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Carbon monoxide
Identifiers
CAS number 630-08-0 Yes check.svgY
PubChem 281
ChemSpider 275
EC number 211-128-3
UN number 1016
ChEBI 17245
RTECS number FG3500000
SMILES
InChI
InChI key UGFAIRIUMAVXCW-UHFFFAOYAT
Properties
Molecular formula CO
Molar mass 28.010 g mol−1
Appearance colourless, odorless gas
Density 0.789 g mL−1, liquid
1.250 g L−1 at 0 °C, 1 atm
1.145 g L−1 at 25 °C, 1 atm
Melting point
−205 °C, 68 K, -337 °F
Boiling point
−191.5 °C, 82 K, -313 °F
Solubility in water 0.0026 g/100 mL (20 °C)
Solubility soluble in chloroform, acetic acid, ethyl acetate, ethanol, ammonium hydroxide
Dipole moment 0.112 D
Hazards
MSDS External MSDS
EU Index 006-001-00-2
EU classification Highly flammable (F+)
Repr. Cat. 1
Very toxic (T+)
R-phrases R61 R12 R26 R48/23
S-phrases S53 S45
NFPA 704
NFPA 704.svg
4
4
0
Flash point −191 °C
Autoignition
temperature
609 °C
Related compounds
Related carbon oxides Carbon dioxide
Carbon suboxide
Oxocarbons
Supplementary data page
Structure and
properties
n, εr, etc.
Thermodynamic
data
Phase behaviour
Solid, liquid, gas
Spectral data UV, IR, NMR, MS
 Yes check.svgY (what is this?)  (verify)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox references
.Carbon monoxide (CO), also called carbonic oxide, is a colorless, odorless and tasteless gas, which is highly toxic to humans and animals.^ Nitric oxide/carbon monoxide.
  • Protocol for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Carbon MonoxidePoisoning 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.mcsrr.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Experimental human exposure to carbon monoxide .
  • Zen Backpacking Stoves - Carbon Monoxide Hazards 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC zenstoves.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Carbon monoxide poisoning is caused by inhaling carbon monoxide, a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas produced by the incomplete burning of fuels.
  • Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Providence Health & Services 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.providence.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Revolution Health 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It consists of one carbon atom and one oxygen atom, connected by a covalent double bond and a dative covalent bond.^ The bond between carbon monoxide and hemoglobin is approximately 250 times stronger than the bond between oxygen and hemoglobin.
  • Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Providence Health & Services 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.providence.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This study was also conducted as a double- blind random trial with one day of breathing carbon monoxide and another day breathing compressed carbon monoxide-free air.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning change with different blood concentrations of carboxyhemoglobin (hemoglobin that has bonded with carbon monoxide instead of oxygen).
  • Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Providence Health & Services 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.providence.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is the simplest oxocarbon, and is an anhydride of formic acid.[citation needed]
.In coordination complexes the carbon monoxide ion is called carbonyl.^ If a person has symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning or if carbon monoxide poisoning is suspected, first get the person out of the polluted area, and then call 911 .
  • Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Providence Health & Services 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.providence.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The effects of carbon monoxide exposure on complex learned behaviour have been studied by a number of investigator's.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Apparently, coordination, dexterity, steadiness, and tracking ability were not influenced by a carbon monoxide concentration which raised carboxyhaemoglobin to levels exceeding 20%.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Carbon monoxide is produced from the partial oxidation of carbon-containing compounds; it forms when there is not enough oxygen to produce carbon dioxide (CO2), such as when operating a stove or an internal combustion engine in an enclosed space.^ FORSTER, R. E. (1970) Carbon monoxide and the partial pressure of oxygen in tissue.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Carbon monoxide (CO) is produced from the incomplete combustion or burning of any fuel.
  • Protocol for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Carbon MonoxidePoisoning 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.mcsrr.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Other CO sources include gas and oil furnaces, water and space heaters, ovens, wood and coal stoves, wood and coal fireplaces, gas-log inserts and explosives.
  • Protocol for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Carbon MonoxidePoisoning 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.mcsrr.org [Source type: Academic]

.Carbon monoxide burns with a blue flame, producing carbon dioxide.^ Carbon monoxide (CO) is produced from the incomplete combustion or burning of any fuel.
  • Protocol for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Carbon MonoxidePoisoning 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.mcsrr.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Carbon monoxide is produced in measurable quantities in man and animals as a by-product of haem catabolism.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ ZORN, H. (1968) [Carbon dioxide-oxygen mixture or pure oxygen for respiration in the case of carbon monoxide intoxication.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[1] .Despite its toxicity, coal gas, which was widely used before the 1960s for domestic lighting, cooking and heating, had carbon monoxide as its main constituent.^ Faulty domestic cooking and heating appliances may be important sources that are often overlooked.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Smelting of iron ore, gas production works, gasworks and coke ovens, distribution and use of both natural gas and coal gas, automobile manufacturing, garages, and service stations are among the most important sources for occupational exposure to carbon monoxide (Ministry of Labour, 1965).
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Douze (1971) presented information on the incidence of carbon monoxide poisoning due to the use of natural gas heaters in Utrecht.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Some processes in modern technology, such as iron smelting, still produce carbon monoxide as a byproduct.^ LJUBLINA, E. I. (1960) [Shifts in some physiological functions of the animal on subacute and chronic exposure to carbon monoxide.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ COMMITTEE ON THE CHALLENGES OF MODERN SOCIETY (1972) Air pollution: Air quality criteria for carbon monoxide, No.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Carbon monoxide is produced in measurable quantities in man and animals as a by-product of haem catabolism.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]

Contents

History

.Carbon monoxide has been unknowingly used by humans since prehistoric times, for the smelting of iron and other metallic ores.^ Annual average concentrations of carbon monoxide are not of much value for assessing human exposure, although they do provide an indication of the long-term trends.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The possible interaction of carbon monoxide and other constituents of smoke that may occur in the lungs and other tissues and so induce pathological changes remains to be elucidated since the basic chemistry has not been adequately defined.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition to the 8-h averages, carbon monoxide concentrations are also reported in terms of other averaging times and frequency distributions.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.May 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] The gas was used for executions by the Greek and Romans in Classical Antiquity,[2] and was described by the Spanish doctor Arnaldus de Villa Nova in the 11th century[citation needed].^ CO than white or unleaded gas when used in a Sigg Fire Jet for 2 hours.
  • Zen Backpacking Stoves - Carbon Monoxide Hazards 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC zenstoves.net [Source type: Academic]

^ They also may be used to determine what other treatment is needed.
  • Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Providence Health & Services 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.providence.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Revolution Health 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On average, kerosene has much larger molecules than white gas or unleaded gas, which may lead to incomplete breakdown of its hydrocarbons and lead to incomplete combustion.
  • Zen Backpacking Stoves - Carbon Monoxide Hazards 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC zenstoves.net [Source type: Academic]

.In 1776 the French chemist de Lassone produced CO by heating zinc oxide with coke, but mistakenly concluded that the gaseous product was hydrogen as it burned with a blue flame.^ The more a flame is disrupted, the more CO is produced.
  • Zen Backpacking Stoves - Carbon Monoxide Hazards 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC zenstoves.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Carbon monoxide is a chemical produced from the incomplete burning of natural gas or other products containing carbon.
  • Carbon Monoxide | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ So relatively speaking to the effects of CO production, using a stove to heat a tent is far less dangerous than using it to melt snow or cook with.
  • Zen Backpacking Stoves - Carbon Monoxide Hazards 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC zenstoves.net [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed] The gas was identified as a compound containing carbon and oxygen by the Scottish chemist William Cumberland Cruikshank in the year 1800. Its toxic properties on dogs were thoroughly investigated by Claude Bernard around 1846.
.During World War II, carbon monoxide was used to keep motor vehicles running in parts of the world where gasoline was scarce.^ BORST, J. R. (1970) Acute and chronic carbon monoxide poisoning in private motor-cars and lorries.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ By far the most important source of carbon monoxide at breathing level is the exhaust of petrol-powered motor vehicles.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The tremendous increase in the number and use of motor vehicles during the past 30 years has been accompanied by a rapid increase in carbon monoxide emissions.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.External charcoal or wood burners were fitted, and the carbon monoxide produced by gasification was piped to a carburetor.^ Cars, fireplaces, powerboats, woodstoves, kerosene space heaters, charcoal grills, and gas appliances such as water heaters, ovens, and dryers all produce carbon monoxide.
  • Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Revolution Health 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Carbon monoxide is a gas produced by burning any type of fuel—gas, oil, kerosene, wood, or charcoal.
  • Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Revolution Health 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Zhuo M, Scott AS, Kandel RR and Hawkins RD. Nitric oxide and carbon monoxide produce activity-dependent long-term synaptic enhancement in hippocampus.
  • Protocol for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Carbon MonoxidePoisoning 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.mcsrr.org [Source type: Academic]

.May 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] The carbon monoxide produced by this process is known as wood gas.^ Other CO sources include gas and oil furnaces, water and space heaters, ovens, wood and coal stoves, wood and coal fireplaces, gas-log inserts and explosives.
  • Protocol for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Carbon MonoxidePoisoning 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.mcsrr.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Carbon monoxide is produced in measurable quantities in man and animals as a by-product of haem catabolism.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Carbon monoxide may enter the compartment from faulty or damaged exhaust systems or from the surrounding air, in road traffic.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Carbon monoxide was also reportedly used on a small scale during the Holocaust at some Nazi extermination camps(most notably by gas vans in Chelmno, and in the Action T4 "euthanasia" program.^ MILLS, E. & EDWARDS, M. W., JR (1968) Stimulation of aortic and carotid chemoreceptors during carbon monoxide inhalation.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ LJUBLINA, E. I. (1960) [Shifts in some physiological functions of the animal on subacute and chronic exposure to carbon monoxide.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Carboxyhaemoglobin levels, which showed considerable variation during the experimental period, ranged from 2.0 to 5.5% and 4.8 to 10.2% for low and high carbon monoxide ambient concentrations, respectively.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]

Molecular properties

.The bond length between the carbon atom and the oxygen atom is 112.8 pm.^ Symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning change with different blood concentrations of carboxyhemoglobin (hemoglobin that has bonded with carbon monoxide instead of oxygen).
  • Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Revolution Health 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3] .Atomic formal charge and electronegativity result in a small bond dipole moment with the negative end of the molecule on the carbon atom.^ Results with all levels of carbon monoxide exposure were negative, in marked contrast to the previous data despite an estimated carboxyhaemoglobin level of approximately 9% at the end of the 115 mg/m 3 exposure.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[4] .This is due to the highest occupied molecular orbital having energy much closer than that of carbon's p orbitals, despite oxygen's greater electronegativity.^ Carbon monoxide binds to hemoglobin approximately 250 times more strongly than oxygen binds to hemoglobin.
  • Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Revolution Health 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since our lungs are designed to utilize the gradient created by the greater oxygen pressures outside of our body than inside, a drop in inhaled oxygen pressures has a detrimental affect on how much oxygen gets in to our blood and to our tissues.
  • Zen Backpacking Stoves - Carbon Monoxide Hazards 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC zenstoves.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The bond between carbon monoxide and hemoglobin is approximately 250 times stronger than the bond between oxygen and hemoglobin.
  • Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Providence Health & Services 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.providence.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This means that greater electron density is found near the carbon atom.^ Evidence of a myocardosis was found in 18% of Japanese farmers chronically exposed to a mean carbon monoxide concentration of 80 mg/m 3 (70 ppm), (Komatsu, 1959).
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.In addition, carbon's lower electronegativity creates a much more diffuse electron cloud, enhancing the polarizability.^ However, of much greater importance is the effect of carbon monoxide on the ischaemic myocardium which is especially vulnerable to additional hypoxia.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ More recently, a great deal of attention has been paid to the effects, demonstrable or suspected, of exposure to concentrations much lower than those that cause definite poisoning.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.This is also the reason why almost all chemistry involving carbon monoxide occurs through the carbon atom, and not the oxygen.^ Elimination of carbon monoxide through the lungs also occurs during this phase.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ ZORN, H. (1968) [Carbon dioxide-oxygen mixture or pure oxygen for respiration in the case of carbon monoxide intoxication.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ ZORN, H. (1972) The partial oxygen pressure in the brain and liver at subtoxic concentrations of carbon monoxide.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

The bond length of CO is consistent with a partial triple bond, and the molecule can be represented by three resonance structures:
Carbon-monoxide-resonance-2D.png
In this model, the leftmost structure contributes the most. .Carbon monoxide resembles molecular nitrogen, and it has nearly the same molecular mass.^ Because of this, carbon monoxide poisoning can range from mild to severe in different people with the same level of exposure.
  • Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Providence Health & Services 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.providence.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Revolution Health 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Background levels of carbon monoxide are influenced by the origin of the air masses and vertical distributions of carbon monoxide have been reported by Seiler & Junge (1969, 1970).
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The same factors that determine how much carbon monoxide is taken up by the blood should apply in reverse when clearance of carbon monoxide from blood is considered.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

Their physical properties (boiling point, melting point, etc.) are very similar.[citation needed]

Biological and physiological properties

Toxicity

.Carbon monoxide poisoning is the most common type of fatal air poisoning in many countries.^ Can carbon monoxide poisoning be prevented?
  • Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Providence Health & Services 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.providence.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Revolution Health 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Who is at risk for carbon monoxide poisoning?
  • Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Providence Health & Services 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.providence.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Revolution Health 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What is carbon monoxide poisoning?
  • Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Providence Health & Services 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.providence.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Revolution Health 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5] .Carbon monoxide is colorless, odorless and tasteless, but highly toxic.^ Carbon monoxide poisoning is caused by inhaling carbon monoxide, a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas produced by the incomplete burning of fuels.
  • Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Revolution Health 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As for the combined effects of carbon monoxide and temperature, Tiunov & Kustov (1969) showed clearly that carbon monoxide toxicity in mice increased at temperatures above or below normal ambient levels.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The potential toxicity of carbon monoxide present in transfused blood has received little attention.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.It combines with hemoglobin to produce carboxyhemoglobin, which is ineffective for delivering oxygen to bodily tissues.^ This drastically impairs the amount of oxygen that is delivered to your tissues and brain.
  • Zen Backpacking Stoves - Carbon Monoxide Hazards 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC zenstoves.net [Source type: Academic]

^ When CO binds to an oxygen binding site on hemoglobin it changes the shape of the other three oxygen binding sites on that protein, which makes it very difficult for oxygen to attach to it and to off-load oxygen to peripheral tissues.
  • Zen Backpacking Stoves - Carbon Monoxide Hazards 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC zenstoves.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning change with different blood concentrations of carboxyhemoglobin (hemoglobin that has bonded with carbon monoxide instead of oxygen).
  • Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Revolution Health 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This condition is known as anoxemia. .Concentrations as low as 667 ppm may cause up to 50% of the body's hemoglobin to convert to carboxyhemoglobin.^ Stupfel & Bouley (1970) exposed mice and rats for 95 h per week to a carbon monoxide concentration of 57 mg/m 3 (50 ppm) for either 1 to 3 months or for their natural life expectancy of up to 2 years.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This chart is a bit misleading since it appears that the CO concentrations that you are likely to experience in a tent (up to 600 ppm) will only cause nausea and headaches.
  • Zen Backpacking Stoves - Carbon Monoxide Hazards 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC zenstoves.net [Source type: Academic]

^ However, maximum 8-h mean concentrations of up to 60 mg/m 3 (53 ppm) have occasionally been recorded.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.November 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] In the United States, the OSHA limits long-term workplace exposure levels above 50 ppm.^ Annual average concentrations of carbon monoxide are not of much value for assessing human exposure, although they do provide an indication of the long-term trends.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The maximum amount of CO allowable in the work area (for short term exposure) is generally between 100-200 ppm, again dependant on regulating agency.
  • Zen Backpacking Stoves - Carbon Monoxide Hazards 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC zenstoves.net [Source type: Academic]

^ They then breathed air containing 57 or 115 mg/m 3 (50 or 100 ppm) intermittently while resting for a period of 4 h, raising their carboxyhaemoglobin levels to 2.9% and 4.5% respectively.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[6]
.The most common symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning may resemble other types of poisonings and infections (such as the flu), including headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, lethargy and a feeling of weakness.^ Jalukar V, Penney DG, Crowley M, Simpson N. Magnetic resonance imaging of the rat brain following acute carbon monoxide poisoning.
  • Protocol for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Carbon MonoxidePoisoning 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.mcsrr.org [Source type: Academic]

^ BORST, J. R. (1970) Acute and chronic carbon monoxide poisoning in private motor-cars and lorries.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Carbon monoxide may enter the compartment from faulty or damaged exhaust systems or from the surrounding air, in road traffic.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

Infants may be irritable and feed poorly. .Neurological signs include confusion, disorientation, visual disturbance, syncope and seizures.^ Headache with rapid heartbeat, confusion, lethargy, visual disturbances.
  • Zen Backpacking Stoves - Carbon Monoxide Hazards 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC zenstoves.net [Source type: Academic]

[2]
.Some descriptions of carbon monoxide poisoning include retinal hemorrhages, and an abnormal cherry-red blood hue.^ The rate of diffusion from the alveoli and the binding of carbon monoxide with the blood haemoglobin are the steps limiting the rate of uptake into the blood.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Jalukar V, Penney DG, Crowley M, Simpson N. Magnetic resonance imaging of the rat brain following acute carbon monoxide poisoning.
  • Protocol for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Carbon MonoxidePoisoning 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.mcsrr.org [Source type: Academic]

^ LJUBLINA, E. I. (1960) [Shifts in some physiological functions of the animal on subacute and chronic exposure to carbon monoxide.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[7]. In most clinical diagnoses these signs are seldom seen.[2]
.Carbon monoxide binds to other molecules such as myoglobin and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase.^ Carbon monoxide also combines reversibly with myoglobin and cytochromes, including P-450.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Suppl 1:S11-2:S11-S12 Miro O, Casademont J, Barrientos A, Urbano-Marquez A, and Cardellach F. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase inhibition during acute carbon monoxide poisoning.
  • Protocol for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Carbon MonoxidePoisoning 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.mcsrr.org [Source type: Academic]

^ To make matters worse, about 10-15% of the CO in your body will bind to other molecules in your body such as myoglobin, cytochromes, and NADPH reductase.
  • Zen Backpacking Stoves - Carbon Monoxide Hazards 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC zenstoves.net [Source type: Academic]

.Exposures to carbon monoxide may cause significant damage to the heart and central nervous system, especially to the globus pallidus,[8] often with long-term sequelae.^ Kelp may be a significant source of carbon monoxide.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ With reference to effects on the heart, central nervous system and fetus.
  • Zen Backpacking Stoves - Carbon Monoxide Hazards 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC zenstoves.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Carbon monoxide exposure in mountaineers on Denali .
  • Zen Backpacking Stoves - Carbon Monoxide Hazards 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC zenstoves.net [Source type: Academic]

.Carbon monoxide may have severe adverse effects on the fetus of a pregnant woman.^ RAMSEY, J. M. (1973) Effects of single exposures of carbon monoxide on sensory and psychomotor response.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Kirkham AJ, Guyatt AR, Cumming G. Alveolar carbon monoxide: a comparison of methods of measurement and a study of the effect of change in body posture.
  • Protocol for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Carbon MonoxidePoisoning 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.mcsrr.org [Source type: Academic]

^ RUMMO, N. & SARLANIS, K. (1974) The effect of carbon monoxide on several measures of vigilance in a simulated driving task.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]

Normal human physiology

.Carbon monoxide is produced naturally by the human body.^ Carbon monoxide is produced in measurable quantities in man and animals as a by-product of haem catabolism.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Annual average concentrations of carbon monoxide are not of much value for assessing human exposure, although they do provide an indication of the long-term trends.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It would appear that the moving average approach offers some advantages in that it approximates the human body's integrating response to cumulative carbon monoxide exposure.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.This carbon monoxide may have a physiological role in the body, such as a neurotransmitter or a blood vessel relaxant.^ The potential toxicity of carbon monoxide present in transfused blood has received little attention.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Nielsen (1971) found that exercising subjects developed higher internal body temperatures in the presence of carbon monoxide than in its absence.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It should be noted that the post partum (24 h) female may be producing 3 times as much carbon monoxide as a near term nonsmoking pregnant woman.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[9] .Because of carbon monoxide's role in the body, abnormalities in its metabolism have been linked to a variety of diseases, including neurodegenerations, hypertension, heart failure, and inflammation.^ Prabhakar NR, Dinerman JL, Agani FH, Snyder SH. Carbon monoxide: a role in carotid body chemoreception.
  • Protocol for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Carbon MonoxidePoisoning 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.mcsrr.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Kirkham AJ, Guyatt AR, Cumming G. Alveolar carbon monoxide: a comparison of methods of measurement and a study of the effect of change in body posture.
  • Protocol for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Carbon MonoxidePoisoning 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.mcsrr.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In patients with haemolytic anaemia and sickle cell disease (Engel et al., 1971), the rate of endogenous carbon monoxide production from haemoglobin catabolism is increased.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[9]

Microbiology

.Carbon monoxide is a nutrient for methanogenic bacteria,[10] a building block for acetylcoenzyme A.^ Carboxyhaemoglobin levels, which showed considerable variation during the experimental period, ranged from 2.0 to 5.5% and 4.8 to 10.2% for low and high carbon monoxide ambient concentrations, respectively.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ They found consistent carbon monoxide concentrations of 0.15 mg/m 3 (0.13 ppm) at an altitude of 10 km in both northern and southern hemispheres.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The following immission standards have been established for carbon monoxide: Long-term exposure (IW 1): 10.0 mg/m 3 (9 ppm).
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

This is the theme for the emerging field of bioorganometallic chemistry. .In bacteria, carbon monoxide is produced via the reduction of carbon dioxide by the enzyme carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, an Fe-Ni-S-containing protein.^ Carbon monoxide produces effects that aggravate the oxygen deficiency present at high altitudes.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It has been reported that some plant species can remove carbon monoxide from the atmosphere by oxidation to carbon dioxide or by conversion to methane (Bidwell & Fraser, 1972).
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It should be noted that the post partum (24 h) female may be producing 3 times as much carbon monoxide as a near term nonsmoking pregnant woman.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[11]
.CooA is a carbon monoxide sensor protein.^ Maines M. Carbon monoxide and nitric oxide homology: differential modulation of heme oxygenases in brain and detection of protein and activity.
  • Protocol for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Carbon MonoxidePoisoning 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.mcsrr.org [Source type: Academic]

[12] The scope of its biological role is still unknown; it may be part of a signaling pathway in bacteria and archaea. Its occurrence in mammals is not established.

Occurrence

.Carbon monoxide occurs in various natural and artificial environments.^ Exposure to various levels of carbon monoxide resulted in hypertrophy of both the fight and left ventricles in contrast with the right ventricle hypertrophy observed in response to the hypoxic hypoxia stress.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ With prolonged exposure, these metabolic effects became less pronounced and reverted to normal more quickly following removal from the carbon monoxide environment.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Various populations in various places should be studied properly to assess the magnitude of the problem posed by carbon monoxide in the air of towns, houses, and workplaces.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

Typical concentrations in parts per million are as follows:
Concentration Source
0.1 ppm Natural atmosphere level (MOPITT)[13]
0.5 to 5 ppm Average level in homes[14]
5 to 15 ppm Near properly adjusted gas stoves in homes[15]
100 to 200 ppm Exhaust from automobiles in the Mexico City central area[16]
5,000 ppm Exhaust from a home wood fire[17]
7,000 ppm Undiluted warm car exhaust without a catalytic converter[15]

Atmospheric presence

MOPITT 2000 global carbon monoxide.
.Carbon monoxide is present in small amounts in the atmosphere, chiefly as a product of volcanic activity but also from natural and man-made fires (such as forest and bushfires, burning of crop residues, and sugarcane fire-cleaning).^ Endogenous carbon monoxide production 6.2.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Sources of environmental pollution At present, the significance of natural sources of carbon monoxide for man is uncertain.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Several estimates of the production of carbon monoxide by atmospheric reactions have been made.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.November 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] The burning of fossil fuels also contributes to carbon monoxide production.^ Endogenous carbon monoxide production 6.2.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ WHITE, P. (1970) Carbon monoxide production and heme catabolism.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Carbon monoxide (CO) is produced from the incomplete combustion or burning of any fuel.
  • Protocol for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Carbon MonoxidePoisoning 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.mcsrr.org [Source type: Academic]

.Carbon monoxide occurs dissolved in molten volcanic rock at high pressures in the Earth's mantle.^ Carbon monoxide produces effects that aggravate the oxygen deficiency present at high altitudes.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The decrement in V o2 max that occurred as a consequence of working in a hot environment was greater than the changes observed while breathing carbon monoxide.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Carboxyhaemoglobin levels, which showed considerable variation during the experimental period, ranged from 2.0 to 5.5% and 4.8 to 10.2% for low and high carbon monoxide ambient concentrations, respectively.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.November 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Because natural sources of carbon monoxide are so variable from year to year, it is extremely difficult to accurately measure natural emissions of the gas.^ Exposure to various levels of carbon monoxide resulted in hypertrophy of both the fight and left ventricles in contrast with the right ventricle hypertrophy observed in response to the hypoxic hypoxia stress.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Kirkham AJ, Guyatt AR, Cumming G. Alveolar carbon monoxide: a comparison of methods of measurement and a study of the effect of change in body posture.
  • Protocol for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Carbon MonoxidePoisoning 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.mcsrr.org [Source type: Academic]

^ When Blackmore (1974) analysed the cause of aircraft accidents in Britain, he found that carboxyhaemoglobin levels provided valuable information in relation to altitude and sources of carbon monoxide.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Carbon monoxide has an indirect radiative forcing effect by elevating concentrations of methane and tropospheric ozone through chemical reactions with other atmospheric constituents (e.g., the hydroxyl radical, OH.) that would otherwise destroy them.^ Several estimates of the production of carbon monoxide by atmospheric reactions have been made.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Calvert (1973) suggested several possible reactions of carbon monoxide with other pollutants also involving the hydroxyl radical and Westberg et al.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The carbon monoxide produced at the earth's surface migrates by diffusion and eddy currents to the troposphere and stratosphere where it is oxidized to carbon dioxide (CO 2 by the hydroxyl (OH) radical.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed] .Through natural processes in the atmosphere, it is eventually oxidized to carbon dioxide.^ It has been reported that some plant species can remove carbon monoxide from the atmosphere by oxidation to carbon dioxide or by conversion to methane (Bidwell & Fraser, 1972).
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Some carbon monoxide is also formed in the upper atmosphere (above 75 km) by the photo-dissociation of carbon dioxide (Altshuller & Bufallini, 1965; Bates & Witherspoon, 1952).
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Carbon Monoxide is generated through incomplete combustion of fuel such as natural gas, propane, heating oil, kerosene, coal, and charcoal, gasoline or wood.  .
  • carbon_monoxide.htm 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.nadi.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Carbon monoxide concentrations are both short-lived in the atmosphere and spatially variable.^ Living with carbon monoxide poisoning: .
  • Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Providence Health & Services 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.providence.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Revolution Health 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Detects both smoke and carbon monoxide.
  • Carbon monoxide detectors Home Safety & Security - PriceGrabber.com 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC appliances.pricegrabber.com [Source type: General]
  • Carbon monoxide detector Home Safety & Security - PriceGrabber.com 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC appliances.pricegrabber.com [Source type: General]

^ Breathing air that contains as little as 0.1% carbon monoxide by volume can be fatal; a concentration of about 1% can cause death within a few minutes.
  • carbon monoxide Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about carbon monoxide 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]

Urban pollution

.Carbon monoxide is a major atmospheric pollutant in some urban areas, chiefly from the exhaust of internal combustion engines (including vehicles, portable and back-up generators, lawn mowers, power washers, etc.^ LJUBLINA, E. I. (1960) [Shifts in some physiological functions of the animal on subacute and chronic exposure to carbon monoxide.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ COMMITTEE ON THE CHALLENGES OF MODERN SOCIETY (1972) Air pollution: Air quality criteria for carbon monoxide, No.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Carbon monoxide may enter the compartment from faulty or damaged exhaust systems or from the surrounding air, in road traffic.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

), but also from improper burning of various other fuels (including wood, coal, charcoal, oil, paraffin, propane, natural gas, and trash). Along with aldehydes, it reacts photochemically to produce peroxy radicals. .Peroxy radicals react with nitrogen oxide to increase the ratio of NO2 to NO, which reduces the quantity of NO that is available to react with ozone.^ Carbon monoxide reduces the amount of oxygen available to the myocardium at the time when the work of the heart has been increased by the absorption of nicotine.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ (NO) to nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and the rate of ozone formation.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]

Indoor pollution

.In closed environments the concentration of carbon monoxide can easily rise to lethal levels.^ Exposure to various levels of carbon monoxide resulted in hypertrophy of both the fight and left ventricles in contrast with the right ventricle hypertrophy observed in response to the hypoxic hypoxia stress.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ When Blackmore (1974) analysed the cause of aircraft accidents in Britain, he found that carboxyhaemoglobin levels provided valuable information in relation to altitude and sources of carbon monoxide.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Annual average concentrations of carbon monoxide are not of much value for assessing human exposure, although they do provide an indication of the long-term trends.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.On average, 170 people in the United States die every year from carbon monoxide produced by non-automotive consumer products.^ Endogenous carbon monoxide production 6.2.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Carbon monoxide is produced in measurable quantities in man and animals as a by-product of haem catabolism.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Annual average concentrations of carbon monoxide are not of much value for assessing human exposure, although they do provide an indication of the long-term trends.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[18] .These products include malfunctioning fuel-burning appliances such as furnaces, ranges, water heaters and room heaters; engine-powered equipment such as portable generators; fireplaces; and charcoal that is burned in homes and other enclosed areas.^ Other CO sources include gas and oil furnaces, water and space heaters, ovens, wood and coal stoves, wood and coal fireplaces, gas-log inserts and explosives.
  • Protocol for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Carbon MonoxidePoisoning 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.mcsrr.org [Source type: Academic]

.The American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) reported 15,769 cases of carbon monoxide poisoning resulting in 39 deaths in 2007.[19] In 2005, the CPSC reported 94 generator-related carbon monoxide poisoning deaths.^ Exposure to various levels of carbon monoxide resulted in hypertrophy of both the fight and left ventricles in contrast with the right ventricle hypertrophy observed in response to the hypoxic hypoxia stress.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Jalukar V, Penney DG, Crowley M, Simpson N. Magnetic resonance imaging of the rat brain following acute carbon monoxide poisoning.
  • Protocol for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Carbon MonoxidePoisoning 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.mcsrr.org [Source type: Academic]

^ When Blackmore (1974) analysed the cause of aircraft accidents in Britain, he found that carboxyhaemoglobin levels provided valuable information in relation to altitude and sources of carbon monoxide.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[18] Forty-seven of these deaths were known to have occurred during power outages due to severe weather, including Hurricane Katrina.[18] .Still others die from carbon monoxide produced by non-consumer products, such as cars left running in attached garages.^ Endogenous carbon monoxide production 6.2.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Carbon monoxide produces effects that aggravate the oxygen deficiency present at high altitudes.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Exposure to various levels of carbon monoxide resulted in hypertrophy of both the fight and left ventricles in contrast with the right ventricle hypertrophy observed in response to the hypoxic hypoxia stress.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that several thousand people go to hospital emergency rooms every year to be treated for carbon monoxide poisoning.^ Several estimates of the production of carbon monoxide by atmospheric reactions have been made.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ PANKOW, D. & PONSOLD, W. (1972) Leucine aminopeptidase activity in plasma of normal and carbon monoxide poisoned rats.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Jalukar V, Penney DG, Crowley M, Simpson N. Magnetic resonance imaging of the rat brain following acute carbon monoxide poisoning.
  • Protocol for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Carbon MonoxidePoisoning 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.mcsrr.org [Source type: Academic]

[20]
.Carbon monoxide is also a constituent of tobacco smoke.^ The possible interaction of carbon monoxide and other constituents of smoke that may occur in the lungs and other tissues and so induce pathological changes remains to be elucidated since the basic chemistry has not been adequately defined.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Rylander (1974) also concluded that carbon monoxide exposure through passive smoking was negligible and that adverse effects upon health would not be expected.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ WAKEHAM, H. R. R. (1976) Environmental carbon monoxide from cigarette smoking, Sixth International Tobacco Scientific Congress, Tokyo, Japan, November 18, 1976, 17 pp.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

Many workplaces implement policies to manage smoking activities, which are often ignored.[21]

Production

.Many methods have been developed for carbon monoxide's production.^ Endogenous carbon monoxide production 6.2.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Kirkham AJ, Guyatt AR, Cumming G. Alveolar carbon monoxide: a comparison of methods of measurement and a study of the effect of change in body posture.
  • Protocol for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Carbon MonoxidePoisoning 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.mcsrr.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In patients with haemolytic anaemia and sickle cell disease (Engel et al., 1971), the rate of endogenous carbon monoxide production from haemoglobin catabolism is increased.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[22]

Laboratory preparation

.Carbon monoxide is conveniently produced in the laboratory by the dehydration of formic acid, for example with sulfuric acid.^ Carbon monoxide produces effects that aggravate the oxygen deficiency present at high altitudes.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Carbon monoxide is produced in measurable quantities in man and animals as a by-product of haem catabolism.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Improperly regulated space heaters in such premises could also produce high concentrations of carbon monoxide.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

Another method is heating an intimate mixture of powdered zinc metal and calcium carbonate, which releases CO and leaves behind zinc oxide and calcium oxide:
Zn + CaCO3 → ZnO + CaO + CO

Industrial production

.A major industrial source of CO is producer gas, a mixture containing mostly carbon monoxide and nitrogen, formed by combustion of carbon in air at high temperature when there is an excess of carbon.^ Carbon monoxide (CO) is produced from the incomplete combustion or burning of any fuel.
  • Protocol for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Carbon MonoxidePoisoning 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.mcsrr.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Other CO sources include gas and oil furnaces, water and space heaters, ovens, wood and coal stoves, wood and coal fireplaces, gas-log inserts and explosives.
  • Protocol for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Carbon MonoxidePoisoning 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.mcsrr.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The combustion of fossil fuels in electric generating plants, industries, and the home, while resulting in the emission of smaller quantities of carbon monoxide individually, may constitute a major source when combined.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.In an oven, air is passed through a bed of coke.^ It is then catalytically reduced to methane and passed through a flame ionization detector, the output signal of which is proportional to the carbon monoxide concentration in the air sample.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.The initially produced CO2 equilibrates with the remaining hot carbon to give CO. The reaction of O2 with carbon to give CO is described as the Boudouard equilibrium.^ There is a tendency to forget that the reaction between haemoglobin and carbon monoxide is reversible and that, in a given environment, a subject may acquire carbon monoxide, excrete it, or remain in equilibrium with the ambient air depending on the carbon monoxide concentration and the initial level of carboxyhaemoglobin in the individual.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Endogenous production The normal breakdown in the body of blood pigments produces carbon monoxide to give endogenous carboxyhaemoglobin values of 0.1-1.0% and normal blood is in equilibrium with carbon monoxide levels in air of roughly 5 mg/m 3 (4.3 ppm).
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The carbon monoxide produced at the earth's surface migrates by diffusion and eddy currents to the troposphere and stratosphere where it is oxidized to carbon dioxide (CO 2 by the hydroxyl (OH) radical.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

Above 800 °C, CO is the predominant product:
O2 + 2 C → 2 CO (ΔH = −221 kJ/mol)
Another source is "water gas", a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide produced via the endothermic reaction of steam and carbon:
H2O + C → H2 + CO (ΔH = +131 kJ/mol)
.Other similar "synthesis gases" can be obtained from natural gas and other fuels.^ Among other natural sources of carbon monoxide are forest and grass fires, volcanoes, marsh gases, and electric storms.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers' products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

Carbon monoxide is also is a byproduct of the reduction of metal oxide ores with carbon, shown in a simplified form as follows:
MO + C → M + CO
.Since CO is a gas, the reduction process can be driven by heating, exploiting the positive (favorable) entropy of reaction.^ Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odorless, colorless gas often formed in the process of incomplete combustion of organic substances, including fuels.
  • Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning in Your Home - EH: Minnesota Department of Health 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.health.state.mn.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CO is produced by gas stoves and ranges and can become a problem with prolonged, improper operation -- for example, if these appliances are used to heat the home.
  • Preventing Carbon Monoxide Problems 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.ext.colostate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The original technology for detecting CO. Heated tin oxide reacts with CO to determine the levels of the toxic gas.

The Ellingham diagram shows that CO formation is favored over CO2 in high temperatures.

Coordination chemistry

The HOMO of CO is a σ MO.
The LUMO of CO is a π* antibonding MO.
.Most metals form coordination complexes containing covalently attached carbon monoxide.^ The quantity of carbon monoxide actually entering the lung depends upon the form in which the tobacco is smoked, the pattern of smoking, and depth of inhalation.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The most significant chemical characteristic of carbon monoxide is that it also is reversibly bound by haemoglobin.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In environments containing carbon monoxide concentrations of 57 and 200 mg/m 3 , respectively, 64% of the signals were detected.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Only metals in lower oxidation states will complex with carbon monoxide ligands.^ This process, however, can account for only a portion of the carbon monoxide oxidation.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Adaptation The implication that, in the presence of a clinical state of chronic carbon monoxide poisoning, adaptation to carbon monoxide occurs has not been verified.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The rate at which carbon monoxide is emitted from motor vehicles varies not only with vehicle but also with the mode of operation of the vehicle.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.This is because there must be sufficient electron density to facilitate back donation from the metal dxz-orbital, to the π* molecular orbital from CO. The lone pair on the carbon atom in CO, also donates electron density to the dx²−y² on the metal to form a sigma bond.^ Cultivated soils had a lower carbon monoxide uptake rate than uncultivated soils, presumably because there is less organic matter in the surface layer.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The oxidation of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is accelerated by metallic catalysts such as palladium on silica gel, or by a mixture of manganese and copper oxides (Hopcalite).
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In forming carboxyhaemoglobin (HbCO), carbon monoxide reacts with the iron in protohaem -- a constituent of haemoglobin -- and forms strong coordination bonds.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.In nickel carbonyl, Ni(CO)4 forms by the direct combination of carbon monoxide and nickel metal at room temperature.^ When high altitude and carbon monoxide exposures are combined (Table 9) the effects are apparently additive.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It must be emphasized that the measurements of carbon monoxide in air and in blood give complementary results and are not merely alternative forms of monitoring.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ PANKOW, D., PONSOLD, W., & FRITZ, H. (1974a) Combined effects of carbon monoxide and ethanol on the effects of leucine aminopeptidase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase in the plasma of rats.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.For this reason, nickel in any tubing or part must not come into prolonged contact with carbon monoxide (corrosion).^ Where does carbon monoxide come from?
  • Carbon monoxide poisoning 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.netdoctor.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Carbon monoxide poisoning 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.netdoctor.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Where does Carbon Monoxide come from?

^ The rate of diffusion from the alveoli and the binding of carbon monoxide with the blood haemoglobin are the steps limiting the rate of uptake into the blood.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Nickel carbonyl decomposes readily back to Ni and CO upon contact with hot surfaces, and this method was once used for the industrial purification of nickel in the Mond process.^ The slight difference in the fluorescence spectra of 16 CO and 18 CO is used for carbon monoxide determination by the so-called dual isotope fluorescence method.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[23]
.In nickel carbonyl and other carbonyls, the electron pair on the carbon interacts with the metal; the carbon monoxide donates the electron pair to the metal.^ Carbon monoxide is able to bond with metals; this accounts for its toxicity, which is due to the binding of the CO to the iron in haemoglobin, thereby blocking the uptake of oxygen.
  • carbon monoxide Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about carbon monoxide 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ (Medical experts agree that it's difficult to estimate the total number of carbon monoxide incidents because the symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning resemble so many other common ailments.
  • Carbon Monoxide In Your Home - Health News Story - WEWS Cleveland 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.newsnet5.com [Source type: General]

^ Interactions Much of the data reviewed by Pankow & Ponsfold (1974) concerning the combined effects of carbon monoxide and other biologically active agents are based on animal experiments.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.In these situations, carbon monoxide is called the carbonyl ligand.^ These findings suggest that carbon monoxide might stimulate breathing.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In terms of the total distribution throughout the body of an inhaled dose of carbon monoxide, the amounts bound to these haemoproteins are small compared with haemoglobin and myoglobin.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These authors also reported that carbon monoxide concentrations were generally unrelated to outdoor levels.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

One of the most important metal carbonyls is iron pentacarbonyl, Fe(CO)5:
Structure of iron pentacarbonyl. Iron pentacarbonyl.
Many metal-CO complexes are prepared by decarbonylation of organic solvents, not from CO. For instance, iridium trichloride and triphenylphosphine react in boiling 2-methoxyethanol or DMF) to afford IrCl(CO)(PPh3)2.

Organic and main group chemistry

.In the presence of strong acids and water, carbon monoxide reacts with alkenes to form carboxylic acids in a process known as the Koch-Haaf reaction.^ It must be emphasized that the measurements of carbon monoxide in air and in blood give complementary results and are not merely alternative forms of monitoring.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Adaptation The implication that, in the presence of a clinical state of chronic carbon monoxide poisoning, adaptation to carbon monoxide occurs has not been verified.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The process of plant respiration as a carbon monoxide sink still requires considerable further study.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[24] In the Gattermann-Koch reaction, arenes are converted to benzaldehyde derivatives in the presence of AlCl3 and HCl.[25] Organolithium compounds (e.g. .butyl lithium) react with carbon monoxide, but these reactions have little scientific use.^ Both reactions are used in the analytical chemistry of carbon monoxide.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These findings suggest that carbon monoxide might stimulate breathing.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The tremendous increase in the number and use of motor vehicles during the past 30 years has been accompanied by a rapid increase in carbon monoxide emissions.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Although CO reacts with carbocations and carbanions, it is relatively nonreactive toward organic compounds without the intervention of metal catalysts.^ The oxidation of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is accelerated by metallic catalysts such as palladium on silica gel, or by a mixture of manganese and copper oxides (Hopcalite).
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[26]
With main group reagents, CO undergoes several noteworthy reactions. Chlorination of CO is the industrial route to the important compound phosgene. With borane CO forms an adduct, H3BCO, which is isoelectronic with the acylium cation [H3CCO]+. CO reacts with sodium to give products resulting from C-C coupling such as sodium acetylenediolate 2Na+·C2O2−2. It reacts with molten potassium to give a mixture of an organometallic compound, potassium acetylenediolate 2K+·C2O2−2, potassium benzenehexolate 6K+ C6O6−6,[27] and potassium rhodizonate 2K+·C6O2−6.[citation needed]
.The compounds cyclohexanehexone or triquinoyl (C6O6) and cyclopentanepentone or leuconic acid (C5O5), which so far have been obtained only in trace amounts, can be regarded as polymers of carbon monoxide.^ In terms of the total distribution throughout the body of an inhaled dose of carbon monoxide, the amounts bound to these haemoproteins are small compared with haemoglobin and myoglobin.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ By far the most important source of carbon monoxide at breathing level is the exhaust of petrol-powered motor vehicles.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The primary factors involved are the amounts of carbon monoxide and oxygen present, the magnitude of ventilation, and the quality of the diffusion barrier.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]
.At pressures of over 5 gigapascals, carbon monoxide disproportionates into carbon dioxide (CO2) and is a solid polymer of carbon and oxygen, in 3:2 atomic ratio.^ FORSTER, R. E. (1970) Carbon monoxide and the partial pressure of oxygen in tissue.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Carbon monoxide produces effects that aggravate the oxygen deficiency present at high altitudes.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It has been reported that some plant species can remove carbon monoxide from the atmosphere by oxidation to carbon dioxide or by conversion to methane (Bidwell & Fraser, 1972).
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[28][29]

Uses

Chemical industry

.Carbon monoxide is an industrial gas that has many applications in bulk chemicals manufacturing.^ Douze (1971) presented information on the incidence of carbon monoxide poisoning due to the use of natural gas heaters in Utrecht.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Gas chromatography is particularly suitable, when low concentrations of carbon monoxide have to be measured with a high degree of specificity.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Other transportation sources, certain industrial processes, waste disposal and miscellaneous burning activities were responsible for the remaining carbon monoxide emissions.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[30]
.Large quantities of aldehydes are produced by the hydroformylation reaction of alkenes, carbon monoxide, and H2.^ Carbon monoxide produces effects that aggravate the oxygen deficiency present at high altitudes.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Carbon monoxide is produced in measurable quantities in man and animals as a by-product of haem catabolism.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The affinity of haemoglobin for carbon monoxide is roughly 240 times that of its affinity for oxygen; the proportions of carboxyhaemoglobin and oxyhaemoglobin in blood are largely dependent on the partial pressures of carbon monoxide and oxygen.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

Hydroformylation is coupled to the Shell Higher Olefin Process to give precursors to detergents. .Methanol is produced by the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide.^ Carbon monoxide is produced in measurable quantities in man and animals as a by-product of haem catabolism.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Improperly regulated space heaters in such premises could also produce high concentrations of carbon monoxide.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Another factor that may produce differential effects on the fetus is related to the endogenous production of carbon monoxide by pregnant women.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.In a related reaction, the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide is coupled to C-C bond formation, as in the Fischer-Tropsch process where carbon monoxide is hydrogenated to liquid hydrocarbon fuels.^ When Blackmore (1974) analysed the cause of aircraft accidents in Britain, he found that carboxyhaemoglobin levels provided valuable information in relation to altitude and sources of carbon monoxide.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Other transportation sources, certain industrial processes, waste disposal and miscellaneous burning activities were responsible for the remaining carbon monoxide emissions.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Calvert (1973) suggested several possible reactions of carbon monoxide with other pollutants also involving the hydroxyl radical and Westberg et al.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

This technology allows coal or biomass to be converted to diesel.
.In the Monsanto process, carbon monoxide and methanol react in the presence of a homogeneous rhodium catalyst and hydroiodic acid to give acetic acid.^ Other transportation sources, certain industrial processes, waste disposal and miscellaneous burning activities were responsible for the remaining carbon monoxide emissions.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Nunes & Schoenborn (1973) demonstrated that the binding affinity of carbon monoxide for haemoglobin increased in the presence of methylene chloride.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The oxidation of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is accelerated by metallic catalysts such as palladium on silica gel, or by a mixture of manganese and copper oxides (Hopcalite).
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.This process is responsible for most of the industrial production of acetic acid.^ Other transportation sources, certain industrial processes, waste disposal and miscellaneous burning activities were responsible for the remaining carbon monoxide emissions.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Several important industrial metallurgical processes, including the production of iron and steel in the blast furnace, are based on this reaction.
  • Carbon Monoxide Microscale Gas Chemistry 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC mattson.creighton.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is a product of incomplete combustion of carbon-containing fuels and is also produced by some industrial and biological processes.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.An industrial scale use for pure carbon monoxide is purifying nickel in the Mond process.^ ZORN, H. (1968) [Carbon dioxide-oxygen mixture or pure oxygen for respiration in the case of carbon monoxide intoxication.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The tremendous increase in the number and use of motor vehicles during the past 30 years has been accompanied by a rapid increase in carbon monoxide emissions.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Other transportation sources, certain industrial processes, waste disposal and miscellaneous burning activities were responsible for the remaining carbon monoxide emissions.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

Meat coloring

.Carbon monoxide is used in modified atmosphere packaging systems in the US, mainly with fresh meat products such as beef, pork, and fish to keep them looking fresh.^ Endogenous carbon monoxide production 6.2.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Several estimates of the production of carbon monoxide by atmospheric reactions have been made.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In patients with haemolytic anaemia and sickle cell disease (Engel et al., 1971), the rate of endogenous carbon monoxide production from haemoglobin catabolism is increased.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.The carbon monoxide combines with myoglobin to form carboxymyoglobin, a bright cherry red pigment.^ Carbon monoxide also combines reversibly with myoglobin and cytochromes, including P-450.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In terms of the total distribution throughout the body of an inhaled dose of carbon monoxide, the amounts bound to these haemoproteins are small compared with haemoglobin and myoglobin.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ When high altitude and carbon monoxide exposures are combined (Table 9) the effects are apparently additive.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Carboxymyoglobin is more stable than the oxygenated form of myoglobin, oxymyoglobin, which can become oxidized to the brown pigment, metmyoglobin.^ The value of M is about 200 in most species, in spite of the fact that carbon monoxide combines with haemoglobin more slowly than oxygen.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Thus carboxyhaemoglobin is toxic because it is about 200 times more stable than oxyhaemoglobin (HbO 2 ).
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

This stable red color can persist much longer than in normally packaged meat.[31] .Typical levels of carbon monoxide used in the facilities that use this process are between 0.4% to 0.5%.^ Exposure to various levels of carbon monoxide resulted in hypertrophy of both the fight and left ventricles in contrast with the right ventricle hypertrophy observed in response to the hypoxic hypoxia stress.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ When Blackmore (1974) analysed the cause of aircraft accidents in Britain, he found that carboxyhaemoglobin levels provided valuable information in relation to altitude and sources of carbon monoxide.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ By far the most important source of carbon monoxide at breathing level is the exhaust of petrol-powered motor vehicles.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

The technology was first given "generally recognized as safe" (GRAS) status by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2002 for use as a secondary packaging system, and does not require labeling. In 2004 the FDA approved CO as primary packaging method, declaring that CO does not mask spoilage odor.[32] Despite this ruling, the process remains controversial for fears that it masks spoilage.[33] .In 2007 a bill[34] was introduced to the United States House of Representatives to label modified atmosphere carbon monoxide packaging as a color additive, but the bill died in subcommittee.^ When high altitude and carbon monoxide exposures are combined (Table 9) the effects are apparently additive.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Reference method for the continuous measurement of carbon monoxide in the atmosphere is nondispersive infrared spectrometry.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Various populations in various places should be studied properly to assess the magnitude of the problem posed by carbon monoxide in the air of towns, houses, and workplaces.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

The process is banned in many other countries, including Canada, Japan, Singapore and the European Union.[35][36][37]

Medicine

.Studies involving carbon monoxide have been conducted throughout the world for its anti-inflamatory and cytoprotective properties.^ In their studies on the ewe and fetal lamb, Longo & Hill (1977) indicated that fetal uptake and elimination of carbon monoxide was relatively slow compared with that of the mother.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The primary factors involved are the amounts of carbon monoxide and oxygen present, the magnitude of ventilation, and the quality of the diffusion barrier.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Disturbances of atrioventricular and interventricular conductance were observed after 1 to 1.5 years of exposure and even after cessation of contact with carbon monoxide.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.These properties can be used to prevent the development of a series of pathologic conditions including ischemia reperfusion injury, transplant rejection, atherosclerosis, sepsis, severe malaria or autoimmunity.^ Because of the extreme exposure conditions used in most of these studies, only a few of them are directly relevant to the environmental exposure of man to carbon monoxide.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These results were in direct contradiction to the negative results obtained by Dorcus & Weigand (1929) who used a similar series of tests but with subjects exposed for a shorter period.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Clinical tests involving humans have been performed, however the results for the experiments have not yet been released..^ Attention is drawn to the difficulties inherent in the design of such tests as well as to the problems involved in the assessment of the health and social significance of the results.
  • Carbon monoxide (EHC 13, 1979) 10 February 2010 12:58 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[38].

See also

References

  1. ^ Carbon Monoxide - Molecule of the Month, Dr Mike Thompson, Winchester College, UK
  2. ^ a b c Blumenthal, Ivan (1 June 2001). "Carbon monoxide poisoning". J R Soc Med (The Royal Society of Medicine) 94 (6): 270–272. PMID 11387414. PMC 1281520. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pubmed&pubmedid=11387414. Retrieved May 2009. 
  3. ^ O. R. Gilliam, C. M. Johnson and W. Gordy (1950). "Microwave Spectroscopy in the Region from Two to Three Millimeters". Physical Review 78 (2): 140. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.78.140. 
  4. ^ W. Kutzelnigg (2002). Einführung in die Theoretische Chemie. Wiley-VCH. ISBN 3-527-30609-9. 
  5. ^ Omaye ST. (2002). "Metabolic modulation of carbon monoxide toxicity". Toxicology 180 (2): 139–150. doi:10.1016/S0300-483X(02)00387-6. PMID 12324190. 
  6. ^ "OSHA CO guidlines". OSHA. http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/healthguidelines/carbonmonoxide/recognition.html. Retrieved May 2009. 
  7. ^ Ganong, William F (2005). "37". Review of medical physiology (22 ed.). McGraw-Hill. p. 684. ISBN 0071440402. http://books.google.com/books?id=OLa8vDBXDD4C&dq=Ganong+WF.+Review+of+Medical+Physiology.+Norwalk+Ct:+Appleton+%26+Lange,+1995&printsec=frontcover&source=bn&hl=en&ei=QU8dSvnhG5OeMoHU0J8P&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4#PPA684,M1. Retrieved May 2009. 
  8. ^ Prockop LD, Chichkova RI (2007). "Carbon monoxide intoxication: an updated review". J Neurol Sci 262 (1-2): 122–130. doi:10.1016/j.jns.2007.06.037. PMID 17720201. 
  9. ^ a b Wu, L; Wang, R (December 2005). "Carbon Monoxide: Endogenous Production, Physiological Functions, and Pharmacological Applications". Pharmacol Rev 57 (4): 585–630. doi:10.1124/pr.57.4.3. PMID 16382109. http://pharmrev.aspetjournals.org/cgi/content/full/57/4/585#XI._Conclusions_and_Perspectives. Retrieved May 26, 2009. 
  10. ^ R. K. Thauer (1998). "Biochemistry of methanogenesis: a tribute to Marjory Stephenson. 1998 Marjory Stephenson Prize Lecture" (Free). Microbiology 144 (9): 2377–2406. doi:10.1099/00221287-144-9-2377. PMID 9782487. http://mic.sgmjournals.org/cgi/reprint/144/9/2377. 
  11. ^ Jaouen, G., Ed. (2006). Bioorganometallics: Biomolecules, Labeling, Medicine. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. ISBN 3-527-30990-X. 
  12. ^ Roberts, G. P.; Youn, H.; Kerby, R. L. (2004). "CO-Sensing Mechanisms". Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 68 (3): 453–473. doi:10.1128/MMBR.68.3.453-473.2004. PMID 15353565. 
  13. ^ Carbon Monoxide. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences. 1977. pp. 29. ISBN 0-309-02631-8. 
  14. ^ Green W. "An Introduction to Indoor Air Quality: Carbon Monoxide (CO)". United States Environmental Protection Agency. http://www.epa.gov/iaq/co.html. Retrieved 2008-12-16. 
  15. ^ a b Gosink, Tom (1983-01-28). "What Do Carbon Monoxide Levels Mean?". Alaska Science Forum. Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks. http://www.gi.alaska.edu/ScienceForum/ASF5/588.html. Retrieved 2007-12-01. 
  16. ^ Singer, Siegfried Fred. The Changing Global Environment. Dordrecht: D. Reidel Publishing Company. pp. 90. 
  17. ^ Gosink T (January 28, 1983). "What Do Carbon Monoxide Levels Mean?". Alaska Science Forum. Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks. http://www.gi.alaska.edu/ScienceForum/ASF5/588.html. Retrieved December 16, 2008. 
  18. ^ a b c U.S Consumer Product Safety Commission, Carbon Monoxide Questions and Answers, accessed 2009-12-04
  19. ^ American Association of Poison Control Centers 2007 Annual Report
  20. ^ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network, [http://ephtracking.cdc.gov/showCarbonMonoxideLanding.action Carbon Monoxide Poisoning], accessed 1009-12-04
  21. ^ "Queensland Health Smoking Management Policy". QH. http://www.health.qld.gov.au/atod/prevention/qhsmp.asp. Retrieved March 2010. 
  22. ^ Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. "Inorganic Chemistry" Academic Press: San Diego, 200. ISBN 0-12-352651-5.
  23. ^ Mond L, Langer K, Quincke F (1890). "Action of carbon monoxide on nickel". Journal of the Chemical Society 57: 749–753. doi:10.1039/CT8905700749. 
  24. ^ Koch, H.; Haaf, W. (1973), "1-Adamantanecarboxylic Acid", Org. Synth., http://www.orgsyn.org/orgsyn/orgsyn/prepContent.asp?prep=cv5p0020 ; Coll. Vol. 5: 20 
  25. ^ G. H. Coleman, David Craig (1943), "p-Tolualdehyde", Org. Synth., http://www.orgsyn.org/orgsyn/orgsyn/prepContent.asp?prep=cv2p0583 ; Coll. Vol. 2: 583 
  26. ^ Chatani, N.; Murai, S. "Carbon Monoxide" in Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis (Ed: L. Paquette) 2004, J. Wiley & Sons, New York. doi:10.1002/047084289
  27. ^ Werner Büchner, E. Weiss (1964) Zur Kenntnis der sogenannten «Alkalicarbonyle» IV[1] Über die Reaktion von geschmolzenem Kalium mit Kohlenmonoxid. Helvetica Chimica Acta, Volume 47 Issue 6, Pages 1415–1423. doi:10.1002/hlca.19640470604
  28. ^ A. I. Katz, D. Schiferl, and R. L. Mills (1984): J. Phys. Chem., 88 (15), 3176–3179
  29. ^ W. J. Evans, M. J. Lipp, C.-S. Yoo, H. Cynn, J. L. Herberg, R. S. Maxwell, and M. F. Nicol (2006). "Pressure-Induced Polymerization of Carbon Monoxide: Disproportionation and Synthesis of an Energetic Lactonic Polymer". Chemistry of Materials, vol. 18, 2520–2531. doi: 10.1021/cm0524446
  30. ^ Elschenbroich, C.;Salzer, A. ”Organometallics : A Concise Introduction” (2nd Ed) Wiley-VCH: Weinheim, 2006. ISBN 3-527-28165-7
  31. ^ Sorheim, S, Nissena, H, Nesbakken, T (1999). "The storage life of beef and pork packaged in an atmosphere with low carbon monoxide and high carbon dioxide". Journal of Meat Science 52 (2): 157–164. doi:10.1016/S0309-1740(98)00163-6. 
  32. ^ Eilert EJ (2005). "New packaging technologies for the 21st century". Journal of Meat Science 71 (1): 122–127. doi:10.1016/j.meatsci.2005.04.003. 
  33. ^ "Low-Oxygen Packaging with CO: A Study in Food Politics That Warrants Peer Review". http://www.foodsafetymagazine.com/article.asp?id=644&sub=sub1. Retrieved April 18, 2007. 
  34. ^ "Carbon Monoxide Treated Meat, Poultry, and Seafood Safe Handling, Labeling, and Consumer Protection Act (Introduced in House)". http://www.thomas.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c110:H.R.3115:. 
  35. ^ "Proof in the Pink? Meat Treated to Give It Fresh Look". ABC News. November 14, 2007. http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/Consumer/Story?id=3863064&page=1. Retrieved May 27, 2009. 
  36. ^ Carbon Monoxide in Meat Packaging: Myths and Facts. American Meat Institute. 2008. http://www.meatami.com/ht/a/GetDocumentAction/i/40141. Retrieved May 2009. 
  37. ^ "CO in packaged meat". Carbon Monoxide Kills Campaign. http://www.carbonmonoxidekills.com/packages_meat.htm. Retrieved May 2009. 
  38. ^ "Poison gas may carry a medical benefit". The Boston Globe. October 16, 2009. http://www.boston.com/news/local/massachusetts/articles/2009/10/16/poison_gas_may_carry_a_medical_benefit/?page=full. Retrieved October 16, 2009. 

External links

.

Simple English

Carbon monoxide
[[File:|140px|Structure of the carbon monoxide molecule]][[File:|140px|Space-filling model of the carbon monoxide molecule]]
General
Systematic name Carbon monoxide
Other names Carbonic oxide,
Coal gas
Molecular formula CO
Molar mass 28.0101 g/mol
Appearance Colorless, odorless gas
CAS number [630-08-0]
SMILES C#O
Properties
Density and phase 0.789 g/cm³, liquid
1.250 g/L at 0 °C, 1 atm.
1.145 g/L at 25 °C, 1 atm.
(lighter than air)
Solubility in water 0.0026 g/100 mL (20 °C)
in ethanol
in methanol
Soluble
Melting point -205 °C (68 K)
Autoignition temperature 609 °C
Boiling point -192 °C (81 K)
Structure
Molecular shape Linear
Dipole moment 0.112 D (3.74×10−31 C·m)
Hazards
MSDS External MSDS
EU classification Highly flammable (F+)
Repr. Cat. 1
Toxic (T)
NFPA 704

2
4
2
 
Flash point Flammable gas
RTECS number FG3500000
Supplementary data page
Structure & properties n, εr, etc.
Thermodynamic data Phase behaviour
Solid, liquid, gas
Spectral data IR = 2143 cm-1
Related compounds
Related oxides carbon dioxide
carbon suboxide
dicarbon monoxide
carbon trioxide
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state (at 25°C, 100 kPa)
Infobox disclaimer and references

Carbon monoxide, also known as coal gas, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. It is the product of the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing compounds. It has significant fuel value, burning in air with a characteristic blue flame, producing carbon dioxide. It is very toxic, but it is useful for modern technology as well. It consists of one carbon atom covalently bonded to one oxygen atom. This is a gas at room temperature.

The most important use for carbon monoxide in industry is making iron from iron ore. The carbon monoxide strips the oxygen off the iron ore in high temperature in a large oven called blast furnace, and leaves bare iron instead. The carbon monoxide turns into carbon dioxide itself.

Production

Carbon monoxide is so fundamentally important that many methods have been developed for its production.[1] The most usual is incomplete burning of coke in high temperature:

2C + O2 → 2CO

It can be also produced by blowing hot steam through red-hot crushed coke

C + H2O → CO + H2

Carbon monoxide can be used as heating fuel because it burns easily into carbon dioxide. It can also be used as so-called "synthesis gas" for making man-made gasoline in the Fischer-Tropsch process.

References

  1. Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. "Inorganic Chemistry" Academic Press: San Diego, 2001. ISBN 0-12-352651-5.

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Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 27, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Carbon monoxide, which are similar to those in the above article.








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