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HMS Balfour.jpg
HMS Balfour, an example of the Buckley class.
Class overview
Builders: Boston Navy Yard
Mare Island Navy Yard
Bethlehem-Hingham
Operators: Royal Navy
Subclasses: Buckley class
Evarts class
In service: 1943 - 1956
Completed: 78
Lost: 7
General characteristics
Displacement: 1,140 tons (Evarts)
1,400 tons (Buckley)
Length: 289.5 ft (88.2 m) (Evarts)
306 ft (93 m) (Buckley)
Beam: 35 ft (11 m) (Evarts)
36.75 ft (11.20 m) (Buckley)
Draft: 9 ft (2.7 m)
Propulsion: see text
Speed: 20 knots (37 km/h) (Evarts)
24 knots (44 km/h) (Buckley)
Range: 5,000 nautical miles (9,260 km) at 15 knots (28 km/h) (Evarts)
5,500 nautical miles (10,190 km) at 15 knots (28 km/h) (Buckley)
Complement: 156 (Evarts)
186 (Buckley)
Sensors and
processing systems:
SA & SL type radars
Type 144 series Asdic
MF Direction Finding antenna
HF Direction Finding Type FH 4 antenna
Armament:

3 x 3 in (76 mm) /50 Mk.22 guns
1 x twin Bofors 40 mm mount Mk.I
7-16 x 20 mm Oerlikon guns
Mark 10 Hedgehog A/S projector
Depth charges

QF 2 pounder naval gun

The Captain class was 78 frigates of the Royal Navy, constructed in the United States, launched in 1942–1943 and delivered to the United Kingdom under the provisions of Lend-Lease. They served in World War II as convoy escorts, anti-submarine warfare vessels and coastal forces control frigates. They were drawn from two classes of destroyer escort; 32 from the Evarts class and 46 from the Buckley class.

Post-war nearly all the surviving Captain class were returned to the US Navy as quickly as possible to reduce the amount payable under the provisions of the Lend-Lease agreement.

Contents

Early history

In June 1941 His Majesty's Government asked the United States to design, build and supply an escort vessel that was suitable for anti-submarine warfare in deep open ocean situations.[1] The requested particulars were a length of 300 feet (90 m), a speed of 20 knots (37 km/h), a dual purpose main armament and an open bridge.[2] The United States Navy had been looking into the feasibility of such a vessel since 1939 and Captain E. L. Cochrane of the Bureau of Shipping - who during his visit to the United Kingdom in 1940 looked at Royal Navy corvettes and Hunt class destroyers - had come up with a design for such a vessel.[3] This design had anticipated a need for large numbers of vessels of this type, and had sought to remove the major bottleneck of production for vessels of this type: reduction gearing required for the steam turbine machinery of destroyers.[2] Production of reduction gears could not be easily increased, as the precision machinery required for their construction alone took over a year to produce.[2] Therefore, a readily-available and proven layout of diesel-electric machinery, also used on submarines, was adopted. When the United Kingdom made their request, Admiral Stark (USN) decided to put these plans into motion and recommended that the British order be approved.[4] Gibbs and Cox, the marine architects charged with creating working plans, had to make several alterations to the method of production and to Captain Cochrane's original design, most notably dropping another production bottleneck[2] - the five inch /38 caliber gun - and replacing it with the three inch /50 caliber gun, which allowed a third gun to be added in a superfiring position ("B") forward.[2] The result was a vessel that could be produced at half the cost of a fleet destroyer.[4]

On August 15, 1941 President Franklin D. Roosevelt authorised the construction of 50 of the new Evarts-class design as BDE 1 - 50 (British Destroyer Escort).[2] The turbo-electric powered Buckley class were not part of the first order and were authorised later by Public Law 440 effective February 6, 1942.[5] The Royal Navy placed orders in November 1941 with four ship yards: Boston Navy Yard, Mare Island Navy Yard, Philadelphia Naval Shipyard and Puget Sound Navy Yard.[4] When the United States entered the war, they too adopted the BDE design.[4] The BDE designation was retained by the first six destroyer escorts (BDE 1, 2, 3, 4, 12 and 46) transferred to the United Kingdom. Of the initial 50 ordered, these were the only ones the Royal Navy received; the rest were reclassified as destroyer escort (DE) on January 25, 1943 and taken over by the United States Navy.[4] By the end of World War II the Royal Navy had received 32 Evarts and 46 Buckleys[4] from Boston Navy Yard, Mare Island Navy Yard and Bethlehem-Hingham.[2]

The Royal Navy classified these ships as frigates, as they lacked the torpedo tubes necessary to be classified as destroyers.[6] For those used to Admiralty-designed ships the Captains were unfamiliar: they had no break forward of the forecastle and a graceful shear to deck-line from the forecastle to midship, and the Evarts had daringly rakish cowls on top of the funnels.[7] Those that served on these ships came to view these features as being very handsome. [7] Some of the differences from British designed vessels that would have been most noticeable to the crews were the provision of bunks rather than hammocks,[8] and the use of welds rather than rivets in the design.[9]

Royal Navy alterations

On first arrival in the United Kingdom the first port of call for most of the Captains was Pollock Dock, Belfast where the ships were modified in order to match Admiralty requirements.[10] In all there was 109 items in the alterations and additions list for the Evarts and 94 for the Buckleys.[10]

Some of the main design difference between the Royal Navy frigates and the US Navy destroyer escorts were that the Buckley class did not have the forward torpedo tubes fitted[7] (the Evarts class was not designed to carry torpedo tubes[11]) and the ice cream makers, the iced water fountains, the dishwashers were removed, the "cafeteria" messing system discontinued and the replacing of the primitive American two seat "thunder trough" toilets (which did not offer even so much as a simple canvas screen to spare blushes) with an enclosed water closet.[10]

Further alterations were:

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Sea-keeping equipment

  • A standard Royal Navy 27-foot (8 m) whaler was fitted on the port side of the funnel, in addition to the US issue ships boat on the starboard side.[12]
  • Oiling fairleads were fitted to the edge of the hull by the anchor winch.[13]
  • Additional lifesaving rafts were fitted, big ones fitted on sloping launch skids aft of the funnel and small ones fitted aft of the searchlights.[13]
  • Crow's nest.[14]
  • Wind deflectors were fitted on the leading edge of the bridge area and a canvas covered shelter on the quarterdeck for depth charge crews to provide better weather protection.[14]
  • The steel work around the binnacle was replaced by non-ferrous materials.[15]

Gunnery

  • The bridge layout was significantly altered, of which the biggest part was the addition of a two-tier director which improved visibility and gave better protection to the equipment.[14]
  • Gun shields were fitted to the main armament; on some Captains, a spray and blast shield was fitted to B gun only.[14]
  • Two-inch rocket flare projectors were fitted to the B gun; six if the spray and blast shield was fitted, three if not.[14]
  • Vertically fired "snowflake" parachute flare projectors were fitted to the bridge wings.[14]
  • A two pounder (40mm) "pom-pom" bowchaser was fitted to Captains to serve as Coastal Forces control frigates hunting E-boats.[16]
  • The MK IV elevating column Oerlikon mountings were replaced with the simpler MK V1A mountings.[15]
  • Additional 40mm Bofors and Oerlikon guns were mounted in place of the removed torpedo tubes; those Captains that were to serve as Coastal Forces control frigates had extra guns fitted.[17]

Anti-submarine

  • More depth charges were fitted on the upper deck each side of the ship (allowing for about 200 in total).[18]
  • The Captains were eventually given Type 144 series Asdic,[15] an upgrade from the Type 128D.[19]
  • Royal Navy smoke floats were fitted above the depth charges. There were in addition to the US Navy chemical smoke cylinders fitted to the stern of the Captains which were retained.[18]
  • A Foxer was fitted to the aft of the Captains (and most other Atlantic escort vessels) during 1944 to counter the new acoustic torpedoes.[18]

Communications

  • A medium frequency direction finding antenna (MF/DF) fitted in front of the bridge and high frequency direction finding (HF/DF, "Huffduff") Type FH 4 antenna fitted on top of mast.[18]
  • In addition to the standard US Navy long range position fixing set, a Royal Navy short range position fixing set was fitted.[18]
  • Two high frequency radio-telephones were fitted for communication with aeroplanes.[18]
  • A radio-receiving set tuned to the frequencies used for ship-to-ship communication by German U-boats and E-boats was fitted and a German-speaking rating carried.[18]
  • Four coloured fighting lights were fitted to aid recognition at night.[18]
  • A radar interrogation system was fitted which was able to challenge ships at sea, only ships fitted with the system would be able to reply.[18]

Normandy invasion

HMS Dacres, HMS Kingsmill and HMS Lawford were converted to headquarters ships for use during Operation Neptune. These ships had their aft three inch (76 mm) gun and all the depth charge gear removed and the superstructure extended to provide accommodation for extra Staff Officers; two deck houses were built for the additional radios needed and a small main mast was added to support the many extra aerials. Four more Oerlikons were fitted bringing the total to 16, and a number of radar sets fitted (Type 271 centimetric target identification and Type 291 air warning, and the associated Types 242 and 253 IFF sets).[2][20] The complement was now 141, with a headquarters staff of 64.[2]

Machinery

The Evarts class had diesel-electric machinery, based on an arrangement used for submarines.[2] There were two shafts. Four Winton 278A 16-cylinder engines, with a combined rating of 7,040 bhp (5,250 kW), driving General Electric Company (GE) generators (4,800 kW) supplied power to two GE electric motors, with an output of 6,000 shp (4,500 kW), for 20 knots (37 km/h). It had been intended to provide a further set of this machinery, for an output of 12,000 shp (8,900 kW) to make the design speed of 24 knots (44 km/h), but hull production greatly outstripped that of the machinery, therefore only one set of machinery was used per ship.[2]

To make the designed speed, the Buckleys had turbo-electric machinery.[2] Two Foster-Wheeler[21] Express "D"-type water-tube boilers supplied steam to GE 13,500 shp (10,070 kW) steam turbines and generators (9,200 kW). Electric motors for 12,000 shp (8,900 kW)[21] drove the two shafts each fitted with a three bladed propeller of solid manganese-bronze that was 8.5 feet (2.6 m) in diameter.[22]

Ships companies

The Captains had a crew of either 156 (Evarts)[21] and 186 (Buckley)[21] officers and ratings. The bulk of the ratings were Hostilities Only and all had to be trained from scratch in which ever branch of the Navy they had chosen to serve. After about six weeks square bashing and getting physically fit, they moved onto the job training.[23] Many of the senior non-commissioned officers were pre-war regular service who had been promoted.[23]

Engineering personnel were faced with the added complication of power plants not normally found in the Royal Navy. Initially, they were trained alongside US Navy personnel at purpose-built facilities in the General Electric Company factories at Cleveland and Syracuse, being awarded a certificates at the end of their training;[24] later, training was provided in the United Kingdom.[25]

Ship's companies were shipped over to the USA by them taking passage from the Clyde or Liverpool to New York on liners such as the RMS Queen Mary.[26] On arriving in New York, the crews were initially assigned to HMS Saker[26] until they were reassigned to a Captain class frigate. Later, some of the Captains were ferried across the Atlantic by crews of the Royal Canadian Navy coming to the United Kingdom to collect River class frigates ordered by the Canadians.[26]

Ships

HMS Calder (K349) under construction as USS Formoe (DE-58), with DE-59 USS Foss on the right.

Naming

It was the intention of the Admiralty that these ships were to named after Captains that served with Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson at the Battle of Trafalgar but as building continued, it became necessary to delve back further into history for names of Admirals and Captains of reputation.[27]

66 of the 78 frigates bear names that had not previously been allocated earlier Royal Navy ships. Lawford, Louis, Manners, Moorsom, Mounsey, Narborough, Pasley and Seymour had been previously used for destroyers during World War I.[27] Rupert was the fifth of that name since 1666.[27] Torrington was the fourth of that name since 1654.[27] Holmes had been used once before in 1671[27] and Fitzroy had previously been used for a survey vessel in 1919.[27]

Evarts class

Evarts-class ships had diesel-electric machinery.

  • Gardiner (K478) (DE-274)
  • Garlies (K475) (DE-271)
  • Goodall (K479) (DE-275)
  • Goodson (K480) (DE-276)
  • Gore (K481) (DE-277)
  • Gould (K476) (DE-272)
  • Grindall (K477) (DE-273)
  • Hoste (K566) (DE-521)
  • Inglis (K570) (DE-525)
  • Inman (K571) (DE-526)
  • Keats (K482) (DE-278)
  • Kempthorne (K483) (DE-279)
  • Kingsmill (K484) (DE-280)
  • Lawford (K514) (DE-516)
  • Lawson (K516) (DE-518)
  • Loring (K565) (DE-520)
  • Louis (K515) (DE-517)
  • Manners (K568) (DE-523)
  • Moorsom (K567) (DE-522)
  • Mounsey (K569) (DE-524)
  • Pasley (K564) (DE-519)
HMS Retalick (K555) sliding down the slipway in the early morning on October 9, 1943 at Bethlehem-Hingham shipyard.

Buckley class

Buckley class ships had turbo-electric machinery.

  • Essington (K353) (DE-67)
  • Fitzroy (K553) (DE-88)
  • Halsted (K556) (DE-91)
  • Hargood (K582) (DE-573)
  • Holmes (K581) (DE-572)
  • Hotham (K583) (DE-574)
  • Narbrough (K578) (DE-569)
  • Redmill (K554) (DE-89)
  • Retalick (K555) (DE-90)
  • Riou (K557) (DE-92)
  • Rowley (K560) (DE-95)
  • Rupert (K561) (DE-96)
  • Rutherford (K558) (DE-93)
  • Seymour (K563) (DE-98)
  • Spragge (K572) (DE-563)
  • Stayner (K573) (DE-564)
  • Stockham (K562) (DE-97)
  • Thornborough (K574) (DE-565)
  • Torrington (K577) (DE-568)
  • Trollope (K575) (DE-566)
  • Tyler (K576) (DE-567)
  • Waldegrave (K579) (DE-570)
  • Whitaker (K580) (DE-571)
HMS Byard (K315) sliding down the slipway on March 6, 1943 at Bethlehem-Hingham shipyard. A Buckley class ship.

Camouflage and insignia

Following standard Royal Navy protocols, all of the Captains had large pennant numbers painted on the sides and stern of the hull,[28] usually in blue, red or black.[29] The escort groups to which most of the Captains were assigned had their own individual insignia, where these distinctive and colourful designs were painted on the side of the ship's funnel,[18] and if the ship was home to the escort group senior officer it would also have a coloured band painted around the top of the funnel (usually in blue or red).[18] The ship's waterline was always in black.[29]

A total of five different camouflage schemes were employed on the Captains.[18]

  1. The ships came from the shipyards in light grey with a few light blue stripes.[18]
  2. For those Captains assigned to the North Atlantic, a scheme consisting of light and dark blues and greens, with some soft white was adopted as it was believed that this would blend with the sea colour in bad weather.[18]
  3. For those Captains assigned to the English Channel in 1944 (Coastal Forces control frigates and those assigned to Operation Neptune as headquarters ships), a bold design in black, blue, light grey and white was adopted.[18]
  4. For those Captains assigned to the 16th Flotilla (Harwich) and 21st Flotilla (Sheerness) operating in the North Sea and English Channel, a scheme consisting of horizontal upper deck divisions of light and dark grey (as used by the US Navy) was adopted.[18]
  5. Early in 1945, a scheme was adopted that was to be common to all Royal Navy ships, consisting of white with a sky blue stripe along the hull.[18]

Operations

The Captains were primarily used to provide an anti-submarine cover to the convoys they escorted, however a small number of ships were converted to act as coastal forces control frigates and as headquarters ships during Operation Neptune.

Collectively, the Captains gained battle honours for service in Arctic (Russian Convoys), Atlantic, Biscay, English Channel, Normandy (D-Day on the 6th June 1944 and subsequent related operations), North Foreland and Walcheren.[30]

Submarine sinkings in which Captain Class frigates participated[31][32]
Date Submarine Position Sunk Ships Fate of Submarine Crew
October 17, 1943 U-841 59°57′N 31°06′W / 59.95°N 31.1°W / 59.95; -31.1 (U-841 sunk) HMS Byard 27 lost and 27 survivors
November 21, 1943 U-538 45°40′N 19°35′W / 45.667°N 19.583°W / 45.667; -19.583 (U-538 sunk) HMS Foley 55, all hands Lost
November 23, 1943 U-648 42°40′N 20°37′W / 42.667°N 20.617°W / 42.667; -20.617 (U-648 sunk) HMS Bazely, HMS Blackwood, HMS Drury 50, all hands Lost
November 25, 1943 U-600 40°31′N 22°07′W / 40.517°N 22.117°W / 40.517; -22.117 (U-600 sunk) HMS Bazely, HMS Blackwood 54, all hands Lost
January 8, 1944 U-757 50°33′N 18°03′W / 50.55°N 18.05°W / 50.55; -18.05 (U-757 sunk) HMS Bayntun 49, all hands Lost
February 26, 1944 U-91 49°45′N 26°20′W / 49.75°N 26.333°W / 49.75; -26.333 (U-91 sunk) HMS Affleck, HMS GoreHMS Gould 36 lost and 16 survivors
March 1, 1944 U-358 45°46′N 23°16′W / 45.767°N 23.267°W / 45.767; -23.267 (U-358 sunk) HMS Affleck, HMS Gore, HMS Gould, HMS Garlies 50 lost and one survivor
March 16, 1944 U-392 35°55′N 05°41′W / 35.917°N 5.683°W / 35.917; -5.683 (U-392 sunk) HMS Affleck 52, all hands lost
May 6, 1944 U-765 52°30′N 28°28′W / 52.5°N 28.467°W / 52.5; -28.467 (U-765 sunk) HMS Bickerton, HMS Bligh, HMS Aylmer 37 lost and 11 survivors
June 25, 1944 U-269 50°01′N 02°59′W / 50.017°N 2.983°W / 50.017; -2.983 (U-269 sunk) HMS Bickerton 13 lost and 39 survivors
June 29. 1944 U-988 49°37′N 03°41′W / 49.617°N 3.683°W / 49.617; -3.683 (U-988 sunk) HMS Duckworth, HMS Cooke, HMS Dommet, HMS Essington 50, all hands lost
July 18, 1944 U-672 50°03′N 02°30′W / 50.05°N 2.5°W / 50.05; -2.5 (U-672 sunk) HMS Balfour 52 survivors
July 21, 1944 U-212 50°27′N 00°13′W / 50.45°N 0.217°W / 50.45; -0.217 (U-212 sunk) HMS Curzon, HMS Ekins 49 all hands Lost
July 26, 1944 U-214 49°58′N 03°30′W / 49.967°N 3.5°W / 49.967; -3.5 (U-214 sunk) HMS Cooke 48, all hands lost
August 5, 1944 U-671 50°23′N 00°06′E / 50.383°N 0.1°E / 50.383; 0.1 (U-671 sunk) HMS Stayner 47 lost and five survivors
August 14, 1944 U-618 47°22′N 04°39′W / 47.367°N 4.65°W / 47.367; -4.65 (U-618 sunk) HMS Duckworth, HMS Essington 61, all hands lost
August 24, 1944 U-445 47°21′N 05°50′W / 47.35°N 5.833°W / 47.35; -5.833 (U-445 sunk) HMS Louis 52, all hands lost
January 26, 1945 U-1051 53°39′N 05°23′W / 53.65°N 5.383°W / 53.65; -5.383 (U-1051 sunk) HMS Aylmer, HMS Bentinck, HMS Calder, HMS Manners 47. all hands lost
January 27, 1945 U-1172 52°24′N 05°42′W / 52.4°N 5.7°W / 52.4; -5.7 (U-1172 sunk) HMS Tyler, HMS Keats, HMS Bligh 52, all hands lost
February 3, 1945 U-1279 61°21′N 02°00′E / 61.35°N 2°E / 61.35; 2 (U-1279 sunk) HMS Bayntun, HMS Braithwaite 48, all hands lost
February 14, 1945 U-989 61°36′N 01°35′W / 61.6°N 1.583°W / 61.6; -1.583 (U-989 sunk) HMS Bayntun, HMS Braithwaite 47, all hands lost
February 17, 1945 U-1278 61°32′N 01°36′E / 61.533°N 1.6°E / 61.533; 1.6 (U-1278 sunk) HMS Bayntun 48, all hands lost
February 27, 1945 U-1208 49°56′N 06°06′W / 49.933°N 6.1°W / 49.933; -6.1 (U-1208 sunk) HMS Duckworth, HMS Rowley 49, all hands lost
March 26, 1945 U-399 49°56′N 05°22′W / 49.933°N 5.367°W / 49.933; -5.367 (U-399 sunk) HMS Duckworth 46 lost and one survivor
March 27, 1945 U-722 57°09′N 06°55′W / 57.15°N 6.917°W / 57.15; -6.917 (U-722 sunk) HMS Fitzroy, HMS Redmill, HMS Byron 44, all hands lost
March 27, 1945 U-905 58°34′N 05°46′W / 58.567°N 5.767°W / 58.567; -5.767 (U-905 sunk) HMS Conn 45, all hands lost
March 29, 1945 U-1169 49°58′N 05°25′W / 49.967°N 5.417°W / 49.967; -5.417 (U-1169 sunk) HMS Duckworth, HMS Rowley 49, all hands lost
March 30, 1945 U-965 58°19′N 05°31′W / 58.317°N 5.517°W / 58.317; -5.517 (U-965 sunk) HMS Conn, HMS Rupert, HMS Deane 51, all hands lost
April 8, 1945 U-1001 49°19′N 10°23′W / 49.317°N 10.383°W / 49.317; -10.383 (U-1001 sunk) HMS Fitzroy, HMS Byron 45, all hands lost
April 8, 1945 U-774 49°58′N 11°51′W / 49.967°N 11.85°W / 49.967; -11.85 (U-774 sunk) HMS Bentinck, HMS Calder 44, all hands lost
April 15, 1945 U-1063 50°08′N 03°53′W / 50.133°N 3.883°W / 50.133; -3.883 (U-1063 sunk) HMS Cranstoun, HMS Burgess 29 lost and 17 survivors
April 15, 1945 U-285 50°13′N 12°48′W / 50.217°N 12.8°W / 50.217; -12.8 (U-285 sunk) HMS Grindall, HMS Keats 44, all hands lost
April 21, 1945 U-636 55°50′N 10°31′W / 55.833°N 10.517°W / 55.833; -10.517 (U-636 sunk) HMS Bentinck, HMS Bazely, HMS Drury 42, all hands lost
April 29, 1945 U-286 69°29′N 33°37′E / 69.483°N 33.617°E / 69.483; 33.617 (U-286 sunk) HMS Cotton 51, all hands lost

In addition, Captain class frigates which operated with Coastal Forces, (Motor Torpedo Boats, Motor Gun Boats and US Navy PT boats) sank at least two two-man submarines,[33] and were involved in the destruction of at least 26 E-Boats,[34] one KFK patrol vessel (coastal escort vessels constructed to a fishing-vessel design),[35] two minesweepers,[35] and the shooting down of a Junkers Ju 88 aeroplane.[36]

Captain class frigates sunk or seriously damaged
Date Ship Incident Casualties
March 1, 1944[37] HMS Gould Torpedoed and sunk by U-358 south-west of Ireland in position 45°46′N 23°16′W / 45.767°N 23.267°W / 45.767; -23.267 (HMS Gould sunk).[38] Loss of 123 hands.[38]
June 8, 1944[39] HMS Lawford Hit by a Glide bomb launched from a German aeroplane in her hull, port side midships, which blew out the bottom of the ship which quickly sank, off J1 Sector of Gold Beach on D-Day+2.[40] Loss of 26 hands.[41]
June 11, 1944[42] HMS Halstead Torpedoed by an E-boat in mid channel off Normandy which blew off her bow section, she was written off as Constructive Total Loss.[42] Loss of 27 hands.[42]
June 15, 1944[43] HMS Blackwood Torpedoed by U-764, the forward part of ship was blown off, the hulk sank at 04.10Hrs the next morning.[44] Loss of 60 hands.[43]
June 26, 1944[45] HMS Goodson Torpedoed by U-984 approximately 38 nautical miles (70 km) south of Portland Bill in position 50°00′N 02°48′W / 50°N 2.8°W / 50; -2.8 (HMS Goodson sunk) badly damaged towed back to port and assessed as a Constructive Total Loss.[46] No fatalities.[47]
August 22, 1944[48] HMS Bickerton Torpedoed by U-354 during Operation Goodwood in the Barents Sea, in position 72°42′N 19°11′E / 72.7°N 19.183°E / 72.7; 19.183 (HMS Bickerton sunk) seriously damaged and ship abandoned, sunk by own forces.[49] Loss of 39 hands. [50]
November 1, 1944[51] HMS Whitaker Torpedoed by U-483 off Malin Head, near Loch Swilly, Ireland; she seriously damaged, and towed back to Belfast.[51] Declared a Constructive Total Loss. Loss of 92 hands.[51]
November 2, 1944[52] HMS Mounsey Torpedoed by U-295 outside the Kola Inlet[53] but managed to limp back to Polyarnoe where she was patched up by the Russians and managed to get back to Belfast before Christmas for permanent repairs.[52] Loss of 10 hands.[52]
December 6, 1944[54] HMS Bullen Torpedoed midships and sunk off Cape Wrath[54] by U-775 in position 58°42′N 04°12′W / 58.7°N 4.2°W / 58.7; -4.2 (HMS Bullen sunk).[55] Loss of 55 hands.[56]
December 25, 1944[57] HMS Dakins Hit a ground mine off the Belgium coast, she was towed into Antwerp where she was declared Constructive Total Loss.[57] No fatalities.[57]
December 26, 1944[58] HMS Capel Torpedoed by one of two torpedoes fired by U-486, she sank having had her bows blown off.[59] This happened north-north-east of Cherbourg, in position 49°50′N 01°41′W / 49.833°N 1.683°W / 49.833; -1.683 (HMS Capel sunk).[60] Loss of 76 hands.[60]
December 26, 1944[58] HMS Affleck Torpedoed by one of two torpedoes fired by U-486, which seriously damaged her stern. She was towed back to port and assessed as a Constructive Total Loss.[59] This happened off Cherbourg.[61] Loss of 9 hands.[62]
January 26, 1945[63] HMS Manners Torpedoed by U-1051[64] off the Isle of Man.[65] She was towed back to Barrow-in-Furness and declared a Constructive Total Loss.[64] Loss of 43 hands.[64]
April 15, 1945[66] HMS Ekins Hit two ground mines in the Scheldt Estuary, towed back to port and put into dry dock, when water was pumped out she broke her back and was written off as Constructive Total Loss.[67] No fatalities[68]
April 27, 1945[69] HMS Redmill Torpedoed by U-1105 25 nautical miles (46 km) west of Silgo Bay, Ireland[69] in position 54°23′N 10°36′W / 54.383°N 10.6°W / 54.383; -10.6 (HMS Redmill sunk)[70] towed in to Belfast with serious damage. Written off as a Constructive Total Loss.[69] Loss of 24 hands.[69]
April 29, 1945[71] HMS Goodall Torpedoed by U-286 outside the Kola Inlet 69°29′N 33°38′E / 69.483°N 33.633°E / 69.483; 33.633 (HMS Goodal sunk).[72] HMS Goodall was the last ship of the Royal Navy sunk in the European theatre of World War Two.[71] Loss of 98 hands.[71]

Post war

At the end of World War II most of the surviving Captains were returned to the US Navy as quickly as possible to reduce the amount payable under the provisions of the Lend-Lease agreement. The last of the Captains returned was HMS Hotham, which in the post-war period served as a floating power station in Singapore until early 1948 when she sailed for Portsmouth, becoming the base for a Royal Navy Engineering research team which was experimenting with gas turbine engines.[73] Hotham was returned on April 25, 1952 and simultaneously transferred back to the United Kingdom under the Mutual Defence Assistance Program.[74] The partially-stripped vessel was later returned to United States custody in February 1956.[74]

Memorial

On April 17, 2005 a memorial to the Captains, those that served, and those killed in action in them was dedicated at the National Memorial Arboretum near Alrewas, Staffordshire.

Introduction to the Order of Service from the memorial dedication April 17, 2005

Today we come in thanksgiving for all who served on Captain Class Frigates in the Royal Navy in the Second World War.
In particular we give thanks to those who made the supreme sacrifice on behalf of us all.
We remember all those who were shore-based, especially the Wrens who gave valuable support to those who served at sea, and who are represented here today.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Franklin. The Buckley-Class Destroyer Escorts. p. 5.  
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Lenton, British and Empire Warships of World War II, pp. 198-199
  3. ^ Franklin. The Buckley-Class Destroyer Escorts. pp. 6–7.  
  4. ^ a b c d e f Franklin. The Buckley-Class Destroyer Escorts. p. 7.  
  5. ^ Franklin. The Buckley-Class Destroyer Escorts. pp. 11–12.  
  6. ^ Donald. The Captain Class Frigates in the Second World War. p. 33.  
  7. ^ a b c Donald. The Captain Class Frigates in the Second World War. p. 7.  
  8. ^ Donald. The Captain Class Frigates in the Second World War. p. 20.  
  9. ^ Donald. The Captain Class Frigates in the Second World War. p. 17.  
  10. ^ a b c Donald. The Captain Class Frigates in the Second World War. pp. 30–31.  
  11. ^ Franklin. The Buckley-Class Destroyer Escorts. p. 21.  
  12. ^ Franklin. The Buckley-Class Destroyer Escorts. p. 43.  
  13. ^ a b Elliott. The Lend-Lease Captains. p. 259.  
  14. ^ a b c d e f Elliott. The Lend-Lease Captains. p. 261.  
  15. ^ a b c Donald. The Captain Class Frigates in the Second World War. p. 31.  
  16. ^ Donald. The Captain Class Frigates in the Second World War. p. 104.  
  17. ^ Elliott. The Lend-Lease Captains. p. 262.  
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Elliott. The Lend-Lease Captains. p. 264.  
  19. ^ Franklin. The Buckley-Class Destroyer Escorts. p. 42.  
  20. ^ Donald. The Captain Class Frigates in the Second World War. p. 150.  
  21. ^ a b c d Lenton. British Escort Ships. p. 14.  
  22. ^ Franklin. The Buckley-Class Destroyer Escorts. p. 17.  
  23. ^ a b Donald. The Captain Class Frigates in the Second World War. pp. 25–26.  
  24. ^ Donald. The Captain Class Frigates in the Second World War. p. 12.  
  25. ^ Donald. The Captain Class Frigates in the Second World War. p. 13.  
  26. ^ a b c Donald. The Captain Class Frigates in the Second World War. p. 10.  
  27. ^ a b c d e f Donald. The Captain Class Frigates in the Second World War. p. 203.  
  28. ^ Franklin. The Buckley-Class Destroyer Escorts. p. 121.  
  29. ^ a b Elliott. The Lend-Lease Captains. p. 269.  
  30. ^ "Captain Class Frigate - Battle Honours". List of Battle Honours. The Captain Class Frigates Association. http://www.captainclassfrigates.co.uk/honours/bhon.html. Retrieved 2007-08-25.  
  31. ^ German U-Boat Losses During World War II by Axel Niestle, published by United States Naval Inst (1998), ISBN 1557506418.
  32. ^ uboat.net
  33. ^ Donald. The Captain Class Frigates in the Second World War. p. 120.  
  34. ^ Donald. The Captain Class Frigates in the Second World War. pp. 124 and p139.  
  35. ^ a b Donald. The Captain Class Frigates in the Second World War. p. 116.  
  36. ^ Donald. The Captain Class Frigates in the Second World War. p. 154.  
  37. ^ Donald. The Captain Class Frigates in the Second World War. p. 78.  
  38. ^ a b "uboat.net - Allied Warships - Frigate HMS Gould of the Captain class". uboat.net - Guðmundur Helgason. http://www.uboat.net/allies/warships/ship/5464.html. Retrieved 2007-08-30.  
  39. ^ Donald. The Captain Class Frigates in the Second World War. p. 152.  
  40. ^ Donald. The Captain Class Frigates in the Second World War. pp. 152–153.  
  41. ^ Donald. The Captain Class Frigates in the Second World War. p. 153.  
  42. ^ a b c Donald. The Captain Class Frigates in the Second World War. p. 131.  
  43. ^ a b Donald. The Captain Class Frigates in the Second World War. p. 64.  
  44. ^ "uboat.net - Allied Warships - Frigate HMS Blackwood of the Captain class". uboat.net - Guðmundur Helgason. http://www.uboat.net/allies/warships/ship/5483.html. Retrieved 2007-08-30.  
  45. ^ Donald. The Captain Class Frigates in the Second World War. p. 96.  
  46. ^ "uboat.net - Allied Warships - Frigate HMS Goodson of the Captain class". uboat.net - Guðmundur Helgason. http://www.uboat.net/allies/warships/ship/5467.html. Retrieved 2007-08-30.  
  47. ^ Donald. The Captain Class Frigates in the Second World War. p. 97.  
  48. ^ Franklin. The Buckley-Class Destroyer Escorts. p. 112.  
  49. ^ "uboat.net - Allied Warships - Frigate HMS Bickerton of the Captain class". uboat.net - Guðmundur Helgason. http://www.uboat.net/allies/warships/ship/5484.html. Retrieved 2007-08-30.  
  50. ^ "CHRONOLOGIES OF WAR SERVICE OF ROYAL NAVY WARSHIPS H. M. S. BICKERTON (K466)". naval-history.net - Geoffrey B Mason. http://www.naval-history.net/xGM-Chrono-15Fr-Capt-Bickerton.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-21.  
  51. ^ a b c Franklin. The Buckley-Class Destroyer Escorts. p. 145.  
  52. ^ a b c Donald. The Captain Class Frigates in the Second World War. p. 165.  
  53. ^ Ruegg and Hague. Convoys to Russia 1941-1945. p. 69.  
  54. ^ a b Donald. The Captain Class Frigates in the Second World War. p. 189.  
  55. ^ "uboat.net - Allied Warships - Frigate HMS Bullen of the Captain class". uboat.net - Guðmundur Helgason. http://www.uboat.net/allies/warships/ship/5482.html. Retrieved 2007-08-28.  
  56. ^ Donald. The Captain Class Frigates in the Second World War. p. 190.  
  57. ^ a b c Donald. The Captain Class Frigates in the Second World War. p. 134.  
  58. ^ a b Donald. The Captain Class Frigates in the Second World War. p. 85.  
  59. ^ a b Donald. The Captain Class Frigates in the Second World War. pp. 85–86.  
  60. ^ a b "uboat.net - Allied Warships - Frigate HMS Capel of the Captain class". uboat.net - Guðmundur Helgason. http://www.uboat.net/allies/warships/ship/5474.html. Retrieved 2007-08-28.  
  61. ^ "uboat.net - Allied Warships - Frigate HMS Affleck of the Captain class". uboat.net - Guðmundur Helgason. http://www.uboat.net/allies/warships/ship/5885.html. Retrieved 2007-08-28.  
  62. ^ Donald. The Captain Class Frigates in the Second World War. p. 86.  
  63. ^ Donald. The Captain Class Frigates in the Second World War. pp. 101–102.  
  64. ^ a b c "uboat.net - Allied Warships - Frigate HMS Manners of the Captain class". uboat.net - Guðmundur Helgason. http://www.uboat.net/allies/warships/ship/5675.html. Retrieved 2007-08-28.  
  65. ^ Donald. The Captain Class Frigates in the Second World War. p. 101.  
  66. ^ Donald. The Captain Class Frigates in the Second World War. p. 137.  
  67. ^ Donald. The Captain Class Frigates in the Second World War. pp. 137–138.  
  68. ^ Donald. The Captain Class Frigates in the Second World War. p. 138.  
  69. ^ a b c d Donald. The Captain Class Frigates in the Second World War. p. 175.  
  70. ^ "uboat.net - Allied Warships - Frigate HMS Redmill of the Captain class". uboat.net - Guðmundur Helgason. http://www.uboat.net/allies/warships/ship/5660.html. Retrieved 2007-08-27.  
  71. ^ a b c Ould. Last but not least. p. 1.  
  72. ^ "uboat.net - Allied Warships - Frigate HMS Goodall of the Captain class". uboat.net - Guðmundur Helgason. http://www.uboat.net/allies/warships/ship/5481.html. Retrieved 2007-08-27.  
  73. ^ Donald. The Captain Class Frigates in the Second World War. pp. 146–147.  
  74. ^ a b "Hotham". Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The Naval Historical Foundation. http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/h8/hotham-i.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-22.  

References

  • Franklin, Bruce Hampton. The Buckley-Class Destroyer Escorts Chatham Publishing, (1999). ISBN 086176118X.
  • Collingwood, Donald. The Captain Class Frigates in the Second World War Leo Cooper, (1998). ISBN 085052 615 9.
  • Lenton, H T. British and Empire Warships of the Second World War Greenhill Books / Naval Institute Press, (1998). ISBN 1 85367 277 7.
  • Lenton, H T. British Escort Ships Macdonald and Jane's, (1974). ISBN 0 356 08062 5.
  • Niestle, Axel. German U-Boat Losses During World War II United States Naval Inst, (1998). ISBN 1557506418.
  • Ould, Vic. Last but not least Arcturus Press, (2004). ISBN 0 907322 93 X.
  • Ruegg, Bob and Hague, Arnold. Convoys to Russia 1941-1945 World Ship Society, (1993). ISBN 0 905617 66 5.
  • Elliott, Peter The Lend-Lease Captains. Warship International No.3 1972: N3/72:255. §N1/73:5.

External links


This article includes text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships.


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