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Capture of Minorca
Part of the War of the Spanish Succession
Cales Coves.jpg
Date 14–21 September 1708
Location Minorca, Spain
Result Anglo-Dutch victory. Minorca annexed by Britain in 1713
Belligerents
United Kingdom Great Britain
 Dutch Republic
Spain Spain
Commanders
United Kingdom James Stanhope
United Kingdom George Wade
United Kingdom Sir John Leake

The Capture of Minorca saw the island of Minorca captured from Spain by British-Dutch forces acting on behalf of Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor the Austrian claimant to the Spanish throne in September 1708 during the War of the Spanish Succession. The British would later annex the island as their own possession at the Treaty of Utrecht (1713).

Contents

Background

Since 1702 a war had been fought over who would inherit the Spanish throne with Britain and the Dutch supporting the Austrian candidate while France and her allies supported a French candidate. In 1704 the Anglo-Dutch fleet had captured Gibraltar and defeated a Spanish fleet at the Battle of Malaga. Allied forces had also landed in Cataluyna where they captured Barcelona in 1705. The Catalans largely supported the Austrian claimant and many joined the Allied armies.

Landing

General James Stanhope commanded the force that captured Minorca.

On 14 September 1708 an Anglo-Dutch naval force under the command of General James Stanhope landed on the island of Minorca and laid siege to the capital Port Mahon. The island's inhabitants were, like most Catalans pro-Austria, and greeted the British and Dutch soldiers as liberators. A week later the Franco-Spanish garrison surrendered.[1]

Aftermath

Realising the potential of Minorca as a British naval base, the British moved to fully take control of it - and received acknowledgement of this at the Treaty of Utrecht.[2] In the aftermath of the island's capture trade boomed, and the British increased prosperity on the island by spending large amounts rebuilding the island's fortifications.

The British occupied the island on and off until 1802 when it was finally handed back to Spain for good. During that time Minroca became an important part of Britain's security architecture in the Mediterranean Sea with a major naval base.[3]

See also

References

  1. ^ Chartrand p.14
  2. ^ Simms p.64
  3. ^ Chartrand p.13-14

Bibliography

  • Chartrand, Rene. Gibraltar 1779-83: The Great Siege. Osprey, 2006.
  • Rodger NAM. Command of the Ocean: A Naval History of Britain, 1649-1815. Penguin Books, 2006.
  • Simms, Brendan. Three Victories and a Defeat: The Rise and Fall of the First British Empire. Penguin Books (2008)
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