Canyon: Wikis

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  • the lush canyon Ein Avdat (pictured) and its surroundings have been experiencing continuous human activity for some 80,000–90,000 years?

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Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Noravank Monastery complex and canyon in Armenia.
Aerial view of canyons in western United States.

A canyon (occasionally spelled cañon) or gorge is a deep ravine between cliffs often carved from the landscape by a river. Most canyons were formed by a process of long-time erosion from a plateau level. The cliffs form because harder rock strata that are resistant to erosion and weathering remain exposed on the valley walls. Canyons are much more common in arid areas than in wetter areas because weathering has a greater effect in arid zones. Canyon walls are often formed of resistant sandstones or granite. Submarine canyons are those which form underwater, generally at the mouths of rivers. The word canyon is Spanish in origin (cañón). The word canyon is generally used in the United States, while the word gorge is more common in Europe and Oceania, though it is also used in some parts of the United States and Canada. The military derived word defile is occasionally used in the United Kingdom.

A famous example is the Grand Canyon in Arizona with an average depth of one mile and a volume of 4.17 trillion cubic meters.[1] In the southwestern United States, canyon are important archeologically because of the many cliff-dwellings built there, largely by the earlier inhabitants, Ancient Pueblo Peoples.

The Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon (or Tsangpo Canyon), along the Yarlung Tsangpo River in Tibet, China, is regarded by some as the deepest canyon in the world, and is slightly longer than Grand Canyon making it one of the world's largest.[2]

Sometimes large rivers run through canyons as the result of gradual geologic uplift. These are called entrenched rivers, because they are unable to easily alter their course. The Colorado River and the Snake River in the northwestern United States are two examples of tectonic uplift.

Canyons often form in areas of limestone rock. Limestone is to a certain extent soluble, so cave systems form in the rock. When these collapse a canyon is left, for example in the Mendip Hills in Somerset and Yorkshire Dales in Yorkshire, England.

A canyon may also refer to a rift between two mountain peaks such as those in ranges such as the Rocky Mountains, the Alps, the Himalayas or the Andes. Usually a river or stream and erosion carve out such splits between mountains. Examples of mountain type canyons are Provo Canyon in Utah or Yosemite National Park in California's Sierra Nevada. Canyons within mountains or gorges that only have an opening on one side are called box canyons. Slot canyons are very narrow canyons, often with smooth walls.

Contents

Largest canyons

The definition of "largest canyon" is rather imprecise, as a canyon can be large by its depth, length, or the total area of the canyon system. Also the inaccessibility of the major canyons in the Himalaya contributes to their not being regarded as candidates for the biggest canyon. The definition of "deepest canyon" is similarly imprecise, especially if one includes mountain canyons as well as canyons cut through relatively flat plateaus (which have a somewhat well-defined rim elevation).

Lists

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List of canyons

Gorges of Ak-Shur.
Bicaz Canyon, Romania

List of gorges

Swaan gorge

List of other features causing gorges or canyons

Canyons on other planetary bodies

Venus has many craters and canyons on its surface. The troughs on the planet are part of a system of canyons that is more than 6 400 km long.

See also

Notes


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Canyon is a city in the High Plains region of the Texas Panhandle. It is home to the West Texas branch of Texas A&M University, the most prestigious in the region, and is the gateway city to Palo Duro Canyon.

  • Panhandle-Plains Historical Museum, 2503 4th Avenue, 806 651 2244, [1]. The largest historical museum in the state hosts a wide range of artifacts covering Panhandle pre-history, American Indian life, the early pioneer era, and cowboy life on the ranches.
  • Combine City, FM 1151 near Osage Road. A farmer living along the road to Palo Duro Canyon has created a tractor version of Amarillo's Cadillac ranch, planting 12 wheat combines in a field. Unlike the Cadillac version, visitors are not invited onto the property.
  • Down Home, 1517 4th Ave, 806 655 8783.
  • It's the Berry's, 407 16th St, 806 655 0111.
  • Stewart Antiques, 805 19th St, 806 655 0676.
  • Vintage Funk, 405 16th St, 806 655 4000.
  • El Patio, 1410 Highway 60, 806 655 4300. Family-owned restaurant with Tex-Mex and Mexican cuisine.
  • Pepito's Mexican Restaurant, 408 23rd St., 806 655 4736. Good Tex-Mex food plus chicken fried steaks and hamburgers. Try the beef fajitas.
  • Thai Spice Restaurant, 102 23rd St, 806 655 4635.
  • Buffalo Inn, 300 23rd St, 806 655 2124. An older hotel, but clean and inexpensive.
  • Holiday Inn Express, 2901 4th Ave, 806 655 4445. Better than most locations of the same chain. Clean rooms, microwave, a good complimentary breakfast.
  • Hudspeth House, 1905 4th Ave., 806 655 9800, [2]. Bed and breakfast in a house dating from the 1910's with a wraparound veranda and beautiful gardens.
Routes through Canyon
ENDAmarillo  N noframe S  PlainviewLubbock
ClovisHereford  W noframe E  PampaAmarillo
Colorado SpringsAmarillo  N noframe S  PlainviewLubbock
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

CANYON (Anglicized form of Span. canon, a tube, pipe or cannon; the Spanish form being also frequently written), a type of valley with huge precipitous sides, such as the Grand Canyons of the Colorado and the Yellowstone rivers, and the gorge of the Niagara river below the falls, due to rapid stream erosion in a "young" land. A river saws its channel vertically downwards, and a swift stream erodes chiefly at the bottom. In rainy regions the valleys thus formed are widened out by slopewash and the resultant valley-slopes are gentle, but in arid regions there is very little side-extension of the valleys and the river cuts its way downwards, leaving almost vertical cliffs above the stream. If the stream be swift as in the western plateau of North America, the cutting action will be rapid. The ideal conditions for developing a canyon are: great altitude and slope causing swift streams, arid conditions with absence of side-wash, and hard rock horizontally bedded which will hold the walls up.

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also canyon

German

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German Wikipedia has an article on:
Canyon

Wikipedia de

Noun

Canyon m. (genitive Canyons, plural Canyons)

  1. canyon

Simple English

A canyon is a big crack in the ground. Many canyons are made by rivers and earthquakes. They can be big, like the Grand Canyon, or small.

Canyons are typically found in the Southwestern U.S.

Canyons can be formed by running water which will take sediment ( pieces of the earth ) away and create a trench getting deeper until it forms a canyon.



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