cannabis users is really a manifestations of a concurrent depression, for which cannabis may have been a self-prescribed treatment (102).
  • Pharmacological Reviews of Marijuana 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.druglibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

^ If field studies fail to provide evidence of harm from prolonged use of cannabis, it is unlikely that experimental studies will do better, and such has been the case.
  • Pharmacological Reviews of Marijuana 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.druglibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

[66] .Some studies have shown that cannabidiol may also be useful in treating breast cancer.^ Recent studies have also shown that cannabinoids may have more specific effects in interrupting the pathological process in Alzheimer's disease.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The purpose of this study was to describe the health concerns and problems that prompt some adolescents to use marijuana for therapeutic reasons, and their beliefs about the risks and benefits of the therapeutic use of marijuana.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Adult human studies suggest frontal dysfunction associated with chronic marijuana (MJ) use, but due to continued neuromaturation, adult studies may not generalize to adolescents.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[67]
.Cannabis use has been assessed by several studies to be correlated with the development of anxiety, psychosis, and depression.^ Expectances for cannabis use predicted recent cannabis use and the presence and severity of cannabis dependence.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Worldwide, cannabis is the Most widely used illicit substance, and it has been identified as a correlate in schizophrenia samples for poorer symptomatic and functional outcomes in many international studies.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cannabis has now been implicated in the etiology of many major long-term psychiatric conditions including depression, anxiety, psychosis, bipolar disorder, and an amotivational state.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[68][69] .Indeed, a 2007 meta-analysis estimated that cannabis use is statistically associated, in a dose-dependent manner, to an increased risk in the development of psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia.^ Association between ABCB1 C3435T polymorphism and increased risk of cannabis dependence.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Results: Whereas classifying participants according to maximum frequency of use prior to onset (none, ever, weekly, or daily) revealed no significant effects of cannabis or tobacco use on risk of onset, analysis of change in frequency of use prior to onset indicated that progression to daily cannabis and tobacco use was associated with an increased risk of onset of psychotic symptoms.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ We argue that the risk assessment should be included because the evidence is as good as that for many other risk factors included in the GBD, psychotic disorders are associated with substantial unavertable disability, and cannabis use is a potentially preventable exposure.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[70] .No causal mechanism has been proven, however, and the meaning of the correlation and its direction is a subject of debate that has not been resolved in the scientific community.^ Heath's results failed to win general acceptance in the scientific community because of the small number of subjects, questionable controls, and heavy doses.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some studies assess that the causality is more likely to involve a path from cannabis use to psychotic symptoms rather than a path from psychotic symptoms to cannabis use,[71] while other studies assess the opposite direction of the causality, or hold cannabis to only form parts of a "causal constellation", while not inflicting mental health problems that would not have occurred in the absence of the cannabis use.^ More than likely .
  • how long does it take for marijuana to get out of your... - Q&A 25 September 2009 1:23 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ The study simply demonstrates that potential psychotics are more likely to use cannabis.
  • Cannabis smokers need to be locked up - Telegraph 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A longer experimental study in which cannabis was smoked rather than taken p.o.
  • Pharmacological Reviews of Marijuana 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.druglibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

[72][73]
.Though cannabis use has at times been associated with stroke, there is no firmly established link, and potential mechanisms are unknown.^ As of yet there is no on the spot breathalyzer test for cannabis use, but there are tests to determine if someone has used cannabis recently, in the last few hours, in the last few days, weeks or months.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The prevalence of cannabis use has actually decreased since the penalties were lowered (although there is unlikely to be any causal connection.
  • Cannabis smokers need to be locked up - Telegraph 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is no violence associated with Cannabis use (except for that which is associated with it's illicit supply) and the effect on health is so small it's virtually insignificant for the vast majority of people.
  • Cannabis smokers need to be locked up - Telegraph 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[74] .Similarly, there is no established relationship between cannabis use and heart disease, including exacerbation of cases of existing heart disease.^ There really is no comparison between Alcohol and Cannabis.
  • Cannabis smokers need to be locked up - Telegraph 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As of yet there is no on the spot breathalyzer test for cannabis use, but there are tests to determine if someone has used cannabis recently, in the last few hours, in the last few days, weeks or months.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such a finding does not disprove the relationship between cannabis and gynecomastia.
  • Pharmacological Reviews of Marijuana 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.druglibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

[75] .Though some fMRI studies have shown changes in neurological function in long term heavy cannabis users, no long term behavioral effects after abstinence have been linked to these changes.^ If you think long term pot smoking does you no harm at all, come here and see the real results.
  • Cannabis smokers need to be locked up - Telegraph 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is no violence associated with Cannabis use (except for that which is associated with it's illicit supply) and the effect on health is so small it's virtually insignificant for the vast majority of people.
  • Cannabis smokers need to be locked up - Telegraph 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NO, but mental side effects such as depression can be, but only a small percentage of addicts (NOT USERS, BUT ADDICTS) go through this.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[76]

Adulterants

.Adulterants in cannabis are less common than in other drugs of abuse.^ Few studies have focused on cannabis dependence as compared to other drugs more commonly acknowledged as presenting a substantial need for treatment.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Explanations other than a genuine stability or decline were considered, but appeared less plausible.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ While cue-elicited craving and its underlying neurobiological mechanisms have been extensively studied with respect to alcohol and other drugs of abuse, the same cannot be said for marijuana.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.Chalk (in the Netherlands) and glass particles (in the UK) have been used at times to make cannabis appear to be higher quality.^ Conclusions: Cannabis use may be related to higher positive symptom scores for FEP patients, with greater improvement after six months for those who cease using cannabis.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Since I would imagine there's well in excess of ten million people in the UK who have used cannabis at some time, I wonder where we'd put them all?
  • Cannabis smokers need to be locked up - Telegraph 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Use/abuse of cannabis was defined as using cannabis more than 2 1 times in a single year.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[77][78][79] Increasing the weight of hashish products in Germany with lead caused lead intoxication in at least 29 users.[80] .In the Netherlands two chemical analogs of Sildenafil (Viagra) were found in adulterated marijuana.^ Two Texas researchers found that the ONDCP's anti-marijuana public service announcements may actually have made their attitudes toward pot less negative.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Two Texas researchers found that the ONDCP’s anti-marijuana public service announcements may actually have made their attitudes toward pot less negative.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

[81]

Gateway drug theory

.Some claim that trying cannabis increases the probability that users will eventually use "harder" drugs.^ Likewise, some users of cannabis will go on to harder drugs.
  • Cannabis smokers need to be locked up - Telegraph 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Statisticly the vast majority of canabis users do not go on to harder drugs.
  • Cannabis smokers need to be locked up - Telegraph 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Using the Horn Drug Interaction Probability Scale, our patient's warfarin-marijuana interaction appeared to be probable.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.This hypothesis has been one of the central pillars of anti-cannabis drug policy in the United States,[82] though the validity and implications of these hypotheses are highly debated.^ Business Week got it right last October when it reported, "The ads' main focus is anti-marijuana messages aimed at state ballot initiatives for drug-policy reform."
  • cannabisnews.com: Priming The Propaganda Mill 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC cannabisnews.com [Source type: General]

^ Highly potent preparations of cannabis are not as readily available in North America as in other parts of the world, so these reactions are less commonly observed in the United States and Canada.
  • Pharmacological Reviews of Marijuana 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.druglibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Hall W. The adverse health effects of cannabis use: What are they, and what are their implications for policy?
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[83] .Studies have shown that tobacco smoking is a better predictor of concurrent illicit hard drug use than smoking cannabis.^ So is the using of almost all illicit drugs.
  • Do you smoke? [Archive] - Mac Forums 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC forums.macrumors.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A longer experimental study in which cannabis was smoked rather than taken p.o.
  • Pharmacological Reviews of Marijuana 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.druglibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug worldwide.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[84]
.No widely accepted study has ever demonstrated a cause-and-effect relationship between the use of cannabis and the later use of harder drugs like heroin and cocaine.^ The study simply demonstrates that potential psychotics are more likely to use cannabis.
  • Cannabis smokers need to be locked up - Telegraph 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug worldwide.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Nowadays, cannabis is the most widely used illegal drug in France.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.However, the prevalence of tobacco cigarette advertising and the practice of mixing tobacco and cannabis together in a single large joint, common in Europe, are believed to be a factor in promoting nicotine dependency among young persons investigating cannabis.^ Sartor CE; Agrawal A; Lynskey MT; Buchoz KK; Madden PAF; Heath AC. Common genetic influences on the timing of first use for alcohol, cigarettes, and cannabis in young African-American women.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Mbatia J; Jenkins R; Singleton N; White B. Prevalence of alcohol consumption and hazardous drinking, tobacco and drug use in urban Tanzania, and their associated risk factors.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The object of this retrospective study was to identify the prevalence of cannabis use/abuse and the demographic and clinical correlates therefor in a large homogeneous South African schizophrenia population.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[85]
.A 2005 comprehensive review of the literature on the cannabis gateway hypothesis found that pre-existing traits may predispose users to addiction in general, the availability of multiple drugs in a given setting confounds predictive patterns in their usage, and drug sub-cultures are more influential than cannabis itself.^ So cannabis is a gateway drug?
  • Cannabis smokers need to be locked up - Telegraph 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The effects of chronic use of cannabis are more to the point when considering the issues of its status as a possible social drug.
  • Pharmacological Reviews of Marijuana 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.druglibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Plants are generally pruned 3 - 4 weeks into their vegetative cycle but can be pruned sooner or later or more than once.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The study called for further research on "social context, individual characteristics, and drug effects" to discover the actual relationships between cannabis and the use of other drugs.^ As with other social drugs, the pattern of use is critical in determining adverse effects on health.
  • Pharmacological Reviews of Marijuana 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.druglibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Few studies have investigated the association between the social context of cannabis use and cannabis use disorder (CUD).
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This study examined the relationship between cannabis use expectancies, cannabis use and psychotic symptoms among cannabis using psychotic inpatients.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[86]
.A new user of cannabis who feels there is a difference between anti-drug information and their own experiences will apply this distrust to public information about other, more powerful drugs.^ There were significant differences between the groups.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The effects of chronic use of cannabis are more to the point when considering the issues of its status as a possible social drug.
  • Pharmacological Reviews of Marijuana 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.druglibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Some strains have male plants that produce more THC than other males of a different strain.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some studies state that while there is no proof for this gateway hypothesis, young cannabis users should still be considered as a risk group for intervention programs.^ As of yet there is no on the spot breathalyzer test for cannabis use, but there are tests to determine if someone has used cannabis recently, in the last few hours, in the last few days, weeks or months.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is no violence associated with Cannabis use (except for that which is associated with it's illicit supply) and the effect on health is so small it's virtually insignificant for the vast majority of people.
  • Cannabis smokers need to be locked up - Telegraph 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People who like cannabis are at risk of schizophrenia so should be locked up before they get it.
  • Cannabis smokers need to be locked up - Telegraph 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[87] .Other findings indicate that hard drug users are likely to be "poly-drug" users, and that interventions must address the use of multiple drugs instead of a single hard drug.^ A substantial proportion of unlicensed suppliers sell other drugs as well, thereby increasing the risk of being offered hard drugs when buying soft drugs.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Results indicate significant relationships between local drug policy and youth marijuana use and attitudes.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Topical administration would ne especially desirable for treating glaucoma as with other drugs used for this purpose.
  • Pharmacological Reviews of Marijuana 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.druglibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

[88]
.Another gateway hypothesis is that while cannabis is not as harmful or addictive as other drugs, a gateway effect may be detected as a result of the "common factors" involved with using any illegal drug.^ So cannabis is a gateway drug?
  • Cannabis smokers need to be locked up - Telegraph 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At present cannabis is an illegal uncontrolled drug.
  • Cannabis smokers need to be locked up - Telegraph 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Probably one of the best sites for medical information is www.cannabisx.com , www.lycaeum.org , or www.overgrow.com One other thing to mention is that street cannabis may contain other added drugs.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because of its illegal status, cannabis users are more likely to be in situations which allow them to become acquainted with people who use and sell other illegal drugs.^ People who add other drugs to cannabis are not doing the cannabis community a favor.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not the millions of people who smoke cannabis.
  • Cannabis smokers need to be locked up - Telegraph 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nowadays, cannabis is the most widely used illegal drug in France.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[89][90] .By this argument, some studies have shown that alcohol and tobacco may be regarded as gateway drugs.^ Mbatia J; Jenkins R; Singleton N; White B. Prevalence of alcohol consumption and hazardous drinking, tobacco and drug use in urban Tanzania, and their associated risk factors.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between alcohol use, psychoactive drug use and road traffic injury (RTI).
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Recent studies have also shown that cannabinoids may have more specific effects in interrupting the pathological process in Alzheimer's disease.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[84] .However, a more parsimonious explanation could be that cannabis is simply more readily available (and at an earlier age) than illegal hard drugs, and alcohol/tobacco are in turn easier to obtain earlier than cannabis (though the reverse may be true in some areas), thus leading to the "gateway sequence" in those people who are most likely to experiment with any drug offered.^ In Arabia, marijuana may have been the drug of choice of those who could not afford wine.
  • Marihuana, The First Twelve Thousand Years 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.hoboes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alcohol damages and kills many, many more people each year then cannabis EVER will.
  • Cannabis smokers need to be locked up - Telegraph 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Drugs such as tobacco were far more lucrative than rope.
  • Marihuana, The First Twelve Thousand Years 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.hoboes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[83]

Legal status

Cannabis propaganda sheet from 1935
.Since the beginning of the 20th century, most countries have enacted laws against the cultivation, possession, or transfer of cannabis for recreational use.^ In most countries it is illegal to own seeds, grow cannabis or use cannabis.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many countries use most of these techniques to make hash.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is because cannabis research is illegal in most countries or if research is allowed most of the results are suppressed.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These laws have impacted adversely on the cannabis plant's cultivation for non-recreational purposes, but there are many regions where, under certain circumstances, handling of cannabis is legal or licensed.^ There are many strains or versions of the Cannabis plant alive today.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are 3 main species of Cannabis plants.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is much more to it than just this and many other books that discuss the legal aspects of Marijuana go into great detail about the history of Marijuana.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many jurisdictions have lessened the penalties for possession of small quantities of cannabis, so that it is punished by confiscation and sometimes a fine, rather than imprisonment, focusing more on those who traffic the drug on the black market.^ The point of that, though, is not simply so that people might be warned that cannabis is actually rather bad for them: it is that the range of penalties available to the courts when someone is found to possess cannabis or to traffic in it becomes that much more stringent.
  • Cannabis smokers need to be locked up - Telegraph 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only in those who are already susceptible to schizophrenia will the illness very occasionally manifest itself after smoking cannabis.
  • Cannabis smokers need to be locked up - Telegraph 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Perhaps even more pernicious are those ONDCP anti-drug ads on television, radio and in print.
  • cannabisnews.com: Priming The Propaganda Mill 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC cannabisnews.com [Source type: General]

In some areas where cannabis use has been historically tolerated, some new restrictions have been put in place, such as the closing of cannabis coffee shops near the borders of the Netherlands,[91] closing of coffee shops near secondary schools in the Netherlands and crackdowns on "Pusher Street" in Christiania, Copenhagen in 2004.[92][93]
.Some jurisdictions use free voluntary treatment programs and/or mandatory treatment programs for frequent known users.^ The less disruptive nature of cannabis use-related problems poses greater challenges for drug user treatment providers guided by strict abstinence agendas.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Ecstasy (86.6% of users) and cocaine (85.7% of users) were the two most-frequently reported club drugs used in combination with other substances.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cocaine-dependent individuals frequently also use marijuana; however, little is known about the effect of this combined use on treatment presentation.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.Simple possession can carry long prison terms in some countries, particularly in East Asia, where the sale of cannabis may lead to a sentence of life in prison or even execution.^ Cannabis has now been implicated in the etiology of many major long-term psychiatric conditions including depression, anxiety, psychosis, bipolar disorder, and an amotivational state.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This will allow you some degree of experimentation as you may fail on your first attempt to germinate the seeds because of lack of any previous cannabis growing experience.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some studies even point to rather long-lasting effects, especially after chronic tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) abuse.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

Price

The price or street value of cannabis varies strongly by region and area. .In addition, some dealers may sell potent buds at a higher price.^ Some bud may only contain 20% THC, with a THC level of 5.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some lateral branches may develop new shoots but these are somewhat small and thin and do not support much bud growth.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of course high yields may not mean highly potent bud.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[94]
.In the United States, cannabis is overall the #4 value crop, and is #1 or #2 in many states including California, New York and Florida, averaging $3,000/lb.^ Recently, the possibility that it may be used against cannabis crops in California and Hawaii has surfaced.
  • Pharmacological Reviews of Marijuana 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.druglibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cannabis has now been implicated in the etiology of many major long-term psychiatric conditions including depression, anxiety, psychosis, bipolar disorder, and an amotivational state.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Participants: All public schools in the United States that included grades 6 through 8 and enrolled at least 100 students in sixth grade were recruited.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[95][96] It is believed to generate an estimated $36 billion market.[97] .Most of the money is spent not on growing and producing but on smuggling the supply to buyers.^ In most cases the cola is going to produce the most bud so why not try to get that part of the plant to grow really big.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime claims in its 2008 World Drug Report that typical U.S. retail prices are 10-15 dollars per gram (approximately $290 to $430 per ounce).^ The analytical lab conducting the vaporizer research has received replies from NIDA and the DEA regarding its requests to import 10 grams of marijuana from the Dutch Office of Medicinal Cannabis and to purchase 10 grams from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (see entry below for June 24, 2003).
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Highlights: This report presents the first information from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), an annual survey sponsored by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA).
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Mark Souder that seeks to have the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) write a report about the "medical" uses of marijuana for FDA to distribute.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

Street prices in North America are known to range at about $150 to $250 per ounce.[98]
.The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction reports that typical retail prices in Europe for cannabis varies from 2€ to 14€ per gram, with a majority of European countries reporting prices in the range 4–10€.^ Participants will be randomly assigned to one of three conditions, 1) receive 2 grams per day of placebo, 2) 6% THC or 3) 12% THC cannabis.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Methods: N=3021 community subjects aged 14-24 at baseline were followed-up over a period ranging Lip to 10 years.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Similarly, cannabis was confirmed as the most common self-reported drug combined with driving.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[99] In the United Kingdom, a cannabis plant has an approximate street value of £300.[100]

Truth serum

Cannabis was used as a truth serum by the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), a US government intelligence agency formed during World War II. In the early 1940s, it was the most effective truth drug developed at the OSS labs at St. Elizabeths Hospital; it caused a subject "to be loquacious and free in his impartation of information."[101]
In May 1943, Major George Hunter White, head of OSS counter-intelligence operations in the US, arranged a meeting with Augusto Del Gracio, an enforcer for gangster Lucky Luciano. .Del Gracio was given cigarettes spiked with THC concentrate from cannabis, and subsequently talked openly about Luciano's heroin operation.^ Mar 25, 2006, 04:43 PM You are talking about cigarettes, right?
  • Do you smoke? [Archive] - Mac Forums 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC forums.macrumors.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Little difference in retention occurred among those given no medication, or a cannabis cigarette, or disulfiram or the combination of the cigarette and disulfiram (143).
  • Pharmacological Reviews of Marijuana 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.druglibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Remember that we talked about Species of Cannabis - Sativa, Indica and Rudereralis?
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On a second occasion the dosage was increased such that Del Gracio passed out for two hours.^ Chill out for an hour or so of chilled-out beats and conversation to get positively blazed to, just don't forget to puff, puff, pass!
  • Dopefiend.co.uk : The Cannabis Podcast Network 25 September 2009 15:29 UTC dopecast.libsyn.com [Source type: General]

^ Prelude2Tragedy Mar 25, 2006, 06:28 PM I smoke cigarettes very occasionally when Im out at the bar and such.
  • Do you smoke? [Archive] - Mac Forums 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC forums.macrumors.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If you have such a high regard for intellect, let's hear a well thought out opinion or two.
  • Do you smoke? [Archive] - Mac Forums 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC forums.macrumors.com [Source type: Original source]

[101]

Breeding and cultivation

Maturing female Cannabis plant
.It is often claimed by growers and breeders of herbal cannabis that advances in breeding and cultivation techniques have increased the potency of cannabis since the late 1960s and early '70s, when THC was first discovered and understood.^ Advanced Growing Techniques New techniques for cannabis cultivation - Hydroponics .
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A. "Marijuana" refers to the dried leaves and flowers of the cannabis plant [1], which contain the non-narcotic chemical THC at various potencies.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Archeologists report that cannabis was possibly the first plant cultivated by humans - about 8000 B.C. - and was used for linen, paper, and garments.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, potent seedless marijuana such as "Thai sticks" were already available at that time.^ Critics of medical marijuana say that it's unnecessary because patients can obtain the benefits of its active ingredient, THC, through a drug that's already available, Marinol.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

.Sinsemilla (Spanish for "without seed") is the dried, seedless inflorescences of female cannabis plants.^ Sinsemilla: Refers to non-pollinated female cannabis plants.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "They started out with a very low-grade plant, rolled it up with stems and seeds, and then freeze-dried it so that they probably ruined any of the THC crystals.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The female plant when pollinated does produce THC but also produces seeds which prevent larger quantities of bud from being produced.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because THC production drops off once pollination occurs, the male plants (which produce little THC themselves) are eliminated before they shed pollen to prevent pollination.^ "They started out with a very low-grade plant, rolled it up with stems and seeds, and then freeze-dried it so that they probably ruined any of the THC crystals.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The female plant when pollinated does produce THC but also produces seeds which prevent larger quantities of bud from being produced.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some strains have male plants that produce more THC than other males of a different strain.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Advanced cultivation techniques such as hydroponics, cloning, high-intensity artificial lighting, and the sea of green method are frequently employed as a response (in part) to prohibition enforcement efforts that make outdoor cultivation more risky.^ Advanced Growing Techniques New techniques for cannabis cultivation - Hydroponics .
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These lights are commonly called HID (High Intensity Discharge).
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is like a SOG (Sea of Green) grow, but a screen is used to train the plant to grow horizontally creating a canopy of buds beneath the light.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These intensive horticultural techniques have made it possible to grow strains with fewer seeds and higher potency.^ Each seed breeder tries to develop the best plant possible for that strain type.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First Early Sexing Method: If you have been growing the same strain and all the seeds at the same time, then you may notice that some plants are taller than others.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are rip-off artists out there, but then again some of these seeds are worth the money because the strain is excellent in vigor and production.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is often cited that the average levels of THC in cannabis sold in United States rose dramatically between the 1970s and 2000, but such statements are likely skewed because of undue weight given to much more expensive and potent, but less prevalent samples.^ I have to write a couple more entries, before I will let strangers see it, much less my friends in here ...
  • cannabisnews.com: Priming The Propaganda Mill 11 September 2009 17:18 UTC cannabisnews.com [Source type: General]

^ The use of marijuana as a medication has been a politically charged topic in the United States for more than three decades.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Such a finding does not disprove the relationship between cannabis and gynecomastia.
  • Pharmacological Reviews of Marijuana 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.druglibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

[102]
."Skunk" refers to several named strains of potent cannabis, grown through selective breeding and often hydroponics.^ This is done through selective breeding.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By constantly selecting new traits that you want to keep, you can manipulate the strain into a totally true breeding strain for every phenotype.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eventually through selection and keeping records you will end up with a plant that is true breeding for all the features that you want.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is a cross-breed of Cannabis sativa and C. indica (although other strains of this mix exist in abundance).^ A population is a group of individuals of the same strain or species, [such as cannabis Indica or cannabis Sativa (species), or Skunk#1 and Master Kush (strains of a species)], in a given area whose members can interbreed with one another.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not only this but the species can be crossed to produce Indica/Sativa type plants or Sativa/Indica type plants.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PURE SATIVA (This is a pure species) SATIVA (This is a mostly Sativa species with some Indica) PURE INDICA (This is a pure species) INDICA (This is a mostly Indica species with some Sativa) INDICA/SATIVA (This is a 50/50 cross between a Sativa and an Indica species) They also produce: RUDERALIS (This is a pure species) And some other Ruderalis mixes.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Skunk cannabis potency ranges usually from 6% to 15% and rarely as high as 20%.^ Twenty psychotic patients admitted to a mental hospital with high urinary cannabinoid levels were compared with 20 such patients with no evidence of exposure to cannabis.
  • Pharmacological Reviews of Marijuana 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.druglibrary.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Treatments were placebo and active cannabis ranging in potency between 1 and 8% Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, four times daily for 5 consecutive days during each of 2 treatment weeks, separated by a 2-week washout.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.The average THC level in coffee shops in the Netherlands is about 18–19%.^ If you wish to know more about THC levels it is best to consult your seed-bank or breeder for details.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many communities in the country do not have coffee shops, and users under 18 years of age are not allowed to enter coffee shops.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In the Netherlands, small amounts of cannabis can be lawfully sold to consumers in so-called coffee shops.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[103]
.Skunk can sometimes be incorrectly mistaken for all types of female herbal cannabis.^ Chapter 1 THE CANNABIS PLANT: A BRIEF HISTORY OF CANNABIS AND THE BASICS OF USING CANNABIS This picture is of a young female Skunk#1 plant developing her flower cluster.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[104]
.After revisions to cannabis rescheduling in the UK, the government moved cannabis back from a class C to a class B drug.^ Male-female differences in cannabis use were traced back to male-female differences in drug exposure opportunities.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The government cited the availability of stronger strains of cannabis and a large rise in the number of UK-based 'cannabis farms' as the reasons for this decision.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The British government downgraded cannabis from a Class B to a Class C drug in 2004; but in 2008 it reversed this decision, and cannabis is due to be reclassified back to Class B in January 2009.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

A purported reason was the appearance of high potency cannabis.[105]
.It is noted that one of the earliest strains of skunk to appear was that of "SKUNK #1", which has been inbred since 1978.[106] High potency herbal cannabis has been around potentially, even longer.^ A population is a group of individuals of the same strain or species, [such as cannabis Indica or cannabis Sativa (species), or Skunk#1 and Master Kush (strains of a species)], in a given area whose members can interbreed with one another.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chapter 16 STRAIN INDEX This section contains a list of cannabis strains that you will more than likely come across if you shop around.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chronic: A strain of cannabis or a high-quality cannabis weed.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A Dutch double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study examining male volunteers aged 18–45 years with a self-reported history of regular cannabis use concluded that smoking of cannabis with high THC levels (marijuana with 9–23% THC), as currently sold in coffee shops in the Netherlands, may lead to higher THC blood-serum concentrations.^ On self-report, participants receiving buspirone reported not using marijuana 45.2% of days and participants receiving placebo reported not using 51.4% of days (p=0.55).
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The PTSD study will use THC drops as opposed to smoked marijuana.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Scores of 50 or higher can be included into a placebo-controlled, double-blind study of self-administered smoked cannabis for the treatment of PTSD symptoms.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

.This is reflected by an increase of the occurrence of impaired psychomotor skills, particularly among younger or inexperienced cannabis smokers, who do not adapt their smoking style to the higher THC content.^ Conclusions: Cannabis use may be related to higher positive symptom scores for FEP patients, with greater improvement after six months for those who cease using cannabis.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Scores of 50 or higher can be included into a placebo-controlled, double-blind study of self-administered smoked cannabis for the treatment of PTSD symptoms.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Many a smoker will say that the best cannabis they ever smoked was outdoor cannabis.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[107] .High THC concentrations in cannabis was associated with a dose-related increase of physical effects (such as increase of heart rate, and decrease of blood pressure) and psychomotor effects (such as reacting more slowly, being less concentrated, making more mistakes during performance testing, having less motor control, and experiencing drowsiness).^ CANNABIS. The cannabis constituent that produces the high is called Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta-9-THC, widely known as THC.) Delta-9-THC enters the bloodstream rapidly after smoking (in minutes) or more slowly when ingested orally (20 minutes to 1.5 hours).
  • how long does it take for marijuana to get out of your... - Q&A 25 September 2009 1:23 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: General]

^ Subjective, physiological (heart rate, blood pressure, and carbon monoxide levels) and pharmacokinetic effects (plasma THC concentration) were monitored before and at specified time points for 3 h after smoking.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study investigated the acute effects of cannabinoids on psychomotor performance in 24 healthy right-handed volunteers (age 27.9 +/- A 2.9 years, 12 male) by comparing Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC) and standardized cannabis extract containing Delta(9)-THC and cannabidiol.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.It was also observed during the study that the effects from a single joint at times lasted for more than eight hours.^ It is more than possible, with the right strain, to have a single plant cover an entire desk using this method.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only add small amounts each time and then the next day use the pH meter to study the effects.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Recent studies have also shown that cannabinoids may have more specific effects in interrupting the pathological process in Alzheimer's disease.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.Reaction times remained impaired five hours after smoking, when the THC serum concentrations were significantly reduced, but still present.^ Within-subject analyses present a challenge to the theory as social learning variables do not covary significantly over time with criminal offending rates.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Subjective, physiological (heart rate, blood pressure, and carbon monoxide levels) and pharmacokinetic effects (plasma THC concentration) were monitored before and at specified time points for 3 h after smoking.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The present report is of a young male patient who was affected by acute inferior MI half an hour after cannabis smoking.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.The researchers suggested that THC may accumulate in blood-serum when cannabis is smoked several times per day.^ JacMarie on August 17th, 2009 at 10:03 pm I have smoked every day for quite some time now.
  • How long does marijuana stay in your system 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC howto.dcrdetox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Published research tends to quantify marijuana use by the number of joints smoked, the number of use episodes per day/per week/per month.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ I smoked 5-10 joints a day (depending on who im with) for about 4 years, and i had to take a blood drug test, after a week with alot of eating and alot of liquid, i passed the test.
  • How long does marijuana stay in your system 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC howto.dcrdetox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Another study showed that consumption of 15 mg of Δ9-THC resulted in no impairment to learning whatsoever occurring over a three-trial selective reminding task after two hours.^ ElSohly also claimed that if marijuana were to be approved by FDA using marijuana provided by NIDA, that we would have no trouble just switching to another product with similar THC levels.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, the "Siler" Study 409 conducted by the U.S in Panama (1931) reported "no impairment" in military personnel who smoked marijuana while off duty.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Six consecutive outpatients (four men and two women) with the diagnosis of PD and who had psychosis for at least 3 months were selected for the study.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

.In several tasks, Δ9-THC increased both speed and error rates, reflecting “riskier” speed–accuracy trade-offs.^ Although both trials reported a positive effect from Delta(THC)-T-9, the improvements in tic frequency and severity were small and were only detected by some of the outcome measures.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ THC subjects exhibited a significant increase of latency in the prosaccade and antisaccade tasks, as well as prolonged saccade amplitudes in the antisaccade and memory-guided task, compared with the control subjects.
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition, increased levels of hypoactivity in both the ACC and right insula regions were significantly correlated with error-awareness rates in the cannabis group (but not controls).
  • CORK Bibliography: Marijuana 6 February 2010 12:21 UTC www.projectcork.org [Source type: Academic]

[108]

See also

Notes

Footnotes

.^ a: Weed, pot, buddha or bud, Mary Jane, grass, herb, dope, schwag, and reefer, are among the many other nicknames for marijuana or cannabis as a drug.^ Mary Jane: A codeword for marijuana.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are many things you can take with you on your trip to make you look more like somebody else other than a cannabis grower.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Researchers have unobstructed access to other Schedule I and II drugs and marijuana should be no exception.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

[109]
.^ b: Sources for this section (as well as far more information) can be found in the Medical cannabis article.^ Chapter 16 STRAIN INDEX This section contains a list of cannabis strains that you will more than likely come across if you shop around.
  • cannibus grow bible - Grasscity.com Forums 11 September 2009 17:20 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cannabis Culture offers an article on medical marijuana patient Angel Raich’s struggle in the Supreme Court.
  • MAPS’ Medical Marijuana Research 28 January 2010 0:25 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Mrs.Z brings more news the medical Marijuana and Medical Information for the week ending October 21, 2007.
  • Dopefiend.co.uk : The Cannabis Podcast Network 25 September 2009 15:29 UTC dopecast.libsyn.com [Source type: General]


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Further reading

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