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Capecitabine: Wikis

  

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Capecitabine
Systematic (IUPAC) name
pentyl[1-(3,4-dihydroxy-5-methyl-tetrahydrofuran-2-yl)- 5-fluoro-2-oxo-1H-pyrimidin- 4-yl]aminomethanoate
Identifiers
CAS number 154361-50-9
ATC code L01BC06
PubChem 60953
DrugBank APRD00203
ChemSpider 54916
Chemical data
Formula C15H22FN3O6 
Mol. mass 359.35 g/mol
SMILES eMolecules & PubChem
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability Extensive
Protein binding < 60%
Metabolism Hepatic, to 5'-DFCR, 5'-DFUR (inactive); neoplastic tissue, 5'-DFUR to active fluorouracil
Half life 38–45 minutes
Excretion Renal 95.5%, faecal 2.6%
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat. D(AU) D(US)
Legal status Prescription Only (S4) (AU) POM (UK) -only (US)
Routes Oral
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Capecitabine (INN) (pronounced /keɪpˈsaɪtəbiːn/) (Xeloda, Roche) is an orally-administered chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of metastatic breast and colorectal cancers. Capecitabine is a prodrug, that is enzymatically converted to 5-fluorouracil in the tumor, where it inhibits DNA synthesis and slows growth of tumor tissue. The activation of capecitabine follows a pathway with three enzymatic steps and two intermediary metabolites, 5'-deoxy-5-fluorocytidine (5'-DFCR) and 5'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (5'-DFUR), to form 5-fluorouracil.

Contents

Indications

Capecitabine is FDA-approved for:

  • Adjuvant in colorectal cancer Stage III Dukes' C - used as first-line monotherapy.
  • Metastatic colorectal cancer - used as first-line monotherapy, if appropriate.
  • Metastatic breast cancer - used in combination with docetaxel, after failure of anthracycline-based treatment. Also as monotherapy, if the patient has failed paclitaxel-based treatment, and if anthracycline-based treatment has either failed or cannot be continued for other reasons (i.e., the patient has already received the maximum lifetime dose of an anthracycline).

In the UK, capecitabine is approved by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) for colon and colorectal cancer, and locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer.[1] On March 29,2007, the European Commission approved Capecitabine, in combination with platinum-based therapy (with or without epirubicin), for the first-line treatment of advanced stomach cancer.

Dose

The usual starting dose is 2,500 mg/m2/day in two divided doses, 12 hours apart. One cycle includes two weeks of treatment followed by one week without treatment. Cycles can be repeated every three weeks.

Dose adjustments

  • For mild renal dysfunction (creatinine clearance 30-50 mL/min), it is recommended to reduce dose by 25%.
  • For severe renal dysfunction (creatinine clearance <30 mL/min), treatment is not recommended.
  • There is no recommendation for hepatic dysfunction.
  • For elderly patients, lower doses may be required due to higher incidences of serious adverse reactions.
  • Patients with Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency (a.k.a. DPD deficiency), a pharmacogenetic syndrome affecting capecitabine detoxification process in the liver, should have their dosage tailored.

Side effects

Potential major adverse reactions include:

Drug interactions

  • May interact with warfarin and increase bleeding risk.
  • May inhibit cytochrome CYP2C9 enzyme, and therefore increase levels of substrates such as phenytoin and other substrates of CYP2C9.
  • Much as fluorouracil, the concomitant use of leucovorin may increase both the efficacy while reducing the toxicity of capecitabine.
Xeloda Logo

Formulation

Capecitabine (as brand-name Xeloda) is available in light peach 150 mg tablets and peach 500 mg tablets.

References

  • Lacy, Charles F; Armstrong, Lora L; Goldman, Morton P; Lance, Leonard L (2004). Lexi-Comp's Drug Information Handbook (12th Edition). Lexi-Comp Inc. ISBN 1-59195-083-X
  • Fischer, David S; Knobf, M Tish; Durivage, Henry J; Beaulieu, Nancy J (2003). The Cancer Chemotherapy Handbook (6th Edition). Mosby. ISBN 0-323-01890-4
  • Thomson Centerwatch: Drugs Approved by the FDA (Xeloda) Retrieved 6/05
  • Mercier C, Ciccolini J (2007). "Severe or lethal toxicities upon capecitabine intake: is DPYD genetic polymorphism the ideal culprit?". Trends in pharmacological sciences 28 (12): 597–598. doi:10.1016/j.tips.2007.09.009. PMID 18001850.

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