Cardiac dysrhythmia: Wikis

  

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Cardiac arrhythmia
Classification and external resources

Ventricular Fibrillation or V-Fib, an example of cardiac arrhythmia.
ICD-10 I47. - I49.
ICD-9 427
DiseasesDB 15206
MedlinePlus 001101
MeSH D001145
.Cardiac dysrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia) is a term for any of a large and heterogeneous group of conditions in which there is abnormal electrical activity in the heart.^ A cardiac arrhythmia, also called dysrhythmia, is an irregular or abnormal heart rhythm.
  • Arrhythmia Catheter Ablation | Cardiac Care 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.cardiaccare.info [Source type: Academic]

^ In other words, the correct term should be cardiac dysrhythmia, not cardiac arrhythmia.
  • Symptoms And Treatment of Cardiac Arrhythmia - Clivir - How to Lessons, Tips & Tutorials 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.clivir.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cardiac arrhythmia Disease is a term of a big and varied group of situations in which there is irregular electrical motion in the heart.
  • Cardiac Disease - Cardiac Treatments and Prevention 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.cardiacdisease.net [Source type: Academic]

.The heart beat may be too fast or too slow, and may be regular or irregular.^ The amount of blood that the heart pumps may be decreased when the heart pumps too slow or too fast.
  • Bon Secours Richmond - Change in Heartbeat : Topic Overview 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.healthwise.net [Source type: General]

^ It causes a rapid and regular heart beat.
  • Mount Sinai - Cardiac Arrhythmia Service 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.mountsinai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ventricular tachycardia: The heart beats too fast and may not pump .
  • cardiac - Abnormal Beating of the Heart: Cardiac Arrhythmias 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.healthstatus.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some arrhythmias are life-threatening medical emergencies that can result in cardiac arrest and sudden death.^ We are dedicated to the prevention of life threatening arrhythmias such as Sudden Cardiac Death .
  • Welcome to ACC 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC ctheartbeat.com [Source type: General]

^ While many arrhythmias are not life-threatening, the most dangerous types can lead to sudden cardiac death.
  • Understanding Cardiac Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.longqt.org [Source type: Academic]

^ What’s the impact of sudden cardiac death?
  • Arrhythmias and Sudden Cardiac Death 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC gilead.org.il [Source type: Academic]

.Others cause symptoms such as an abnormal awareness of heart beat (palpitations), and may be merely annoying.^ Cardiac Arrhythmia is defined as abnormal beats or palpitations of the heart muscle.
  • Symptoms And Treatment of Cardiac Arrhythmia - Clivir - How to Lessons, Tips & Tutorials 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.clivir.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Arrhythmias are abnormal beats of the heart.
  • Arrhythmias - HealthLibrary 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Your Health - Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.aurorahealthcare.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Beliefnet: Health and Healing 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.beliefnet.com [Source type: General]
  • Mount Sinai - Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.mountsinai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Heart arrhythmias can cause heart palpitations—you may feel your heart beating in your chest.
  • Cardiac Arrhythmia - Irregular Heartbeat - Houston & Sugarland, TX - Cardiology Patient Education Library 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.southwestcardio.com [Source type: General]

.Still others may not be associated with any symptoms at all, but may predispose the patient to potentially life threatening stroke or embolism.^ Potentially life-threatening bradycardias may be treated acutely with medication.
  • Arrhythmias and Sudden Cardiac Death 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC gilead.org.il [Source type: Academic]

^ Finally, in some cases an individual may not experience any symptoms at all, but still be at risk of a potentially life-threatening stroke.

^ It may be distressing, but is rarely life-threatening.
  • Heart Disease - Arrhythmia-Heart and Stroke Foundation of B.C. and Yukon 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.heartandstroke.bc.ca [Source type: General]
  • Heart Disease - Arrhythmia-- Heart and Stroke Foundation of P.E.I. 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.heartandstroke.pe.ca [Source type: General]

.Some arrhythmias are very minor and can be regarded as normal variants.^ Some variations of normal .
  • Arrhythmias (Abnormal Heart Rhythms) | Health | Patient UK 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some arrhythmias are very minor and can be regarded as normal variants.
  • Cardiac Arrhythmia - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some are quite minor and can be regarded as normal.
  • Arrhythmias (heart) - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cardiac Surgery| Cardiac Catheterization| Cardiac Imaging| Cardiac Care Hospital| Cardiac Computed Tomography 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.fortishealthcare.com [Source type: Academic]

.In fact, most people will on occasion feel their heart skip a beat, or give an occasional extra strong beat; neither of these is usually a cause for alarm.^ Most temporary and benign arrhythmias are those where your heart skips a beat or has an extra beat.
  • Arrhythmia: symptoms, cause, prevention, types, complications, treatment, long-term outlook, risks 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.mamashealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ectopic beats: The heart has an extra beat.
  • Arrhythmia: A Problem With Your Heartbeat -- familydoctor.org 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC familydoctor.org [Source type: General]
  • Abnormal Beating of the Heart: Cardiac Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.disabled-world.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • cardiac - Abnormal Beating of the Heart: Cardiac Arrhythmias 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.healthstatus.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An arrhythmia can also mean that your heart beats irregularly (skips a beat or has an extra beat).
  • Arrhythmia: A Problem With Your Heartbeat -- familydoctor.org 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC familydoctor.org [Source type: General]
  • What is an arrhythmia? 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.tjclarkminerals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Anemia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC tjclarkinc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.cvs.net.au [Source type: General]
  • Arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.drlera.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1]
.Proarrhythmia is a new or more frequent occurrence of pre-existing arrhythmias, paradoxically precipitated by antiarrhythmic therapy, which means it is a side effect associated with the administration of some existing antiarrhythmic drugs, as well as drugs for other indications.^ Some medicines used to treat arrhythmias can cause arrhythmias as a side effect.
  • CardioSmart: Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.cardiosmart.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lehr D. A possible beneficial effect of selenium administration in antiarrhythmic therapy.
  • Cardiac Arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.publix.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cardiac Arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.naturalmedicine.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cardiac Arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.puritan.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Fish Oil & Cardiac Arrhythmia | Iceland Health 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.icelandhealth.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Hypoallergenic Nutritional Supplements from Pure Encapsulations 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.purecaps.com [Source type: Academic]
  • PCC | Healthnotes | Cardiac Arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.pccnaturalmarkets.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cardiac Arrhythmia : University of Michigan Health System 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC health.med.umich.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Harris Teeter - Vitamin Guide 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.harristeeter.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cardiac Arrhythmia, SVCMC; New York NY 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.svcmc.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Trinity, Texas - Cardiac Arrhythmia; Cardiac arrhythmia is a term that denotes a ... 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.tmfhs.org [Source type: Academic]
  • MotherNature.com - Cardiac Arrhythmia 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.mothernature.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cardiac Arrhythmia - Providence Health & Services 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.providence.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Health Library - 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.bozemandeaconess.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Citizens Health Information 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.citizensmemorial.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Hy-Vee 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.hy-vee.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Harris Teeter - Healthy Eating 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.harristeeter.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Harvest Market - Healthy Living 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.harvestmarket.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Delicious Living - for the organic, green and healthy lifestyle 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC healthnotes.deliciouslivingmag.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Join Truestar now and achieve total health and weight loss now! 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.truestarhealth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Drugs associated with Arrhythmia .
  • Arrhythmia Medications | Drugs.com 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: General]

.In other words, it is a tendency of antiarrhythmic drugs to facilitate emergence of new arrhythmias.^ The majority of antiarrhythmic drugs have arrhythmogenic effects - in other words, they can cause arrhythmias themselves.4-6 In fact, controlled trials have shown that some anti-arrhythmia drugs actually increase the risk of death in some patients (see Table I).
  • Arrhythmia: Drug-free Alternatives to Keep the Beat Naturally 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.vrp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ While antiarrhythmic drugs are effective, they are also somewhat expensive and can have serious side effects, not the least of which is a tendency to initiate the very event being treated.
  • Nutrition Review - Drug-free Alternatives for Arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.nutritionreview.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Arrhythmia: Drug-free Alternatives to Keep the Beat Naturally 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.vrp.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The majority of antiarrhythmic drugs have arrhythmogenic effects — in other words, they can cause arrhythmias themselves.4-6 In fact, controlled trials have shown that some anti-arrhythmia drugs actually increase the risk of death in some patients (see Table I, above).
  • Nutrition Review - Drug-free Alternatives for Arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.nutritionreview.org [Source type: Academic]

.The term sinus arrhythmia refers to a normal phenomenon of mild acceleration and slowing of the heart rate that occurs with breathing in and out.^ An arrhythmia occurs when the normal electrical activity of the heart is disrupted.
  • Krames Online - When Your Child Has a Cardiac Arrhythmia 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC phlb.kramesonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • When Your Child Has a Cardiac Arrhythmia | HealthSheets | Wellness Library | Mount Nittany Medical Center 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.mountnittany.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Asymptomatic Arrhythmias: Sinus arrhythmia refers to the acceleration or slowing of heart rate .
  • Types of Arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: Academic]

^ With this condition the heart rate is too slow.
  • Heart Conditions & Diseases - Cardiac (Heart) surgery 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.strong.rochester.edu [Source type: Academic]

.It is usually quite pronounced in children, and steadily decreases with age.^ Heart murmurs are usually found when a child is between 2 and 4 years old (likely because at this age, many children can sit quietly while the doctor listens to the heart).

.This can also be present during meditation breathing exercises that involve deep inhaling and breath holding patterns.^ Sinus arrhythmia is what can be defined as the anxious state of the slowing down of the heart while breathing out or during expiration and increasing of the heart beat while inhaling or during inspiration.
  • What Is Sinus Arrhythmia? 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC ezinearticles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Interestingly, it is possible to increase RSA through slow breathing, meditation and exercise.
  • Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia - StressEraser - 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC stresseraser.com [Source type: General]

^ These arrhythmias are commonly experienced during breathing exercises and breath-holding patterns that are introduced as part of weight loss techniques.
  • Types of Arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: Academic]

Contents

Manifestations

.The term cardiac arrhythmia covers a very large number of very different conditions.^ There are different types of cardiac arrhythmias.
  • What is mean by cardiac arrhythmia's it is any major problem plz give some treatment sir,and also gas problem? - Yahoo! Answers 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Types of Arrhythmias Following are the different types of cardiac arrhythmias: 1.
  • Abnormal Beating of the Heart: Cardiac Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.disabled-world.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • cardiac - Abnormal Beating of the Heart: Cardiac Arrhythmias 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.healthstatus.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During this electrical mapping, the cardiac arrhythmia specialist, an electrophysiologist, may sedate the patient and instigate some of the very arrhythmias that are the crux of the problem.
  • Cardiac Ablation; Baltimore, Maryland MD 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.unionmemorial.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The most common symptom of arrhythmia is an abnormal awareness of heartbeat, termed palpitations.^ An arrhythmia is an abnormal rate and/or rhythm of the heartbeat.
  • Arrhythmias (Abnormal Heart Rhythms) | Health | Patient UK 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An arrhythmia is an abnormality of the heartbeat.
  • Comprehensive Cardiovascular Care Group:Arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.hrtcare.com [Source type: Academic]

^ An arrhythmia is the technical term for an irregular heartbeat.
  • All You Need to Know about Cardiac Arrhythmia 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.nutralegacy.com [Source type: General]

.These may be infrequent, frequent, or continuous.^ Patients who have infrequent, well-tolerated recurrences may manage these episodes with self-administered physiologic maneuvers.
  • Management of Common Arrhythmias: Part I. Supraventricular Arrhythmias - June 15, 2002 - American Family Physician 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ As an artery continues to narrow and become more rigid, blood supply to that area of the heart becomes less and less adequate and the chest pain may become more frequent.
  • Heart Conditions & Diseases - Cardiac (Heart) surgery 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.strong.rochester.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ These early, extra beats are weak and may not be felt in the chest or in the pulse at the wrist, which is why symptoms are frequently described as “skipped” beats.
  • Heart Rhythm Disorders 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.hrsonline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some of these arrhythmias are harmless (though distracting for patients) but many of them predispose to adverse outcomes.^ Most arrhythmias are harmless but some are not.

^ Many heart arrhythmias are harmless.

^ Some minor arrhythmias are harmless.
  • Irregular Heart Beat - Arrhythmia - Electrophysiology (EP) 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.bch.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Irregular Heart Beat - Arrhythmia - Electrophysiology (EP) 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC dev.bch.org [Source type: Academic]

.Some arrhythmias do not cause symptoms, and are not associated with increased mortality.^ If an arrhythmia causes symptoms, it can often be treated.
  • When Your Child Has a Cardiac Arrhythmia | HealthSheets | Wellness Library | Mount Nittany Medical Center 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.mountnittany.org [Source type: Academic]

^ What are the symptoms associated with arrhythmias?
  • arrhythmias - Symptoms, Treatments and Resources for arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: General]

^ In fact, some arrhythmias cause no symptoms at all.
  • Arrhythmias - New York Presbyterian Hospital 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC nyp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Arrhythmias | Health Library | Weill Cornell Physicians | Advancing Science. Enhancing Life. 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.weillcornell.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Arrhythmias - Weill Cornell Department of Surgery 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.cornellsurgery.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, some asymptomatic arrhythmias are associated with adverse events.^ However, some arrhythmias can prevent the heart’s chambers from filling with enough blood or interfere with its ability to pump enough blood to the rest of the body - decreasing blood supply to vital organs.
  • Cardiac Arrhythmias – Hope and Help through Advanced Treatment at UAB 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.health.uab.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cardiac Arrhythmias - Hope and Help through Advanced Treatment at UAB - UAB - Heart & Vascular Services 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www1.uabhealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Arrhythmias are common and usually harmless, however some can be bothersome and even life-threatening.
  • ksl.com - Special-needs dog in need of special family 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.ksl.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • ksl.com - Special-needs dog in need of special family 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.ksl.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many arrhythmias don't require treatment; however, some can pose a health problem and need to be evaluated and treated by a doctor.
  • Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC kidshealth.org [Source type: General]
  • Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC kidshealth.org [Source type: General]
  • Arrhythmias - MSN Health & Fitness - Kids' Health 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC health.msn.com [Source type: General]
  • Arrhythmias - The Children's Hospital-Denver Area, Colorado, Rocky Mountain Region 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.thechildrenshospital.org [Source type: General]
  • Arrhythmias 2009-11-01 00:00:00.0 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.devoschildrens.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Arrhythmias 2009-11-01 00:00:00.0 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.devoschildrens.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Examples include a higher risk of blood clotting within the heart and a higher risk of insufficient blood being transported to the heart because of weak heartbeat.^ More serious problems include blood clots and puncture of the heart.
  • CardioSmart: Catheter Ablation 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.cardiosmart.org [Source type: General]

^ Heart-rate control drugs Anticoagulant or antiplatelet drugs such as warfarin (a "blood thinner") or aspirin, which reduce the risk of blood clots forming or stroke.
  • Management of Arrhythmias (Abnormal Heart Beats) 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC my.clevelandclinic.org [Source type: General]

^ Symptoms include irregular heartbeat, heart palpitations, dizziness, sweating, chest pain or pressure and difficulty getting your breath.
  • Sequoia Hospital Announces High Volume Cardiac Arrhythmia Program 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.sequoiahospital.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Sequoia Hospital Announces High Volume Cardiac Arrhythmia Program 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www2.prnewswire.com [Source type: News]

.Other increased risks are of embolisation and stroke, heart failure and sudden cardiac death.^ What’s the impact of sudden cardiac death?
  • Arrhythmias and Sudden Cardiac Death 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC gilead.org.il [Source type: Academic]

^ If the death is due to heart disease it is called Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD).
  • Heart terms technical description sudden arrhythmia cardiac 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.sads.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Survivor of sudden cardiac death.
  • Madigan Army Medical Center Ventricular Arrhythmia Referral Guidelines 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.mamc.amedd.army.mil [Source type: Academic]

.If an arrhythmia results in a heartbeat that is too fast, too slow or too weak to supply the body's needs, this manifests as a lower blood pressure and may cause lightheadedness or dizziness, or fainting.^ The amount of blood that the heart pumps may be decreased when the heart pumps too slow or too fast.
  • Bon Secours Richmond - Change in Heartbeat : Topic Overview 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.healthwise.net [Source type: General]

^ Symptoms include palpitations, rapid heartbeat, dizziness, lightheadedness and fainting.
  • Treating Heart Rhythm Disorders: Barnes-Jewish & Washington University Heart & Vascular Center - Heart & Vascular Center - Barnes-Jewish Hospital 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.barnesjewish.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It may cause symptoms of weakness, shortness of breath and fainting.
  • Mount Sinai - Cardiac Arrhythmia Service 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.mountsinai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some types of arrhythmia result in cardiac arrest, or sudden death.^ What’s the impact of sudden cardiac death?
  • Arrhythmias and Sudden Cardiac Death 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC gilead.org.il [Source type: Academic]

^ Survivor of sudden cardiac death.
  • Madigan Army Medical Center Ventricular Arrhythmia Referral Guidelines 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.mamc.amedd.army.mil [Source type: Academic]

^ What are some of the types of arrhythmias?
  • What is an arrhythmia? 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.tjclarkminerals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.cvs.net.au [Source type: General]
  • Arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.drlera.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Medical assessment of the abnormality using an electrocardiogram is the best way to diagnose and assess the risk of any given arrhythmia.^ Step 2 Use medications to treat arrhythmia.
  • How to Treat Arrhythmia | eHow.com 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Doctors can also diagnose an arrhythmia by obtaining an electrocardiogram .

^ Arrhythmias can be diagnosed in several ways.
  • Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC kidshealth.org [Source type: General]
  • Arrhythmias 2009-11-01 00:00:00.0 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.devoschildrens.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Mechanisms and etiology

Normal electrical activity in the heart

.Each heart beat originates as an electrical impulse from a small area of tissue in the right atrium of the heart called the sinus node or Sino-atrial node or SA node.^ When the heart beats too fast, it's called tachycardia.
  • Arrhythmia: A Problem With Your Heartbeat -- familydoctor.org 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC familydoctor.org [Source type: General]
  • Anemia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC tjclarkinc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.cvs.net.au [Source type: General]

^ The heart contracts (beats) as the electrical impulse moves through it.

^ A slow heart rhythm due to an abnormal SA (sinus) node.
  • Heart Arrhythmia (Irregular Heartbeat) symptoms, warning signs and treatment information onMedicineNet.com 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.medicinenet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Common types of arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC my.clevelandclinic.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Heart Disease and Irregular Heartbeats 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: General]
  • What is cardiac arrhythmia? - Yahoo!7 Answers 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC au.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

.The impulse initially causes both of the atria to contract, then activates the atrioventricular (or AV) node which is normally the only electrical connection between the atria and the ventricles , which can be called as main pumping chambers.^ This causes the atria to contract and pump blood into the heart’s two lower chambers, the ventricles.

^ Most of the tissue between the atria and ventricles does not conduct the impulse.
  • Arrhythmias (Abnormal Heart Rhythms) | Health | Patient UK 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This occurs when the electrical impulse is not formed in the SA node or it is not transmitted through the AV node to the ventricles.
  • Mount Sinai - Cardiovascular Institute and Center for Cardiovascular Health 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.mssm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The impulse then spreads through both ventricles via the Bundle of His and the Purkinje fibres causing a synchronised contraction of the heart muscle, and thus, the pulse.^ The electrical impulse is then transmitted to the ventricles causing them to contract.
  • Arrhythmia (palpitations) - information, symptoms and treatments 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC hcd2.bupa.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Each impulse spreads across both atria.
  • Arrhythmias (Abnormal Heart Rhythms) | Health | Patient UK 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Electrical impulses cause the muscles to contract, providing the pumping ac...
  • Arrhythmias | LIVESTRONG.COM 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

.In adults the normal resting heart rate ranges from 60 to 80 beats per minute.^ (Normally, the heart beats 60 to 80 times per minute).
  • Heart Disease - Arrhythmia-Heart and Stroke Foundation of B.C. and Yukon 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.heartandstroke.bc.ca [Source type: General]
  • Heart Disease - Arrhythmia-- Heart and Stroke Foundation of P.E.I. 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.heartandstroke.pe.ca [Source type: General]

^ In adults the normal resting heart rate ranges from 60 beats per minute to 100 beats per minute.
  • Arrhythmias (heart) - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cardiac Surgery| Cardiac Catheterization| Cardiac Imaging| Cardiac Care Hospital| Cardiac Computed Tomography 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.fortishealthcare.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Heart rate less than 60 .
  • Cardiac (Heart) Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.your-doctor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The resting heart rate in children is much faster.^ They may sometimes take the form of brief periods of atrial fibrillation with either a faster or a slower heart rate, or of short phases of much faster, regular heartbeats (sinus tachycardia).
  • Cardiac arrhythmia 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.ismaap.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cardiac arrhythmia 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.ismaap.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Review: reduction in resting heart rate after taking β-blockers or calcium-channel blockers reduce mortality and morbidity after MI .
  • EBM -- Collected Resources : Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC ebm.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In adults the normal resting heart rate ranges from 60 beats per minute to 100 beats per minute.
  • Cardiac Surgery| Cardiac Catheterization| Cardiac Imaging| Cardiac Care Hospital| Cardiac Computed Tomography 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.fortishealthcare.com [Source type: Academic]

Bradycardias

.
Normal sinus rhythm, with solid black arrows pointing to normal P waves representative of normal sinus node function, followed by a pause in sinus node activity (resulting in a transient loss of heart beats).
^ A slow heart rhythm due to an abnormal SA (sinus) node.
  • Heart Arrhythmia (Irregular Heartbeat) symptoms, warning signs and treatment information onMedicineNet.com 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.medicinenet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Common types of arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC my.clevelandclinic.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Heart Disease and Irregular Heartbeats 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: General]
  • What is cardiac arrhythmia? - Yahoo!7 Answers 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC au.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Normal cardiac rhythm results from electrical impulses that start in the sinoatrial (or sinus) node.
  • Arrhythmias and Sudden Cardiac Death 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC gilead.org.il [Source type: Academic]

^ The rest of the heart functions normally.
  • Arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.hmc.psu.edu [Source type: General]

Note that the P wave that disrupts the pause (indicated by the dashed arrow) does not look like the previous (normal) P waves- this last P wave is arising from a different part of the atrium, representing an escape rhythm.
.A slow rhythm, (less than 60 beats/min), is labelled bradycardia.^ Bradycardia is a slower-than-normal rhythm.

^ Heart rate less than 60 .
  • Cardiac (Heart) Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.your-doctor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bradycardia is when the heart beats at less than 60 beats per minute.

.This may be caused by a slowed signal from the sinus node (termed sinus bradycardia), a pause in the normal activity of the sinus node (termed sinus arrest), or by blocking of the electrical impulse on its way from the atria to the ventricles (termed AV block or heart block).^ This occurs when the electrical impulse is not formed in the SA node or it is not transmitted through the AV node to the ventricles.
  • Mount Sinai - Cardiovascular Institute and Center for Cardiovascular Health 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.mssm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The signal then spreads through the atria and to the atrioventricular (AV) node.

^ A slow heart rhythm due to an abnormal SA (sinus) node.
  • Common types of arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC my.clevelandclinic.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Heart Disease and Irregular Heartbeats 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: General]
  • What is cardiac arrhythmia? - Yahoo!7 Answers 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC au.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

.Heart block comes in varying degrees and severity.^ There are several types of heart block, and they are named by their degree of severity.
  • Categories of Arrhythmias - Texas Heart Institute Heart Information Center 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.texasheartinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are three degrees of heart block.
  • Arrhythmias | NYU Cardiac & Vascular Institute | NYU Langone Medical Center | New York, New York 10016 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC cvi.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Heart block which may be first, second or third degree.

.It may be caused by reversible poisoning of the AV node (with drugs that impair conduction) or by irreversible damage to the node.^ Sinus node refractoriness and conduction in the AV node are both prolonged.

^ The AV node connects to a group of special pathways that conduct the signal to the ventricles below.
  • Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.cardioassoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Arrhythmia: What is it? 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.epic4health.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • ARRHYTHMIAS 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.primecarepc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Supraventricular tachycardia: Fast heart rates that are caused by problems in the SA or AV nodes.
  • Arrhythmias - Midwest Heart Specialists 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.midwestheart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Bradycardias may also be present in the normally functioning heart of athletes or other well conditioned persons.^ The rest of the heart functions normally.
  • Arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.hmc.psu.edu [Source type: General]

^ Other treatments may be needed as well.
  • CardioSmart: Catheter Ablation 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.cardiosmart.org [Source type: General]

^ Other heart conditions .
  • Arrhythmias (heart) - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Tachycardias

.
  Any resting heart rate faster than 100 beats/minute is labelled tachycardia.^ Tachycardia (fast heart rate) .
  • Arrhythmias - Midwest Heart Specialists 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.midwestheart.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the heart beats faster than normal, it's called tachycardia .
  • Arrhythmias - Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, Diagnosis - Condition Factsheets - Body & Health 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC bodyandhealth.canada.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the heart beats too fast, it's called tachycardia.
  • Arrhythmia: A Problem With Your Heartbeat -- familydoctor.org 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC familydoctor.org [Source type: General]
  • What is an arrhythmia? 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.tjclarkminerals.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Anemia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC tjclarkinc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.cvs.net.au [Source type: General]
  • Arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.drlera.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Tachycardia may result in palpitation, however, tachycardia is not necessarily an arrhythmia.^ The resulting arrhythmia may be temporary or permanent.
  • Heart Disease - Arrhythmia-Heart and Stroke Foundation of B.C. and Yukon 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.heartandstroke.bc.ca [Source type: General]
  • Heart Disease - Arrhythmia-- Heart and Stroke Foundation of P.E.I. 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.heartandstroke.pe.ca [Source type: General]

^ AF may result in palpitations, fainting, chest pain or congestive heart failure.
  • Gulf SAFE Begins Implementation Phase 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.zawya.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Arrhythmias may involve either abnormally slow (bradycardia) or fast (tachycardia) changes in rhythm.
  • Arrhythmia (Cardiac)�::�Conditions A-F�::�Forrest Natural Health Supplements 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.forresthealth.com [Source type: Academic]

.Increased heart rate is a normal response to physical exercise or emotional stress.^ This is a normal response in some situations, such as during exercise, stress or strong emotions.
  • COVER - Cardiac arrhythmia 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC db.riskwaters.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is a normal response to exercise.
  • Types of Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.umm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Presumably, the increase in heart rate and blood pressure are responsible for this association.
  • CDC NIOSH Science Blog, 11/01/07: Preventing Firefighter Fatalities 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.This is mediated by the sympathetic nervous system on the sinus node, and is called sinus tachycardia.^ This is called sinus tachycardia.
  • Arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.hmc.psu.edu [Source type: General]

^ Sinus arrhythmia affects the vagus nerve which is responsible for activating the nervous system-triggered parasympathetic input which regulates the heart beat.
  • What Is Sinus Arrhythmia? 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC ezinearticles.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The normal heart beat is controlled by a small area in the upper chamber of the heart called the sinoatrial node or sinus node.
  • Arrhythmias (heart) - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cardiac Surgery| Cardiac Catheterization| Cardiac Imaging| Cardiac Care Hospital| Cardiac Computed Tomography 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.fortishealthcare.com [Source type: Academic]

.Other things that increase sympathetic nervous system activity in the heart include ingested or injected substances such as caffeine or amphetamines, and an overactive thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism).^ Causes include stress, ingested or injected substances (ie: caffeine, alcohol (see Holiday heart syndrome), and an overactive thyroid gland hyperthyroidism.
  • Cardiac arrhythmia: Encyclopedia - Cardiac arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.experiencefestival.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Heart rate is dominated by the activity of the cardioinhibitory parasympathetic nervous system ( 4 ).
  • Advances in Parasympathetic Control of Heart Rate and Cardiac Function -- Mendelowitz 14 (4): 155 -- Physiology 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC physiologyonline.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The disorder also may result from rheumatic heart disease or an overactive thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism).
  • Categories of Arrhythmias - Texas Heart Institute Heart Information Center 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.texasheartinstitute.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Tachycardia that is not sinus tachycardia usually results from the addition of abnormal impulses to the normal cardiac cycle.^ Normal cardiac rhythm results from electrical impulses that start in the sinoatrial (or sinus) node.
  • Arrhythmias and Sudden Cardiac Death 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC gilead.org.il [Source type: Academic]

^ A normal sinus beat results.
  • Introduction: Arrhythmias and Conduction Disorders: Merck Manual Professional 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, were patients in normal sinus rhythm likely to remain free of their tachycardia for one day, one week, one month, or longer?
  • Epidemiology of Symptomatic Arrhythmias - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC clinicaltrials.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Abnormal impulses can begin by one of three mechanisms: automaticity, reentry or triggered activity.^ Triggered activity can be arrhythmogenic by initiating reentry.
  • Cardiac arrhythmia - Scholarpedia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.scholarpedia.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Abnormal impulses can begin by one of two mechanisms: automaticity or reentry.
  • Arrhythmias (heart) - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cardiac arrhythmia: Encyclopedia - Cardiac arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.experiencefestival.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the acute and subacute phase of myocardial infarction, arrhythmias can be caused by an abnormal impulse generation, abnormal automaticity or triggered activity caused by early or delayed afterdepolarizations (EAD and DAD), or by abnormalities of impulse conduction (i.e., reentry).
  • ARRHYTHMIA (CARDIAC) Page 2 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

.A specialised form of re-entry problem is termed fibrillation.^ Sustained tachyarrhythmias in the atria, such as atrial fibrillation, paroxysmal atrial tachycardia (PAT), and supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), originate because of micro- or macro re-entry.

Automaticity

.Automaticity refers to a cardiac muscle cell firing off an impulse on its own.^ Automaticity refers to a cardiac muscle cell firing off an impulse on its own.
  • Arrhythmias (heart) - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cardiac arrhythmia: Encyclopedia - Cardiac arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.experiencefestival.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The sinoatrial node is a group of specialized muscle cells which are bundled together and, depending on requirements, are able to generate between 50 and approximately 150 impulses per minute.
  • Cardiac arrhythmia 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.ismaap.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cardiac arrhythmia 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.ismaap.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The QT interval is the area on the electrocardiogram that represents the time it takes for the heart muscle to contract and then recover, or for the electrical impulse to fire impulses and then recharge.
  • Heart Disease and Irregular Heartbeats 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: General]

.All of the cells in the heart have the ability to initiate an action potential, however, only some of these cells are designed to routinely trigger heart beats.^ The heart's electrical system triggers the heart beat.
  • Management of Arrhythmias (Abnormal Heart Beats) 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC my.clevelandclinic.org [Source type: General]

^ The heart is a pump that keeps blood flowing throughout the body, thus supplying the cells in all of the organs with oxygen, nutrients and other vital substances.
  • Cardiac arrhythmia 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.ismaap.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cardiac arrhythmia 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.ismaap.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cardiac pacemaker - Control via the SA node Cardiac pacemaker - Generation of action potentials Cardiac pacemaker - Control of heart rate Cardiac pacemaker - Related topics .

.These cells are found in the 'conduction system' of the heart and include the SA node, AV node, Bundle of HIS and Purkinje fibers.^ Slow heart rhythms that may arise from disease in the heart's conduction system, such as the sinus (or sinoatrial, SA) node, AV node or HIS-Purkinje system.
  • Management of Arrhythmias (Abnormal Heart Beats) 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC my.clevelandclinic.org [Source type: General]

^ Summarize the hearts electrical conduction system.
  • Basic Arrhythmia Interpretation Program Description 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.rnedonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The SA node is a bundle of highly specialized cells in the right atrium.

.The sinoatrial node is a single specialized location in the atrium which has a higher automaticity (a faster pacemaker) than the rest of the heart, and therefore is usually responsible for setting the heart rate, and initiating each heart beat.^ The heart rate maintains an even rate as it beats faster.
  • Arrhythmia - My Child Has - Children's Hospital Boston 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.childrenshospital.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.chw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Heart Conditions in Children - Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.stjosephsatlanta.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cardiovascular Diseases > Arrhythmias (The Methodist Hospital, Houston, Texas) 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.methodisthealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • - Children's National Medical Center 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.cnmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore, a healthy SN directs the rate at which the heart beats.
  • Sinus Node Dysfunction: eMedicine Pediatrics: Cardiac Disease and Critical Care Medicine 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The SA node is known as the heart's pacemaker .
  • Cardiac Arrhythmias in the Horse : Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.tufts.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Any part of the heart that initiates an impulse without waiting for the sinoatrial node is called an ectopic focus, and is by definition a pathological phenomenon.^ Any part of the heart that initiates an impulse without waiting for the sinoatrial node is called an ectopic focus , and is by definition a pathological phenomenon.
  • Cardiac arrhythmia: Encyclopedia - Cardiac arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.experiencefestival.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sick sinus syndrome (SSS) is not a specific disease, but a group of signs or symptoms that indicate the heart’s natural electrical pacemaker, which is called the sinoatrial node, is not functioning properly.
  • Mount Sinai - Cardiac Arrhythmia Service 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.mountsinai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The electrical impulse then travels through the upper chambers of the heart (atria) to an intermediate station (the atrioventricular node), and finally to the lower heart chambers (ventricles).
  • Cardiac Arrhythmias in Cats 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.petplace.com [Source type: General]

.This may cause a single premature beat now and then, or, if the ectopic focus fires more often than the sinoatrial node, it can produce a sustained abnormal rhythm.^ Ectopic beats are premature beats often felt as "skipped beats".
  • Arrhythmia - alternative natural treatment choices 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.go-symmetry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cardiac auscultation may detect an irregular rhythm or premature beats.

^ The heart may beat irregularly and, often, more slowly.
  • Heart Arrhythmia (Irregular Heartbeat) symptoms, warning signs and treatment information onMedicineNet.com 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.medicinenet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Common types of arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC my.clevelandclinic.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Heart Disease and Irregular Heartbeats 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: General]
  • What is cardiac arrhythmia? - Yahoo!7 Answers 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC au.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

.Rhythms produced by an ectopic focus in the atria, or by the atrioventricular node, are the least dangerous dysrhythmias; but they can still produce a decrease in the heart's pumping efficiency, because the signal reaches the various parts of the heart muscle with different timing to usual and can be responsible for poorly coordinated contraction.^ It involves the fibrillating or quivering of the heart muscles, instead of coordinated contractions.
  • Gulf SAFE Begins Implementation Phase 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.zawya.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The atria are the upper part of the heart and the ventricles are the larger pump part of the heart in the bottom.
  • When does cardiac arrhythmia become life threatening? - CNN.com 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ It also records the strength and timing of the electrical signals as they pass through each part of the heart.

.Conditions that increase automaticity include sympathetic nervous system stimulation and hypoxia.^ Conditions that increase automaticity include sympathetic nervous system stimulation and hypoxia .
  • Arrhythmias (heart) - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Conditions that increase automaticity include sympathetic nervous system stimulation and hypoxia.
  • Cardiac arrhythmia: Encyclopedia - Cardiac arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.experiencefestival.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, 3 conditions favor reentry: shortening of tissue refractoriness (eg, by sympathetic stimulation), lengthening of the conduction pathway (eg, by hypertrophy or abnormal conduction pathways), and slowing of impulse conduction (eg, by ischemia).
  • Introduction: Arrhythmias and Conduction Disorders: Merck Manual Professional 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

.The resulting heart rhythm depends on where the first signal begins: if it is the sinoatrial node, the rhythm remains normal but rapid; if it is an ectopic focus, many types of dysrhythmia may ensue.^ The resulting rhythm is disorganized, rapid and irregular.
  • Management of Arrhythmias (Abnormal Heart Beats) 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC my.clevelandclinic.org [Source type: General]

^ Ventricular tachycardia is a rapid rhythm that begins in the lower chambers of the heart.
  • Arrhythmias | NYU Cardiac & Vascular Institute | NYU Langone Medical Center | New York, New York 10016 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC cvi.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Normal cardiac rhythm results from electrical impulses that start in the sinoatrial (or sinus) node.
  • Arrhythmias and Sudden Cardiac Death 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC gilead.org.il [Source type: Academic]

Re-entry

.Re-entry arrhythmias occur when an electrical impulse recurrently travels in a tight circle within the heart, rather than moving from one end of the heart to the other and then stopping.^ Re-entry can occur if there are differences in the electrical properties of the heart tissue.
  • Fast Arrhythmias, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.cincinnatichildrens.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Electrical impulses to the lower chambers of the heart or ventricles are scattered rather ...
  • Arrhythmia Symptoms | LIVESTRONG.COM 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ An arrhythmia occurs when the normal electrical activity of the heart is disrupted.
  • Krames Online - When Your Child Has a Cardiac Arrhythmia 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC phlb.kramesonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • When Your Child Has a Cardiac Arrhythmia | HealthSheets | Wellness Library | Mount Nittany Medical Center 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.mountnittany.org [Source type: Academic]

[2] .Every cardiac cell is able to transmit impulses in every direction, but will only do so once within a short period of time.^ Every cardiac cell is able to transmit impulses in every direction, but will only do so once within a short period of time.
  • Arrhythmias (heart) - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cardiac arrhythmia: Encyclopedia - Cardiac arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.experiencefestival.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A quarter of all deaths in the United States—about a thousand deaths a day—are sudden cardiac deaths, which are unexpected and occur within an hour of the time that symptoms first appear.
  • Treatment to Prevent Sudden Cardiac Death: Clinical Highlights 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.ahrq.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Over a period of time nutritional deficiencies will result in failure to create or conduct the electrical impulses necessary to trigger the heart to beat.
  • Cardiac Arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.mnwelldir.org [Source type: General]

.Normally, the action potential impulse will spread through the heart quickly enough that each cell will only respond once.^ Once in place, the electrodes can map the spread of electrical impulses through your heart.
  • Heart arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ Cardiac cells are interconnected by gap junctions that enhance the spread of action potentials through the heart.
  • Post-operative control of cardiac arrhythmia by modification of neuronal signaling through fat pads of the heart invention 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.freshpatents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Normally the impulse spreads through the heart quickly enough that each cell will only respond once, but if conduction is abnormally slow in some areas, part of the impulse will arrive late and will be treated as a new impulse, which can then spread backward.
  • Arrhythmias (heart) - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cardiac arrhythmia: Encyclopedia - Cardiac arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.experiencefestival.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, if conduction is abnormally slow in some areas, part of the impulse will arrive late and potentially be treated as a new impulse.^ Normally the impulse spreads through the heart quickly enough that each cell will only respond once, but if conduction is abnormally slow in some areas, part of the impulse will arrive late and will be treated as a new impulse, which can then spread backward.
  • Arrhythmias (heart) - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cardiac arrhythmia: Encyclopedia - Cardiac arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.experiencefestival.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Types of arrhythmias include: Heartbeats that are too slow ( bradycardia ) Heartbeats that are too fast ( tachycardia ) Extra beats Skipped beats Beats coming from abnormal areas of the heart .
  • Beliefnet: Health and Healing 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.beliefnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Digoxin Some Trade Names LANOXIN slows conduction of electrical impulses through the atrioventricular node.
  • Introduction: Abnormal Heart Rhythms: Merck Manual Home Edition 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Depending on the timing, this can produce a sustained abnormal circuit rhythm.^ Depending on the timing, this can produce a sustained abnormal rhythm, such as atrial flutter, a self-limiting burst of supraventricular tachycardia, or the dangerous ventricular tachycardia.
  • Cardiac arrhythmia: Encyclopedia - Cardiac arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.experiencefestival.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Depending on the timing, this can produce a sustained abnormal rhythm, such as atrial flutter , a self-limiting burst of supraventricular tachycardia , or the dangerous ventricular tachycardia .
  • Arrhythmias (heart) - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Types of Arrhythmias Diagnosing Arrhythmias Treating Arrhythmias When to Call the Doctor An arrhythmia is an abnormal heart rhythm usually caused by an electrical "short circuit" in the heart.
  • Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC kidshealth.org [Source type: General]

.Re-entry circuits are responsible for atrial flutter, most paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, and dangerous ventricular tachycardia.^ Ventricular Pre-excitation and Supraventricular Tachycardia .
  • Arrhythmias - WSAVA 2008 Congress 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.vin.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia.
  • COVER - Cardiac arrhythmia 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC db.riskwaters.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Paroxysmal atrial tachycardia.

.By analogy, imagine a room full of people all given these instructions: "If you see anyone starting to stand up, then stand up for three seconds and sit back down."^ By analogy, imagine a room full of people all given these instructions: "If you see anyone starting to stand up, then stand up for three seconds and sit back down."
  • Cardiac arrhythmia: Encyclopedia - Cardiac arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.experiencefestival.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The table is then tilted as if you were standing up.
  • Heart arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • OhioHealth - Heart arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.ohiohealth.com [Source type: General]

^ If the people are quick enough to respond, the first person to stand will trigger a single wave which will then die out; but if there are stragglers on one side of the room, people who have already sat down will see them and start a second wave, and so on.
  • Cardiac arrhythmia: Encyclopedia - Cardiac arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.experiencefestival.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If people are quick enough to respond, the first person to stand will trigger a single wave which will then die out; but if there are stragglers on one side of the room, people who have already sat down will see them and start a second wave, and so on.^ If the people are quick enough to respond, the first person to stand will trigger a single wave which will then die out; but if there are stragglers on one side of the room, people who have already sat down will see them and start a second wave, and so on.
  • Arrhythmias (heart) - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cardiac arrhythmia: Encyclopedia - Cardiac arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.experiencefestival.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the problem is not resolved within two minutes there will be permanent brain damage, and if left untreated the person will quickly die.
  • Heart terms technical description sudden arrhythmia cardiac 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.sads.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By analogy, imagine a room full of people all given these instructions: "If you see anyone starting to stand up, then stand up for three seconds and sit back down."
  • Arrhythmias (heart) - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cardiac arrhythmia: Encyclopedia - Cardiac arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.experiencefestival.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Fibrillation

.When an entire chamber of the heart is involved in a multiple micro-reentry circuits, and therefore quivering with chaotic electrical impulses, it is said to be in fibrillation.^ Electrical impulses to the lower chambers of the heart or ventricles are scattered rather ...
  • Arrhythmia Symptoms | LIVESTRONG.COM 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ The chambers and electrical conducting system of the heart .
  • Arrhythmia (palpitations) - information, symptoms and treatments 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC hcd2.bupa.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ In ventricular fibrillation, disorganized electrical impulses occur in the ventricles, causing the lower chambers of the heart to quiver.
  • Arrhythmias | NYU Cardiac & Vascular Institute | NYU Langone Medical Center | New York, New York 10016 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC cvi.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Fibrillation can affect the atrium (atrial fibrillation) or the ventricle (ventricular fibrillation); ventricular fibrillation is imminently life-threatening.^ Treatment for life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias .
  • Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC iws.ccccd.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Fibrillation can affect the atrium (atrial fibrillation) or the ventricle (ventricular fibrillation); ventricular fibrillation is imminently life-threatening.
  • Cardiac arrhythmia: Encyclopedia - Cardiac arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.experiencefestival.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fibrillation can affect the atrium ( atrial fibrillation ) or the ventricle ( ventricular fibrillation ); ventricular fibrillation is imminently life-threatening.
  • Arrhythmias (heart) - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Atrial fibrillation affects the upper chambers of the heart, known as the atria.^ Also, blood clots can form in the upper heart chambers as a result of atrial fibrillation.
  • Arrhythmias and Sudden Cardiac Death 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC gilead.org.il [Source type: Academic]

^ Early extra beats that originate in the atrial (upper chamber of the heart) .

^ There are also ICDs for atrial fibrillation (quivering in the upper half of the heart).

.Atrial fibrillation may be due to serious underlying medical conditions, and should be evaluated by a physician.^ Atrial fibrillation is often due to serious underlying medical conditions, and should be evaluated by a physician .
  • Arrhythmias (heart) - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Atrial fibrillation is often due to serious underlying medical conditions, and should be evaluated by a physician.
  • Heart Arrhythmia prevention and treatment with natural supplements, alternative therapy by Ray Sahelian, M.D. 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cardiac arrhythmia: Encyclopedia - Cardiac arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.experiencefestival.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A cardiologist should evaluate this arrhythmia condition.
  • Management of Arrhythmias (Abnormal Heart Beats) 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC my.clevelandclinic.org [Source type: General]

.It is not typically a medical emergency.^ It is not typically a medical emergency.
  • Heart Arrhythmia prevention and treatment with natural supplements, alternative therapy by Ray Sahelian, M.D. 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Arrhythmias (heart) - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cardiac arrhythmia: Encyclopedia - Cardiac arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.experiencefestival.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fees are Typically $9 - $15 In the event of a medical emergency, please contact your veterinarian immediately.
  • Cardiac Arrhythmias in Cats 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.petplace.com [Source type: General]

.Ventricular fibrillation occurs in the ventricles (lower chambers) of the heart; it is always a medical emergency.^ Ventricular tachycardia is a rapid rhythm that begins in the lower chambers of the heart.
  • Arrhythmias | NYU Cardiac & Vascular Institute | NYU Langone Medical Center | New York, New York 10016 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC cvi.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Electrical impulses to the lower chambers of the heart or ventricles are scattered rather ...
  • Arrhythmia Symptoms | LIVESTRONG.COM 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Ventricular fibrillation is a cardiac emergency.
  • Cardiac Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC womenshealth.aetna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cardiac Arrhythmias - Cardiac Arrhythmias Description - Cardiac Arrhythmias Symptoms - Cardiac Arrhythmias Prevention - Cardiac Arrhythmias Treatment 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC symptomchecker.about.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • InteliHealth: 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.intelihealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If left untreated, ventricular fibrillation (VF, or V-fib) can lead to death within minutes.^ If left untreated, ventricular fibrillation can lead to death within minutes.
  • Heart Arrhythmia prevention and treatment with natural supplements, alternative therapy by Ray Sahelian, M.D. 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A severe cardiac arrhythmia such as ventricular fibrillation can lead to brain damage or death within minutes.
  • Retionoic acid treatment of cardiac arrhythmia - Patent 5576349 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If left untreated, ventricular fibrillation (VF, or V-fib) can lead to death within minutes.
  • Arrhythmias (heart) - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cardiac arrhythmia: Encyclopedia - Cardiac arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.experiencefestival.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When a heart goes into V-fib, effective pumping of the blood stops.^ When a heart goes into V-fib, effective pumping of the blood stops.
  • Arrhythmias (heart) - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cardiac arrhythmia: Encyclopedia - Cardiac arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.experiencefestival.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When a heart goes into ventricular fibrillation, effective pumping of the blood stops.
  • Heart Arrhythmia prevention and treatment with natural supplements, alternative therapy by Ray Sahelian, M.D. 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ventricular arrhythmias originate in the ventricles, the lower chambers of the heart, and can interfere with the heart's ability to pump blood to the body.
  • P. Education - Test - Arrhythmia Monitoring 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.lacard.com [Source type: Academic]

.V-fib is considered a form of cardiac arrest, and an individual suffering from it will not survive unless cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and defibrillation are provided immediately.^ V-fib is considered a form of cardiac arrest , and an individual suffering from it will not survive unless cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and defibrillation are provided immediately.
  • Arrhythmias (heart) - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ V-fib is considered a form of cardiac arrest, and an individual suffering from it will not survive unless cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and defibrillation are provided immediately.
  • Cardiac arrhythmia: Encyclopedia - Cardiac arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.experiencefestival.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CPR Immediate cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is critical to treating sudden cardiac arrest.
  • Sudden cardiac arrest 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • Sudden cardiac arrest 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC edition.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • OhioHealth - Sudden cardiac arrest 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.ohiohealth.com [Source type: General]

.CPR can prolong the survival of the brain in the lack of a normal pulse, but defibrillation is the only intervention which can restore a healthy heart rhythm.^ CPR can prolong the survival of the brain in the lack of a normal pulse, but defibrillation is the intervention which is most likely to restore a more healthy heart rhythm.
  • Arrhythmias (heart) - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cardiac arrhythmia: Encyclopedia - Cardiac arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.experiencefestival.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Irregular heart rhythms can also occur in "normal, healthy" hearts.
  • Heart Arrhythmia (Irregular Heartbeat) symptoms, warning signs and treatment information onMedicineNet.com 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.medicinenet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Heart Disease and Irregular Heartbeats 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: General]
  • What is cardiac arrhythmia? - Yahoo!7 Answers 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC au.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ There are several ways an ICD can restore a normal heart rhythm: .
  • Management of Arrhythmias (Abnormal Heart Beats) 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC my.clevelandclinic.org [Source type: General]

.Defibrillation is performed by applying an electric shock to the heart, which resets the cells, permitting a normal beat to re-establish itself.^ The heart's electrical system triggers the heart beat.
  • Management of Arrhythmias (Abnormal Heart Beats) 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC my.clevelandclinic.org [Source type: General]

^ How does a normal heart beat?
  • Arrhythmias - New York Presbyterian Hospital 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC nyp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Among the equipment in that room is a heart defibrillator that can shock the ...
  • The Zapper: ZapNews 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.zaplife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Triggered beats

.Triggered beats occur when problems at the level of the ion channels in individual heart cells result in abnormal propagation of electrical activity and can lead to sustained abnormal rhythm.^ If the normal and abnormal beats occur at the same time, this leads to a fusion (F) beat.
  • Cardiac arrhythmia - Scholarpedia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.scholarpedia.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The heart's electrical system triggers the heart beat.
  • Management of Arrhythmias (Abnormal Heart Beats) 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC my.clevelandclinic.org [Source type: General]

^ A record of the electrical activity of the heart.
  • Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.cardioassoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Arrhythmia: What is it? 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.epic4health.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They are relatively rare, but can result from the action of anti-arrhythmic drugs.^ Anti-arrhythmic Drugs .
  • ARRHYTHMIAS : search results - Patient UK 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: General]
  • CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIA : search results - Patient UK 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Certain anti-arrhythmic drugs change the electrical signals in the heart and help prevent abnormal sites from starting irregular or rapid heart rhythms.
  • Arrhythmia - Treatment 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.ucsfhealth.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The potential for QT prolongation and pro-arrhythmia by non-anti-arrhythmic drugs: clinical and regulatory implications.
  • Addiction Treatment Forum 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.atforum.com [Source type: Academic]

Classification of common cardiac arrhythmias

.Arrhythmia may be classified by rate (normal, tachycardia, bradycardia), or mechanism (automaticity, reentry, fibrillation).^ These antibodies, which normally attack an acid pump found on gastric cells, may instead attack a similar pump on cardiac cells, ultimately triggering atrial fibrillation.
  • Heart Arrhythmia prevention and treatment with natural supplements, alternative therapy by Ray Sahelian, M.D. 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fish oils -- Fish oils may reduce ventricular arrhythmia and atrial arrhythmia (most commonly presented as atrial fibrillation).
  • Heart Arrhythmia prevention and treatment with natural supplements, alternative therapy by Ray Sahelian, M.D. 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ventricular tachycardia (VT) refers to an arrhythmia characterized by rapid ventricular rates generally around 100 to 200 beats per minute and may be either sustained (lasting longer than 30 seconds) or nonsustained.
  • Cardiac arrhythmia - Scholarpedia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.scholarpedia.org [Source type: Academic]

It is also appropriate to classify by site of origin:

Atrial

Junctional arrhythmias

Atrio-ventricular

Ventricular

Heart blocks

.These are also known as AV blocks, because the vast majority of them arise from pathology at the atrioventricular node.^ AV node Atrioventricular node.
  • Heart terms technical description sudden arrhythmia cardiac 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.sads.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These circuits give rise to rapid impulses that bombard the connection between the top and bottom chambers of the heart, the AV node.
  • Arizona Arrhythmia Consultants 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.azrhythm.com [Source type: Academic]

^ After activating the atria from top to bottom, the impulse proceeds to the atrioventricular (AV) node, located at the center of the heart.
  • dreddyclinic.com - Heart arrhythmias (arrhythmias) 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.dreddyclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

They are the most common causes of bradycardia:

Diagnosis

.Cardiac dysrhythmias are often first detected by simple but nonspecific means: auscultation of the heartbeat with a stethoscope, or feeling for peripheral pulses.^ Cardiac dysrhythmias are often first detected by simple but nonspecific means: auscultation of the heartbeat with a stethoscope, or feeling for peripheral pulses.
  • Cardiac arrhythmia: Encyclopedia - Cardiac arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.experiencefestival.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You may feel a strong pulse in your neck, or a fluttering, racing heartbeat in your chest.
  • Arrhythmia - Texas Heart Institute Heart Information Center 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.texasheart.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Encyclopedia - Cardiopulmonary resuscitation Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), is an emergency first aid protocol for an unconscious person on whom both breathing and pulse cannot be detected.

.These cannot usually diagnose specific dysrhythmias, but can give a general indication of the heart rate and whether it is regular or irregular.^ A rapid heart rate, usually with a regular rhythm, originating from above the ventricles.
  • What is cardiac arrhythmia? - Yahoo!7 Answers 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC au.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Heart rates can also be irregular.
  • What is cardiac arrhythmia? - Yahoo!7 Answers 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC au.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ These cannot usually diagnose specific dysrhythmias, but can give a general indication of the heart rate and whether it is regular or irregular.
  • Arrhythmias (heart) - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cardiac arrhythmia: Encyclopedia - Cardiac arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.experiencefestival.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Not all the electrical impulses of the heart produce audible or palpable beats; in many cardiac arrhythmias, the premature or abnormal beats do not produce an effective pumping action and are experienced as "skipped" beats.^ Cardiac arrhythmia - Origin of impulse .
  • Cardiac arrhythmia: Encyclopedia - Cardiac arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.experiencefestival.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cardiac arrhythmias, also commonly called arrhythmias, are irregularities of the heart beat .
  • Causes of Irregular Heartbeats - Treat Cardiac Arrhythmias Naturally 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The heart's electrical system triggers the heart beat.
  • Management of Arrhythmias (Abnormal Heart Beats) 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC my.clevelandclinic.org [Source type: General]

.The simplest specific diagnostic test for assessment of heart rhythm is the electrocardiogram (abbreviated ECG or EKG).^ The electrical activity of the heart is measured by an electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG).
  • Arrhythmias - Online Medical Encyclopedia - University of Rochester Medical Center 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.urmc.rochester.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.healthsystem.virginia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Arrhythmias - New York Presbyterian Hospital 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC nyp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Arrhythmias - Cardiovascular Diseases 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.rush.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Heart Conditions in Children - Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.stjosephsatlanta.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.mgh.harvard.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Main Line Health - Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.mainlinehealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cardiovascular Disease:Arrhythmias: Resurrection Health Care 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.reshealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.memorialhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.childrens.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.elcaminohospital.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Arrhythmias: UT Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.utsouthwestern.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ (ECG or EKG) An electrocardiogram is a measurement of the electrical activity of the heart.
  • Arrhythmias - New York Presbyterian Hospital 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC nyp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Arrhythmias - Cardiovascular Diseases 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.rush.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.mgh.harvard.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Main Line Health - Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.mainlinehealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.elcaminohospital.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Arrhythmias: UT Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.utsouthwestern.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ (ECG or EKG) - an electrocardiogram is a measurement of the electrical activity of the heart.
  • Cardiovascular Disease:Arrhythmias: Resurrection Health Care 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.reshealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.childrens.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A Holter monitor is an EKG recorded over a 24-hour period, to detect dysrhythmias that may happen briefly and unpredictably throughout the day.^ Holter monitor A Holter monitor is an EKG recording done over a period of 24 or more hours.
  • Cardiovascular Diseases > Arrhythmias (The Methodist Hospital, Houston, Texas) 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.methodisthealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each patient was also monitored for arrhythmias for 24 hours with a Holter monitor.
  • Cardiac Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.afibbers.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Holter Monitor — An EKG recording done over a period of 24 or more hours.
  • Arrhythmia - My Child Has - Children's Hospital Boston 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.childrenshospital.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A more advanced study of the heart's electrical activity can be performed to assess the source of the aberrant heart beats.^ The heart's electrical system triggers the heart beat.
  • Management of Arrhythmias (Abnormal Heart Beats) 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC my.clevelandclinic.org [Source type: General]

^ A record of the electrical activity of the heart.
  • Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.cardioassoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Arrhythmia: What is it? 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.epic4health.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is the complete absence of heart electrical activity.
  • Cardiac (Heart) Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.your-doctor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This can be accomplished in an Electrophysiology study. .A minimally invasive procedure that uses a catheter to "listen" to the electrical activity from within the heart, additionally if the source of the arrhythmias is found, oftentimes the abnormal cells can be ablated and the arrhythmia can be permanently corrected.^ A record of the electrical activity of the heart.
  • Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.cardioassoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Arrhythmia: What is it? 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.epic4health.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The catheters inserted into the heart record the electrical activity.
  • Management of Arrhythmias (Abnormal Heart Beats) 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC my.clevelandclinic.org [Source type: General]

^ Device for detecting abnormal heart muscle electrical activity .
  • Cardiac rhythm management system ... - Google Patent Search 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Academic]

SADS

.SADS, or sudden arrhythmia death syndrome, is a term used to describe sudden death due to cardiac arrest brought on by an arrhythmia.^ What’s the impact of sudden cardiac death?
  • Arrhythmias and Sudden Cardiac Death 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC gilead.org.il [Source type: Academic]

^ Sudden death due to troponin T mutations.
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Myofilament Ca2+ sensitization causes susceptibility to cardiac arrhythmia in mice 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cardiac arrhythmias death.
  • Arrhythmias Treatment - Arrhythmias Treatment 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC arrhythmias.terapad.com [Source type: Academic]

.The most common cause of sudden death in the US is coronary artery disease.^ The most common cause of arrhythmias is a heart disorder, particularly coronary artery disease, heart valve disorders, and heart failure.
  • Introduction: Abnormal Heart Rhythms: Merck Manual Home Edition 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What causes sudden cardiac death?
  • Arrhythmias and Sudden Cardiac Death 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC gilead.org.il [Source type: Academic]

^ It may cause sudden cardiac death.
  • Arrhythmias - Online Medical Encyclopedia - University of Rochester Medical Center 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.urmc.rochester.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.lpch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.healthsystem.virginia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Arrhythmias - New York Presbyterian Hospital 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC nyp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Arrhythmias - Cardiovascular Diseases 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.rush.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.mgh.harvard.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Main Line Health - Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.mainlinehealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cardiovascular Disease:Arrhythmias: Resurrection Health Care 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.reshealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.memorialhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.childrens.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.elcaminohospital.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Approximately 300,000 people die suddenly of this cause every year in the US. SADS can also occur from other causes.^ Approximately 300,000 people die suddenly of this cause every year in the US. SADS can also occur from other causes.
  • Arrhythmias (heart) - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cardiac arrhythmia: Encyclopedia - Cardiac arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.experiencefestival.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Approximately 4,300,000 Americans have arrhythmias.
  • Mount Sinai - Cardiovascular Institute and Center for Cardiovascular Health 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.mssm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ventricular arrhythmia is a leading cause of sudden cardiac death (SCD), which claims more than 300,000 lives each year in the United States.
  • Center for Arrhythmias and Electrophysiology - St. Luke's Episcopal Health System 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.sleh.com [Source type: Academic]

.Also, there are many inherited conditions and heart diseases that can affect young people that can cause sudden death.^ Long QT syndrome is an inherited condition that can cause sudden death in young people.
  • Heart Disease and Irregular Heartbeats 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: General]
  • What is cardiac arrhythmia? - Yahoo!7 Answers 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC au.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Many arrhythmias occur in people who do not have underlying heart disease.
  • Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.cardioassoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cardiac (Heart) Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.your-doctor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Arrhythmia: What is it? 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.epic4health.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What causes sudden cardiac death?
  • Arrhythmias and Sudden Cardiac Death 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC gilead.org.il [Source type: Academic]

.Many of these victims have no symptoms before dying suddenly.^ Many of these victims have no symptoms before dying suddenly.
  • Arrhythmias (heart) - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cardiac arrhythmia: Encyclopedia - Cardiac arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.experiencefestival.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, keep in mind that trained athletes have a lower resting heart rate — so bradycardia in these people isn't considered abnormal if no symptoms are associated with it.
  • Arrhythmias 2009-11-01 00:00:00.0 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.devoschildrens.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, trained athletes have a lower resting heart rate — so bradycardia in these individuals isn't considered abnormal if no symptoms are associated with it.
  • Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC kidshealth.org [Source type: General]
  • Arrhythmias - MSN Health & Fitness - Kids' Health 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC health.msn.com [Source type: General]
  • Arrhythmias - The Children's Hospital-Denver Area, Colorado, Rocky Mountain Region 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.thechildrenshospital.org [Source type: General]
  • Arrhythmias 2009-11-01 00:00:00.0 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.devoschildrens.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Causes of SADS in young people include viral myocarditis, long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia.^ PDF » Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia: Recent mechanistic insights.
  • Protection from Cardiac Arrhythmia Through Ryanodine Receptor-Stabilizing Protein Calstabin2 -- Wehrens et al. 304 (5668): 292 -- Science 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.sciencemag.org [Source type: Academic]

^ People who have long QT syndrome are at higher risk for torsades.
  • Premature beats, atrial fibrillation, tachycardia, and bradyarrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.nhlbi.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Long QT syndrome is an inherited condition that can cause sudden death in young people.
  • Heart Disease and Irregular Heartbeats 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: General]

Treatment

.Because arrhythmias are such a heterogeneous group of conditions, treatment needs to be carefully selected by a patient with their physician.^ This information is provided for general medical education purposes only and is not meant to substitute for the independent medical judgment of a physician relative to diagnostic and treatment options of a specific patient's medical condition.
  • dreddyclinic.com - Heart arrhythmias (arrhythmias) 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.dreddyclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because it is a site for clinical trials, the Arrhythmia Center can offer patients and referring physicians a wide range of treatment options.
  • Center for Arrhythmias and Electrophysiology - St. Luke's Episcopal Health System 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.sleh.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Your child's physician will choose an arrhythmia treatment based on the type of arrhythmia, the severity of symptoms, and the presence of other conditions (such as other forms of congenital heart disease) which can affect the course of the treatment.
  • Arrhythmia - My Child Has - Children's Hospital Boston 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.childrenshospital.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some arrhythmias require no treatment at all.^ Many arrhythmias require no treatment whatsoever.
  • Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.cardioassoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Arrhythmia: What is it? 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.epic4health.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many arrhythmias require no treatment .
  • Cardiac (Heart) Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.your-doctor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some treatments for arrhythmias include: .
  • Arrhythmias - New York Presbyterian Hospital 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC nyp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Arrhythmias - Cardiovascular Diseases 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.rush.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.mgh.harvard.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cardiovascular Diseases > Arrhythmias (The Methodist Hospital, Houston, Texas) 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.methodisthealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Main Line Health - Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.mainlinehealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.elcaminohospital.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Arrhythmias: UT Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.utsouthwestern.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Others require immediate emergency treatment if death is to be avoided.^ Without immediate emergency treatment of an electric shock to restore normal rhythm, an individual loses consciousness within seconds and dies within minutes.

^ Patients with atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter may not require immediate treatment.
  • Or-Live Content: Critical first steps in cardiac emergencies 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC mediwire.or-live.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Treatments and drugs Sudden cardiac arrest requires immediate action for survival.
  • Sudden cardiac arrest 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • OhioHealth - Sudden cardiac arrest 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.ohiohealth.com [Source type: General]

.Treatments include physical maneuvers, antiarrhythmic drugs, other drugs, electricity, and electro or cryo cautery.^ These include: Antiarrhythmic drugs.
  • What is cardiac arrhythmia? - Yahoo!7 Answers 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC au.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ It can be treated with antiarrhythmic drugs , pacemaker , electrical cardioversion, defibrillation, implanted cardioverter/defibrillator , or ablation therapy .
  • Heart Disease and Irregular Heartbeats 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: General]

^ Other treatment options include radiofrequency catheter ablation, or electrical cardioversion, a procedure that delivers a timed electrical shock to the heart to restore normal heart rhythm.
  • Cardiac Arrhythmias - Cardiac Arrhythmias Description - Cardiac Arrhythmias Symptoms - Cardiac Arrhythmias Prevention - Cardiac Arrhythmias Treatment 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC symptomchecker.about.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Physical manoeuvres

.A number of physical acts can increase parasympathetic nervous supply to the heart, resulting in blocking of electrical conduction through the AV node.^ These drugs slow the conduction of electrical impulses through the heart.
  • Introduction: Abnormal Heart Rhythms: Merck Manual Home Edition 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Electrical conduction system of the heart .
  • Arrhythmias (heart) - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Increased refractory period and decreased conduction in the AV node.
  • Anesthesia and Atrial Fibrillation 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.4um.com [Source type: Academic]

.This can slow down or stop a number of arrhythmias that originate above or at the AV node (see main article: supraventricular tachycardias).^ The original article was at Cardiac arrhythmia .
  • Arrhythmias (heart) - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Arrhythmia was classified as supraventricular or ventricular in origin.
  • Correction of Ionized Plasma Magnesium During Cardiopulmonary Bypass Reduces the Risk of Postoperative Cardiac Arrhythmia -- Wilkes et al. 95 (4): 828 -- Anesthesia & Analgesia 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.anesthesia-analgesia.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It will be assured that there is a sufficient range of patients with major disorders including sinus node dysfunction, AV and intraventricular block, supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias, WPW syndrome, unexplained syncope, sustained ventricular tachycardia and aborted sudden death, and palpitations.
  • Clinical Cardiac Electrophysiology Rotation 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC cardiology.ucsd.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Parasympathetic nervous supply to the heart is via the vagus nerve, and these maneuvers are collectively known as vagal manoeuvres.^ These maneuvers affect the nervous system that controls your heartbeat (vagal nerves), often causing your heart rate to slow.
  • Heart arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • OhioHealth - Heart arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.ohiohealth.com [Source type: General]

^ Heart rate is dominated by the activity of the cardioinhibitory parasympathetic nervous system ( 4 ).
  • Advances in Parasympathetic Control of Heart Rate and Cardiac Function -- Mendelowitz 14 (4): 155 -- Physiology 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC physiologyonline.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ During increases in arterial pressure, the initial reflex-induced slowing of the heart is caused primarily, if not exclusively, by increases in cardiac vagal nerve activity.
  • Advances in Parasympathetic Control of Heart Rate and Cardiac Function -- Mendelowitz 14 (4): 155 -- Physiology 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC physiologyonline.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

Antiarrhythmic drugs

See main article on antiarrhythmic agents.
.There are many classes of antiarrhythmic medications, with different mechanisms of action and many different individual drugs within these classes.^ There are many classes of antiarrhythmic medications and many individual drugs within these classes.
  • Arrhythmias (heart) - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cardiac arrhythmia: Encyclopedia - Cardiac arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.experiencefestival.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These include: Antiarrhythmic drugs.
  • What is cardiac arrhythmia? - Yahoo!7 Answers 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC au.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Working by different complementary mechanisms these natural compounds produce anti-arrhythmia actions and benefit cardiac functions without the side effects associated with some antiarrhythmic drugs.
  • Nutrition Review - Drug-free Alternatives for Arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.nutritionreview.org [Source type: Academic]

.Although the goal of drug therapy is to prevent arrhythmia, nearly every antiarrhythmic drug has the potential to act as a pro-arrhythmic, and so must be carefully selected and used under medical supervision.^ A drug or procedure that acts to control or prevent cardiac arrhythmias.
  • Cardiac Arrhythmia - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Antiarrhythmic drugs are medications used to convert the arrhythmia to a normal sinus rhythm or to prevent an arrhythmia.
  • Management of Arrhythmias (Abnormal Heart Beats) 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC my.clevelandclinic.org [Source type: General]

^ Types of drugs used to treat arrhythmias.
  • Arrhythmias Treatment - Arrhythmias Treatment 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC arrhythmias.terapad.com [Source type: Academic]

Other drugs

.A number of other drugs can be useful in cardiac arrhythmias.^ Types of drugs used to treat arrhythmias.
  • Arrhythmias Treatment - Arrhythmias Treatment 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC arrhythmias.terapad.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cardiac arrhythmias related to medications can be minimized by checking with a health care professional or pharmacist about any potential drug interactions.
  • Cardiac Arrhythmias - Cardiac Arrhythmias Description - Cardiac Arrhythmias Symptoms - Cardiac Arrhythmias Prevention - Cardiac Arrhythmias Treatment 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC symptomchecker.about.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Exhibit 1-1:      Incidence and Prevalence Statistics for Selected Cardiac Arrhythmias and Other Conditions, 2001 and 2013 .
  • U.S. Markets for Arrhythmia Management Products | Medical Device Market Research 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.lifescienceintelligence.com [Source type: Academic]

.Several groups of drugs slow conduction through the heart, without actually preventing an arrhythmia.^ These drugs slow the conduction of electrical impulses through the heart.
  • Introduction: Abnormal Heart Rhythms: Merck Manual Home Edition 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Definition: Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.
  • Arrhythmias, Cardiac | DeepDyve 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.deepdyve.com [Source type: General]

^ Many studies show that it helps prevent heart problems, gently strengthening the heart muscle, improving blood circulation through the heart and reducing the heart's need for oxygen.
  • The Green Pharmacy Herbal Handbook Cardiac Arrhythmia 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.mothernature.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These drugs can be used to "rate control" a fast rhythm and make it physically tolerable for the patient.^ These drugs control heart-rate, and include beta-blockers.
  • What is cardiac arrhythmia? - Yahoo!7 Answers 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC au.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The evidence regarding the drugs used for ventricular rate control.
  • Management of Common Arrhythmias: Part I. Supraventricular Arrhythmias - June 15, 2002 - American Family Physician 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A comparison of rate control and rhythm control in patients with atrial fibrillation.

.Some arrhythmias promote blood clotting within the heart, and increase risk of embolus and stroke.^ Risk of embolic stroke is increased with: .
  • Anesthesia and Atrial Fibrillation 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.4um.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This type of arrhythmia requires treatment and can increase your risk of stroke.
  • Arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.drlera.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This stagnant blood can form clots and trigger heart attack or stroke.
  • The Green Pharmacy Herbal Handbook Cardiac Arrhythmia 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.mothernature.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Anticoagulant medications such as warfarin and heparins, and anti-platelet drugs such as aspirin can reduce the risk of clotting.^ Heart-rate control drugs Anticoagulant or antiplatelet drugs such as warfarin (a "blood thinner") or aspirin, which reduce the risk of blood clots forming or stroke.
  • Management of Arrhythmias (Abnormal Heart Beats) 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC my.clevelandclinic.org [Source type: General]

^ Anticoagulation with warfarin (Coumadin) reduces the risk by about two thirds.
  • Management of Common Arrhythmias: Part I. Supraventricular Arrhythmias - June 15, 2002 - American Family Physician 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These drugs reduce the risk of blood clots and include warfarin (a "blood thinner") or aspirin .
  • What is cardiac arrhythmia? - Yahoo!7 Answers 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC au.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

Electricity

.Dysrhythmias may also be treated electrically, by applying a shock across the heart — either externally to the chest wall, or internally to the heart via implanted electrodes.^ Cardioversion To quickly restore a heart to its normal rhythm, the doctor may apply an electrical shock to the chest wall.
  • Cardiac (Heart) Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.your-doctor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dysrhythmias may also be treated electrically.
  • Cardiac arrhythmia: Encyclopedia - Cardiac arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.experiencefestival.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Antiarrhythmic drugs Cardioversion - electric shock to the chest wall.
  • Arrythmia - WrongDiagnosis.com 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: General]
  • Arrhythmias Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments and Causes - WrongDiagnosis.com 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC wrongdiagnosis.com [Source type: General]

Cardioversion is either achieved pharmacologically or via the application of a shock synchronised to the underlying heartbeat. .It is used for treatment of supraventricular tachycardias.^ It is primarily used to treat paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, which ...
  • Arrhythmias | LIVESTRONG.COM 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Transcatheter ablation is rapidly becoming the treatment of choice for many supraventricular tachycardias.
  • Arrhythmias and Sudden Cardiac Death 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC gilead.org.il [Source type: Academic]

^ Bretylium is used only for short-term treatment of life-threatening ventricular tachycardias.
  • Introduction: Abnormal Heart Rhythms: Merck Manual Home Edition 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In elective cardioversion, the recipient is usually sedated or lightly anesthetized for the procedure.^ In cardioversion, the recipient is either sedated or lightly anesthetized for the procedure.
  • Cardiac arrhythmia: Encyclopedia - Cardiac arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.experiencefestival.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Usually an outpatient procedure that is performed in a hospital while the patient is under heavy sedation or anesthesia, it is commonly used to treat: .

Defibrillation differs in that the shock is not synchronised. .It is needed for the chaotic rhythm of ventricular fibrillation and is also used for pulseless ventricular tachycardia.^ Rhythm strip showing ventricular fibrillation.
  • Asystole: eMedicine Emergency Medicine 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It’s used in patients at risk for recurrent sustained ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation.
  • Arrhythmias and Sudden Cardiac Death 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC gilead.org.il [Source type: Academic]

^ ICDs are used for fast arrhythmias such as ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation.
  • Arrhythmias - New York Presbyterian Hospital 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC nyp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.mgh.harvard.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Main Line Health - Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.mainlinehealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cardiovascular Disease:Arrhythmias: Resurrection Health Care 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.reshealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Arrhythmias: UT Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.utsouthwestern.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Often, more electricity is required for defibrillation than for cardioversion.^ It can be treated with antiarrhythmic drugs , pacemaker , electrical cardioversion, defibrillation, implanted cardioverter/defibrillator , or ablation therapy .
  • Heart Disease and Irregular Heartbeats 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: General]

^ Using an electrical shock for this purpose is called cardioversion, defibrillation, or electroversion.
  • Introduction: Abnormal Heart Rhythms: Merck Manual Home Edition 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Arrhythmia Tachycardia with a heart rate greater than 150 beats per minute in an unstable patient who is not in cardiac arrest may require immediate cardioversion with a defibrillator.
  • Or-Live Content: Critical first steps in cardiac emergencies 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC mediwire.or-live.com [Source type: Academic]

.In most defibrillation, the recipient has lost consciousness so there is no need for sedation.^ In defibrillation, the recipient has lost consciousness so there is no need for sedation.
  • Arrhythmias (heart) - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cardiac arrhythmia: Encyclopedia - Cardiac arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.experiencefestival.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "In defibrillation, the recipient has lost consciousness so there is no need for sedation."
  • Cardiac arrhythmia: Encyclopedia - Cardiac arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.experiencefestival.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This rhythm is life-threatening because there is no pulse and complete loss of consciousness.
  • Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.lpch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.healthsystem.virginia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Arrhythmias - New York Presbyterian Hospital 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC nyp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Arrhythmias - Cardiovascular Diseases 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.rush.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.mgh.harvard.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Main Line Health - Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.mainlinehealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cardiovascular Disease:Arrhythmias: Resurrection Health Care 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.reshealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.memorialhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.childrens.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Arrhythmias: UT Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.utsouthwestern.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Defibrillation or cardioversion may be accomplished by an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD).^ R) ST lead, the world's thinnest implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) lead.
  • The Zapper: ZapNews 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.zaplife.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Automated implantable cardioverter defibrillators (AICDs/ICDs).
  • Arrhythmias | NYU Cardiac & Vascular Institute | NYU Langone Medical Center | New York, New York 10016 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC cvi.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is similar to a pacemaker.
  • Arrhythmia (palpitations) - information, symptoms and treatments 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC hcd2.bupa.co.uk [Source type: General]

.Electrical treatment of dysrhythmia also includes cardiac pacing.^ Electrical treatment of dysrhythmia includes cardiac pacing.
  • Cardiac arrhythmia: Encyclopedia - Cardiac arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.experiencefestival.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Electrical treatment of dysrhythmia includes cardiac pacing .
  • Arrhythmias (heart) - Psychology Wiki 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During this “electrical mapping,” the cardiac arrhythmia specialist, an electrophysiologist, may instigate, through pacing (the use of tiny electrical impulses), some of the very arrhythmias that are the crux of the problem.

.Temporary pacing may be necessary for reversible causes of very slow heartbeats, or bradycardia, (for example, from drug overdose or myocardial infarction).^ A heartbeat that is too slow is called bradycardia.
  • CardioSmart: Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.cardiosmart.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, a few people have a very slow ( bradycardia ) or fast ( tachycardia ) heartbeat.
  • Cardiac (Heart) Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.your-doctor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Temporay pacing may be done for very slow heartbeats, or bradycardia, from drug overdose or myocardial infarction.
  • Cardiac arrhythmia: Encyclopedia - Cardiac arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.experiencefestival.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A permanent pacemaker may be placed in situations where the bradycardia is not expected to recover.^ A pacemaker may be placed in situations where the bradycardia is not expected to recover.
  • Cardiac arrhythmia: Encyclopedia - Cardiac arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.experiencefestival.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Permanent pacemaker leads are placed via thoracotomy or transvenously, but some temporary emergency pacemaker leads can be placed on the chest wall.
  • Introduction: Arrhythmias and Conduction Disorders: Merck Manual Professional 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Alternatively, in patients with refractory AF and rapid ventricular rates, the AV node may be ablated after permanent pacemaker implantation.
  • Introduction: Arrhythmias and Conduction Disorders: Merck Manual Professional 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

Electrical cautery

Some cardiologists further sub-specialise into electrophysiology. .In specialised catheter laboratories, they use fine probes inserted through the blood vessels to map electrical activity from within the heart.^ The catheter measures the pressure inside the heart and blood vessels.
  • CardioSmart: Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.cardiosmart.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The catheters inserted into the heart record the electrical activity.
  • Management of Arrhythmias (Abnormal Heart Beats) 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC my.clevelandclinic.org [Source type: General]

^ Is the complete absence of heart electrical activity.
  • Cardiac (Heart) Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.your-doctor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This allows abnormal areas of conduction to be located very accurately, and subsequently destroyed with heat, cold, electrical or laser probes.^ As a result, EP studies can help locate the specific areas of heart tissue that give rise to the abnormal electrical impulses that cause arrhythmias.

^ Abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) are sequences of heartbeats that are irregular, too fast, too slow, or conducted via an abnormal electrical pathway through the heart.
  • Introduction: Abnormal Heart Rhythms: Merck Manual Home Edition 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By use of a technique such as radiofrequency ablation (very high frequency radio waves are applied to the site, heating the tissue until the site is destroyed) or cryoablation (an ultra-cold substance is applied to the site, freezing the tissue and destroying the site), the site of the arrhythmia may be destroyed.
  • Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.healthsystem.virginia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Arrhythmias - New York Presbyterian Hospital 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC nyp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.chw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.mgh.harvard.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Main Line Health - Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.mainlinehealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cardiovascular Disease:Arrhythmias: Resurrection Health Care 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.reshealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Arrhythmias 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.memorialhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Arrhythmias: UT Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.utsouthwestern.edu [Source type: Academic]

.This may be completely curative for some forms of arrhythmia, but for others, the success rate remains disappointing.^ During this “electrical mapping,” the cardiac arrhythmia specialist, an electrophysiologist, may sedate the patient and instigate some of the very arrhythmias that are the crux of the problem.

^ Other forms of heart arrhythmia are more dangerous still, including ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation.
  • Cardiac Arrhythmia | Lifescript.com 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.lifescript.com [Source type: General]
  • St. Joseph and Redwood Memorial Hospitals - Cardiac Arrhythmia 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.stjosepheureka.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Some trainees in cardiology may wish to acquire advanced training in the management of arrhythmias but not undertake training in all aspects of cardiac electrophysiology.
  • Task Force 6: Training in Specialized Electrophysiology, Cardiac Pacing, and Arrhythmia Management: Endorsed by the Heart Rhythm Society -- Naccarelli et al. 51 (3): 374 -- Journal of the American College of Cardiology 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC content.onlinejacc.org [Source type: Academic]

.AV nodal reentrant tachycardia is often curable.^ AV nodal reentrant tachycardia.
  • What is cardiac arrhythmia? - Yahoo!7 Answers 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC au.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ One example is AV nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT).
  • Cardiac arrhythmia - Scholarpedia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.scholarpedia.org [Source type: Academic]

^ AV nodal re-entrant tachycardia .
  • Arrhythmias | NYU Cardiac & Vascular Institute | NYU Langone Medical Center | New York, New York 10016 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC cvi.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Atrial fibrillation can also be treated with this technique (e.g.^ Does his atrial fibrillation need to be treated?
  • Cardiac Arrhythmias in the Horse : Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.tufts.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How do we treat atrial fibrillation?
  • Cardiac Arrhythmias in the Horse : Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University 10 February 2010 12:59 UTC www.tufts.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Atrial fibrillation can also be treated through a procedure, e.g.
  • Cardiac arrhythmia: Encyclopedia - Cardiac arrhythmia 9 February 2010 12:42 UTC www.experiencefestival.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

pulmonary vein isolation), but the results are less reliable.

See also

References

  1. ^ familydoctor.org
  2. ^ Allessie MA, Bonke FI, Schopman FJ (August 1976). "Circus movement in rabbit atrial muscle as a mechanism of tachycardia. II. The role of nonuniform recovery of excitability in the occurrence of unidirectional block, as studied with multiple microelectrodes". Circ. Res. 39 (2): 168–77. PMID 939001.  

External links


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 29, 2010

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