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Cape Canaveral from space, August 1991

Cape Canaveral, from the Spanish Cabo Cañaveral, is a headland in Brevard County, Florida, United States, near the center of that state's Atlantic coast, 45 minutes east of Orlando by car. Known as Cape Kennedy from 1963 to 1973, it sits east of Merritt Island, separated from it by the Banana River. It is part of a region known as the Space Coast, and is the site of the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. Since many U.S. spacecraft are launched from both the station and the Kennedy Space Center on adjacent Merritt Island, the terms "Cape Canaveral," "Canaveral" or even "The Cape" have become metonyms that refer to both as the launch site of spacecraft. In homage to its spacefaring heritage, the Florida Public Service Commission allocated "321" as the telephone area code for Cape Canaveral and surrounding counties.

Other features of the cape include Cape Canaveral lighthouse and Port Canaveral. The city of Cape Canaveral is a few miles south of the cape. Mosquito Lagoon, The Indian River, Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge and Canaveral National Seashore are also features of this area.

Contents

History

A section of a map from the 1584 edition of Abraham Ortelius' Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, Additamentum III showing the name C. de Cañareal.

Humans have occupied the area for 12,000 years.[1] The Timucuans were here when the Spanish arrived.[2] The Onathaqua (Ouathaqua?) tribe or village was in the area. They were in alliance with the Calusa in 1564. They may have been part of the Ais tribe.[3]

In the early 16th century Cape Canaveral was noted on maps, although without being named. It was named by Spanish explorers in the first half of the 16th century as Cabo Cañaveral or Cabo Cañareal, which literally means "Cape Canebrake" (a canebrake is a dense thicket of cane vegetation). The name "Canaveral" (Cañaveral in Spanish) is one of the three oldest surviving European place names in the U.S.[4] The first application of the name, according to the Smithsonian Institution, was from the 1521–1525 explorations of Spanish explorer Francisco Gordillo.[5] A point of land jutting out into an area of the Atlantic Ocean with swift currents, it became a landing spot for many shipwrecked sailors. An early alternate name was "Cape of Currents." By at least 1564, the name appeared on maps.[5]

English privateer Master John Hawkins and his journalist John Sparke gave an account of their landing at Cape Canaveral in the 1500's.[6] A Presbyterian missionary was wrecked here and lived among the Indians.[7] Other histories tell of French survivors from Jean Ribault's Fort Caroline whose ship the "Trinite" wrecked on the shores of Cape Canaveral and from whose timbers a fort was built.

The last naval battle of the American Revolutionary War was fought off the shores of Cape Canaveral in 1783, between the USS Alliance and the HMS Sybill.[8]

Due to the hazards of the Cape to shipping, the first Cape Canaveral Lighthouse was built and completed in 1843.

The 1890 graduating class of Harvard University started a gun club called the "Canaveral Club" at the Cape. This was founded by C.B. Horton of Boston and George H. Reed. A number of distinguished visitors including presidents Grover Cleveland and Benjamin Harrison were reported to have stayed here. In the 1920s the grand building fell in disrepair and later burned to the ground.

In the 1900s several communities sprang up in Cape Canaveral. The area was predominately a farming and fishing community. The town was formerly called Artesia[9] and records indicate the following residents and their occupations:

  • Burns, M.B. (fruit grower),
  • Burns, R.G. (fisherman),
  • Chandler, Wyatt. (fruit grower),
  • Franklin, A. (painter),
  • Holmes, G.W. (apiarist),
  • Honeywell, CP. (lighthouse keeper),
  • Jeffords, S.L. (assistant lighthouse keeper),
  • Peterson, W.C. (apiarist),
  • Praetorious E. (assistant lighthouse keeper),
  • Quarterman, O.A. (Fishery),
  • Thompson, T. (engineer),
  • Wilson, F.A. (fisherman),
  • Wilson, H. (fruit grower).

In the 1930s a community of wealthy journalists started a community called "Journalista" which is now called Avon by the Sea. The Brossier brothers built houses in this area and started a publication entitled the Evening Star Reporter that was the forerunner of the Orlando Sentinel.

The first rocket launch from the Cape was Bumper 8 from Launch Pad 3 on 24 July 1950. On February 6, 1959 the first successful test firing of a Titan intercontinental ballistic missile was accomplished here. NASA's Project Mercury and Gemini were launched from Cape Canaveral, although the Apollo program and Space Shuttle missions have launched from Kennedy Space Center on adjacent Merritt Island.

Cape Canaveral was chosen for rocket launches to take advantage of the Earth's rotation. The linear velocity of the Earth's surface is greatest towards the equator; the relatively southerly location of the Cape allows rockets to take advantage of this by launching eastward, in the same direction as the Earth's rotation. It is also highly desirable to have the downrange area sparsely populated, in case of accidents; an ocean is ideal for this. Although the United States has sites closer to the equator with expanses of ocean to the east of them (e.g. Hawaii, Puerto Rico), the east coast of Florida has substantial logistical advantages over these island locations. The tip of the cape is at LC-46 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

Name changes

Post offices in the area were called Artesia from 1893-1954, Port Canaveral from 1954-1962 and Cape Canaveral from 1962 to the present.[10]

From 1963 to 1973 it was called Cape Kennedy. President John F. Kennedy set the goal of landing on the moon. After his assassination in 1963, his widow Jacqueline Kennedy suggested to President Lyndon Johnson that renaming the Cape Canaveral facility would be an appropriate memorial. However, Johnson recommended the renaming not just of the facility, but of the entire cape. Accordingly, Cape Canaveral was renamed Cape Kennedy.

Although the name change was approved by the United States Board on Geographic Names of the Interior Department in 1964, it was not popular in Florida, especially in the city of Cape Canaveral, Florida. In 1973 the state passed a law restoring the former 400-year-old name, and the board went along. The Kennedy family issued a letter stating they "understood the decision"; Jacqueline Kennedy also stated if she had known that the Canaveral name had existed for 400 years, she never would have supported changing the name. The NASA center retains the "Kennedy" name.

References

  1. ^ Vera Zimmerman. THE FIRST SETTLERS, 10,000 BC to 1820 retrieved August 11, 2007
  2. ^ "Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}". Catholic Encyclopdia 1912. newadvent.org. 1913. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14733a.htm. 
  3. ^ "Calusa Indian History". Handbook of American Indians. accessgenealogy.com. 1906. http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/calusa/calusahist.htm. 
  4. ^ Florida was named earlier, April 2, 1513, by Ponce de Leon, whose men also named Las Tortugas, now Dry Tortugas. From the account by Spanish historian Antonio de Herrera y Tordesillas, published in 1601. Source: Stewart, George (1945). Names on the Land: An Historical Account of Place-Naming in the United States. New York: Random House. pp. 11–13. 
  5. ^ a b "The History of Cape Canaveral, Chapter 1: Cape Canaveral Before Rockets (B.C.–1948)". Spaceline, Inc.. http://www.spaceline.org/capehistory/1a.html. Retrieved 2008-12-29. 
  6. ^ Author Henrietta Carr stated in her book
  7. ^ Robert Ranson in his book "East Coast Memoirs" writes
  8. ^ Sonnenberg, Maria (January 22, 2007). Group pays homage to the past. Florida Today, page 3B. 
  9. ^ [1]
  10. ^ Lang, Doug (7 January 2010). "Help column:New restaurant owner will honor gift cards". Florida Today (Melbourne, Florida: Florida Today): pp. 2D. http://www.floridatoday.com/article/20100107/COLUMNISTS0401/1070305/-1/SEVENDAYS. 

External links

Coordinates: 28°27′20″N 80°31′40″W / 28.45556°N 80.52778°W / 28.45556; -80.52778


Cape Canaveral, from the Spanish Cabo Cañaveral, is a headland in Brevard County, Florida, United States, near the center of the state's Atlantic coast. Known as Cape Kennedy from 1963 to 1973, it lies east of Merritt Island, separated from it by the Banana River. It is part of a region known as the Space Coast, and is the site of the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. Since many U.S. spacecraft are launched from both the station and the Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island, the terms "Cape Canaveral," "Canaveral" or even "The Cape" have become metonyms that refer to both as the launch site of spacecraft. In homage to its spacefaring heritage, the Florida Public Service Commission allocated "321" as the telephone area code for Cape Canaveral and surrounding counties.

Other features of the cape include the Cape Canaveral lighthouse and Port Canaveral. The city of Cape Canaveral is a few miles south of the cape. Mosquito Lagoon, The Indian River, Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge and Canaveral National Seashore are also features of this area.

Contents

History

Humans have occupied the area for 12,000 years.[1] The Timucuans were there when the Spanish arrived.[2] The Onathaqua tribe or village was in the area. They were in alliance with the Calusa in 1564. They may have been part of the Ais tribe.[3]

In the early 16th century Cape Canaveral was noted on maps, although without being named. It was named by Spanish explorers in the first half of the 16th century as Cabo Cañaveral or Cabo Cañareal, which literally means "Cape Canebrake" (a canebrake is a dense thicket of cane vegetation). The name "Canaveral" (Cañaveral in Spanish) is one of the three oldest surviving European place names in the U.S.[4] The first application of the name, according to the Smithsonian Institution, was from the 1521–1525 explorations of Spanish explorer Francisco Gordillo.[5] A point of land jutting out into an area of the Atlantic Ocean with swift currents, it became a landing spot for many shipwrecked sailors. An early alternate name was "Cape of Currents." By at least 1564, the name appeared on maps.[5]

English privateer Master John Hawkins and his journalist John Sparke gave an account of their landing at Cape Canaveral in the 16th century.[6] A Presbyterian missionary was wrecked here and lived among the Indians.[7] Other histories tell of French survivors from Jean Ribault's Fort Caroline whose ship the "Trinite" wrecked on the shores of Cape Canaveral and from whose timbers a fort was built.

The last naval battle of the American Revolutionary War was fought off the shores of Cape Canaveral in 1783, between the USS Alliance and the HMS Sybill.[8]

Because of the hazards of the cape to shipping, the first Cape Canaveral Lighthouse was built and completed in 1843.

The 1890 graduating class of Harvard University started a gun club called the "Canaveral Club" at the Cape. This was founded by C.B. Horton of Boston and George H. Reed. A number of distinguished visitors including presidents Grover Cleveland and Benjamin Harrison were reported to have stayed here. In the 1920s the grand building fell in disrepair and later burned to the ground.

In the 20th century several communities sprang up in Cape Canaveral. The area was predominately a farming and fishing community. The town was formerly called Artesia.[9]

In the 1930s a group of wealthy journalists started a community called "Journalista" which is now called Avon by the Sea. The Brossier brothers built houses in this area and started a publication entitled the Evening Star Reporter that was the forerunner of the Orlando Sentinel.

Rocket launch site

The first rocket launch from the Cape was Bumper 8 from Launch Complex 3 on 24 July 1950. On 6 February 1959 the first successful test firing of a Titan intercontinental ballistic missile was accomplished. NASA's Project Mercury and Gemini were launched from Cape Canaveral as was Apollo 7, the rest of the Apollo and all of the Space Shuttle missions launched from the Kennedy Space Center on adjacent Merritt Island.

Cape Canaveral was chosen for rocket launches to take advantage of the Earth's rotation. The linear velocity of the Earth's surface is greatest towards the equator; the relatively southerly location of the cape allows rockets to take advantage of this by launching eastward, in the same direction as the Earth's rotation. It is also highly desirable to have the downrange area sparsely populated, in case of accidents; an ocean is ideal for this. Although the United States has sites closer to the equator with expanses of ocean to the east of them (e.g. Hawaii, Puerto Rico), the east coast of Florida has substantial logistical advantages over these island locations. The tip of the cape is at LC-46 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

Name changes

Post offices in the area were called Artesia from 1893–1954; Port Canaveral from 1954-1962; and Cape Canaveral from 1962 to the present.[10]

From 1963 to 1973 it was called Cape Kennedy. President John F. Kennedy set the goal of landing on the moon. After his assassination in 1963, his widow Jacqueline Kennedy suggested to President Lyndon Johnson that renaming the Cape Canaveral facility would be an appropriate memorial. Johnson recommended the renaming of the entire cape. Accordingly, Cape Canaveral was renamed Cape Kennedy.

Although the name change was approved by the United States Board on Geographic Names of the Interior Department in 1964, it was not popular in Florida, especially in the city of Cape Canaveral. In 1973 the Florida Legislature passed a law restoring the former 400-year-old name, and the Board went along. The Kennedy family issued a letter stating they "understood the decision"; Jacqueline Kennedy also stated if she had known that the Canaveral name had existed for 400 years, she never would have supported changing the name. The NASA center, Kennedy Space Center, retains the "Kennedy" name.

References

  1. ^ Vera Zimmerman. THE FIRST SETTLERS, 10,000 BC to 1820 retrieved August 11, 2007
  2. ^ "Catholic Encyclopedia". Catholic Encyclopdia 1912. newadvent.org. 1913. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14733a.htm. 
  3. ^ "Calusa Indian History". Handbook of American Indians. accessgenealogy.com. 1906. http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/calusa/calusahist.htm. 
  4. ^ Florida was named earlier, April 2, 1513, by Ponce de Leon, whose men also named Las Tortugas, now Dry Tortugas. From the account by Spanish historian Antonio de Herrera y Tordesillas, published in 1601. Source: Stewart, George (1945). Names on the Land: An Historical Account of Place-Naming in the United States. New York: Random House. pp. 11–13. 
  5. ^ a b "The History of Cape Canaveral, Chapter 1: Cape Canaveral Before Rockets (B.C.–1948)". Spaceline, Inc.. http://www.spaceline.org/capehistory/1a.html. Retrieved 2008-12-29. 
  6. ^ Author Henrietta Carr stated in her book
  7. ^ Robert Ranson in his book "East Coast Memoirs" writes
  8. ^ Sonnenberg, Maria (January 22, 2007). Group pays homage to the past. Florida Today, page 3B. 
  9. ^ [1]
  10. ^ Lang, Doug (7 January 2010). "Help column:New restaurant owner will honor gift cards". Florida Today (Melbourne, Florida: Florida Today): pp. 2D. http://www.floridatoday.com/article/20100107/COLUMNISTS0401/1070305/-1/SEVENDAYS. 

External links

Coordinates: 28°27′20″N 80°31′40″W / 28.45556°N 80.52778°W / 28.45556; -80.52778


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Atlas rocket launches into space from Cape Canaveral (May 2004)
Atlas rocket launches into space from Cape Canaveral (May 2004)

Cape Canaveral is a city in Brevard County, Florida, most famous as the home of America's launch pad, Kennedy Space Center. Cape Canaveral is part of a region known as the "Space Coast", since all of the manned United States spacecraft are launched from the Space Center on nearby Merritt Island. The city of Cape Canaveral is located at the northern end of a barrier island on the Atlantic coast of Florida. It is due south of the geographical feature Cape Canaveral which is on Merritt Island.

Get in

By plane

Melbourne International Airport (IATA: MLB) [1], just 27 miles south, is the closest airport to Cape Canaveral. It is served by Delta Airlines [2] with six daily arrivals (note that Flight 5197 does not operate on Saturday, and Flight 5049 does not operate on Tuesday or Wednesday) from Atlanta.

Orlando International Airport (IATA: MCO) [3], from which Florida State Route 528 goes straight to Cape Canaveral, is the largest airport serving the area. The drive takes a little less than 1 hour.

Daytona Beach International Airport (IATA: DAB) [4] is about an hour and 15 minutes north by way of Interstate 95.

By train

The nearest Amtrak station is in DeLand, 77 miles north.

By car

Cape Canaveral is at the eastern end of Florida State Route 528 from Orlando. Interstate 95, a primary north-south route on the Atlantic Coast, intersects FL-528 near Cape Canaveral.

  • Space Coast Area Transit [5] is the name of the local Brevard County bus service. It is a cheap way to get around and is handicap accessible. The website provides maps and timetables. Buses travel to most sites and places of interest. $1.25 per ride, or $35 for a monthly pass.
Saturn V, KSC Visitor's Complex
Saturn V, KSC Visitor's Complex
  • Cape Canaveral Lighthouse [6]
  • Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex [7] (Follow Florida State Road 405 until it dead ends) This busy tourist attraction offers museums, movies, a rocket garden and bus tours of important shuttle preparation and launch facilities. This is an official Federal site - however, the visitor complex is run by contractors for a profit, so prices are comparable to private tourist attractions, not a typical national park. Basic admission (a 2 day pass) includes an excellent bus tour, the museums and the IMAX movies. Additional special tours or programs should be booked in advance since they sell out quickly. NOTE: this facility may *sometimes* be closed on shuttle launch days!
    • Shuttle Launches - passes to bring your car to sites "close" to the shuttle can be purchased through the KSC Visitor Complex [8]. Keep in mind that for safety reasons, the closest approach available is at least 4 miles away, and often much further (7 miles, 10 miles, etc.) Very few viewing sites offer a glimpse of the shuttle on the pad before launch - in which case, it really doesn't matter where in Brevard county you are. You will definitely see its blazing engines launch it up into the sky, and (seconds later, depending on the distance) hear the booming noise as it rattles your windows. On a clear day, a shuttle launch can sometimes be seen from Orlando! Most people with a launch pass arrive many hours early to choose the best location in their assigned area, and the gridlock getting out (everyone leaving at once) will take at least an hour. Additionally, launches are subject to cancellation for weather or a problem in any of the billions of parts that go into a vehicle, so a launch date can never be considered firm.

At Kennedy Space Center NASA also has there own Industrial Railroad with 3 EMD SW 1500's with 60 freight cars for to move rocket soild booster fuel heavy duty freight cars that are special built also moving Military Equipment , Rocket equipment , space mission eqipment.

  • Patrick Air Force Base [9] - due to security this unique national treasure is usually closed to the public, however a free bus tour is offered once a month by reservation only. Call 494-5945, 494-5949 or 494-5933 for reservations and more information. However, most of these unique Air Force sites, including older manned and unmanned launch pads, the newer unmanned vehicle launch pads and the intimate Air Force Museum, can also be seen from a fee-based special KSC bus tour of Cape Canaveral.
  • Go on a Cruise from Port Canaveral [10] - Evening and extended cruises offered. These are especially popular for their casino facilities which are not available on land.
    • Sterling Casino Lines, 180 Jetty Drive, Ph: (800) 765-5711. Go out for night on the water on Sterling. Ages 18+.
    • SunCruz Casino, 610 Glen Cheek Dr., 321-799-3511. Relax and gamble for a night on the water. Ages 18+.
  • Zero Gravity Corporation, 1-800-937-6480, [11]. Parabolic flights on a modified 727, offering brief periods of weightlessness. $3675.  edit
  • Cocoa Beach Sportfishing Charters, 800 Scallop Dr, 1-321-848-2662. [12]. Deep Sea Fishing Charters leaving from Cocoa Beach and Port Canaveral. Catch Dolphin,Wahoo,Sailfish,Grouper and many others. Children Welcome.

Buy

Kennedy Space Center's Gift shop is a treasure trove of astronaut autographs.

  • Fin Freak Offshore Charters, 505 gleen cheek dr Cape Canaveral, 321-631-3474, [13]. Cape Canaveral fishing charters  edit
  • Rusty's Seafood, 628 Glen Cheek Drive, (321) 783-2033, [14]. Great surf and turf, in a relaxing setting on the water, with live entertainment, and seating both inside and outside over the water.  edit
  • Grill's Seafood Deck &Tiki Bar, 505 Glen Cheek Drive, 321-868-2226, [15]. Fresh seafood and great atmosphere.  edit
  • Fishlips, 610 Glen Cheek Drive (At Port Canaveral), 321-784-4533, [16]. Unique food and drinks, live entertainment, great nightlife.  edit
  • Dixie Crossroads, 1475 Garden St Titusville, FL 32796, (321) 268-5000, [17]. Seafood  edit
  • Residence Inn Cape Canaveral Cocoa Beach, 8959 Astronaut Blvd., +1 321 323-1100, Toll-free: +1 800 331-3131, Fax: +1 321 323-1029, [18].
This is a usable article. It has information for getting in as well as some complete entries for restaurants and hotels. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

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